Read Biology2WBPrelims.pdf text version

Contents

area of study 01

unit

3

v

2 4 6 10

Signatures of life

area of study 02

Molecules of life

Introduction Essentialknowledge

Cellsandthecelltheory Plasmamembranes Metabolismandenzymes DNA,proteomesandproteomics

Detecting and responding

Essentialknowledge

Homeostasis `Self,`non-self'anddisease 40 45

Worksheets

Worksheet13 Homeostasis--crossword

Worksheet14 Worksheet15 Worksheet16 Worksheet17 Worksheet18 Worksheet19 Worksheet20 Worksheet21 Worksheet22 Worksheet23 Worksheet24 Breathedeep--respiratory gasesandnegativefeedback Hormonalplants--plant growthregulators Transpiringtreesandother vascularplants Criticalsignals--detectingand respondingtosignals Signallingcells --cellcommunication Pathogens--crossword Cleankitchens--preventing pathogens Self-defencemechanisms Targetpractice--aiming antibodiesatinvaders Immunology--matchmaker Horriblehayfeverandother allergies

52 53 54 56 57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65

Worksheets

Cells--crossword Gadgetgallery--cellorganelles Modelmembranes EnzymeABC --amazingbiologicalcatalysts Activeenzymes Energytransformations --matchmaker Mightymitochondria Zoominginonphotosynthesis E nergytransformationsincells: cellularrespirationand photosynthesis--aconceptmap Worksheet10 Cell'susermanual --aconceptmap Worksheet11 Nuclearpuzzle--samepieces, differentpicture Worksheet12 Hypotheticalhalitosis --aproteomicssimulation Worksheet1 Worksheet2 Worksheet3 Worksheet4 Worksheet5 Worksheet6 Worksheet7 Worksheet8 Worksheet9 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Practicalactivities

Activity4 Activity5 Activity6 Typicaltropisms--phototropic responsesinplantseedlings Aquestionofbalance--blood glucoseregulation Hygienichands--effective handwashing! 66 69 75

Practicalactivities

Activity1 Activity2 Activity3 Partiallypermeablemembranes Factoryfacilitators --investigatingenzymeactivity Trackingphotosynthesis --energyconversionsinplants 25 28 31

Sampleassessmenttasks

Task1 Task2 Detectingandresponding Immuneresponses 77 82

Sampleassessmenttasks

Task1 Task2 Absentenzymes --phenylketonuriaandalbinism Porouspotatoes--osmosisin livingcells 33 37

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Contents

area of study 01

unit

4

Continuity and change

area of study 02

Heredity

Essentialknowledge

GenesandDNA Cellreproduction Genesanddevelopment Chromosomesandsexdetermination Mutations Genotypeandphenotype 86 91 93 93 94 95

Change over time

130 134 136 138

Essentialknowledge

Fossilsandevolution Naturalselection--amodelforchangein populations Speciation Humanevolution

Worksheets

Worksheets

Worksheet25 Worksheet26 Worksheet27 Worksheet28 Worksheet29 Worksheet30 Worksheet31 Worksheet32 Worksheet33 Worksheet34 Worksheet35 Worksheet36 Worksheet37 Moleculargenetics--crossword Countingcharacteristics --variationinagroup Geneticdictionary--reading thecode GTT--genetictoolsand technologies PCR--ageneamplification technology Cellreproduction--matchmaker Marvellousmeiosis--amixture ofgametes Trueorfalse?--karyotypes, allelesandmutations Countingonkaryotypes --chromosomaldiagnoses Genotype,phenotypeand crosses--crossword Mendel'sspinonmeiosis --Mendel'sprinciples Linkageandpedigrees Puzzlingpedigrees--analysing familyhistories 98 99 101 103 104 106 107 109 110 111 112 114 115

Worksheet38 Evidencefromthepast

Worksheet39 Worksheet40 Worksheet41 Worksheet42 Worksheet43 Worksheet44 Worksheet45 Worksheet46 Worksheet47 Worksheet48

141 --crossword Snapshotsintime--changeon 142 agrandscale E videnceofevolutionfrom 143 anatomyandmolecules --matchmaker Homologoushands 144 --comparativeanatomy Populationchange--matchmaker 145 Superbugs--amoderntragedy 146 innaturalselection Thetruthofthematter 147 --patternsinevolution Adaptiveradiation--Darwin's 148 finches Humanevolutionand 150 interventions--crosswords Fluorofish--acontroversial 151 applicationofgenetransformation Homo hobbit--thelosttribe 152 ofFlores

Practicalactivities

Activity9 Activity10 Matchingmarsupials--similarities 154 anddifferencesbetweenspecies Desirabledisadvantages 160 --selectioninsmallpopulations

Practicalactivities

Activity7 Activity8 Geneticroulette--peopleand 117 pedigrees DNAdistillery--extractingDNA 122

Sampleassessmenttasks

Task1 Task2 Anteaterantics--divergentand convergentevolution Newimprovedmenu --geneticallymodifiedfoods 164 166

Sampleassessmenttasks

Task1 Task2 Bettingonbarley 124 B adgenehunting--gel 126 electrophoresisandHuntington's disease

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Introduction

to the student

The Heinemann Biology 2 Student Workbook has been created to help you achieve your best possible performance in VCE Biology Units 3 and 4. It is designed to be used in conjunction with your textbook and class notes. This workbook will be an important reference document throughout the course and in preparation for the examinations. The workbook is divided into four Areas of Study--two in Unit 3 and two in Unit 4. Each Area of Study contains four sections: · Essential knowledge · Worksheets · Practical activities · Sample assessment tasks.

Worksheets

Each Area of Study includes 11 to 13 worksheets. These are designed to consolidate and test your understanding of the essential knowledge required and to further your understanding of the key concepts. Once completed, they will become an important part of your revision notes. You can check your answers to these by visiting hi.com.au/biol and following the links to the workbook support material.

Essential knowledge

Essential knowledge is a set of summary notes that covers the Key knowledge set out in each Area of Study of the Study Design. It is useful for highlighting information essential to your understanding of the themes covered in the textbook, and provides a ready reference for completing the worksheets and for exam preparation. As this is your workbook, you are encouraged to make your own notes and highlight key points directly onto the pages as you work.

essential knowledge Metabolism and enzymes

The metabolism of an organism is the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur within its cells. This includes the energy-transforming reactions of cells such as production of organic molecules, breakdown, recycling and excretory processes. Such biochemical processes are universal, that is, they occur in the cells of all living organisms to ensure the survival of the individual. Enzymes are biological catalysts--they increase the rate of biochemical reactions in cells, e.g. the chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

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Biology 2 Student Workbook © Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd

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© Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd Molecules of life

essential knowledge

Activation energy: energy expended to initiate enzyme-catalysed reaction; even catabolic reactions require an initial input of energy to start reaction Coenzymes: small organic molecules important to the normal functioning of enzymes, e.g. vitamins Cofactors: inorganic ions important to the normal functioning of enzymes, e.g. Mg++

Unit 3 Area of Study 01

cytosol

Enzymes are usually denoted by the suffix `ase', e.g. maltase, lactase, protease, amylase, lipase. The rate of enzyme activity is also dependent upon the: · concentration of substrate--the higher the concentration of the substrate, the greater the rate of interaction between substrate molecules and enzymes, leading to increased rate of reaction · concentration of enzyme--the more enzyme available to catalyse a reaction, the more rapidly it will proceed.

Cell

mitochondrion

Unit 3 Area of Study 01

6

Rate of enzyme activity

Energy transformations

Living organisms require energy for growth, movement, repair of damaged tissue and reproduction. Energy is obtained by the production of energy-rich organic compounds in autotrophic organisms such as plants, and by the consumption of plants and/or other animals by heterotrophic organisms. Different kinds of energy transformations are involved.

Figure 3.7

ATP/ADP cycle.

Properties of enzymes

· composed of protein · substrate specific--catalyse a chemical reaction involving a particular substrate molecule, and not any other; referred to as `lock-and-key' to illustrate specificity between a key fitting a particular lock only

substrate molecules active site Rate of enzyme activity enzyme enzyme­ substrate complex product

Temperature °C

Figure 3.5

Rate of enzyme activity continues to increase with increasing temperature. Excessive temperature denatures enzymes and activity ceases.

Accessing energy-rich molecules: making ATP

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the immediate source of energy for cells. It is produced in a series of chemical reactions that involves the breakdown of organic molecules. The useable energy of ATP is contained in the phosphate bonds of the molecule. The cycling of ATP and ADP (adenosine diphosphate) means that energy continues to be available for use in the cell.

Cells access the energy available in organic molecules through glycolysis (anaerobic) and either cellular respiration (aerobic) or fermentation (anaerobic). Cellular respiration is the process in which complex organic compounds are broken down to release energy (ATP). Water is a by-product. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (36­38 ATP)

Glycolysis

in cytosol

glucose

2 pyruvate 2 ATP

Figure 3.4

Model of enzyme `lock-and-key' operation.

Figure 3.6

Enzyme concentration

· take part in chemical reactions but are not used up or changed by the process; released at the end of a reaction and so are available to be used over and over again · have optimal conditions under which they work most effectively; will catalyse a reaction so that maximum product is produced per unit of time, e.g. optimal temperature for digestive enzymes in duodenum of humans is 37°C and pH 8 · sensitive to factors such as temperature and pH-- when these conditions are not optimal, the activity of enzymes is reduced; extremes of such factors may lead to enzymes becoming denatured; when this happens the enzyme cannot recover its function because the shape of its active site has been permanently altered.

Rate of enzyme activity increases with increasing enzyme concentration.

Krebs cycle

inner compartment of mitochondria

2 pyruvates (each pyruvate

6 CO2 3 CO2) 2 ATP

Electron transfer

inner membrane of mitochondria

32 ATP

Figure 3.8

Energy release in presence of oxygen: glycolysis, Kreb's cycle and electron transfer.

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Biology 2 Student Workbook © Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd © Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd Molecules of life

v

Introduction

Practical activities

Each Area of Study includes two or three practical activities related to the various themes covered in this course. These activities help you develop the skills of scientific enquiry outlined in the Study Design. They give you practice in designing, conducting and evaluating scientific investigations, as well as gathering and analysing data. Results and conclusions can be recorded directly into your workbook. The practical activities support and extend the key skills relevant to Units 3 and 4, and the key concepts within each Area of Study.

Sample assessment tasks

These examples of School Assessed Coursework are designed to meet the requirements of the Outcomes in each Area of Study and the set performance descriptors for each Assessment Task. They provide vital experience in preparing for each item of School Assessed Coursework. Your teacher will indicate the way these will be used in your course.

1­1.5 cm

foil collar

dark cover

slit

white light source -- either white fluorescent tube or incandescent globe

15­30 cm

124

Biology 2 Student Workbook © Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd © Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd Heredity

125

66

Biology 2 Student Workbook © Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd © Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd Detecting and responding

67

This symbol indicates that the activity includes hazards and your teacher will discuss these with you. This symbol indicates that you should wear safety glasses.

vi

Introduction

to the teacher

The Heinemann Biology 2 Student Workbook has been created wholly with a view to meeting the requirements of the Study Design in this subject and is designed to be used in conjunction with the textbook. This workbook helps students check their understanding of key knowledge, consolidate ideas, extend their thinking, address technologies, undertake practical activities and sample assessment tasks. The Essential knowledge summary notes cover the key knowledge in each Area of Study and so offer a convenient and succinct set of study notes. These are highly illustrated and written in a straightforward and easy-to-understand style to assist students of all reading abilities. The multiple intelligence Worksheets cater for a range of learning styles. These provide opportunities to revise, consolidate and extend the student's knowledge and understanding of the key biological principles prescribed in the VCE Unit 3 and 4 Study Design. Answers to these can be found at hi.com.au/biol. The Practical activities represent the most popular and effective activities relevant to the VCE Biology course. They provide students with an opportunity to develop skills of scientific enquiry and method, including experimental design and evaluation, constructing and testing hypotheses, gathering and analysing data as well as opportunities to consider technological advances. Each practical activity has been carefully written so that it can be completed within the suggested timeframes for this course. The Sample assessment tasks are examples of School Assessed Coursework and are designed to meet the requirements of the Outcomes in each Area of Study and the set performance descriptors for each assessment task. They can be used as samples that illustrate different kinds of approaches to the assessment tasks, or for students to practise their skills at the school-assessed component of the course. They also provide an important guide for teachers in preparing assessment items. The assessment tasks included here could be adapted by teachers to be used with their students. Further advice and support on using the Sample assessment tasks can be found at hi.com.au/biol.

vii

Introduction

web support material

hi.com.au/biol is the website that supports all Heinemann biology texts and resources. The VCE section supports the textbooks Heinemann Biology 1 4th Edition and Heinemann Biology 2 4th Edition and the student workbooks Heinemann Biology 1 Student Workbook and Heinemann Biology 2 Student Workbook. It includes: · course advice and a week-by-week work program that integrates the text, eBiology student CD and student workbook · practical notes and advice · ICT support for activities · detailed answers to all textbook questions · answers to the student worksheets contained in the student workbook · assessment advice.

viii

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