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Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report

FINAL August 2010

Prepared for

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

Revision Schedule

HRA Screening Report August 2010

Rev 01 Date March 2010 Details DRAFT Prepared by James Wrixon Graduate Ecologist Reviewed by James Riley Principal Ecologist Approved by James Riley Principal Ecologist

02

May 2010

Addition of appraisal of specific measures Final for issue to Natural England

James Riley Principal Ecologist

Jo Hughes Technical Director (Ecology)

Jo Hughes Technical Director (Ecology)

03

June 2010

James Riley Principal Ecologist

Jo Hughes Technical Director (Ecology) Jo Hughes Technical Director (Ecology)

Jo Hughes Technical Director (Ecology) Jo Hughes Technical Director (Ecology)

04

August 2010

Final version following minor amendments

James Riley Principal Ecologist

This document has been prepared in accordance with the scope of Scott Wilson's appointment with its client and is subject to the terms of that appointment. It is addressed to and for the sole and confidential use and reliance of Scott Wilson's client. Scott Wilson accepts no liability for any use of this document other than by its client and only for the purposes for which it was prepared and provided. No person other than the client may copy (in whole or in part) use or rely on the contents of this document, without the prior written permission of the Company Secretary of Scott Wilson Ltd. Any advice, opinions, or recommendations within this document should be read and relied upon only in the context of the document as a whole. The contents of this document do not provide legal or tax advice or opinion. © Scott Wilson Ltd 2009

Scott Wilson Scott House Alençon Link Basingstoke Hampshire RG21 7PP Tel 01256 310200 Fax 01256 310201 www.scottwilson.com

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Table of Contents

1

1.1 1.2

Introduction ...................................................................................... 1

Legislation ........................................................................................................................ 1 Scope and objectives ....................................................................................................... 2

2

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Methodology ..................................................................................... 3

Key principles ................................................................................................................... 3 Process ............................................................................................................................ 3 Likely Significant Effects (LSE) ........................................................................................ 4 Physical scope of the assessment ................................................................................... 4

3

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Pathways of impact .......................................................................... 6

Introduction....................................................................................................................... 6 Air Quality......................................................................................................................... 6 Disturbance .................................................................................................................... 11 Flight corridor severance................................................................................................ 12

4

4.1 4.2

Screening ........................................................................................ 13

Screening of Alternative Strategies ................................................................................ 13 Screening of Packages and Policies .............................................................................. 15

5

5.1 5.2

Conclusions .................................................................................... 30

Screening of Alternative Strategies ................................................................................ 30 Screening of Packages and Policies .............................................................................. 30

Appendix 1 - Background on European sites referenced in this document ........................................................................................ 32 Appendix 2. `Tiering' in Habitat Regulations Assessment .................... 33

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1

1.1

1.1.1

Introduction

Legislation

Land use plans are subject to Appropriate Assessment where they might have a significant effect on a Natura 2000 site (Special Areas of Conservation, SACs and Special Protection Areas, SPAs). It is Government policy (as described in Planning Policy Statement 9: Biodiversity & Geological Conservation) for sites designated under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites) to be treated as having equivalent status to Natura 2000 sites. As such, Appropriate Assessments should also cover these sites. The need for Appropriate Assessment is set out within Article 6 of the EC Habitats Directive 1992, and interpreted into British law by the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010. The ultimate aim of the Directive is to "maintain or restore, at favourable conservation status, natural habitats and species of wild fauna and flora of Community interest" (Habitats Directive, Article 2(2)). This aim relates to habitats and species, not the European sites themselves, although the sites have a significant role in delivering favourable conservation status. The Habitats Directive applies the precautionary principle to protected areas; plans and projects can only be permitted having ascertained that there will be no adverse effect on the integrity of the site(s) in question. This is in contrast to the SEA Directive which does not prescribe how plan or programme proponents should respond to the findings of an environmental assessment; it simply says that the assessment findings (as documented in the `environmental report') should be `taken into account' during preparation of the plan or programme. In the case of the Habitats Directive, plans and projects may still be permitted if there are no alternatives to them and there are Imperative Reasons of Overriding Public Interest (IROPI) as to why they should go ahead. In such cases, compensation would be necessary to ensure the overall integrity of the site network. In order to ascertain whether or not site integrity will be affected, an HRA should be undertaken of the plan or project in question. Box 1 The legislative basis for Habitat Regulations Assessment Habitats Directive 1992 "Any plan or project not directly connected with or necessary to the management of the site but likely to have a significant effect thereon, either individually or in combination with other plans or projects, shall be subject to appropriate assessment of its implications for the site in view of the site's conservation objectives." Article 6 (3) Conservation (Natural Habitats &c. Regulations) 1994 (as amended) "A competent authority, before deciding to ... give any consent for a plan or project which is likely to have a significant effect on a European site ... shall make an appropriate assessment of the implications for the site in view of that sites conservation objectives ... The authority shall agree to the plan or project only after having ascertained that it will not adversely affect the integrity of the European site".

1.1.2

1.1.3

1.1.4

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1.2

1.2.1

Scope and objectives

Scott Wilson has been appointed by Hertfordshire County Council to assist in undertaking a Habitat Regulations Assessment (HRA) of the potential effects of the Local Transport Plan (LTP) on the Natura 2000 network. Chapter 2 explains the process by which the HRA as a whole will be carried out, focussing on the screening (likely significant effects) stage ­ the subject of this report. Chapter 3 explores the relevant pathways of impact and the criteria on which options within the LTP were screened in or out of assessment. Chapter 4 presents a series of tables covering the screening of each option within the LTP. Chapter 5 then summarises the conclusions of screening.

1.2.2

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2

2.1

2.1.1

Methodology

Key principles

This section sets out the basis of the methodology for the HRA. Scott Wilson has adhered to several key principles in developing the methodology ­ see Table 1. Table 1 - Key principles underpinning the proposed methodology Principle Use existing information Rationale We will use existing information to inform the assessment. This will include information published within existing HRAs (such as those for produced for LDFs), and information held by Natural England, the Environment Agency and others. We will ensure continued consultation with both Natural England and the Environment Agency for the duration of the assessment. We will ensure that we utilise information held by them and others and take on board their comments on the assessment process and findings. We will ensure that the level of detail addressed in the assessment reflects the level of detail in the LTP (i.e. that the assessment is proportionate). We will endeavour to keep the process as simple as possible while ensuring an objective and rigorous assessment in compliance with the Habitats Directive and emerging best practice. We will ensure that the AA process and findings are clearly documented in order to ensure a clearly discernible audit trail.

Consult with Natural England, the Environment Agency and other stakeholders Ensure a proportionate assessment Keep the process simple as possible Ensure a clear audit trail

2.2

2.2.1

Process

The HRA is being carried out in the absence of formal Government guidance. Communities and Local Government released a consultation paper on Appropriate Assessment of Plans in 20061. As yet, no further formal guidance has emerged. Fig 1 (below) outlines the stages of HRA according to current draft CLG guidance. The stages are essentially iterative, being revisited as necessary in response to more detailed information, recommendations and any relevant changes to the plan until no significant adverse effects remain.

2.2.2

1

CLG (2006) Planning for the Protection of European Sites, Consultation Paper

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Figure 1 - Four-Stage Approach to Habitat Regulations Assessment

Source: CLG, 2006

Evidence Gathering ­ collecting information on relevant European sites, their conservation objectives and characteristics and other plans or projects.

AA Task 1: Likely significant effects (`screening') ­ identifying whether a plan is `likely to have a significant effect' on a European site

AA Task 2: Ascertaining the effect on site integrity ­ assessing the effects of the plan on the conservation objectives of any European sites `screened in' during AA Task 1

AA Task 3: Mitigation measures and alternative solutions ­ where adverse effects are identified at AA Task 2, the plan should be altered until adverse effects are cancelled out fully

2.3

2.3.1

Likely Significant Effects (LSE)

The first stage of any Habitat Regulations Assessment (AA Task 1) is a Likely Significant Effect (LSE) test - essentially a risk assessment to decide whether the full subsequent stage known as Appropriate Assessment is required. The essential question is: "Is the Plan, either alone or in combination with other relevant projects and plans, likely to result in a significant effect upon European sites?" The objective is to `screen out' those plans and projects that can, without any detailed appraisal, be said to be unlikely to result in significant adverse effects upon European sites, usually because there is no mechanism or pathway for an adverse interaction with European sites. That screening assessment is the purpose of this report.

2.3.2 2.3.3

2.3.4

2.4

2.4.1

Physical scope of the assessment

There is no formal guidance that dictates the physical scope of an HRA of a land use plan. Therefore, in considering the physical scope of the assessment, we have been guided by the

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identified impact pathways rather than by arbitrary `zones'. Best practice suggests that the following European sites be included in the scope of assessment: · All sites within the authority's boundary; and · Other sites shown to be linked to development within the authority's boundary through a known `pathway' (discussed below). 2.4.2 Briefly defined, pathways are routes by which a change in activity within Hertfordshire can lead to an effect upon a European site. In terms of the second category of European site listed above, CLG guidance states that the AA should be `proportionate to the geographical scope of the [plan policy]'. The scope of the HRA has been informed by an initial scoping report undertaken by Scott Wilson in consultation with Natural England. The following European sites lie, wholly or partially, within Hertfordshire: · Lee Valley SPA and Ramsar site; · Wormley Hoddesdonpark Woods SAC; and · Chiltern Beechwoods SAC. 2.4.4 The Following European sites lie close to the borders of Hertfordshire: · Epping Forest SAC. 2.4.5 These European sites are all therefore automatically included with the scope of the HRA (at least at screening) and are subject to consideration within this document as to whether they have links with development within Hertfordshire via pathways as described in Chapter 3. At this stage no further sites outside Hertfordshire have been identified as being connected with the LTP by a relevant pathway.

2.4.3

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3.1

3.1.1

Pathways of impact

Introduction

This section of the report summarises the various impact pathways that could link the Hertfordshire LTP with European sites.

3.2

3.2.1

Air Quality

Current levels of understanding of air quality effects on semi-natural habitats are not adequate to allow a rigorous assessment of the likelihood of significant effects on the integrity of key European sites. The National Expert Group on Trans-boundary Air Pollution (2001)2 concluded that: · In 1997, critical loads for acidification were exceeded in 71% of UK ecosystems. This was expected to decline to 47% by 2010. · Reductions in SO2 concentrations over the last three decades have virtually eliminated the direct impact of sulphur on vegetation. · By 2010, deposited nitrogen was expected to be the major contributor to acidification, replacing the reductions in SO2. · Current nitrogen deposition is probably already changing species composition in many nutrient-poor habitats, and these changes may not readily be reversed. · The effects of nitrogen deposition are likely to remain significant beyond 2010. · Current ozone concentrations threaten crops and forest production nationally. The effects of ozone deposition are likely to remain significant beyond 2010. · Reduced inputs of acidity and nitrogen from the atmosphere may provide the conditions in which chemical and biological recovery from previous air pollution impacts can begin, but the timescales of these processes are very long relative to the timescales of reductions in emissions.

3.2.2

3.2.3

Grice et al3 4 do however suggest that air quality in the UK will improve significantly to 2020 due primarily to reduced emissions from road transport and power stations.

National Expert Group on Transboundary Air Pollution (2001) Transboundary Air Pollution: Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-Level Ozone in the UK 3 Grice, S., T. Bush, J. Stedman, K. Vincent, A. Kent, J. Targa and M. Hobson (2006) Baseline Projections of Air Quality in the UK for the 2006 Review of the Air Quality Strategy, report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Welsh Assembly Government, the Scottish Executive and the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland. 4 Grice, S., J. Stedman, T. Murrells and M. Hobson (2007) Updated Projections of Air Quality in the UK for Base Case and Additional Measures for the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 2007, report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Welsh Assembly Government, the Scottish Executive and the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland.

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Table 2 - Main sources and effects of air pollutants on habitats and species

Pollutant Source SO2, NOx and ammonia all contribute to acid deposition. Although future trends in S emissions and subsequent deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will continue to decline, it is likely that increased N emissions may cancel out any gains produced by reduced S levels. Ammonia is released following decomposition and volatilisation of animal wastes. It is a naturally occurring trace gas, but levels have increased considerably with expansion in numbers of agricultural livestock. Ammonia reacts with acid pollutants such as the products of SO2 and NOX emissions to produce fine ammonium (NH4+) - containing aerosol which may be transferred much longer distances (can therefore be a significant transboundary issue.) Catalytic converters on vehicles are also a significant and increasing source of ammonia and are now calculated to amount to about 10% of UK emissions, although this can rise to 70-80% of the total NH3 in urban centres. With regard to the effects on habitats and species, recent research5 has shown that, because of its high deposition velocity, NH3 can contribute around half of the total N deposition within the first few metres of busy roadsides. Nitrogen oxides are mostly produced in combustion processes. About one quarter of the UK's emissions are from power stations, one-half from motor vehicles, and the rest from other industrial and domestic combustion processes. Effects on habitats and species

Acid deposition

Can affect habitats and species through both wet (acid rain) and dry deposition. Some sites will be more at risk than others depending on soil type, bed rock geology, weathering rate and buffering capacity.

Ammonia (NH3)

Adverse effects are as a result of nitrogen deposition leading to eutrophication. As emissions mostly occur at ground level in the rural environment and NH3 is rapidly deposited, some of the most acute problems of NH3 deposition are for small relict nature reserves located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

Nitrogen oxides NOx

Nitrogen (N) deposition

The pollutants that contribute to nitrogen deposition derive mainly from NOX and NH3 emissions. These pollutants cause acidification (see also acid deposition) as well as eutrophication.

Deposition of nitrogen compounds (nitrates (NO3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric acid (HNO3)) can lead to both soil and freshwater acidification. In addition, NOx can cause eutrophication of soils and water. This alters the species composition of plant communities and can eliminate sensitive species. Species-rich plant communities with relatively high proportions of slow-growing perennial species and bryophytes are most at risk from N eutrophication, due to its promotion of competitive and invasive species which can respond readily to elevated levels of N. N deposition can also increase the risk of damage from abiotic factors, e.g. drought and frost.

J.N. Cape, et al. 2004. Concentrations of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at roadside verges, and their contribution to nitrogen deposition. Environmental Pollution 132 (2004) 469­478

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Pollutant

Source A secondary pollutant generated by photochemical reactions from NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These are mainly released by the combustion of fossil fuels. The increase in combustion of fossil fuels in the UK has led to a large increase in background ozone concentration, leading to an increased number of days when levels across the region are above 40ppb. Reducing ozone pollution is believed to require action at international level to reduce levels of the precursors that form ozone. Main sources of SO2 emissions are electricity generation, industry and domestic fuel combustion. May also arise from shipping and increased atmospheric concentrations in busy ports. Total SO2 emissions have decreased substantially in the UK since the 1980s.

Effects on habitats and species

Ozone (O3)

Concentrations of O3 above 40 ppb can be toxic to humans and wildlife, and can affect buildings. Increased ozone concentrations may lead to a reduction in growth of agricultural crops, decreased forest production and altered species composition in semi-natural plant communities.

Sulphur Dioxide SO2

Wet and dry deposition of SO2 acidifies soils and freshwater, and alters the species composition of plant and associated animal communities. The significance of impacts depends on levels of deposition and the buffering capacity of soils.

3.2.4

For the following reasons, only NOx and ammonia are considered further as specific pollutants in this assessment: · Despite the general association with nitrogen dioxide, ozone levels are not as high in urban areas (where high levels of nitrogen dioxide are emitted) as in rural areas. This is largely due to the long-range nature of this pollutant, which is sufficiently great that the source of emission and location of deposition often cross national boundaries. As such, low-level ozone can only be practically addressed at the national and international level. · Sulphur dioxide concentrations are overwhelmingly influenced (82% of emissions6) by the output of power stations and industrial processes that require the combustion of coal and oil. None of these activities will be associated with developments under the LTP.

3.2.5

Therefore the main pollutants of concern for European sites from the LTP are oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and ammonia (NH3). · NOx emissions are dominated by the output of vehicle exhausts (more than half of all emissions). Other sources, although relevant, are of minor importance (8%) in comparison7. NOx can have a directly toxic effect upon vegetation. In addition, greater NOx or ammonia concentrations within the atmosphere will lead to greater rates of nitrogen deposition to soils. An increase in the deposition of nitrogen from the atmosphere to soils is generally regarded to lead to an increase in soil fertility, which can have a serious deleterious effect on the quality of semi-natural, nitrogen-limited terrestrial habitats. · Since ammonia is of relevance to European sites primarily through its effect upon nitrogen deposition, it is not considered independently of nitrogen deposition in this assessment. Conversely, since NOx can be directly toxic to plants, it is also considered separately from its influence on nitrogen deposition in this assessment.

6

Dore CJ et al. (2005). UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 ­ 2003. UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. http://www.airquality.co.uk/archive/index.php 7 Proportions calculated based upon data presented in Dore CJ et al. (2005). UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 ­ 2003. UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. http://www.airquality.co.uk/archive/index.php

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Oxides of nitrogen and nitrogen deposition

3.2.6 The most acute impacts of NOx take placed close to where they are emitted, but individual sources of pollution will also contribute to an increase in the general background levels of pollutants at a wider scale, as small amounts of NOx and other pollutants from the pollution source are dispersed more widely by the prevailing winds. The main sources of NOx in the UK are8: · Road and other transport (approximately 47%; greater in urban areas); · Public power generation using fossil fuels (22%). · Combustion in industrial processes9 (14%). · Domestic and commercial sources (4%), e.g. commercial boilers in schools, hospitals etc. 3.2.8 The following air pollution limit value applies for the protection of vegetation and ecosystems from NOx: · World Health Organisation 30 gm-3 annual average; EU Air Quality Framework Directive 30 gm-3 annual average away from areas close to main roads, built up areas or major industrial sites; Natural England policy in agreement with the Environment Agency in their Review of Consents process is that the 30 gm-3 threshold should apply to all designated sites, due to the sensitivity of the habitats within the sites. Eutrophication 3.2.9 Eutrophication of sensitive habitats through atmospheric deposition is a widely acknowledged phenomenon, although it is extremely difficult to measure as its effects are often hidden by changes in local nutrients (i.e. via direct fertilisation) or changes in management, such as grazing pressure. In well-managed sites, the effects of eutrophication may be to some extent counteracted through an increase in grazing pressure. Bobbink et al.10 suggest that sites with low intensity management may have lower critical thresholds than those in higher levels of management. Reintroducing grazing into ungrazed or under-grazed sites can help to counteract changes in vegetation due to nitrogen deposition; however increasing grazing on sites that are already well-grazed may have a direct adverse impact on the plants for which the site was designated. Furthermore, air pollution can act synergistically with insufficient grazing to exacerbate management problems and lead to a coarser species-poor sward. A changing climate (i.e. rising temperatures and reduced summer rainfall) is further exacerbating the situation by putting sensitive habitats and species under increasing stress, in turn reducing their competitive ability and increasing susceptibility to pathogens.

3.2.7

3.2.10

3.2.11

Dore CJ et al. (2005). UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 ­ 2003. UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. http://www.airquality.co.uk/archive/index.php 9 Combustion of coal and oil, some refinery processes and the production of sulphuric acid and other chemicals 10 Bobbink, Ashmore, Braun, Fluckiger and Vanden Wyngaert. 2002. Work on critical loads for natural and seminatural systems ("Empirical nitrogen critical loads for natural and semi-natural ecosystems 2002 update")

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Transport exhaust emissions

3.2.12 Throughout the HRA we intend to work on the basis that an increase in rail usage means the potential for a decrease in cars and HGV's and is therefore a positive step for air quality. The Department of Transport have made the following comment on air quality issues as they relate to the transfer of freight movements from road to rail, which supports the approach we intend to take: "It should be noted that in terms of total transport emissions, rail transport accounts for less than 1% of the total. Therefore, even with the most rail orientated transport options, perhaps doubling the rail kilometres, the potential for any significant impact on emissions will lie mainly with the saving in emissions from road transport brought about by modal transfer, rather than those generated by rail. Hence, it is suggested that emissions from rail sources can be scoped out in most cases"11. According to the Department of Transport's Transport Analysis Guidance, "Beyond 200m, the contribution of vehicle emissions from the roadside to local pollution levels is not significant" 12.

3.2.13

Figure 2 ­ Traffic contribution to concentrations of pollutants at different distances from a road (Source: DfT)

3.2.14

This is therefore the distance that we intend to use throughout the HRA in order to determine whether European sites are likely to be significantly affected by development under the Local Transport Plan.

Diffuse air pollution

3.2.15 In addition to the contribution to local air quality issues, development can also contribute cumulatively to an overall deterioration in background air quality across an entire region. In July 2006, when this issue was raised by Runnymede District Council in the South East, Natural England advised that their Local Development Framework `can only be concerned with locally emitted and short range locally acting pollutants' 13 as this is the only scale which falls within a local authority remit. It is understood that this guidance was not intended to set a precedent, but it inevitably does so since (as far as we are aware) it is the only formal guidance that has been issued to a Local Authority from any Natural England office on this issue.

Department of Transport (2004). Transport Analysis Guidance: Regional Air Pollution. www.webtag.org.uk/archive/feb04/pdf/feb04-333.pdf 12 www.webtag.org.uk/archive/feb04/pdf/feb04-333.pdf 13 English Nature (16 May 2006) letter to Runnymede Borough Council, `Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994, Runnymede Borough Council Local Development Framework'.

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3.2.16

In the light of this and our own knowledge and experience, it is considered reasonable to conclude that diffuse pan-authority air quality impacts are the responsibility of national government, both since they relate to the overall quantum of development within a region (over which individual local authorities have little control), and since this issue is best addressed at the highest pan-authority level. Diffuse air quality issues will not therefore be considered further within this HRA. The exception would be where any of the schemes/measures that are devised as part of the LTP are likely to increase traffic (either number of vehicles, or congestion or proportion of HGVs) within 200m of roads outside the county boundary.

3.3

3.3.1

Disturbance

Any increase in traffic will likely be accompanied by an increase in noise and movement, and potentially also an increase in roadside lighting. With regard to HRA, noise and lighting will only be an issue if they affect European sites designated for their animal interest rather than their habitats. With regard to the Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan this only applies to one European site that we intend to include within the scope of the HRA ­ the Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar site. While Epping Forest SAC is designated for stag beetle, which is susceptible to lighting, road schemes in Hertfordshire will not lead to any increase in lighting close to the SAC since the SAC is well outside the Hertfordshire boundary. Concern regarding the effects of disturbance on birds stems from the fact that they are expending energy unnecessarily and the time they spend responding to disturbance is time that is not spent feeding14. Disturbance therefore risks increasing energetic output while reducing energetic input, which can adversely affect the `condition' and ultimately survival of the birds. In addition, displacement of birds from one feeding site to others can increase the pressure on the resources available within the remaining sites, as they have to sustain a greater number of birds.15 Moreover, the more time a breeding bird spend disturbed from its nest, the more its eggs are likely to cool and the more vulnerable they, or young birds, are to predators. Disturbing activities are on a continuum. The most disturbing activities are likely to be those that involve irregular, infrequent, unpredictable loud noise events, movement or vibration of long duration. Birds are least likely to be disturbed by activities that involve regular, frequent, predictable, quiet patterns of sound or movement or minimal vibration. The further any activity is from the birds, the less likely it is to result in disturbance. The degree of impact that varying levels of noise will have on different species of bird is poorly understood except that a number of studies have found that an increase in traffic levels on roads does lead to a reduction in the bird abundance within adjacent hedgerows - Reijnen et al (1995) examined the distribution of 43 passerine species (i.e. `songbirds'), of which 60% had a lower density closer to the roadside than further away. By controlling vehicle usage they also found that the density generally was lower along busier roads than quieter roads16. The factors that influence a species response to a disturbance are numerous, but the three key factors are species sensitivity, proximity of disturbance sources and timing/duration of the potentially disturbing activity. Disturbance from noise or visual intrusion is likely to be most

3.3.2

3.3.3

3.3.4

3.3.5

Riddington, R. et al. (1996). The impact of disturbance on the behaviour and energy budgets of Brent geese. Bird Study 43:269-279 15 Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Norris, K. (1998). The consequences of human disturbance for estuarine birds. RSPB Conservation Review 12: 67-72 16 Reijnen, R. et al. (1995). The effects of car traffic on breeding bird populations in woodland. III. Reduction of density in relation to the proximity of main roads. Journal of Applied Ecology 32: 187-202

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relevant if the road is immediately adjacent to an SPA or certain SACs (e.g. those designated for bat species), although impacts have been reported up to 1km away due to more intense sources such as busy highways17. 3.3.6 Lighting is only likely to be an issue if the local transport plan results in the introduction of street lighting to roads within close proximity of European sites (particularly the Lee Valley SPA) which are currently unlit.

3.4

3.4.1

Flight corridor severance

Fragmentation of foraging routes due to hedgerow removal was identified as a potential issue for barbastelle bats for which the Eversden and Wimpole Woods SAC in Cambridgeshire is designated in the HRA for the Hertfordshire Mineral Development Framework. The proposals map for the South Cambridgeshire Biodiversity Strategy identifies the area of key importance for the barbastelle bats for which the SAC was designated. The removal of hedgerows or other commuting features or the installation of lighting to roads within this zone could result in an adverse impact on the barbastelle population. The southern-most part of this area of importance is situated approximately on a line with Whaddon and Meldreth and thus approximately 4km north of Hertfordshire. As such, no measures associated with the Local Transport Plan in Hertfordshire will affect the core foraging area of the barbastelle population.

Figure 3. Barbastelle bat - area of importance for Eversden and Wimpole Woods Special Area of Conservation (SAC), as shown in the South Cambridgeshire Biodiversity Strategy

17

Reijnen, R. Foppen, R & Veebaas G. (1997) Disturbance by traffic of breeding birds: evaluation of the effect and considerations in planning and managing road corridors. Biodiversity and Conservation 6, 567-581 (1997)

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4.1

4.1.1

Screening

Screening of Alternative Strategies

Scott Wilson was first asked to screen a range of alternative strategies that were being contemplated for the Local Transport Plan. Table 4 presents the screening assessment for the options within the Local Transport Plan in its current draft format. Note that the Local Transport Plan is currently in an early stage of development. The current early draft LTP contains four `Alternative Strategies' which together encompass all of the strategies available to deal with local transport issues and management. The LTP will enact one or more of these strategies, and from its/their principals create specific polices for the Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan. The final column is shaded either green or amber. Green shading indicates that the Alternative Strategy has been screened out of further consideration (due to the absence of any mechanism for an adverse effect on European sites). Amber shading indicates that the Alternative Strategy was identified as requiring further screening when more detailed drafts of the LTP are available (due to the lack of evidence available to conclude that the strategy will not have a significant effect on European sites). Green shaded strategies are broadly speaking therefore those which would be most favourable with regard to European sites, while amber shaded strategies are broadly speaking those that are less favourable. However, the strategies are currently so broad that no one strategy is clearly more or less preferable to any other. Table 4 ­ Alternative Strategy Screening

4.1.2

4.1.3

Alternative Strategy

Summary

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment) Air Quality A reduction in traffic flow would not lead to an increase in airborne pollutants.

1 ­ Demand Management

Restrictions and pricing mechanisms to reduce traffic flow Disturbance A reduction in traffic flow would not lead to an increase in disturbance from noise or lighting.

New roads and public 2 ­ New Infrastructure transport Development infrastructure to meet demand

Air Quality Depending on the nature of the new infrastructure, this strategy could help to avoid adverse effects on European sites ­ for example an increase in rail infrastructure or new roads located more than 200m from European sites could alleviate pressure on those roads that do lie within 200m of European sites.

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report August 2010 roads near to European sites has the potential to lower air quality 13

However, any new roads or increases in traffic flow on existing

within that site. Therefore we have taken the precautionary view

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

Alternative Strategy

Summary

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment) and determined that this Alternative Strategy cannot be `screened out' at this stage, and will require further screening if it is to be taken forward within the LTP.

Disturbance Any new roads, or increases in traffic flow of existing roads, near to the Lee Valley SPA and Ramsar site has the potential to increase the level of disturbance to its avian population. Therefore this Alternative Strategy cannot be `screened out' at this stage, and will require further screening if it is to be taken forward within the LTP. Air Quality An increase in cyclists and walkers would not lead to an increase in airborne pollutants. Therefore this strategy does not provide a mechanism which could reduce the air quality of European sites. 3 ­ Behavioural Change Support for walking and cycling models. Disturbance Any new foot/cycle paths, or increases in use of existing foot/cycle paths, near to the Lee Valley SPA and Ramsar site has the potential to increase the level of disturbance to its avian population. Therefore, we have taken the precautionary view and determined that this Alternative Strategy cannot be `screened out' at this stage, and will require further screening if it is to be taken forward within the LTP. However, in practice it should be relatively simple to avoid any adverse effects that might arise from this strategy. Air Quality Depending on the nature of the new infrastructure, this strategy could help to avoid adverse effects on European sites ­ new roads located more than 200m from European sites could alleviate pressure on those roads that do lie within 200m of European sites, as could an increase in buses using those roads (since it could reduce the overall number of vehicles). However, any network improvements that increase traffic flow near to European sites have the potential to lower air quality within those sites. Therefore we have taken the precautionary view at this stage and determined that this Alternative Strategy cannot be `screened out' at this stage, and will require further screening if it is to be taken forward within the LTP. It is recognised that this is a very precautionary view, but is considered appropriate at this early stage of LTP development.

4 ­ Significant Improvements

Significant improvements to bus services and small scale network improvements.

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Alternative Strategy

Summary

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment) Disturbance Any network improvements that increase traffic flow near to the Lee Valley SPA and Ramsar site has the potential to increase the level of disturbance to its avian population. Therefore this Alternative Strategy cannot be `screened out' at this stage, and will require further screening if it is to be taken forward within the LTP.

The approach can be centred on 3 strategic aims: Improve Passenger Transport 5 ­ Preferred Approach Promote and encourage sustainable modes Maintain Highways Asset

There is nothing in this overall preferred approach that would be likely to lead to a significant adverse effect on any European sites ­ improvement in passenger transport and encouragement of sustainable modes could lead to a decrease in private road traffic which would be beneficial for air quality. Maintaining the highways asset is likely to have a neutral impact on European sites since it cannot be associated with either an increase or decrease in traffic.

4.2

4.2.1

Screening of Packages and Policies

Since it was not possible to rule out all the individual broad strategies, it was necessary to review the details of individual packages, sub-packages and measures that will be covered by the Local Transport Plan and the associated policies. These are set out in Tables 5 and 6, including the screening decision for each set of measures. Two packages (Small Scale Infrastructure and Major Road Infrastructure) looked at first glance to have conceivable potential for impacts on European sites in an indirect `in combination' manner, depending on whether they were likely to lead to an increase in traffic on the following roads in proximity to European sites not only when considered alone, but particularly when considered in combination with changes in traffic movements on these roads as a result of transport schemes in other areas and general background trends in traffic movement: · The A10 within 200m of Wormley-Hoddesdonpark Woods SAC; · The A414 between the junction with the A1170 and the junction with the B181 at Stanstead Abbotts (i.e. where the road lies within 200m of the Lee Valley Special Protection Area and Ramsar site at Rye Meads)18; and · The A104, A121, B172, B1393 and M25 junction 26-27 as they traverse, or run within 200m of, Epping Forest SAC.

4.2.2

4.2.3

We therefore discussed these schemes with transport planners at the Council who confirmed that:

18

While the A10 does lie within 1km of the Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar site it is separated from that site by large areas of urban development. As such, disturbance of waterfowl on this site is unlikely to be an issue arising from LTP3.

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· The Council currently has no list of actual Major Road Infrastructure schemes to be taken forward as part of LTP3 given the current financial situation, and the emphasis and balance of the plan is based on increasing sustainable modes rather than delivering new infrastructure (this can be seem from a comparison of the packages in Table 5, below). · The only major road scheme in Hertfordshire that is still outstanding from previous commitments is the A120 Little Hadham bypass. However, even if this were to go ahead it is likely to have a beneficial impact on the section of road adjacent to the Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar site as some motorists would be likely to choose to use the A120 in preference to the A414, thereby reducing congestion and actually improving air quality. · With regard to `Small-Scale Infrastructure', there is no scheme that the Council is considering for LTP3 that, in the opinion of the transport planners, would be likely to affect traffic flows on these roads in any significant way; in fact, any increase in traffic on the roads identified above is unlikely to even be measurable/ assessable.

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Table 5 - Detailed List of Packages and Measures for Appraisal and the Screening Assessment

"Example Types" of Measures for appraisal Packages for Appraisal Sub-Packages Greater use of use of Channel Mogo to encourage use of sustainable modes and highlight disadvantages of car travel and highlight health messages-involve PCT's. Publicity around smarter driving (using less fuel) Behavioural Changes Publicity around benefits of sustainable modes-work with the PCT's to promote health benefits Marketing programme to boost cycling as choice of mode Journey Planning Personalised journey planning for all of the county (TravelSmart) Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive. HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment)

Publicity

Generating greater use by district councils of the Intalink services, through www.intalink.org.uk, staff intranet links, promotional events, transport related projects, information leaflets, use of the Intalink promotional vehicle and Planning Departments promoting Intalink to new business By providing a text message facility for travel information direct to mobile phones, we can expand communication options to the customer. Better information Bus Surgeries: introduction of a number of advertised local `bus surgeries', utilising the Intalinkbranded promotional vehicle at key locations within Hertfordshire. Make information more available for residents and workers - e.g. a quarterly information booklet of all new routes, promotions and events to encourage cycling/walking Increase targeted safety campaigns e.g drink/drugs driving, speed awareness Cycle maps of the county Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive.

Prioritise Schools - School Travel Database Education Schools Safety Train volunteers to schools to teach pedestrian skills to pupils at KS 3 Increase funding for education, training to increase safety awareness e.g cycle training in schools Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

Network Management/ Maintenance Intelligent Transport Systems

Development of Integrated Traffic Control Centre Efficient management of network through ITS e.g Urban traffic management and control, real time information signage (incl car parks) Increase automatic traffic counter sites to facilitate real time traffic flow info Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact since no such stations are located adjacent to European sites). Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive.

Small scale improvements and Maintenance

Relocate Taxi ranks-Better location would reduce congestion

Lighting Security

Improve lighting at train/bus stations across Hertfordshire

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"Example Types" of Measures for appraisal Packages for Appraisal Sub-Packages

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment)

Extending coverage in new schools and new towns CCTV Improved software and cameras The use of CCTV to enforce relatively minor traffic offences, if the Traffic Management Act is adopted - including enforcing lorry bans in AQMAs Advanced stop lines and cycle lead-in lanes at peak time congested signalised junctions Adequate space for cyclists along main radial routes e.g quality cycle lanes Removal of road centre lines and central hatching on urban routes to reduce vehicle speeds and create more space for cyclists through the provision of cycle lanes Cycling/Pedestrian improvements Improved visibility of street furniture for visually impaired people Providing adequate secure/prominent cycle parking at workplaces, rail stations, town and local centres More seating-meeting needs of older and disabled people/carers Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

Development of Integrated Traffic Control Centre for Buses. Intelligent Transport Systems Real time information on buses - arrival times at selected bus stops Bus priority measures, in selected Towns / Corridors Bus Priority Guided Busway e.g on A414 Full wheelchair access to bus network New Buses -access friendly/low emission Convert all buses on network to low emission buses The Intalink partnership will explore alternative market possibilities and potential for extending access to ticketing with on-line purchases and "Oyster card" type payment methods Integrated Ticketing information Investigate feasibility of a `Countywide' Travelcard for Hertfordshire, with options for weekly, monthly and annual purchase, for use on Intalink bus and rail services and as a natural progression to the Explorer ticket Introduce Hertfordshire (London extension) 'Oystercard' Bus Quality Partnerships Build on St Albans BQP and introduce across county Screened out. For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in public transport related schemes means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality.

Bus Improvement Measures

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"Example Types" of Measures for appraisal Packages for Appraisal Sub-Packages

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment)

Concentrate upgrading work on key corridor routes around KCDCs Corridor prioritisation / Route User Heirarchy

Screened out following discussion with transport planners at Hertfordshire County Council who have confirmed that there is no scheme that the Council is considering for LTP3 that would be likely to affect traffic flows on these roads in any significant way; in fact, any increase in traffic on the roads identified above is unlikely to even be measurable/ assessable. Moreover, for the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in public transport related schemes means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality.

Small Scale Infrastructure & Road improvements19

Develop route user hierarchy - Prioritise transport corridors and eg Improve east-west bus services and implement (Journey Time Reliability) toolkit. Continue the development of UTP Route User Hierarchy for local routes.

Address safety issues through appropriate highway measures e.g speed humps Traffic calming and engineering works

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive depending on location of barriers in relation to Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar site.

Implement Noise barriers - Noise reducing road surfaces Noise minimisation

Introduction of 20 mph zones to benefit pedestrians and cyclists / Pedestrian routes to/from new developments/major facilities. Pedestrian Routes Improve pedestrian routes and develop more routes across the county Adequate space for cyclists along main radial routes Creating high quality cycle networks that are made up of signed, continuous barrier free routes Environmental/ Sustainable Modes Infrastructure Cycling Routes Improve local cycling routes in towns Secure and prominent cycle parking at rail stations, work place, and town centres Creating high quality cycle networks made up of signed, continuous barrier free routes Setting up an asset register to catalog facilities for sustainable modes in the county. Maintenance for Sustainable Modes Developing a set of maintenance intervention standards which reflects the needs of cyclists. Ensure road/pavement maintenance regime can contribute to improving journey experience for cyclists and pedestrians particularly disabled people.

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be slightly positive.

Natural England (Gordon Wyatt) commented that `there is a potential mechanism for both `Small-scale infrastructure ­ traffic calming' and `Road safety ­ cameras' to affect N2k sites, if introduction of such measures on roads through urban areas away from the N2k site causes drivers to divert to other roads closer to the N2k site as a `rat-run', in order to avoid delays. This is certainly the case within the Essex part of Epping Forest, where traffic calming through Loughton could increase traffic on roads through the Forest. However, I can't think of any locations in Hertfordshire where this may be an issue'. Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report August 2010 19

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Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

"Example Types" of Measures for appraisal Packages for Appraisal Sub-Packages

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment) Screened out following discussion with transport planners at Hertfordshire County Council who have confirmed that the Council currently has no list of actual Major Road Infrastructure schemes to be taken forward as part of LTP3 given the current financial situation. Screened out following discussion with transport planners at Hertfordshire County Council who have confirmed that the Council currently has no list of actual Major Road Infrastructure schemes to be taken forward as part of LTP3 given the current financial situation. They have also confirmed that the only major road scheme in Hertfordshire that is still outstanding from previous commitments is the A120 Little Hadham bypass. However, even if this were to go ahead it is likely to have a beneficial impact on the section of road adjacent to the Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar site as some motorists would be likely to choose to use the A120 in preference to the A414, thereby reducing congestion and actually improving air quality.

Corridors ­ upgrade

Concentrate upgrading work on key corridor routes around KCDCs

Major Road Infrastructure Major projects: eg those referred to in HISS and Schemes emerging in LDFs linked to new development

New Roads

Screened out. Major Passenger Transport Infrastructure Park and Ride Park and Ride schemes for selected towns For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in public transport related schemes means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality. Screened out. For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in rail means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality. The Department of Transport have made the following comment on air quality issues as they relate to the transfer of freight movements from road to rail, which, although not made within the context of HRA, outline the principle of the approach we have taken: "It should be noted that in terms of total transport emissions, rail transport accounts for less than 1% of the total. Therefore, even with the most rail orientated transport options, perhaps doubling the rail kilometres, the potential for any significant impact on emissions will lie mainly with the saving in emissions from road transport brought about by modal transfer, rather than those generated by rail. Hence, it is suggested that emissions from rail sources can be scoped 20 out in most cases".

Interchange Improvements

Major projects: Improvements to interchanges eg Watford Junction Rail Interchange.

Rail & Tram

Major Projects - eg Croxley rail link/Abbey Line Tram system

Screened out. For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in rail means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality.

20

Department of Transport (2004). Transport Analysis Guidance: Regional Air Pollution. http://www.webtag.org.uk/webdocuments/3_Expert/3_Environment_Objective/3.3.4.htm

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"Example Types" of Measures for appraisal Packages for Appraisal Sub-Packages

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment) We have applied the same principle to screening increased tram usage i.e. that it will be accompanied by a decrease in car usage. Screened out.

Develop and implement a programme of targeted bus priority measures, in the form of bus activated signals and bus lanes, based on the information from the AVL system. Bus/High Occupancy Lanes Introduce restricted traffic lanes - High Occupancy Lanes to prioritise types of traffic

For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in public transport related schemes means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality. Screened out. For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in public transport related schemes means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality.

Car Free developments

PPG3 suggests that the provision of off-street parking will add significantly to the amount of land needed and states that local authorities should revise their parking standards to allow significantly lower levels of parking provision in all housing developments.- In some developments restrict parking altogether. Reduce residential parking capacity on new developments to reduce land take and to encourage sustainable mode (eg deter new residents from owning multiple cars)

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Access to be permitted onto primary network when size and traffic generation of development warrant it. New access Design of new Developments Concentrate new high density mixed use developments in urban centres to increase connectivity for sustainable modes

Screened out following discussion with transport planners at Hertfordshire County Council who have confirmed that there is no scheme that the Council is considering for LTP3 that would be likely to affect traffic flows on the roads relevant to European sites in any significant way; in fact, any increase in traffic on the roads identified above is unlikely to even be measurable/ assessable. Moreover, this package would serve to restrict new access onto the primary network to when it is essential. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. Screened out.

Bus service provision

PPG3 guidance suggests that at the local level, local authorities encourage housing development in locations with good access to public transport, or where good access will be provided as part of the scheme or as part of a firm proposal in the Local Transport Plan-bus services to be provided from start of development with s106 money.

For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in public transport related schemes means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

New developments to have electric car support

Ensure all new appropriate developments have electric points for car charging (as part of a county wide `electrification' policy)

Development Control measures

Parking provision Developer contributions New access

Increase number/capacity of carparks in town centres Ensure developers contribute fully (S106 CIL) to required new infrastructure and support for new (bus) services in advance of site occupation Compulsory consideration of access arrangements for deliveries, servicing and construction of new developments

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be

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"Example Types" of Measures for appraisal Packages for Appraisal Sub-Packages Concentrate new high density mixed use developments in urban centres to increase connectivity for sustainable modes

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment) positive.

Zone Camera Enforcement Road Safety/Speed Restrictions Safety Engineering Works

Increasing the number of digital cameras and the number of sites they are located at. Impose additional speed limits enforced by camera to address safety issues Engineering works to reduce collisions

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

Electric Car support Low emission HGV's 50 mph on network Emissions Reductions Incentives for cleaner vehicles

Provide electric charging points at schools, colleges, hospitals, public buildings and car parks. Implement charging for HGV's that have high levels of emissions in certain zones. Impose 50 mph limits on certain key routes Offer county-wide incentives for users of cleaner vehicles eg free parking for hybrids Offer county-wide incentives for purchases of electric cars Sustainable parking'-Priority to low emission vehicles Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Low Emission Zones

Introduce Low Emission Zones to address AQMAs

Restrictions on Cars

Greater number of pedestrianised areas, restrictions on cars in certain periods in town centres. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Pricing Mechanisms/Restrictions Parking Controls/Charges

Increase charges and the number of areas in towns where parking is chargeable. Designated 'red routes' to ban stopping and parking Employee Parking Tax Charge businesses/employees for cars parking on site at work Road charging for the county's busiest roads, eg A1 (M), A414, A10

Road Charging

Road Charging Road charging for peak hours on urban 'commuter' routes

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

HGV restrictions Freight Controls Night Time limits HGV info ­ FQP

Restrict HGV's from using certain roads or entering certain areas at specific times of days or at all (including for environmental/air quality reasons). Interest free loans to HGV companies to encourage use of low emission vehicles. Restrict HGV's from using certain roads or entering certain areas at night time. Develop and deploy more FQP's across other areas. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

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"Example Types" of Measures for appraisal Packages for Appraisal Sub-Packages Hospitals (Taxis) People who are disabled or on low income to receive help with their fares to and from hospital-Extend shuttle services to Hospitals to include other hospitals other than currently provided. Extend concessionary fares scheme to include those on jobs seekers allowance Expand fleet of mobile services to include mobile IT centres so that the internet and electronic information is available to those with mobility problems. Encourage the Borough/District Councils to incorporate the needs of disabled people and the mobility impaired in their policies for vehicle and driver standards for taxis Taxis Taxi Customer care-Needs of particualr users require sensitive handling by taxi drivers Expand Dial-a-ride Car Clubs Introduce and encourage car clubs in KCDC's in order to reduce traffic but maintain the opportunity to use cars when they are needed.

HRA screening (green = screened out, amber = screened in for further assessment)

Bus prices/concessionary fares Mobile Services Specific Access

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Business Travel Plans Business incentives Business Potential Car Sharing/Shuttle Buses

Encourage greater number of companies to adopt business travel plans Offer incentives to companies to take up business travel plans, and reduce overall carbon footprint caused by transport Encourage car sharing across public sector and private sector as well as the use of private shuttle buses through campaigns and workplace initiatives Use consolidation centres to group retail deliveries to reduce number of lorries on the roads. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Retail deliveries Encourage retail outlets to offer delivery

Table 6 ­ Transport policies and the Screening Assessment

Policy Area Policy HRA Screening (green = screened out; amber = screened in for further assessment)

The County Council will seek to increase the ease with which people, particularly disadvantaged groups, can access key services by sustainable modes of transport, typically walking, cycling and public transport, by: A. Working with a wide range of partners to coordinate the provision of passenger transport services and community transport in order to improve accessibility to key services. The County Council will use its powers to enhance service provision through reviewing bus and rail contract specifications and will support the voluntary sector to provide transport services that improve accessibility for disadvantaged groups. B. Seeking to improve access to key services by improving access for pedestrians and cyclists, enhancing passenger transport infrastructure and promoting and providing adequate parking facilities for people with disabilities. C. Seeking to improve the accessibility of new developments through its highways' development control advice and will encourage innovation in its own services contributing to improved accessibility for disadvantaged groups D. Ensuring the provision of up to date and accessible transport information aimed at all disadvantaged groups and using a variety of media. E. Ensuring that all highway schemes seek to improve accessibility through good design, removal of unnecessary physical barriers and provision of enhancements to encourage sustainable travel.

3.1 Access to Services

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

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3.2 Airports

A. As regards surface access any future development and growth in passenger numbers at both Stansted and Luton Airports must be accompanied by the provision in Hertfordshire of adequate surface access infrastructure and services to meet the needs of airport users while minimising the impact on local and other travellers. The funding of such improvements must be assured before growth occurs. B. The County Council will promote and where possible facilitate a modal shift of both airport passengers and employees towards sustainable modes. The County Council will seek to: A. Promote a change in people's travel behaviour to encourage a shift in journeys from cars to passenger transport, cycling and walking, which will reduce emissions. B. Support the carbon reduction, sustainability and health agendas by encouraging safe walking and cycling for all. C. Reduce the level of stop-start conditions through traffic management and other small scale interventions. D. Promote reduced use of fossil fuels in transport through driving styles, more efficient engines and new technologies. E. Promote the use of cleaner fuels and technologies by bus operators and the local authority fleets. F. Investigate the use of low emission zones. G. Support national programmes to reduce transport's contribution to climate change. The County Council, as part of its response to climate change adaptation, will design, construct, maintain and operate all infrastructure in the light of the risk from a changing climate. The same principles will be applied to infrastructure provided by other organisations including developers. The County Council will seek to:

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.3. Climate Change Emissions Reduction and Climate Risk

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.4 Congestion

Manage, and where feasible reduce, traffic in congested areas and on congested routes particularly in peak periods. Improve traffic flow by using information technology and addressing congestion hotspots through small scale interventions Minimise adverse environmental effects of congestion through traffic management measures which seek to reduce the level of stop-start conditions. Minimise the effects of road congestion on passenger transport services by introducing bus priority measures. Promote walking and cycling in peak periods by improving the environment for these modes in congested areas. The County Council will promote cycling and ensure that as far as practicable all of its policies and programmes work together to encourage modal shift to sustainable forms of transport including cycling. The County Council will ensure that, prior to the adoption of any CIL regime, that Section 106 contributions for transportation infrastructure can be evidenced and meet the statutory tests, and will work together with District Councils in the development of a co-ordinated approach to the implementation of CIL , where this is required. The County Council will: Examine development proposals to establish whether their effects on the transport system can be accepted and to ensure that the access arrangements are constructed to an adequate and safe standard. Ensure the traffic and road safety implications of development proposals are considered. Assess development with regard to reducing the need to travel and ensure alternative modes of transport such as walking, cycling and the use of public transport are promoted. Whenever possible, mitigate the effects of the movement demand generated by development with obligations from the promoters. The County Council will seek to obtain the maximum private sector contribution compatible with Government guidelines and the County Council's transportation objectives. Require a Transport Assessment and a Travel Plan for developments above certain thresholds. Consider requiring a Transport Assessment or statement and/or a Travel Plan for smaller developments below general thresholds in sensitive locations. Resist development where: i. The proposals would increase the risk of accidents or endanger the safety of road or rights of way users. ii. The proposals would cause or add significantly to road congestion, especially at peak travel times. iii. The proposals would generate a significant change in the amount or type of traffic using local or rural roads or rights of way. iv. The proposals would either significantly affect the rural or residential character of a road or right of way, or would significantly affect safety on rural or local roads or rights of way especially amongst vulnerable users, or would be located by a poorly designed road. H. New access to primary and main distributor routes will only be considered where special circumstances can be demonstrated in favour of the proposals. This will include consideration of why alternative proposals are not viable.

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.5 Cycling

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.6 Developer Contributions ­ Community Infrastructure Levy

3.7 Development Control

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact) since this is a development control rather than promotion policy. If anything, impact could be positive.

3.8 Electric Vehicles

The County Council will support the provision of infrastructure and facilities to enable and encourage the use of electric and electric hybrid vehicles.

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

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The County Council will provide clear and effective signing across the network, minimising the number and environmental impact of signs. - policy to be agreed at Highways and Transport cabinet Panel in October 2010. A. Seek to minimise the number of signs in order to reduce clutter and minimise future maintenance costs. B. Ensure all signing is designed with respect for the surroundings, to preserve local distinctiveness wherever possible and make a positive contribution to the environment. C. Ensure that in the interests of energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions; minimising light pollution and reducing electricity and maintenance costs, signs will be illuminated only if required in accordance with the Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2002. Lighting units will be removed from existing illuminated signs no longer requiring illumination and replaced with reflective signs. D. Ensure road signs and road lines are kept visible at all times with priority to be given to roads with the highest traffic volumes and speeds and where there is a hazardous site or route. Measures will be employed to ensure signs are maintained on a regular basis. The County Council will seek to: 3.10 Horses Support the establishment of strategic bridleways within the Rights of Way network to develop, improve and provide safer and appropriate routes for users. Give full consideration to the needs of equestrians when designing new highways and schemes' or alternative routes identified and developed. Implement measures along equestrian routes to increase both road and personal safety (including the provision of equestrian crossings). Maintain bridleways to an acceptable standard. The County Council will seek to: 3.11 Intelligent Transport Systems A. B. C. D. Use Intelligent Transport Systems to help reduce congestion and improve traffic flow Use new technology to help provide up to date and accessible transport information for all network users Improve management of the network through creation of a central information Hub Use technological innovations to help ensure the safety and security of passenger transport users on the network Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

3.9 Highway Signing

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

The County Council will: Appoint a Traffic Manager to provide a focal point within the County Council in championing the need for all staff to consider the duty in their day to day activities. Ensure that the objectives of the County Council's network management activities are balanced against the County Council's other obligations, policies and objectives and that they are both practicable and affordable. Consider the needs of all road users equally. Make safety and environmental considerations and legislative requirements integral to managing the network. Safety shall always remain a priority. Make more information on the state of the highway network available to the public and stakeholders through use of technology (Intelligent Transport Systems). Where new road building is undertaken or highway improvements are being considered the County Council will: Seek to minimise and/or mitigate the physical impact of the road or the improvement on the landscape and environment and will try to secure significant and demonstrable environmental gains. Take into account the needs of pedestrians, cyclists, equestrians and passenger transport users and seek to provide increased capacity, easier movement or improved accessibility in order to enable more effective use. Identify ways of improving highway safety and weigh up any recommendations against the impact on all users. Design new road developments to accommodate existing demand and that of planned development and not necessarily to accommodate future growth in traffic demand. Consider measures to manage demand on the new or improved road and in the surrounding area. The County Council will implement controls on on and off street vehicle parking in line with the provisions and guidance in Roads in Hertfordshire. Screened out following discussion with transport planners at Hertfordshire County Council who have confirmed that the Council currently has no list of actual Major Road Infrastructure schemes to be taken forward as part of LTP3 given the current financial situation. This policy otherwise simply sets out a series of requirements that will be imposed regarding new road building.

3.12 Network Management

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

3.13 New Roads and Highway Improvements

3.14 Parking

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report August 2010 25

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

The County Council will promote and support passenger transport across the county to provide access to important services and to encourage increased use of modes of travel other than by car. As regards bus operations: The County Council will: Provide, support, promote and improve a network of efficient and attractive local bus services which are responsive to existing and potential passenger needs including the special accessibility needs of the elderly and disabled. Procure a full range of bus provision which provides maximum benefit to the travelling public in the most cost effective way. Develop a passenger transport network as a viable alternative to the use of the private car to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions Encourage school aged children to make maximum use of the public transport network. Recognise that customers need attractive and affordable fares to use the system to its full potential and that car users need to be encouraged to choose sustainable modes. Continue to support and develop the bus transport provision that allows accessibility for all and particularly for non car users and the disadvantaged (disabled, elderly etc). Promote and publicise the passenger transport network through the Intalink partnership to a high standard using a variety of media. Provide and maintain all bus stops, and other bus related highway infrastructure, to a good quality, consistent standard across the county. Seek to give greater priority to buses on the road network to improve punctuality and minimise bus service disruption from road congestion and the effects of road works. Continue to develop partnerships with other parties to achieve improvements in service provision and other facilities for specific aspects, corridors or geographical areas. As regards rail operations: The County Council will: A. Work with the rail industry to seek improvements to train services for Hertfordshire residents and visitors; B. Work with the train operating companies to establish quality rail partnerships; C. Support Community Rail partnerships in the county. The County Council will: 3.16 Powered Two-Wheelers Consider the needs of powered two-wheeler users in the design and implementation of highway schemes. Encourage the provision of adequate and secure parking facilities for powered two-wheelers. Encourage safe use of powered two-wheelers through education and training. The County Council will seek to: 3.17 Quality of Life and Environmental Impacts (Air Quality and Noise) A. Ensure that the impacts of traffic on the natural and urban environment are minimised and that the interests of the environment are considered in the County Council's management of the network B. Seek to protect and enhance the quality of public spaces both in urban and rural areas. C. Seek to make sustainable travel more attractive to a greater number of residents and create an environment that attracts people into local areas to access services and facilities. D. Promote environmental awareness and encourage carbon reduction initiatives. The County Council will seek to: Reduce the levels of emissions from road traffic which affect human health and local flora and fauna. Reduce the volume of traffic in areas and in time periods where emission levels are causing locally poor air quality. Encourage the through traffic to use the Primary Route Network which where possible avoids major urban areas. Work with District / Borough Councils to monitor and assess air pollution levels. Where a District / Borough Council declares an Air Quality Management Area as a result of its' review and assessment process, the County Council will work in partnership with the District / Borough Councils to create and deliver action plans The County Council will seek to: Ensure that the noise impact of the road is minimised where new road building is undertaken. Address local noise issues as raised in Urban Transport Plans and elsewhere. Investigate the benefits of noise-reducing road surfaces. Work in partnership with rail and aircraft operators to address the issues of rail and aircraft noise. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that an increase in public transport related schemes means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality.

3.15 Passenger Transport

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report August 2010 26

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

The County Council will seek to: 3.18 Reduction of Travel Need and Car Usage A. Reduce traffic growth by reducing the need to travel and encouraging the use of alternative forms of transport B. Promote a change in people's travel behaviour to encourage a shift in journeys from cars to passenger transport, cycling and walking, which will reduce emissions. C. Increase the proportion of journeys made by alternative modes of transport to the car. D. Improve accessibility by sustainable modes to major trip generation locations such as town centres and retail and employment areas E. Encourage the location of new development in areas where alternative modes to the car can form a real alternative to the car The County Council will: A. On Primary Routes: -Encourage through traffic and HGVs to use primary routes; -Not normally allow existing or new developments to have direct access and such limitations will be rigorously applied. B. On Rural Main Distributor Roads: -Discourage through traffic from using rural main distributor roads. -Not normally allow new access. C. On Rural Secondary Distributor Roads: -Encourage the functions of the village street to take precedence over providing for moving traffic in villages with particular emphasis being placed on reducing the speed of traffic. D. On Rural Local Distributor and Access Roads: -Deter through traffic including rat running from using these roads; -Not improve them except for environmental and accident reasons; -Resist developments which would generate an unacceptable change in the amount or type of traffic. E. On Urban Main Distributor Roads: -Manage traffic arrangements to encourage main flows onto main distributor roads; -Restrict parking along them; -Where appropriate implement bus priority measures; -Make adequate provision for the safe crossing of pedestrians and cyclists; -Not normally allow new access; -Not improve urban roads solely for capacity reasons. 3.19 Road Hierarchy and Network Development F. On Urban Secondary Distributor Roads: -Only carry out improvements specifically aimed at making them safer; -Improve conditions along them for cyclists and pedestrians; -Where appropriate implement bus priority measures; -Not improve urban roads solely for capacity reasons. G. On Urban Local Distributor and Access Roads: -Where appropriate designate environmental areas; -As opportunities occur, implement traffic calming and other measures to keep speeds down and improve safety. -Not improve urban roads solely for capacity reasons. H. Consider the `place and movement' function of a road in conjunction with the hierarchy when assessing a highway proposal, whether County Council or development promoted. Rural Roads: Developments on Rural Local Distributor and Access Roads which would generate a change in the amount or type of traffic will be resisted in the following circumstances: Where there is an increased risk of accidents; Where the road is poor in terms of width, alignment and/or structural condition; Where increased traffic would have an adverse effect on the local environment it. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Screened out following discussion with transport planners at Hertfordshire County Council who have confirmed that the Council currently has no list of actual Major Road Infrastructure schemes to be taken forward as part of LTP3 given the current financial situation. While encouraging through traffic to use primary routes could theoretically lead to an increase in traffic on A roads that lie within 200m of the Lee Valley SPA and Epping Forest SAC this policy has to be considered within the context of the long list of policies and measures within the Local Transport Plan that are aimed at reducing traffic demand. When this policy is placed within its proper context, there is no reason to conclude that the overall volume of traffic would actually increase through the implementation of this policy.

either to the rural character of the road or residential properties alongside

Development off a road of poor condition could be acceptable if the following conditions are met: the development is within 1 km of the distributor road network; the developer provides improvements to the local road which satisfy environmental, safety and capacity conditions and Rights of Way Improvement Plan measures.

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report August 2010 27

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

3.20 Rural Transport

The County Council will seek to ensure that transport services in rural areas enable people to access important destinations and services and contribute to reducing the dominance of the car as the favoured mode of transport. The County Council will:

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.21 Safety

Further reduce the number of people killed or seriously injured on the county's roads through: A Targeted activity using latest data analysis techniques and measures B Promoting a mix of engineering, education and enforcement activity focused on casualty reduction and prevention C Working with partners to develop and deliver targeted and appropriate measures and messages The County Council will seek to deliver a network of more sustainable transport links to all schools in Hertfordshire by working closely with parents, pupils, teachers and local residents and by supporting schools' own travel plans. The County Council will seek to:

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

3.22 School Travel

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.23 Security on the Network

A. B. C. D.

Improve the perception of safety and security on Hertfordshire's transport system Decrease the number of incidents of anti-social behaviour, crime and criminal damage occurring on the transport system Support education programmes aimed at keeping users safe on the transport network Ensure the county's transport system is resilient and prepared for instances of major alert including terrorist incidents.

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

The County Council will seek to manage the network to achieve appropriate speeds in the interests of safety, other road users and of the economy and environment. Speed limits will be set in line with the Speed Management Strategy. The County Council will ensure that speed limits are introduced and reviewed in a manner consistent with the current government guidance. Exceptions to usual practice will be set out in the Speed Management Strategy which will be subject to periodic review. 3.24 Speed Management The introduction of speed management measures will only be considered where it can be demonstrated they meet and contribute to the: Speed Management Strategy including the key criteria Local Transport Plan Challenges and policies Schemes will normally be identified through the Urban Transport Plans. The range of measures considered will take into account the relevant regulations, best practise, all highway users and local experience in Hertfordshire. This may include the use of appropriate current and new technologies. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

The County Council will: Encourage Heavy Goods Vehicles to use the primary route network by means of signing and use traffic management measures to restrict inappropriate heavy goods movements on certain other routes where problems persist. Provide clear advice to planning authorities in respect of the highways implications and location of developments likely to generate additional freight movements on the highway network. Encourage proposals that support a shift from road-borne freight to less environmentally damaging modes, including rail, water and pipelines. Wherever appropriate, conditions will be imposed on planning permissions and planning obligations will be sought to maximise the amount of non-road borne freight. Support the establishment of rail depots for freight, including aggregates and waste at suitable locations in the County, taking into account the suitability of the local road network for secondary collection or distribution, the relationship with employment uses and the environmental impact. Support the formation of `Quality Partnerships' between interested parties in order to develop an understanding of distribution issues and to promote constructive solutions which reconcile the need of access for goods and services with local environment and social concerns. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive. For the purposes of this screening exercise, we have worked on an assumption that a shift in freight movement from road to rail means the potential for a decrease in road traffic and is therefore a positive step for air quality.

3.25 Sustainable Distribution and Freight

The County Council will promote the use of, and provision of facilities for, taxis where: 3.26 Taxis They form part of an integrated transport system/scheme i.e. interchanges. They encourage a switch away from the use of the private car, e.g. by providing the final link from the railway station to home. They assist in social inclusion by providing car-based trips for non-car owners e.g. from the supermarket to home. They deliver a cost-effective means of providing educational and social service transport. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report August 2010 28

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

The County Council will seek to: A Identify and apply industry-leading good practice to the management of all transport assets. B Consider and manage the safety of the network, now and in the future. C Consider and manage the availability of the network, now and in the future. D Consider and manage the accessibility of the network, now and in the future. E Consider and manage the environmental impact of the network, now and in the future, both in terms of our works and the effect they will have on the use of the network. F Maximise the opportunity for investment to maintain and improve the condition of the transport network. The County Council in association with partner organisations will: Raise awareness of the problems associated with traffic growth, particularly in relation to environmental, health, economic and social effects, and generating public acceptance for the need to change travel behaviour. Promote TravelWise and sustainable transport through businesses, schools, community groups and other organisations to encourage them to take action Promote the benefits of removing journeys through remote technology, such as remote working or shopping. Promote the means of reducing the impact of car journeys by encouraging methods such as the use of local facilities, better driving techniques, alternative fuels and planning trips so as to reduce unnecessary mileage. Encourage existing car users to change to cycling, walking, passenger transport and car sharing to reduce the proportion of journeys made by car. The County Council will encourage the widespread adoption of Travel Plans through: Working in partnership with businesses and other organisations to develop travel plans and implement Smarter Choices measures Seeking the development, implementation and monitoring of travel plans as part of the planning process for new developments. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.27 Transport Asset Management Plan

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact).

3.28 Travel Planning and Changing Travel Behaviour

Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

3.29 Urban Transport Plans

The County Council will produce Urban Transport Plans as part of their key role in delivering the intentions of the transport policies.

The County Council will seek to: 3.30 Walking Encourage walking as a mode of transport for short journeys or as part of a longer journey incorporating public transport. Identify and promote networks of pedestrian priority routes within towns, as part of the integrated urban transport plans. Implement measures to increase the priority of pedestrians relative to motor vehicles, especially in town centres and other community areas. Provide improved pedestrian facilities along routes, and at key locations, where it would enable and encourage people to make journeys on foot. Support the implementation of the Rights of Way Improvement Plan. Screened out. No mechanism for a significant adverse effect (i.e. no pathway of impact). If anything, impact could be positive.

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report August 2010 29

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

5

5.1

5.1.1

Conclusions

Screening of Alternative Strategies

Based on the information originally available for the four Alternative Strategies that are being considered for inclusion within the LTP, two strategies could be screened out as having no mechanism for an adverse effect on European sites: · Alternative Strategy 1 ­ Demand Management · Alternative Strategy 5 ­ Preferred Approach (combining elements of the previous four strategies)

5.1.2

Each of the other three Alternative Strategies had the potential to provide a mechanism for an adverse effect on European sites, taking a very precautionary view given the limited level of detail available. Of the strategies, Alternative Strategy 2 ­ New Infrastructure Development appeared to have the highest potential to cause an adverse effect due to the increase in traffic and disturbance it could generate. However, as described in the screening table in the preceding section depending on the details of measures to be delivered it could also contribute significantly to reducing/avoiding adverse effects. The remaining two strategies are less likely to cause an adverse effect to European sites as they are unlikely to generate any significant increase in road traffic volume, however, without seeing more detailed policies these strategies cannot yet be `screened out'. This is because both strategies have the scope to increase the volume or size of the public transport or foot/cycle path networks in areas within or nearby to European sites, which could therefore potentially cause a significant effect.

5.1.3

5.1.4

5.2

5.2.1

Screening of Packages and Policies

Since it was not possible to rule out individual broad strategies, it was necessary to review the details of individual packages, sub-packages and measures that will be covered by the Local Transport Plan. Two packages (Small Scale Infrastructure and Major Road Infrastructure) looked at first glance to have conceivable potential for impacts on European sites in an indirect `in combination' manner, depending on whether they were likely to lead to an increase in traffic on the following roads in proximity to European sites not only when considered alone, but particularly when considered in combination with changes in traffic movements on these roads as a result of transport schemes in other areas and general background trends in traffic movement: · The A10 within 200m of Wormley-Hoddesdonpark Woods SAC; · The A414 between the junction with the A1170 and the junction with the B181 at Stanstead Abbotts (i.e. where the road lies within 200m of the Lee Valley Special Protection Area and Ramsar site at Rye Meads)21; and

5.2.2

While the A10 does lie within 1km of the Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar site it is separated from that site by large areas of urban development. As such, disturbance of waterfowl on this site is unlikely to be an issue arising from LTP3.

21

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report 30

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

· The A104, A121, B172, B1393 and M25 junction 26-27 as they traverse, or run within 200m of, Epping Forest SAC. 5.2.3 We therefore discussed these schemes with transport planners at the Council who confirmed that · The Council currently has no list of actual Major Road Infrastructure schemes to be taken forward as part of LTP3 given the current financial situation, and the emphasis and balance of the plan is based on increasing sustainable modes rather than delivering new infrastructure (this can be seem from a comparison of the packages in Table 5, below). · The only major road scheme in Hertfordshire that is still outstanding from previous commitments is the A120 Little Hadham bypass. However, even if this were to go ahead it is likely to have a beneficial impact on the section of road adjacent to the Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar site as some motorists would be likely to choose to use the A120 in preference to the A414, thereby reducing congestion and actually improving air quality. · With regard to `Small-Scale Infrastructure', there is no scheme that the Council is considering for LTP3 that, in the opinion of the transport planners, would be likely to affect traffic flows on these roads in any significant way; in fact, any increase in traffic on the roads identified above is unlikely to even be measurable/ assessable. Alternatively, if it can be established that they will. 5.2.4 Following these discussions it was possible to screen out as unlikely significant adverse effect on European sites arising, alone or in combination, from the Hertfordshire LTP3 either in terms of its policies or in terms of its packages of measures.

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report 31

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

Appendix 1 - Background on European sites referenced in this document

Site Area (ha) Qualifying Features · Beech forests on neutral to rich soils; · Dry grasslands and scrublands on chalk or limestone; and · Presence of stag beetle. · Beech forests on acid soils; · Wet heathland with cross-leaved heath; · Dry heaths; and · Presence of stag beetle. Key Environmental Conditions to Support Site Integrity · Minimal atmospheric pollution (may increase the susceptibility of beech trees to disease). · Managed public access to forest and nearby dry calcareous grasslands. · Appropriate management of grasslands. · Absence of direct fertilization. · · · · · · · · · · · Managed recreational access. Minimal air pollution. Maintenance of appropriate grazing. Absence of non-native species. Absence of direct fertilization.

Chiltern Beechwoods SAC

1276

Epping Forest SAC

1605

Lee Valley SPA & Ramsar

448

· The nationally scarce plant species: whorled water-milfoil, and the rare invertebrate: Micronecta minutissima. · Internationally important populations of wintering shoveler, gadwall and bittern.

Maintenance of water levels and flows. Absence of polluted water or nutrient enrichment. Lack of disturbance during winter months (October to March). Area of open water. Area of shallow water (<30cm) for feeding. Presence and abundance of aquatic plant & invertebrate food resources. · Maintenance of grazing regime. · Adjacent grassland nearby (especially Staines Moor), used for loafing. · · · · Appropriate woodland management. Absence of invasive species. Minimal recreational pressure (particularly wildfires). Minimal air pollution (nitrogen deposition can cause compositional changes over time).

Wormley Hoddesdonpark Woods SAC

336

· Oak-hornbeam forests.

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report 32

August 2010

Hertfordshire County Council Hertfordshire Local Transport Plan

Appendix 2. `Tiering' in Habitat Regulations Assessment

The East of England Plan and regional transport plans

AA

Sub-Regional Strategies

AA Increasing specificity in terms of evidence base, impact evaluation, mitigation, consideration of alternatives etc.

Local Transport Plans

AA

Individual projects/planning applications AA

Habitats Regulations Assessment ­ Screening of Likely Significant Effects Report 33

August 2010

Cambridgeshire County

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN PREPARED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SCOPE OF SCOTT WILSON'S APPOINTMENT WITH ITS CLIENT AND IS SUBJECT TO THE TERMS OF THAT APPOINTMENT. SCOTT WILSON ACCEPTS NO LIABILITY FOR ANY USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OTHER THAN BY ITS CLIENT AND ONLY FOR THE PURPOSES FOR WHICH IT WAS PREPARED AND PROVIDED. © SCOTT WILSON LTD 2010

Main Towns/Cities County Boundaries Special Areas of Conservation Ramsar

Bedfordshire County

Special Protection Areas District Boundaries Motorway Primary road

NORTH HERTFORDSHIRE DISTRICT

1 Chiltern Beechwoods SAC 2 Epping Forest SAC 3 Wormley-Hoddesdonpark Woods SAC 4 Lee Valley Ramsar 5 Lee Valley SPA

Railway

A1(M )

STEVENAGE DUNSTABLE LUTON

STEVENAGE DISTRICT

BISHOP'S STORTFORD

EAST HERTFORDSHIRE DISTRICT

Hertfordshire County 1

ST. ALBANS DISTRICT WELWYN HATFIELD DISTRICT

Date: 03th June 2010 Filepath: I:\5004 - Information Systems\D_EastofEngland\ArcGIS\MXDs\Jan 2010\Map 1 Hertfordshire.mxd

HERTFORD

4 5

Copyright

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HARLOW

DACORUM DISTRICT

HEMEL HEMPSTEAD

HATFIELD ST. ALBANS

Revision Details By Check Date Suffix

3

BROXBOURNE DISTRICT

Drawing Status

4

M25

5

Essex County

FINAL

Job Title

HERTFORDSHIRE LTP3 HRA

M1

M25

M2 5

HERTSMERE DISTRICT WATFORD DISTRICT

Drawing Title

Buckinghamshire County

M25

THREE RIVERS DISTRICT

WATFORD

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HERTFORDSHIRE COUNTY DESIGNATED SITES

AH 1:200,000

Approved Originated

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Scale at A3 Drawn Stage 1 check

JR

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