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part

movement skills

Outcome 4.4 Outcome

A student demonstrates and refines movement skills in a range of contexts and environments.

Remember back to when you were young. Not when you were in primary school, but really young--when you were in kindergarten and preschool. Yes, way back then. What did you do with your time? You played. It was great fun. There were few, if any, rules. There was no competition, just pure fun. There were no courts, fields or boundaries. What skills did you develop through participating in these play-type games? How are these play-type games and skills useful in this stage of your life? What can be learned and used from these beginning movement explorations? Throughout this part we will pose questions about movement skill as we explore a range of activities in various contexts and environments.

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Key skills

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Key terms

anticipation cues fundamental movement skills non-locomotor movement skills predictable environment timing body awareness dynamic environment locomotor movement skills object control specialised movement skills body control feedback manipulative movement skills object manipulation technique

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Types of movement skills

ask yourself

How can I move more efficiently? How can I be an effective part of a team? What can I do to help my team-mates?

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definitions

Feedback is the information you receive from your body about how it feels when you move (internal feedback) or from someone who observed you, such as a coach or friend (external feedback). Object control involves moving an object (such as a ball) in a coordinated and controlled way.

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PDHPE Zone Stage 4: Movement skill and performance

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Having the skills to run, jump, throw, pass, kick, strike and catch are not only important for games and activities at school and in sport. These movement skills are also useful in building other skills that enable you to participate in a range of physical activities. As well as being able to move efficiently, you need to be able to communicate and interact with others. Effective communication and interaction will not only enhance your movement skills but also help you develop skills for life. There are four types of movement skills: fundamental, specialised, locomotor and non-locomotor, and manipulative. Fundamental movement skills are some of the skills you developed through play as a child. Skills such as throwing, running, jumping, striking, kicking, dodging and catching are all fundamental to movement. They are the basis, or foundation, of further movement skills. Fundamental movement skills also form the basis of many games you play at school or with your friends. Your ability to develop and maintain these skills will increase your enjoyment of these games and how confidently you play them. Specialised movement skills are those that are required in more organised games and activities. Examples of these movement skills are fielding a groundball in softball and climbing a wall at a climbing centre. Learning specialised movement skills largely depends on your opportunity to practice and whether you receive feedback and encouragement. Progress through the stages of specialised movement skills relies on past experiences and practice. Locomotor movement skills are those skills that involve moving the body from one place to another. Examples are running, walking, hopping, leaping and jumping. Non-locomotor movement skills are those that involve little or no movement of the base of support, usually the feet but also by using other parts of the body. Sometimes they are described as stability skills. Examples of non-locomotor movement skills are balancing, turning, twisting and swaying. Manipulative movement skills centre on object control, usually by using the hands or feet but also using other parts of the body. Sometimes they are referred to as propulsive (such as striking, throwing and kicking) and receptive skills (such as catching and trapping). As you can see, these skills do not exist in isolation from each other. In any game, skills from all four major areas are used to participate fully in the activity. In soccer, for example, players can run when they sprint for the ball, walk when they recover while the ball is out of play, and jump to head the ball and throw the ball in from the sideline. The goalkeeper can catch the ball, throw the ball to start the attack and strike the

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ball with the hand. A player can trap the ball with their feet or other body surfaces, balance as the ball gets dribbled, and turn and twist their body to deceive other players and to weave through them to score a goal--just like Harry Kewell.

find out

Visit the website of the Australian Soccer Association to find out about Soccer Australia's National Talent Identification Championships and Australian soccer players who are playing in professional leagues overseas.

Figure 1.1 Harry Kewell demonstrating object control.

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Next time you play an organised game or activity think about which fundamental movement skills were required. Watch a televised game and think about which fundamental movement skills are required. See how often the players use fundamental movement skills.

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Name three sports or activities where all four types of movement skills are utilised. Choose one of the sports or activities you named above and give examples of the skills used when participating in this activity.

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Practising and refining movement skills

When you look at Figure 1.2 (page 4), you can easily follow the notion that in order to improve you need practice as well as feedback. If the outcomes of the process shown in Figure 1.2 are successful, you will be encouraged to continue to practise and refine your movement skills and performance. If the outcomes aren't as pleasing, you may need to change the way you practice in order to improve.

Movement skills

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Try this

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How do you improve?

Practice

Refinement and improvement

Put the identified changes into action.

Performance

Have a go!

Feedback definitions

Refine take the feedback you receive and attempt to put it into action, through practice, to improve your movement skills. Technique the ability to use movement skills in a specific game or activity.

· How was your performance? · Ask yourself and those who observed you, such as your coach and team-mates. · What changes could you make to improve your performance?

Figure 1.2 The learning loop. How to improve your movement skills and performance.

So, whenever you participate in activities where movement skills are required, in order to improve, you must practise. Although practice is vital, it will not be very useful unless you receive feedback--from yourself and others. Feedback allows you to refine, or improve, your skills and technique. Unless you do this, your skills may stay at their current level. (Technique will be explored further in the next section.) Let's explore how the four types of movement skills can be practised and developed by participating in different games and activities. Movement skills can easily be developed in a number of ways without playing a traditional sport. The activities in this section combine all four types of movement skills, with an emphasis on keeping or getting possession. These activities could move you on to more advanced possession games. These games often have more attackers than defenders, which will help you to concentrate on the idea of keeping possession. These types of games are for more advanced players who can pass, catch, kick, field and receive with consistent accuracy. If this describes you, try the games mentioned later in this book (see pages 6, 8 and 10­11). Blue versus red is a running, dodging and tagging game that is ideal for warming up and getting the body moving. But beware-- even in this game some tactics are very useful.

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PDHPE Zone Stage 4: Movement skill and performance

The play area for blue versus red is shown in Figure 1.3. There are two teams: one blue and one red. Each team has the same number of players and its own territory. At the start of the game, one person from each team stands in the no-go zone of the opposing team. In order to release their player from the other team's no-go zone, a player must run and dodge through the opposing territory without being touched by an opposing player. Once the player reaches the no-go zone, they can then escort their team-mate back to their own territory. However, if the player is touched before reaching the no-go zone, then that player must also go into the no-go zone. About 20 m A player cannot enter the Blue's no-go zone o opposition's territory and Blue's territory x x then turn back. A player can only bring back one player at a time, and the players must x x x x x hold hands while returning to x x x x their territory. If a player runs Red's territory o o outside the designated area o o o o they must go in the opposing team's no-go zone. Each team's objective is to have o o o o o none of its players in the no-go Red's no-go zone zone. The team who achieves x this objective wins. Figure 1.3 The play area for the game called blue versus red. Blue versus red practises fundamental and specialised movement skills in a dynamic environment. It assists you to learn body control and manipulation, such as dodging and keeping balance while running. It also assists your spatial awareness, as you need to be aware of your team-mates, the opposition and how much space is left for you to run and dodge. Knowing when and how to run are examples of anticipation and timing. Dynamic and predictable environments, anticipation and timing as well as body control and manipulation will be covered in more detail in the next section.

definitions

A dynamic environment is one that has changing factors. It usually results from the players constantly changing their position in the space in which the game is being played. Body control involves regulating your body movements so that they appear coordinated. Spatial awareness is an awareness of the space around you as well as the players, your intended direction of travel, or movement, and your movement goals. Anticipation is the ability to predict (anticipate) what will happen. Timing refers to moving at the correct time, such as knowing when to run, pass, tackle, intercept or attempt to score.

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How did you use body control, spatial awareness, anticipation and timing to release players from the no-go zone or prevent the opposition from doing so? What strategies or tactics did your team use to release players from the no-go zone (such as player sacrifice)? What could you do to improve your body control, spatial awareness, anticipation and timing? What other types of physical activities (such as gymnastics) use these concepts? Movement skills

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About 40 m

Think about

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5

Information

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