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HNlAlDS TRAINER'S MANUAL

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NACHU

BUILD AND LIVE!'

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Prepared by Crystal HiIl Consulting For National Cooperative Housing Union (NACHIJ)

0 Crystal Hill Consulting :Tel020-2730600

Email: i n f o ~ c r y s t a l h i l l ke ~ . .~

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William Muraah

Ni furaha yangu kuu kuwasilisha mwongozo huu wa kufbnza kuhusu ukimwi katika mashirika ya ujenzi wa nyumba nchini Kenya. NACHU imeendelea kuwajibika katika lengo lake la kuhakikisha watu wamepata nyumba nzuri na kwa gharama ya chini Tqnaamini kuwa makao mazuri sio haki tu ya kibinadamu mbali pia huimarisha hali ya maisha na hivyo kupunguza kiwango ya umaskini Kwa miaka ambayo imepita, NACHU imetoa bidhaa na huduma ili kuwezesha utekelezaji wa lengo lake. Hii ni pamoja na kuelimisha jamii kuhusu mipango ya ujenzi, kuwapa watu huduma za fedha, ujuzi maalum na ukurugenzi wa mitaa Katika jitihada hizi, tumeoqa kwamba mshirika wetu akiwa mgonjwa na asihudhurie mikutano inachangia katika uharibifu wa wa mali na upotezdi' wa wakati. Hatimaye, ugohjwa hupoteza uwezo wa washirika wa kulipa mikopo kwani wao huwa hawana nguvu za kufanya kazi na pia hutumia pesa ny ingi kugharamia matibabu Mambo haya huwanyima washirika h r s a ya kufaidika na mipango ya NACHU ya ujenzi wa nyumba. Kwa mujibu huu, NACHU ilionelea ni vyema kuanzisha mpango wa elimu kuhusu ukimwi NACHU kwa sasa tayari imejumuisha mafbnzo haya katika mipango yake mingine na pia imeunda 'policy' ya ' H I V / A I D S Y ili kutoa mwelekeo kuhusu mpango huu. Kwa sasa, NACHU imeanzisha warsha za kuelimisha baadhi ya washirika wataokuwa walimu wa ukimwi kwa washirika wa ujenzi wa nyumba katika mikoa na kwa majirani wao pia wanakoishi. Ni katika uimarishaji wa mfbmo huu ambapo NACHU ikishrikiana na Crystal Hill Consultants ilitayarisha mwongozo huu. Tuna himizo kuwa mwongozo huu utasaidia kuwasilisha ujumbe kuhusu ukimwi Tunaamini kuwa utachangia zaidi katika jitihada za washika dau wengine kama vile serikali katika kupunguza ueneaji wa ukimwi nchini na kuhusisha watu katika kuwahudumia walioambukima na walioathiriwa

FOREWORD

I am pleased to present this manual with a view to facilitating dissemination of HIVIAIDS information to the primary housing cooperatives fraternity in Kenya. NACHU continues with its commitment to deliver decent and affordable shelter not only because of the belief that shelter is a human right, but that housing contributes to better basic livelihoods resulting in poverty reduction. NACHU has over the years developed a range of products and services aimed at attaining this noble task. These include community mobilization, capacity building for cooperatives through training, lobbying and advocacy, financial services, technical services, and estate management. With all these effortsbit has been realized that investments in terms of time and finances could be underutilized or wasted if an active member fell ill and found it diflicult to attend meetings or participate in other group activities. Eventually, the illness interferes with both the individuals' savings activities and the repayment of loans since they spend a lot of their time indoors and spend finances on medical care as priority is accorded to their health. All these prevent members from directly reaping the benefits related to enjoying usage of the developed shelter. It is in this regard that NACHU found it necessary to develop an HIVIAIDS programme. With this background, NACHU has already mainstreamed HIV/AIDS activities within its programmes and accordingly completed an organizational policy to guide the HIVIAIDS activities. Currently, NACHU has embarked on undertaking training of trainers' workshops on HIV/AIDS for the members of housing cooperatives in the provinces where the graduates are expected to disseminate the acquired information to both their society members and their neighbors wherever they live. It is in enhancing this process that NACHU, in partnership with Crystal Hill HIVIAIDS consultants developed this manual We are therefore convinced that this booklet will go along way in enhancing accessibility of information on HIV/AIDS. It is our belief that it shall contribute to the countrywide efforts by other partners, including the government, in mobilizing the citizenry in both fighting the pandemic and participating in taking care of those infected and afYected by the pandemic. General Manager

T~~natoa shtlkrani zetu kwa wote waliochmgia kwa njia rnoja au nyingine katika kufanya utayarishaji wa mwongozo huu kufanduwa. Haswa, twawashukuru viongozi wa N&HU na wafanyikazi (NACHU Board and staff) kwa usaidizi wao. Twawashukuru ROOFTOP CANADA kwa msaada wa Iufedha. Hatimaye, twatambua washinka wote wa msing katika ujeanzi wa nvurnba kwa kushirikl katika iaribio la hfunza walimu wa ukimwi Nairobi na .

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Mavoko.

ORODHA YA YALlYQMO

Ujurnbe maalum .................................................................................................................. 2 ............................................................................................ Tambulisho -3 Orodha ya yaliyomo ..................................................................................................... 5 Orodha ya chati ....................................................................................... -7 Utangulizi ............................................................................................................................ 9 . . Jinsi ya kutumia mwongozo huu ......................................................................................1 1 MADA 1 : MAANA YA HIVIAIDS .................................................................................13 MADA 2: CHANZO CHA HIVIAIDS.........................................................................1 5 , MADA 3: HISTORIA YA HIVIAIDS . ........................................................................ 17 , MADA 4: HESABU KUHUSU HIV/P!IDS ................i.......i..............; ..........................19 MADA 5: JINSI VIRUS1 HLTENDELEA HAD1 UKIMWI.............................................21 MADA 6: DALILI ZA UKIMWI ................................................................................23 MADA 7: NJIA ZA KUSAMBAZA VIRUS1 (HIV) ....................................................... 25 MADA 8: NJIA ZA KUZUIA UENEZAJI W-4 HIV ...................................................... 27 MADA 9: WIRI, JINSIA NA HIVIAIDS .................................................................... 29 MADA 10: UPIMAJI WA VIRUS1 VYA UKIMWI .......................................................31 MADA 11: VCT ............................................................................................................... 33 MADA 12: lMATLTMIZ1 YA KONDOM .........................................................................35 MADA 13 : MADAWA YA HIVIAIDS (ARVs) ............................................................37 MADA 14: JINSI YA KUISHI NA HIVIAIDS ..............................................................39 41 MADA 15: MAWAIDHA KWA JUMLA KUHUSU VYAKULA ......................... MADA 16:CHAKULA CHA MARATIHI MBALIMBALI ........................................... 43 47 MADA 17: JINSI YA KUHUDUMIA MGONJWA NYLTMBAN1.......................... 53 POLICY YA NACHU KUHUSU HIVIAIDS................................................... WKODI YA KUFUNZA ........................................................................-59 60 FOMU YA KUPOKEA NA KUPEANA KOIVDOMS......................................... MAHALI PA KUPATA UKWIBE ZAIDI KUHUSU HIVIAIDS .................................. 61 62 VITABU MBALIMBALI KUHUSU UKIMWI (PENDEKEZO)............................ VIDEO MBALIMBALI KUHUSU UKIMWI (PENDEKEZO) ..............................64

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Prepared by C,ystul Hill Conszrlting (CHC) for National Hozaing Co-operative Union (7VACHU)

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Forward ......................................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgement.................................................................................... 4 Table of Contents ............................................................................................................. 6 Table of charts ........................................................................................8 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 10 How to use this manual ................................................................................................ 12 14 TOPIC 1: THE MEANING OF HIVIAIDS ................................................................ . TOPIC 2: THE ORIGIN OF HNIAIDS ........:............................................................. 16 TOPIC 3: THE HISTORY OF H I V I ~ ~ D S ....................... 1............!.................................. 18 TOPIC 4: HIVIAIDS STATISTICS ............................................................................... 20 22 TOPIC 5: HIVIAIDS: DISEASE PROGRESSION ........................................................ TOPIC 6: SYMPTOMS OF AIDS ...................................................................................24 TOPIC 7: THE SPREAD OF HIV .................................................................................... 26 TOPIC 8: PREVENTION OF THE SPREAD OF HIV .................................................. 28 TOPIC 9: AGE, GENDER AND HIVIAIDS .................................................................. 30 TOPIC 10: HIV TESTING ............................................................................................... 32 TOPIC 11: VOLUNTARY COUNSELING AND TESTING (VCT) ............................. 34 .................................... 36 TOPIC 12: CONDOM USE ........................................................ TOPIC 13: TREATMENT OF HIVIAIDS .......................................................................38 TOPIC 14: LIVING WITH HIVIAIDS .....................................................................40 TOPIC 15 : GENERAL NUTRITIOIV ADVISE ................................................ 42 TOPIC 16: DIET AND MINOR ILLNESSES ................................................................. 44 TOPIC 17 : HOME BASED CARE .............................................................. 48 -54 NACHU HIVIAIDS POLICY ..................................................................... TRAINING RECORD FORM ...................................................................................... 59 CONDOM RECEIPIDISTRIBUTION............................................................ 60 HIVIAIDS INFORMATION SOURCES......................................................... 61 -62 RECOMMENDED HIVIAIDS BOOKS ........................................................

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VIRUS1 VYA LIKIMWI.. ..................................................... 1A VlJEREZI (DEFINl1-IONS)................................................. 18 CHANZO CHA HIV.............................................................2 HISTORIA YA HIVIAIDS................................................... 3A HISTORIA YA HIVIAIDS NCHINI KENYA........................... .3B HESABU KUHUSU HIVIAIDS ................................... 4A,4B, 4C JlNSl VIRUS1 VINAVYOENDELEA HAD1 UKIMWI................ ..5B JINSI VIRUS1 VINAVYOZAANA..........................................5C

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JlNSI VIRUS1 VINAVYOSAMBAZVVA................................. .7A .IINSI VIRUS1 HAVlWEZl KUSAMBAZWA............................ 78 JINSI MAMA ANAWEZA KUAMBLIKIZA MWANAYE.. ............ 7C JlNSl MAMA ANAWEZA KUZUIA KUAMBUKIZA MWANAYE..8E

. UMRI, JINSIA NA HIVIAIDS.............................................. 9 ..

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UPIMAJI WA VIRUS1 (HIV)........................................... .:.10 VCT.. .......................................................................... I I MATUMIZI YA KONDOMS.. .................................. ..12A,128 MADAWA YA VIRUS1 (ARVs)......................................... 13A KUKABILIANA NA LlKlMWl ..................................... 138, 13C BE1 YA ARVs ................................... .:. ........................ .13D

JINSI YA KUISHI NA HIVIAIDS ........................................ 14

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VYAKUIA NA HIVIAIDS.................................................. 15 VYAKUIA NA MARADHI MBALlMBALl .............................. 16 JlNSl YA KUHUDUMIA MGONJWA NYUMBANI...................17

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Prepwed by Clystal Hill Conszrlting (CHC),for National Hozrsing Co-operative Union fnACHU)

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DEFINITIONS....................... !...................................... 1B THE ORIGIN OF HIV..................................................... 2 HISTORY OF HIVIAIDS.................................................. 3A THE HISTORY OF HIVIAIDS IN KENYA............................ 3B HIVIAIDS STATISTICS....................................... ..4A.48, 4C TYPES OF HIV..................... I.! ..........................la......... 5A HIVIAIDS: DISEASE PROGRESSION................................ 5B HIV MULTIPLICATION PROCESS..................................... 5C SYMPTOMS OF AIDS ...................................................... 6. HOW HIV IS SPREAD.................................................... 7A HOW HIV IS NOT SPREAD............................................. 78 MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION (SPREAD)...............7C ABCD OF PREVENTION................................. .8A,8B,8C,8D PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION.....8E DISTRIBUTION OF AIDS CASES BY AGE AND GENDER.....9 HIV TES I ING............................................................... I 0 VOLUNTARY COUNSELING AND TESTING...................... 11 CONDOM USE................................................... ..12A, 128 DRUG COMBINATIONS...............................................13A MANAGEMENT OF HIVIAIDS................................ .13B, 13C THE COST OF ARVs.................................................... 13D LIVING WITH HIVIAIDS................................................ 14 NUTRITION AND HIVIAIDS............................................. 15

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DIET AND MINOR ILLNESSES.......................................16 HOME BASED CARE......................................................17

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Nchi ya Kenya ni mojawapo ya Nchi zilizo na idadi kubwa ya watu walioambukizwa virusi vya ukimwi. Karibu asilimia kumi(lO%) ya watu wazima nchini Kenya wana virusi vya ukimwi. Asilimia ya walioambukizwa mijini ni takriban mara mbili ya walio mashambani. Wanawake wameathiriwa sana kuliko wanaume wakichukua asilimia sitini (60%) ya wanaoishi na viiusi hivi. lnachukuliwa pia kuna mayatima zaidi ya milioni moja waliofiwa kutokana na ukimwi. Madawa yanayotumiwa kuimarisha afya ya walioambukizwa (ARVs) yanatumiwa tu na asilimia tatu (3%) ya wenye virusi hivi. ldadi ya wanaokufa kwa sababu ya ukimwi imeongezeka Nchini. Ukimwi umekuwa pigo kubwa kwa NACHU na kupunguza uwezo wa kuwajibiza malengo yake. NACHU imepoteza washirika wengi na hata wafanyi kazi kwa sababu ya ukimwi. Wengi pia wamekuwa wagonjwa kiasi kwamba hawawezi kufaidika na miradi ya NACHU au wanakuwa wakishughulikia wagonjwa katika familia. NACHU imetambua haiwezi kutimiza jukumu lake la ya chini katika jamii"

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"Kuchangia

uimarishaji wa hali ya nyumba na maisha kwa jumla haswa kwa watu wa mapato

- lsipokuwa ipigane na hatari hii ya

ukimwi. Uzuri ni kuwa

tunajua mipango ya HIVIAIDS iliyoshamiri hupunguza uabukizaji wa virusi vya ukimwi. Tena, madawa ya kuthibiti nguvu za virusi yap0 na huwasaidia wale walioambukizwa kuishi maisha ya kawaida. Kwa mujibu huu, NACHU iliamua kuanzisha mpango wa kuelimisha walimu wa ukimwi katika jamii kwa matumaini kuwa walimu hawa wataweza kufikia watu wengi katika jamii wanamoishi. Mradi wa Nairobi ulikuwa kama jaribio lililohitimu vizuri sana. llijiri haja ya kutayarisha mwongozo wa walimu hawa. Mwongozo huu ni

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kielelezo cha kuwapa mwelekeo katika kufunza kuhusu ukin~wi virusi vyake na

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P~.epnr-ed Ctyrtal Hz11 Conszrltzn~ by (CHC) for National Hozlsing CO-opercrtiveUnion flACHU)

INTWODUC'B18N

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Kenya has one of the highest HIV prevalence levels in the world. It is estimated that about 10% of Kenyan adults are infected. HIV prevalence in urban areas is approximately double that in r1.1ralareas. Women are also disproportionately harder hit and constitute about 60% of all people living with HIVIAIDS. It is also estimated that there are more than one million AlDS orphans in the country. Access to effective HIVIAIDS treatment is extremely low. Only about 3% of the people who need Anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) access them. As a result of this situation, AlDS death rates in the country are exfrkmely high. HIVIAIDS has negatively impacted the ability of NACHU to effectively carry out its mandate. NACHU has lost many members and even employees to the disease while many others are too sick to benefit from NACHU programmes or are caught up in the care of ailing relatives. NACHU recogr~izesthat it cannot achieve its mission basis,

- "To contribute to improved shelter and quality of life on a sustainable especially for the low income communities" - Unless it tackles the threat

posed by HIVIAIDS. Fortunately, we know that effective and sustained HIVIAIDS programmes lead to dramatic reduction in HIV infection. Further, effective treatment now exists that enables HIV infected individuals to continue leading normal lives. Against this background, NACHU decided to start an HIVIAIDS Training of Trainers

(TOT)programme with a hope that the trainers will be able to reach out to many

more community members. The Nairobi and Athi River pilot programmes which were quite successful led to the development of this manual to equip the trainers and send them out to help in combating the spread of HIVIAIDS by creating awareness among community members.

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Prepored bj: C~?.srnl Hill C'onsz,ltir7,y(CHCj for iV~itio,7cil Hoz,si,?g Co-o,~e~.trfive Lr17io17 (XACHC')

JINSI YA KUTLBMBA MIWONGBZO HUU

Mwongozo huu ni kielelezo cha walimu wa mambo ya ukimwi katika jamii. Umepangwa kwa utaratibu maalum kila mada ikifuata nyingine. Lazima utumiwe sambamba na chati ishirini na mbili zilizoandaliwa kutumiwa pamoja nao. Kila chati ina nambari ya kuibainisha.

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Lazima chati hizi zitumiwe kufuatia nambari zake. lkumbukwe kuwa mwongozo huu hautoi mafunzo yote kuhusu ukimwi. Walimu wanaweza kurejelea nakala au vitabu vingine kupata ujumbe zaidi wa ukimwi. Mwongozo huu umerahisishwa kabisa ili utumiwe W a walioelimika na kwa wasio na elimu. Umenakiliwa kwa lugha ya Kiswahili na Kiingereza. Mwalimu anastahili kuonyesha anaofunza chati au aiangike ukutani na atumie mwongozo huu kutoa maelezo zaidi kuhusu HIVIAIDS. Mwalimu atilie maanani kuhusu kubadilisha tabia. Awahize anaofunza katika kila mada kuwa kuna umuhimu wa kubadilisha tabia zinazosababisha kuambukiza virusi vya ukimwi. Badiliko la tabia linahusu kuiga mienendo1 njia za kujizuia (ABCD), kupunguza fedheha inyoambatana 'na ugonjwa huu pamoja na kuwaunga na kuwapa moyo wanaoishi na ukimwi. Tafadhali hakikisha umehusisha unaofunza na mmekuwa na majadiliano na kubadilishana maoni. Anza mafunzo kwa kuwauliza maswali yanayohusu mada utakofunza ili kupima kiwango na ujuzi wao kuhusu suala lile. lwapo unashaka na jambo lolote, omba usaidisi kutoka kwa mweledi kama Daktari wa jamii, anayetoa ushauri au mtu mwingine aliye na ujuzi zaidi. Tafadhali kumbuka pia kama mwalimu, ni muhimu kuhakikisha kwamba mienendo na mawazo yetu yanalingana na ujumbe tunaopeana. lwapo tunataka wengine waige tabia zisizo wahatarisha, tupunguze fedheha inayohusishwa na ukimwi, tuwahimize

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kupimwa na kuwa wazi kujadili mambo ya ukimwi, ni lazima tuwe mfano mwema.

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Prepared by Ctystal Hill Conszrlting (CHC) for National Housing Co-operative Union (XACHU)

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL

This manual is meant to guide trainers on HIVIAIDS. It is arranged in a logical sequence of topics. It should be used along with the 22 charts prepared for trainers. The accompanying charts are ide'ntifiable by their numbers. The manual does not provide all the materials that the trainers may require and are thus advised to supplement where necessary. The manual is simplified and can b e used for both literate and illiterate'dudiences. It is in both English and Swahili. The trainers should display the charts to the audience and use the information in the manual to provide further information on HIVIAIDS. Emphasis is on behaviour change. Each topic should thus aim at convincing the audience on the need for behaviour change to combat the spread of HIVIAIDS. Behaviour change includes adoption of safer sex bahaviours (ABCD), stigma reduction and support of people living with HIVIAIDS including provision of psycho social support and treatment. Please ensure participation by encouraging open discussions and exchange of views. Start the topic by asking probing questions on the subject to gauge their knowledge and misconceptions. Participation of the audience is very important When in doubt, seek the help of an expert such as a healthcare worker, counselor e.t.c Please also remember that as a trainer, it is extremely irr~portant ensure that to ol.lr own behaviours and attitudes are consistent with the messages we disseminate. If we want to encourage others to adopt safer sexual behaviour, reduce stigma, go for VCT,and be open about HIVIAIDS, we must lead by example.

MADA 1: MAANA YA #IV/AIDS

Chati: a). Virusi vya ukimwi (IA)

b). Vijelezi (Definitions) (1B)

HIV - Human Immunodefici,ency Virus. 'HIV' ndio virusi vinavyosababisha ugonjwa wa ukimwi (AIDS). Vinapatikana katika unyevu wowote unaotoka mwilini kama; damu, mbegu za kiume, unyevu utokao sehemu ya kike wakati wa kufanya mapenzi au katika maziwa ya mama anayenyonyesha. Linolostahili kuwekwa nguvu hapa ni kuwa virusi hivi nd$ivyosababisho pekee la ukimwi. ~ukihakikisha J kutopata virusi hivi, hatutapata ukimwi. Mawazo mengine kama uchawi hayawezi kusababisha ukimwi.

AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Acquired: Kitu unachopata lakini hukuzaliwa nacho. hnmune: Uwezo wa mwili kujikinga kutokana na magonjwa. Deficiency: kupunguka au kutokuwa kamili. Syndrome: kuwa na dalili nyingi. (Ukosefu wa kinga rnwilir~i ukimwi) Llkimwi ni jina linalomaanisha mchanganyiko wa magonjwa mbalimbali

yanayotokana kwa mwili kupoteza zile nguvu za kujikinga kutokana na magonjwa. Virusi vya ukimwi huathiri na kuua chembe muhimu katika damu zinazosaidia kukinga mwili kutokana na magonjwa (white blood cells). Unaweza kuwa na virusi bila ukimwi. Huwezi pata ukimki pasipo kuwa na virusi.

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P~.epcrr-ed Ciysrcrl Hill Cons~tltin~ by (CHC) for Natroncd Hozrsing Co-operatrve Union (NACHU)

TOPIC 1: THE MEANING OF HIVIAIDS

Charts: a). The AlDS Virus (IA)

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Hunian Immunodeficiency Virus. This is a virus that causes

AIDS. It is found in body fluids e.g. blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk. Emphasise that this is the only cause of AlDS . Therefore, if we ensure we dont come into cantact with it, then we shall remain free from AIDS. AlDS is not caused by witchcraft. AlDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquired: Something you get rather than are born with. Immune: system which defends the body from diseases. Deficiency: become weakened1 not sufficient1lacking Syndrome: Having a variety of symptoms. AlDS is the name for a combination of illnesses caused by a virus that can break down .the body's immune system and lead to infections that could lead to death. You can have HIV without having AIDS. You cannot have AlDS without the HIV.

MADA 3 HISTORIA YA HIMIAIDS :

Chart: a). Historia ya HIVIAIDS (3A)

b). Historia ya HIVIAIDS nchini Kenya (38)

Ugonjwa wa ukimwi ulitamb~~liwa mara ya kwanza mwaka wa 1981 huko Amerika. Madaktari waliona rnashoga (wanaurne wanaofanya mapenzi na wanaume wengine kupitia tupu la nyurna) wakiwa na magonjwa yanayotokana na ukosefu wa

kinga rnwilini. Magonjwa haya yglikuwa kama Niumonia na kansa iitwayo 'Kaposi

Sarcoma'. Waliita hali hii 'Gay Related lmmunodefiCiency Syndrome (GRID)' b a n i hawakujua sababisho lake. Baadaye katika mwaka wa 1982 wakaiita hali hii 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)' kwa rnaana ya 'Ukosefu wa kinga mwilini (Ukimwi)'. Waliona kuwa hali hii pia iliwashika watu wengine wasio mashoga. Katika mwaka wa 1987, Madaktari waliviita virusi vinavyosababisha ~ ~ k i m'Human lmmunodeficiency Virus (HIV)' wi Kwa rnara ya kwanza, ugonjwa wa ukirnwi ulilipotiwa nchini Kenya Septemba

1984. Ingawaje, kutokana na upimaji wa damu iliyohifadhiwa mbeleni, kuna uhakika

kuwa virusi vya ukimwi vilianza kuambukiza Wakenya mnamo 1981 na pole pole kuenea kwa watu wengine. Katika kipindi kifupi cha miaka ishirini, HIV imeweza kuenea haraka nchini Kenya na katika ulimwenguni kwa jumla. Lazima tubadili hali hii. Vizuri twajua kuwa wengi wa Wakenya (asilimia tisini ya watu wazima) hawajaambukizwa

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virusi

hivi.

TunasthCIi

kufanya

chochote

tuwezacho

kuhakikisha

wanaokuskiliza wafikirie jinsi HIV inavyoenea katika hawataambukizwa. ~ a k & jamii zao, mashirika na hata familia. Sisitiza haja ya wao kuchukua hatua Leo!

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Prepared by Ct-ystal Hill Consdting (CHC),forNational Housing Co-operative Union (NACHU)

TOPIC 3: THE HISTORY OF HIVIAIDS

Chart: a). History of HIVIAIDS (3A) b). The History of HIVIAIDS in Kenya (3B) AlDS was first identified in the US in 1981. Doctors started seeing many homosexual men suffering from illnesses that result from suppressed immune system such as Pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma. They called this immune suppression 'Gay

elated

lmmunodeficiency syndr&6e9(GRID). They later (1982) called it to 'Acquired lmmunodeficiency Syndrome' (AIDS) on realizing that it

did not orlly affect the homosexual men but other people as well. In 1987, the term 'Human lmmunodeficiency Virus' (HIV) was coined to describe that virus the causes AlDS in Human beings. The first case of AlDS in Kenya was reported in September 1984.however, from tests performed on stored blood specimens, there is evidence that HIV started infecting Kenyans around 1981 and slowly spread among the general population.

In a short twenty years, HIV has spread rapidly in Kenya and indeed the whole world. We have to change this whole trend. Fortunately, we know that the majority of Kenyans ( 90% in adults) are not infected. We need to do everything we can to make sure that they remain uninfected. Get your !!audience to think if HIV is spreading i n their communities, cooperative or

MADA 4: WESABU KUSU HIVIAllDS

Chati: Hesabu kuhusu HIVIAIDS (4A,4B, 4C)

Hesabu za HIVIAIDS ulimwenguni (kufikia mwisho wa mwaka wa 2003).

Katika mwaka wa ukimwi.

2003, kulikuwa na watu

milioni 40 wakiishi na

Kufikia mwaka wa 2003, takriban watu milioni thelathini (30m) walikl~wa wameshakufa kwa sababu ya ukimwi. Watoto milioni 2.5 chjni ya miakaJ 5 walikuwa wameambukizwa virusi I vya ukimwi katika mwaka wa 2003. Watu milioni 5 waliambukizwa virusi vya ukimwi mwaka wa 2003. Watu milioni 3 walikufa kwa sababu ya kimwi mwaka wa 2003.

Hesabu za HIVIAIDS katika Afrika

Afrika kusini (South Africa) ndio inayoongoza duniani katika idadi ya watu walioabukizwa ukimwi. Kenya inachukua nambari ya nne d ~ ~ n i a n i katika idadi hii ya walioambukizwa.

Hesabu za HIVIAIDS Nchini Kenya

Katika Nchi ya Kenya, Nyanza yaongoza kwa idadi ya walioambukizwa ikifuatiwa na Nairobi. Ingawaje, isipokuwa Kaskazini ya Mashariki, hali ya HIV ni mbaya sana nchini kote. Hesabu hizi zaonyesha kuwa ni muhimu watu wachukue hatua za kukabili kuenea kwa ugonjwa huu. Tunaishi Nchi ambamo mna hatari ya kuambukizwa virusi hivi. Nchi ya Uganda imeonyesha kuwa kuna uwezekano wa kupurrguza athari ya virusi vya ukimwi iwapo kuna ushirikiano wa serikali, jamii, dini, mashule na wengineo.

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Prepared by Clysral Hill Cons11Iti17,q (CHC),for 1Vatior7alHozlsing Co-operative Union (NACHU)

TOPIC 4: HIVIAIDS: STATISTICS Charts: HIVIAIDS statistics (4A, 4B, 4C)

Global HIVIAIDS statistics ( End of 2003)

By 2003, there were 40 million People living with AlDS By 2003, about 30vmillion people had died of AlDS There were 2.5 million children under 15 years infected There were 5 million new infections 3 million people died of HIVIAIDS in 2003

Africa HIVIAIDS statistics

South Africa is the leading country in term of the number of people living with HIVIAIDS. Kenya is the fourth highest in the world.

Kenyan HIVIAIDS statistics

In Kenya, Nyanza ranks highest followed by Nairobi. However, with the exception of North- Eastern, the HIVIAIDS situation is extremely serious in the entire country.

From these statistics, it is important to emphasize that we live in a high risk country and thus s h o i ~ l d take all precautions necessary so as t o combat the spread of HIVIAIDS. Uganda has shown that if there is full commitment by the Government, community, religious organizations, Schools, etc, it is possible to control the HIV epidemic.

MADA 5: 98NSI VBRUSI HUENDELEA HADB UK1MW1

Chati: a). Aina za HIV (5A) b). Jinsi virusi huendelea hadi ~lkimwi (59) c). Jinsi Virusi vinavyozaana (5C)

Kuendelea kwa virusi hadi ukimwi mwilini hutegemea mambo kama vile; aina ya HIV, uwezo wa mwili kujikinga magonjwa, umri wa aliyeambukizwa, jinsi ya kuambukizwa, v aina ya vyakula anavyopata na kuwepo kwa magonjwa mengine. Kawaida, kuna aina mbili za virusi vinavyosababisha ukimwi; HlVl na HIV 2. Aina ya kwanza (HIV 1) huendelea haraka kuwa ukimwi kuliko aina ya pili (HIV2). Aina ya kwanza huchukua takliban miaka 12 lakini ya pili huchukua hadi miaka 20. Hamna tofauti nyingine kati ya aina hizi za virusi. Dalili na madawa ni sawa. Nchini Kenya, zaidi ya asilimia tisaini na tisa (99%) ya watu wanaoishi na ukimwi wamembukizwa virusi vya aina ya kwanza (HIV 1). HIV 2 hupatikana sana katika Afrika Magharibi. lkumbukwe kuwa aina hizi mbili za HIV husababisha ugonjwa sawa( ukimwi). Miili ya baadhi ya watu ina uwezo zaidi wa kujikinga kutokana na magonjwa na hivyo virusi huchukua muda mrefu kusababisha ukimwi katika miili yao kuliko katika wale wasio na uwezo huu. Virusi hivi pia husababisha ugonjwa haraka katika wenye umri mdogo (watoto wachanga) na wakongwe. Wanaoambukizwa kwa njia ya kuongezwa damu yenye virusi pia hupata ugonjwa huu haraka. Chakula kizuri chenye viungo vyote muhimu mwilini huchelewesha ugonjwa huu kwani huimarisha nguvu za kujikinga kutokana na magonjwa. Kuwepo kwa magonjwa mengine mwilini huzorotesha afya ya aliyearr~bukizwa haraka kuliko asiyekuwa na magonjwa mengine hatimaye kifo. Kinga ya mwili hujaribu kupigana na virusi vya ukimwi vinapoambukiza mtu kwa kutengeneza chembe ziitwazo 'antibodies'. lnachukuwa muda wa wiki 4 hadi 6 kwa chembe hizi kutengenezwa. Muda huu ndio huitwa ' window period'

. Wakati

huu,

aliyeambukizwa akipimwa hawezi kuonekana na virusi lakini anaweza kuambukiza watu Pole pole, HIV huzorotesha nguvu hizi za kujikinga kutokana na magonwa kwa kupunguza chembe muhimu za darnu ziitwazo 'White blood cells (CD4 cells)'. Kinga ya magonjwa hupunguka na mwili ukawa wazi kuingiwa na magonjwa rnengine yaitwayo 'opportunistic infections' kama vile pneumonia, TB, Kansa, Kuhara na mengineyo. Mara ya rnwisho rngonjwa hufa kwa sababu ya magonjwa haya iwapo hatapatiwa matibabu au kufuata ushauri wa daktari.

Prepared by Cpstal Hill Consziltin,q (CHC) for Natronal Ho?nln,qCo-operative Union (NACHU)

Charts: a). Types of HIV (5A) b). HIVIAIDS: Disease progression (58) c). HIV Replication process (5C) The progression of HIVIAIDS depends on such factors as; the HIV type, the individual's immune response, the person's age, mode of transmission, nutritional status and presence of other infections. Basically, there are two types of HIV; 1 and 2: HIV 1 progresses more rapidly to AlDS than HIV 2. Type 1 may take about 12 years from infection to death while type 2 may take up to 20 years. Other than this, there is no other difference between Type 1 and 2. the symptoms and treatment are the same. In Kenya, more than 99% of people living with HIV/AIDS are infected with type 1. Type 2 is mainly found in west Africa. The virus progress faster in infants and the elderly. Those who get infected through blood transfusion progress faster than with other modes of transfusion. Good nutrition slows the progress of the virus while the presence of other infections fastens the progression from HIV to AlDS and eventually death. When a person is infected with HIV, the immune system tries to fight off the virus by creating antibodies. The period before the antibodies are formed is known as 'window

period'. This may last between 4 to 6 weeks. During the window period, a HIV test may

give a negative result even though the individual is infected and can infect others. Gradually, the HIV destroys the immune system by reducing the number of White blood cells (CD4 cells). The individual easily gets opportunistic infections such as TB, skin cancers, pneumonia, diarrhea, and fungal infections among others. Finally the person dies if he/she is not treated in time.

MADA 6: DALlhll ZA UK8MW1

Chati: Dalili za ukimwi (6) Baadhi ya dalili za ukimwi ni'kama ifuatavyo: Kupoteza uzito kwa asilimia kumi (10%) au zaidi katika mwezi

Kuhara kubaya kusikoisha. Kuhisi baridi na joto. Kansa ya ngozi kwa mfano Kaposi Sarcoma. Kutokwa na jasho jingi usiku. Kupata vidonda kooni. Kuumwa na kichwa mara nyingi na vibaya. Kukohoa kusikoisha.

KUMBUKA: kuwepo kwa mojawapo wa dalili hizi sio hakikisho

kwamba mtu ana ukimwi. Njia pekee ya kujua kama umeambukizwa ni kutemmbelea kituo cha VCT ili upimwe kama una virusi hivi. Ingawaje, watu walio na dalili hizi kadha washauriwe kwenda kupimwa virusi ili wapewe madawa iwapo wameam bukizwa.

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Prepnred by C,ysfal Hill Conszt1fin.q(CHC) for Nntloncrl Hoz,sigq Co-opernfive Union (NACHU)

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TOPIC 6: SYMPTOMS OF AIDS

Chart: Symptoms of AIDS (6)

The symptoms of HIVIAIDS may include the following: Over 10% weight loss'in less than a month. Persistent diarrhea Prolonged high fever Skin cancers e.g Kaposi Sarcoma Night sweats. Oral -thrush(appears as white patches in the tongue and mouth) Frequent or very severe headaches Persistent cough

NIB : The presence of any of these symptoms does not

necessarily indicate the person is having AIDS. 'The only sure way to know whether someone is infected is by taking an HIV test. However, individuals with several of these symptoms should be advised to seek an HIV test so that they can get the right treatment

if they are HIV infected.

Chati: a). Jinsi virusi vinavyosambazwa (7A) b). Jinsi virusi haviwezi kusambazwa (7B)

c). Jinsi mama anaweza kuambukiza mwanaye (7C)

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HIV huweza kuambukizwa kwa njia zifuatazo: Kufanya mapenzi pasipo kinga na mtu aliyearnbukima. Kuwekwa damu mwilini iliyo na virusi vya ukimwi. Kutumia vitu vyenye makali kama sidano, werr~be makasi vilivyotumiwa au na aliyeambukizwa. Mama anaweza kumwambukiza mwanaye kabla ya kumzaa, wakati wa

kuzaa au wakati wa kumnyonyesha. KUMBUKA: Mapenzi yanaweza kuwa ni ya kawaida ya mme kwa mke au ya

mashoga (niapenzi kati ya mwanaume na mwanaume kwa kutumia tupu la nyuma). Mapenzi ya kuturr~ia nidonio pia yanaweza ambukiza virusi vya ukimwi.

HIV HAiWEZI kusambazwa kwa njia zifuatazo:

Kukohoa au kwenda chafya kupitia machozi Kukumbatiana Kutumia choo au bafu na aliyeambukima Kusalimiana Kwa kuumwa na mdudu kama Mbu Kl.~lachakula kilichotenegenema na aliyearr~bukima Kushirikiana vyombo kama vijiko, sahani na vikombe na aliyeambukizwa

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Prepared by C~ystal Consz11trng (CHC) for Narronnl Hozlsin~ Hill Co-operative Union (NACHU)

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TOPIC 7 : THE SPREAD OF

H1V

Chart: a). How HIV is spread (7A)

b). How HIV is not spread (7B)

c). Mother to child transmission (spread) (7C)

HIV can be spread through the following ways: Unprotected sexual contact with infected person(s) Blood transfusion using infected blood. Contaminated piercing instruments like, razor blades or injections. HIV positive mother to child while (before birth, at birth and through breast milk).

NIB Unprotected sexual intercourse means having vaginal or anal sex without a

condom. Although the risk is small, HIV can also be transmitted through oral sex.

HIV is NOT spread through these ways:

Coughing or sneezing sweat or tears Hugging each other Sharing toilet or shower facilities Shaking hands Mosquito or insect bites Eating foods prepared or served by an infected person Sharing forks, knives, spoons, cups etc

MADA 8: NJIA ZA MUZUBIA UEMEZAJI WA WIV

Chati: a). ABCD za kuzuia HIV (8A, 86, 8C,8D)

b). Njia tatu za mama kuzuia kuarr~bukiza mwanaye

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Herufi 'ABCD' za uzuiaji zamaanisha:

A -Abstinence.

Kukaa bila kufanya mapenzi.

- Be faithful. Kuwa mwaminifu k w mtu mmoja asiye

virusi hivi.

kwa njia

C - Condom. Kama hayo megine si rahisi, inafaa kutumia Kondom

kuambukiza .

inayofaa na kila wakati mtu afanyapo mapenzi yaliyo na hatari ya

- Discuss. Kuongea kuhusu ukimwi ni njia mojawapo ya kuzuia uenezaji wa

virusi hivi. Hii ni kwa sababu, watu hujifunza jinsi virusi vya ukimwi husambazwa na njia za kujikinga. Pia, fedheha inayohusishwa na uki wi hupungua na watu huwa wazi kujadili hali ya HIV. 'D' pia hutumiwa kumaanisha 'Die' yaani kufa

kwa aliyemgojwa kwani hataweza kueneza virusi hivi.

Mama aliye na virusi anaweza kuzuia kumwambukiza mtoto kwa njia zifuatazo:

A. Kunywa dawa za virusi (ARV) iwapo rri mja mzito ( kwa mfano Nevirapine

au AZT) asimwambukize mtoto wake kabla ya kumzaa. Mtoto wa Mama aliyepewa nevirapine akiwa mja mzito pia hupewa tembe za Nevirapine.

B. Kumzaa mtoto kwa njia ya upasuaji.

C. Kutomyonyesha mtoto wake.

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Pi-epnrvd by Ciystal Hill Coiisz~ifing (CHC),foi* National Hoz[sin,qCo-operative Union (NACHU)

Charts: a). ABCD of Prevention (8A, 8B, 8C, 8D)

The ABCD of HIV Prevention are:

A - Abstinence. Means staying without sex.

6 - Be faithful. One should be faithful to ONE LININFECTED partner.

C - Condom. If the other two are not possible, one should use a condom

correctly and consistently.

D-

Discuss. Talking about HIVIAIDS is a way of HIV prevention. This is

because people learn how HIV is spread and can be prevented. It also lead to the reduction of stigma and more people become open about the HIV positive status. 'Dl has also been used to stand for 'Die'. Prevention of niother to child transmission is done by : A. Taking antiretroviral drugs (Nevirapine or AZT) when the infected mother is expectant to avoid infecting the unborn child. For Nevirapine, the new born child is also given a dose of the medicine. 6. Having the baby through an operation unlike the normal way (caesarian

C. Avoid breastfeeding and instead use infant formula.

M A W 9: UMWI, JlNSlA NA HBVIAIDS

Chati: Umri, jinsia na HIVIAIDS (9)

Watoto wachache wenye virusi wa chini ya miaka 4 walipata virusi kutoka kwa Mama zao.

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Kuna wasichana wengi kuliko wavulana walioambukizwa virusi vya ukimwi. Wasichana wa umri mdogo hujiingiza katika mapenzi mapema na wanaume wa umri mkubwa ambao pengine wameimarika ki-uchumi na hutumia pesa kuwanasa wasichana hawa katika mapenzi. Kwa sababu ya baadhi ya tamaduni za jamii, wasichana wengi hawawezi kukataa mapenzi ya kulazimishwa. Hawana nguvu kamili za kukataa mapenzi haramu. Suala la ubakaji limekuwa kawaida katika jamii zetu. Kibaolojia pia wanawake wana hatari zaidi ya kuarrlbukizwa kwani rr~begu mwanaume hutiwa ndani ya uuke wao na kukaa pale kwa za muda hivi kwamba virusi vinaweza kuingia kwenye damu. Mwanaume huingisha na kutoa uume wake na hivyo si rahisi kupata virusi kutoka kwa mwanamke. Mambo haya yaelezea ni kwa nir~i wanawake wengi wameambukizwa virusi vya ukimwi kuliko wanaume. ldadi kubwa ya walioathiriwa ni kati ya miaka 19 na 45. Huu ndio umri ambao ungetegemewa kukuza uchumi wa nchi. Kuabukizwa huku kunaashiria hatari katika uchumi wa nchi. Katika umri wa juu, kuna wanaume wengi walioambukizwa kuliko

wanawake. Hii ni kwa sababu wanawake huambukizwa mapema na hufa mapema. Tena, wanawake walioambukizwa mapema huambukiza wanaume wengine.

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Prepared by C q . ~ ~ tHill Conszrliin,q (CHC) for Natio17nlHozlsing Co-operative Union (NACHU) nl

TOPIC 9: AGE, GENDER AND HIVIAIDS

Chart: Distribution of AIDS cases by age and gender (9)

The few HIV positive children between 0-4 years got the infection due to mother to child transmission. There are more teenage girls than boys who are infected. Young girls tend to engage in sex quite early with and often older men who may be more economically stable and therefore take the advantage to lure them to sex. Because of culture, many girls are passive and not able to refuse sex when men demand. Biologically, women have a greater risk of infection because semen is deposited in the vagina and remains there for sometime. The vagina provides a large surface area for the virus to get into the blood. Men have a lower risk because the penis is withdrawn immediately after the sexual act. This reduces the risk of getting infected if the woman is infected. These factors explain why we have more women infected than men. Majority of the infected are between 19 and 45 years. This means the most productive age group is at the greatest risk. This additionally impacts greatly on the national economy. For the older population, there are more men than women who are infected. This is because women are infected earlier and die earlier. Also, the women who are infected early spread the virus to other men.

Chart: Upimaji wa virusi vya ukimwi (10)

Kuna njia mbili za kupima virusi vya ukimwi: 1. Kupima 'Antibody' za virusi.

F

Wakati rntu anaambukizwa virusi mwili hutoa 'antibodies' ambazo hukabiliana na virusi hivyo. Utengenezaji wa 'antibodies' hizi huchukua kati ya wiki 4 au 6 kipindi kinachojulikana kama 'window period'. Baadhi ya mashine za kupima huchunguza iwapo rntu ana 'Atibodies'. Sio rahisi kutambua iwapo rntu ana virusi vya ukimwi kabla ya wiki hizo 4 au 6. lwapo 'antibodies' za 'HIV' zipo kwenye damu, basi lazima huyu rntu awe ana virusi vya ukimwi. Ni vizuri rntu kupimwa mara ya pili baada ya wiki 8 iwapo damu yake haionyeshi virusi ili kuwa na hakika kabisa kuwa hajaambukizwa kwa sababu ya 'window period'. 2. Kupima kwa kutumia mashine za 'Antigen' Mashine za 'Antigen' huchunguza iwapo rntu ana virusi vyenyewe vya Llkimwi hata baada ya siku tan0 tangu kuambukizwa. Haitegemei kama yuko katika 'window period' au la. Mashine hizi ni nzuri zaidi kwani hazihitaji kupima mara mbili kuthibitisha kabisa kama rntu hana virusi vya ukimwi. Ingawaje, inagharimu pesa nyingi kupima kwa kutumia mashine hizi na pia hazipatikani kwa urahisi.

Upimaji wa watoto wachanga

Kwa kawaida watoto huzaliwa wakiwa wamerithi 'antibodies' kutoka kwa mama zao. lwapo mama ana virusi vya ukimwi, mtoto huzaliwa akiwa na 'antibodies' za ukimwi. Akipimwa kwa kutumia mashine za 'Antibody' ataonekana kuwa na virusi. Baada ya mwaka mmoja na nusu, 'antibodies' zote ambazo mtoto alirithi kutoka kwa mamake huisha mwilini. lwapo kwa hakika mtoto hakuambukizwa virusi vya ukimwi, hata zile'antibodies' za ukimwi alizopokea kutoka kwa mamake zitaisha mwilini mwake. Akipimwa tena na mashine za 'antibody' ataonekana kuwa bila virusi. Ni vizuri kutumia mashine za 'antigen' kupima mtoto wa chini ya mwaka mmoja na nusu kama ana virusi vya ukimwi. Aidha, tunaweza kuwa na hakika kuhusu hali ya mtoto akifikisha mwaka mmoja na nusu.

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Prepared by C ~ ~ s tHill Consulting (CHC)fot-Nationc,l Hotlsing Co-operative Union (NACHU) al

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TOPIC 10: H1V TESTING

Chart: HIV Testing (I 0)

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There are two types of HIV tests. 1. Antibody Tests. When a person gets infected with HIV, the body produces HIV Antibodies. This takes

).

up to six weeks. Antibodies help to fight disease causing organisms like HIV, bacteria and protozoa. Antibody tests are used to detect if the body has antibodies for specific disease causing organisms. HIV antibody tests therefore try to check if the person has

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HIV antibodies. If the person has HIV antibodies, this means that the he or she also has the virus. This is because we cannot produce HIV specific antibodies unless our bodies have come into contact with HIV. Antibody tests are not reliable if the person is in the window period when the level of antibodies may be too low to be detected. It is therefore advisable for a person to confirm hislher HIV status by testing again after 6 weeks.

2. Antigen or Virus Tests

Antigen tests seek to detect the presence of the virus in the body. They can detect the virus as early as 5 days after infection. They detect the virus itself and therefore are much more reliable. They are however more expensive than the antibody tests and are available in very few hospitals.

TESTING OF INFANTS

When a chlld is born, it inherits antibodies from the mother. This means that if the mother is HIV positive, the child will inherit HIV antibodies from the mother. If an antibody test is done to the child, the result will be positive even if the baby does not have HIV since they have antibodies from the mother. It is only after 18 months when the antibodies inherited from the mother have cleared from the child's blood system that one can tell whether the child is truly HIV positive. If a child had not been infected with HIV, he or she would turn negative. If on the other hand the child was infected, the test would still remain positive even after 18 months. To confirm if a child below 18 months is positive, one should use an antigenlvirus test.

kulazimishwa kwenda kushauriwa na kisha kupimwa kama una virusi vya ukimwi. Kuna vituo vingi vya VCT nchini ambamo waliojitolea hupimwa. VCT in faida zifuatazo: Kupanga maisha

yabaadaye. lwapo mtu ana au hana virusi vya ukimwi

hushauriwa jinsi ya kuishi baadaye. Ni vyema kujua hali yak0 ya afya ili ku,jipanga katika mambo kama vile maisha ya watoto na urithi wa mali. Mashauri kuhusu jinsi ya kuishi na virusi na kujiepusha kupata ugonjwa wenyewe. Watu wengi wanaishi na virusi na kuendesha maisha kama wale ambao hawajaambukizwa kutokana na mashauri anayopewa katika VCT. Kuamua kama ungetaka kupata watoto iwapo umeambukizwa. Wanawake hupewa mashauri kuhusu hatari iliyopo iwapo wangetaka kupata mtoto wakiwa na virusi vya ukimwi ili waamue kikamilifu. Wengine wanaoenda kupimwa hupata kuwa mmoja kati ya wapenzi au waliooana ana virusi na mwenzake hana. Hawa huitwa 'Discordant couples'. VCT kwao ni muhimu kwani wanashauriwa jinsi ya kuishi bila kuambukizana. Wanashauriwa jinsi ya kutumia kondom iwapo watafanya mapenzi. Wengine hujitolea kueneza ujumbe wa watu kujizuia wakishapata kwamba wameambukizwa. Hawa huwa usaidizi muhimu katika jamii kwa kuwahimiza watu kubadilisha tabia zinazowahatarisha na katika kupunguza fedheha inyohusishwa na ukimwi. Tafadhali husisha watu wanaishi na ukimwi katika kuongea na unaofunza.

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Prepared by C~ystal Consz,ltrn,q (CHC) for Nntionnl Hozairig Co-operative Union (NACHU) Hill

TOPIC 1"8 VCT

Chart: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) (11)

VCT Stands for Voluntary Counseling and Testing. This is a situation where one seeks to be tested for HIV out of hislher own will. Normally, such persons Planning for future. If one is HIV negative or positive he /she is advised on how to live positively. It is important to know your status so that you can plan accordingly on such issues like the life of yol.lr children and propetty inheritance. Management options of HIVIAIDS. The infected person is col~nseled on positive living so that helshe can live normal life and for many years. Deciding whether to have more children if one is HIV positive. Women are counseled on the various ways of preventing mother to child transmission of HIV and the risks involved so that they can make informed decisions. Some of the couples who opt for VCT could find that one partner is HIV positive wl-~ilethe other is negative. These are called Discordant couples. If this is the case, the couple is advised on how to protect the uninfected partner. Some people on testing positive volunteer to become HIV educators. Such individuals play an important role in changing behaviour and reducing stigma. Please involve people living with HIVIAIDS in yo!-lr education programme.

TOPIC 12: MATUMlZi YA KONDOM

Chart: Matumizi ya Kondom (12A, 126)

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lwapo si rahisi kutumia njia zingine kujizuia virusi vya ukimwi, inafaa watu wahimizwe kutumia kondom. Kondom huzuia uambukizaji wa virusi kwa asilimia tisini na sita (96%). Lazima zitumiwe vizuri na kila mara. Kuna kondom za wake na waume. Ni vizuri kujua yafuatayo kuhusu matumizi ya kondom: Kondoms zitumiwe katika muda uliopendekezwa. Kondom isitumiwe mara ya pili. Kondoms mbili zisitumiwe wakati mmoja ama zitapasuka na kukosa kuzuia virusi kuingia mwilini. lwapo mwanamme amevaa Kondom, mwanamke asivae yake na iwapo mwanarr~ke anievaa yake, mwanamme asivae. Kondoms zitupwe mbali na watoto au zichomwe. Kondoms ziwekvve mahali pakavu na pasipo joto. Maagizo yote yafuatwe wakati wa kutumia kondom.

Tazama maagizo ya jinsi ya kutumia Kondom katika chati. KUMBUKA : Kondom zapatikana bila kuuzwa na serikali. Tafadhali ona ofisi

za NACHU kwa ujumbe zaidi.

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Preprwed b ~Crystal Hill Cons~rlting . (CHC) for Aiationnl H O I ~ S ~ ~ R Co-operatwe Union /iV,-tCHU)

TOPIC 12: CONDOM USE

Chart: Condom use (I 12B) 2A,

If the other options of preventing HIV transmission are not acceptable to an individual, it is advisable to use condoms. Condoms are about 96% effective in controlling HIV transmission. Condoms should be used correctly and consistently to increase their effectiveness. There are male and female condoms available for HIV prevention. It is important to note: Condoms should be used within the expiry period. ( i.e don't use expired condom). A condom should not be reused. Two condoms should not be used at the same time as this would lead to rupture when they rub. ( i.e wear only one condom at a time). If the man is wearing a male condom, the Woman should not be wearing the female condom. If the woman is wearing a female condom, the man should not be wearing the male condom. Condoms should be disposed in a dustbin or pit latrine far from children's reach or

Condoms should be stored in a cool and dry place. All the instructions on condom use should be followed as illustrated in the chart.

See instructions on how to use condoms in the charts

NIB : Condoms are available for free from the government. Please

contact the NACHU office for more information.

kupunguza uwezo wa virusi vya ukimwi kuzaana mwilini wa aliyeambukizwa. Kiwango cha virusi hivi kikipungua mwilini, nguvu za kukinga magonjwa huimarishwa. Mwili unaweza kutengeneza CD4 cells zaidi. Aliyeambukizwa hivyo anaweza kukaa akiwa na afya. Lakini ikumbukwe kuwa madawa haya hayaangamizi virusi kabisa na hivyo hutumiwa kila mara maishani ya aliye na ukimwi. Ni vizuri yaturniwe kulingana na maagizo ya daktari na katika maisha yote ya aliyeambukizwa. ARVs zisipotumiwa vizuri hufanya virusi kuwa sugu. Nchi kama Amerika na Uingereza ambazo zilianza kutumia ARVs awali zimefaulu kupunguza idadi ya watu wanaokufa kutokana na ukimwi kama inavyoonyeshwa kwenye chati. Ni jarr~bola kutia moyo kuona kuwa bei ya ARVs imezidi kupungua. Madawa haya yamezidi kuwa ya bei nafiu na hata mashirika mengine huyatoa bure "kwa walioambukizwa. Serikali pia ina mpango wa kuwapa walioambukizwa ARVs bure.

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KUMBUKA : Tembelea ofisi za NACHU kwa ujumbe zaidi wa hospitali na taasisi zinazopeana ARVs.

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Prepared by C~ystnl Consulting (CHC) for Nationnl Hotrsing Co-operative Union (NACHU) Hill

TOPIC 13: TREATMENT OF HIVIAIDS

Charts: a). Drug corr~binations 3A) (1 b). Management of HIVIAIDS (136, 13C) c). The cost of ARVs

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(13 ~ )

ARVs stand for Antiretrovirals. These are drugs used to slow down the multiplication of

the virus. If the level of the virus is reduced, the destruction of the immune system also slows down. The body is therefore able to produce more CD4 cells (white blood cells) and the immune system starts to function well again. The infected person therefore is able to remain healthy. They however don't eradicate the virus in the body. If used appropriately, they are very effective in improving the health of the infected persons. ARV drugs are able to lead many infected people on completely healthy lives. They should be taken strictly as per the doctor's prescription. ARVs need to be taken throughout the life of the person living with HIVIAIDS. If not used properly, the virus will develop resistance to the drugs. Countries such as the US and in the UK where ARVs were introduced early have seen a marked decrease in the number of people dyiug from HIVIAIDS as shown in the chart.

It is encouraging to note that the cost of ARVs have kept decreasing with time. They have become quite affordable and some organizations offer them for free. The government is making arrangements to provide those infected with free ARVs.

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NOTE: Contact NACHU offices for information on hospitals and institutions that

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provide ARVs.

Chati: Jinsi ya kuishi na HIVIAIDS (14)

Mojawapo wa faida za VCT ni kuwa watu husha~lriwa jinsi ya kuishi iwapo wana

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virusi vya ukimwi. Watu wanaoishi na virusi vya ukimwi wanastahili kuzingatia

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mwili klrtokana na magonjwa (CD4 cells) mara kwa mara. lwapo kiwango cha chembe hizi kimefika chini ya 200 katika mililita moja ya damu, lazima wapewe ARVs. Lazima wakule vyakula vyenye viungo muhimu kuimarisha uwezo wa kujikinga kutokana na mgonjwa. Wajiepushe na unywaji wa pombe na uvutaji wa sigara. Watilie maanani usafi wa kiwango cha juu wa mwili na vyakula. Wasijiingize katika mapenzi kiholela kwani wanaweza kupata aina tofauti ya virusi vya ukimwi vitakavyozorotesha afya yao.

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Wanaweza kujiunga na makundi ya walioaarrlbukizwa virusi ili wapate kuhimizwa kendelea kuishi na matumaini. Wakichukua hathari ya kujikinga (kutofanya mapenzi/Kondoms)

hawataambukiza watu wengine. , . Wanaweza kujiunga na kundi la dini ili hali yao ya kiroho iimarike. lkihitajika na Daktari, waone mshauri.

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TOPIC I4 : LIVING WITH HIVIAIDS

Chart: Living with HIVIAIDS (14) One advantage of taking VCT is that people are advised on how to live positively if they are found t o be HIV positive. People living with HIVI AIDS (PLWA) should observe the following: They should have their CD4 cells checked regularly. If the level of CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per milliliter of blood, they should start ARV treatment. They should eat highly nutritious food to boost their immune system They should avoid smoking and taking alcohol. They should observe good hygiene They should not engage in risky sex to avoid contracting a different strain of the virus. This would lead to a faster progress to AIDS. This means that a HIV infected person should not have unprotected sex even with an HIV infected partner. If they take precaution ( abstinence /Condoms), they will not infect others. They could join support groups of PLWA where they can get moral support on how to live on. They can join a religious group for spiritual well being. If required, they should consult a counselor.

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kuirnarisha nguvu za kupigana na virusi mwilini hivyo kurnpa afya aliyeambukizwa. Chakula kizuri kinafaa mapema kwa aliyeambukizwa kabla hata hajapata ukimwi. Watu wanaoishi na ukimwi wanastahili kufuata maagizo yahatayo: Wajiepushe na mienendo iyofaa kama unywaji wa pombe na uvutaji wa sigara na kutumia madawa ya kulevya. Kula chakula cha kujenga mwili (proteins) kama nyama ya ngombe, mbuzi, samaki, mayai, njugu, maziwa, na zinginezo. Kula vyakula vya kukinga mwili kutokana na magonjwa kama vile mboga, karoti, nyanya, biringanya, sukuma wiki na zinginezo. Kula matunda kama paipai, Avokado na mengineyo.

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Maembe, Machungwa,

Mandizi yaliyoiva, ndimu,

Kula chakula cha kuupa mwili nguvu kama Ugali, mihogo, mchele, Mkate, Viazi, Mawele, na zinginezo.

Kunywa maji safi yaliyochemshwa kila siku.

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Prep ored by C,ystal Hill C o n s ~ ~ l t(CHC) for National Hozamg Co-operatwe Unior~ in~ (N,4CHU)

Chart : Nutrition and HIVIAIDS (15) Appropriate nutrition is important in the management of HIVIAIDS. Good nutrition slows the progressio~ HIV to AIDS thus lengthening the life of the of infected person. It improves the immune system. Good nutrition should start at the early stages of infection. PLWA should observe the following: Avoid unhealthy lifestyle like alcohol consumption, tobacco and drugs. Eat body-building (proteins) foods such as beef, goat meat, fish, eggs, groundnuts, milk, peas, chicken and others. Eat protective foods such as green vegetables, cabbages, carrots, tomatoes, eggplant (biringanya), cucumber, sukuma wiki and others. Eat h i t s such as Pineapples, Mangoes, Oranges, Paw paws, Ripe bananas, Lemon, Passion h i t , Watermelons, Avocados and others. Eat energy giving foods such as Ugali, Cassava, Rice, Bread, Potatoes, sorghum, Millet, Yarns, plantain and others Take plenty of clean boiled water every day.

Tumia vinywaji kwa wingi kama vile; maji, supu, maji ya matunda au mchanganyiko sukari na chumvi katika maji (oral dehydratidn solution) Kula chakula laini, kilichopondwa kama vile ~.~ji,viazi,mandizi, malenge. na Kula ndizi mbivu na mboga Kula chakula kidogo kidogo mara nyingi

kukosa hamu ya chakula

Kunywa maji mingi,maziwa, maziwa yaliyo ganda, maji ya matunda baada ya kula Ongeza ladha kwa chakula kwa kutuniia kwa mfano rnaji ya ndimu, kitunguu saumu, dhania na Endelea kula chakula kidogo kidogo mara nyingi

Kutapika na kuhisi kutapika

Kunywa vinywaji kwa kiasi kidogo karna vile maji ya ndimu Keti imara unapokula Muagize mtu akutengenezee chakula chakula chako Kula chakula kilichokauka kama vile au chenye chumvi kama vile mkate na nafaka Jiepushe na vyakula vyenie sukari nyingi au mafuta mengi

Vidonda Mdomoni

Kula vyakula vilivyopondwa na vilivyo laini na matunda na mboga kama vile malenge,ndizi mbivu,papaya, terere, parachichi (avocado),supu, niaziwa iliyoganda na spageti Kunywa vinywaji baridi, supu na mboga Tafuna vidonge vidogo vidogo vya papaya au maembe mbichi kutuliza maumivu

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TOPIC 16: DIET AND MINOR ILLNESSES

Chart : Diet and Minor illnesses (1 6)

Take plenty of fluids e.g. water, soup, juice or ORS (oral rehydration solution) Eat soft, mashed and moist foods e.g. porridge, potatoes, bananas, pumpkins Eat ripe bananas and some vegetables Eat small frequent meals

Loss of Appetite

Drink plenty of water, milk, yoghurt, juice after meals Add flavour to your food e.g, fresh lemon juice, spices Take small frequent meals

Vomiting and Nausea

Drink fluids in small quantities e.g. Lemon in hot water, ginger or herbal tea

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Sit up when eating Request someone to prepare your food Eat dry and salty foods e.g, bread, cereal Avoid fatty and very sweet foods

Sore Mouth

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Eat soft, mashed and moist foods, fruits and vegetables, e.g. pumpkins, bananas, papaya, yoghurt, spinachlterere, soups, pasta, avocado and Take cold drinks, soi~ps vegetables. Chew small pieces of green mango or papaya to relieve pain Spiced tea, fermented sour yoghurt helps ease mouth sores

Kukauka choo

Kula vyakula kama mkate wa rangi ya ardhi,njugu, mboga mbichi, matunda na maziwa iliyoganda Kunywa vinywaji vingi kama vile maji yasio moto kabisa kabla ya chakl-~la

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Fanya mazoezi mara kwa mara ili kusaidia usiagaji wa chakula mwilini

Maradhi ya ngozi

Kula vyakula vingi vilivyo na vitarr~in na B6 kama vile rr~boga rangi ya kijar~i A za kibichi, rrlboga za rangi ya majano, nafaka na njugu

Kukohoa, homa kali, mafua na uchungu wa koo

Kunywa maji na vinywaji vingi kama vile maji ya matunda , chai n.k Punga hewa ya maji moto Tumia maji yaliyo na chumvi kusukutua koo Kunywa maji ya ndimu yaliyo changanywa na asali

Mzizimo na jot0 kali

Kunywa vinywaji vingi Pangusa mwili kwa kitambaa chenye maji ili kupunguza joto Tumia namna za kienyeji kama vile mwarubaini au dawa za kupunguzia maumivu kama vile

Ujumbe kutoka GTZ : MuliisectoraI Initiative on HNIXIDS

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Constipation

Eat whole meal brown bread, nuts, cereals, raw vegetables, fruits, yoghurt Drink plenty of fluids e.g. warm water before meals Keep fit-do exercises regularly to improve digestion

Skin Infections

Take plenty of foods rich in vitamins A and B6, e.g. green leafy vegetables, yellow and orange vegetables, liver, cereals, and nuts

Coughs, Colds, Flu and Sore Throat

Take plenty of water and other fluids e.g. tea, fresh juices Breathe in hot vapours Gargle a strong solution of salt and water severally Drink a solution of crushed lemon mixed with honey

Fever

Take plenty of fluids Sponge body with wet cloth to reduce temperature Use traditional remedies such as neem (Mwarubaini) tea or paracetamol

Adapted from :GTZ ; Multisectoral Initiative on HIVIMDS

Chati :KUHUDLMIA MGONJWA NYLTMBANI (17) Mgonjwa apewe ujumbe wenye maturnaini.

Kuwa mvumilivu na mgonjwa, usirnharakishe unapompa chakula au dawa.

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Mpatie maji yenye chumvi ya kuoshea kinywa. Mpatie au umuulize mgonjwa atumie vaselini midomoni kufllia midomo isikatike katike. .Uoshe ulimi taratibu parnoja na masine (gums) ukitumia rnswaki mwororo, kitambaa au pamba. Mpe ndimu anyonye. Turnia Gentian Violet (GV) kuosha mgonjwa aliye na malengelenge (blisters). Pia sugua midomo na masine (gums) yake kwa kutukia madawa yoyote ya kienyeji yanayopatikana k.m asali Wagonjwa walio na mwasho au vidonda kinywani lazitna wale kiasi kidogo kidogo cha

vyakula vyororo. Wanaweza kuturnia mrija kwa kunywa vinywaji baridi na supu. Pia

waoshwe kinywa kwa kutumia maji mot0 kiasi yaliyochanganywa na churnvi kila baada ya kula. Kutegemea hali ya mgonjwa, uogaji waweza kufanyiwa katika bafu, chumbani cha kulala au -kitandani. Apewe vifaalmahitaji yote ya kuoga. Kama ana vindonda au

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anajichafua kwa kujiendea haja, anayemhudumia katika kuoga avae glavu. Hakikisha kuna faragha (privacy)Zifimue zile sehemu unazoziosha peke yake ili kumzuia mgonjwa asipatwe na baridi. Mgonjwe aoge au aoshwe kwa kutumia maji na taulo ndogo au kitambaa kunanzia uso na kuteremka kuelekea miguuni. Kila sehemu ikaushwe baada ya kuoshwa. Osha sehemu za siri baada ya kuosha sehemu zingine. Avalishwe nguo safi na achanuliwe nywele. Baada ya kuoga, nguo, matandiko na nguo zingine zafaa zibadilishwe ifaavyo.

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TOPIC % 7: HOME

BASED CARE

Chart : Home Based Care (17)

Motivate and encourage the patient. Be patient with himlher for e x p p l e when feeding the person or giving them their

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medicines. Give him/her water with some salt to wash the mouth. Give or ask himher to use some Vaseline on the lips to prevent cracks. w&h the tongue and the gums using a soft brush, piece of cloth or cotton wool. Give himher a lemon to suck to fieshen the mouth. Use Gentian Violet (GV) to wash any blisters. Wash the lips and gums with any available herbal medicine like honey.

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Those with wounds or itching mouths should be given small amounts of soft foods frequently. They can use a straw to drink cold drinks or soup. Their mouths should also be washed with warm water mixed with some salt after every meal. Depending on the state of the person, bathing can be done in the bathroom, bedroom or inside the bed itself. Provide all the necessities. If the person does not attend the toilet outside the room, the care taker should use gloves while washing himker. The same should be done if the person has wounds on his body. Ensure there is privacy. Reveal only the parts you are washing at a time to prevent cold. The person or the care taker can use a towel soaked in water with soap to wash starting fiom the face down to the feet. Each part should be dried immediately after washing. Private parts should be the last to be washed. The person should be dressed in clean clothes after washing and hislher hair combed. After washing, the beddings and other garments should be changed.

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Ni vizuri kutibu vidonda vya mgonjwa. Utahitaji glavu,taulo,vaseline na poda iwapo ipo. Vaa glavu kujimia virusi. Wekelea karatasi ya plastiki au taulo chini ya sehemu unayohudumia. Ukitumia mikono iliyo na sabuni isugue kila sehemu polepole kwa mzunguko kwa muda rnrefu ili kufanya damu itembee vizuri. Ikaushe kwa kutumia taulo. Turnia poda kidogo. 1 ~ a k vaselini. Ikiwa ngozi imepasuka, itunze kama kidonda. 6 Mazoezi ya viungo kwa mgonjwa wa ukimwi ni mazuri sana na humfanya ajisikie kuwa na uwezo. Anaweza kufanyishwa mazoezi ya kusuguliwa ambayo humfanya apurnzike, husaidia damu kutembea vizuri mwilini, usagaji wa chakula, huzuia rnisuli kutoharibika na maambukizo ya kiupili ( secondary infections). Viungo vifanyishwe mazoezi na kusuguliwa kwa vaselini au poda. Wabadilishwe wanavyoketi kila baada ya muda mfupi na wawekwe katika hali ya kustareheka. Wagonjwa wa ukimwi pia wanastahili kustareheka na mapumziko pamoja na kulala masaa manane kwa siku. Wanaweza kusikilliza muziki, kusoma gazeti, hadithi vitabu vya dini, kucheza karata au kushona. Wanaweza kukaa na watu wanaofurahia kuwa nao marafiki au jamaa. Wawe katika mahali penye hewa safi na mwangaza. Ni vyema pia kutuliza maumivu ya mgonjwa. Unaweza kutumia madawa, kusinga misuli (massage) au kufanya mazoezi. Misuli isuguliwe taratibu kwa kutumia mikono iliyopakwa sabuni au mafuta. Miguu na nyayo zilizovimba ziwekelewe rnito (pillows) au vitu nyororo ili zinuke juu kuliko sehemu zingine za mwili. Hakikisha vidonda vinavyotokana na malengelenge ya ngozi (Herpes) vimekaushwa. Anaeumwa na kichwa anaweza kuwekwa kwenye chumba chenye gizagiza. Awekewe kitambaa chenye baridibaridi au majirnaji katika paji la kichwa chake. Maumivu ya neva (nerves) yatibiwe &a kuweka shinikizo (pressure) panapouma au kuitumbukiza sehemu hiyo ndani ya maji baridi au ifunikwe kwa kitambaa kilicholowa maji.

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It is important to treat the person's wounds if any. You will need gloves, towel, Vaseline, and powder if available. Put on the gloves to prevent infection. Put the towel or a polythene paper under the part you want to treat. Having applied soap to your hands, gently wash the part for sometime. Dry using the towel. Use some little powder. Apply Vaseline. If the skin is cracked, treat it as a wound.

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prevents muscle complications and avoids secondary infections. Exercise every part of the body and apply Vaseline or powder. Frequently change the sitting position of the person and keep himher in a comfortable posture. Persons living with AIDS need relaxation and rest. They need at least eight hours of sleep per day. They can listen to music, read newspapers, novels, play cards or knit garments. They can be allowed to stay with the people they like. They should be in a

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ventilated room with enough light. It is important to lessen the pain of the sick. You can use medicine or massage the paining parts. Physical exercise can also be done. Apply some soap or oil in your hands and rub the paining muscles. The paining limbs can be placed on a pillow and raised hgher than the rest of the body parts. Make sure that the blisters caused by herpes are dried. If there is a headache, put the person in a dark room or place a towel or piece of clothe soaked in cold water on histher forehead. Put some pressure on the paining nerves or dip the part in water or cover the part with a towel soaked in water.

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Ujumbe kutoka : National AIDS Control Programme ; Home-Based Care

Emergencies should be taken care of. If the person has a cold, massage the body with a towel or piece of clothe soaked in warm water. If there are chills and shivering, add blankets. If helshe becomes weak and appears to lose consciousness, t y fanning them r and give M e r juice, tea or glucose and later provide soft food like porridge. You

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should disperse people away to give more fiesh air.

A dying person should be prepared also. It could be important to remind hidher about writing a will. Talk about such things as family or property openly with himher. You could consider reading holy books and make himher at ease. Accept hisfher demands such as the people who should not see M e r . Let hidher speak out hisher feelings. Accept anger feelings as well. The body of a person who dies of AIDS should be treated with care especially before twenty four hours are over when the virus can still infect another person. Inform people about the death.

You as the care giver should not fear taking care of the person. You cannot get infected if you observe all precautions. Get enough rest and good food. Get spiritual counseling and share with another person your fears and worries.

Adapted from : National AIDS Control Programme ; Home-Based Care

ISSUED: JANUARY 2004

NACHSJ NACHSJ yatambua kuwa haiwezi kutekeleza wajibu wake wa - "kuchangia ili kuimarisha nyumba nu ubora

wa maisha miongoni mwa washirika wanye mapato ya chinin- isipokuwa kwa kukabiliana na hatari ya

ukimwi.. Kwa hivyo tunawajibika kuzuia uambukizaji wa virusi vya ukimwi na kusaidia walioambukizwa na walioathiriwa katika wafanyi kazi wetu, wanachama wetu, familia zao na wote tunaohusiana nao.

Katika uajibikaji huu, NACHU itaongoma na falsafa zifuatazo: KUONDOA UBAGUZI

Kulingana na matakwa ya taifa na kirnataifa, hakuna rnmoja wa mashirika ya nyumba atakayebaguliwa kwa njinsi yeyote kwa sababu hali yake kuhusu virusi vya ukimwi inayojulikana au kufikiriwa.

Hali ya virusi ya mshirika au jamaa yake haitafichuliwa psipo ruhusa iliyoandikwa ya aliye na virusi.

UPIMAJl WA VIRUS1 VYA UKIMWI

Hakuna mtu yeyote atakayepimwa kama ana virusi vya ukimwi kwa sababu ya kutaka kuajiriwa, kupandiswa cheo au kupata rnikopo ya NACHU.

SUALA LA JINSIA NACHU yatambua kuwa kuna wanawake wengi zaidi ya wanaume walioambukizwa virusi vya ukimwi na

pia uzito wa janga hili la ukirnwi urnewalemea sana wanawake. Kiasi kikubwa cha washirika wa NACHU ni wanawake. NACHU is inawajibika kuona kuwa mpango huu wa HIVIAIDS umetilia maanani suala hili na kwamba hatari hii'kwa wanawake imepunguzwa.

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ISSUED: JANUARY 2004 NACHU NACHU recognizes that it cannot achieve its mission - "To contribute to improved shelter and quality of life

on a sustainable basis especially for the Pow-income communities"- unless it addresses the threat posed by

HIVIAIDS. We are therefore committed to preventing HIV infection and supporting those already infected or affected, among our members, board, the employees and by extension, the communities in which we operate. In pursuit of this commitment, NACHU will be guided by the following principles: NON-DISCRIMINATION In-line with local and international guidelines no member of our housing cooperatives or employee will be in any way discriminated on the basis of their known or assumed HIV status.

CONFIDENTIALITY Information regarding the HIV status of members, employees or their relatives will not be divulged to a third party without the written permission of the infected person. HIVIAIDS SCREENING No person will be screened for HIVIADS for purposes of employment, promotion, training or so as to access NACIXl loans.

GENDER DIMENSIONS NACHU recognizes the fact that more women than men are infected with HIV and that in general the impact of HIVIAIDS is much greater on women. Women also constitute the majority of NACHU members. NACHU is committed to ensuring that our HIVIAIDS programmes fully address these gender disparities and reduce the vulnerability of women to the disease and its impact.

KUENDELEA NA KAZI

Wafanyi kazi hawatafutwa kazi kwa sababu ya kuambukizwa vuusi vya ukirnwi (HIV). Ikibidi, walioambukizwa na kuwa wagonjwa watapewa kazi zisizo nzito kulingana na hali yao ya kiafya. Kuachishwa kazi kwa yeyote mgonjwa kutakuwa sambamba n~'policy' kwamba ugonjwa wake unahatarisha uhai wake.

ELIMU KUHUSU HIVIAIDS

Vingozi wa NACHU, Wanachama, wafanyakazi na jamaa wao wa karibu watapewa elimu bora kuhusu HIVIAIDS. Lengo la elimu hii litakuwa kuwaongeza ujuzi zaidi kuhusu HIVIAIDS na kupunguza fedheha na ubaguzi unaohusishwa na HIVIAIDS.

Mipango ya HIVIAIDS itajumuishwa kabisa na Policy zote za NACHU, mikakati na muadi. Hii itahakikisha uwajibishaji kikamilifu na uimarishaji wa uwezo wa NACHU wa kuunga rnkono mpango huu wa HIVIAIDS. Mpango huu wa HIVIAIDS utakuwa mojawapo wa malengo ya ukurugezi wa shirika hili na wasimamizi. Mpango huu wa HIVIAIDS utakuwa mojawapo wa ajenda katika mikutano ya jumla ya kila mwaka.

UHUSIKAJI

Katika ubunaji na uimarishaji wa mpango huu wa HIV/AIDS, maoni ya washika dau wakiwemo wanachama, waajiriwa, tunaoshirikiana na wafadhili yatashirikishwa.

VCT Kwa kutambua faida nyingi za watu kujua hali yao ya HIVIAIDS, NACHU itahimiza wanachama wake, viongozi waajiriwa na jamii kwa jumla kutembelea vituo vya kupima virusi vya ukirnwi.

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HW infected employees will not be terminated from employment on the basis of HN status. If necessary, HIV infected staff who are unwell will be allocated duties appropriate to their medical condition. Tennination of any HIV infected individual, who is not medically fit, will be in-line with the policy on life threatening sickness.

HIV/AIDS EDUCATION All members of NACHU, Board of Directors, employees, their immediate family members and the NACHU

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affiliates will be provided with effective HIVIAIDS education. The objective of such training will include the creation of greater HIVIAIDS awareness and openness, promotion of safe sex practices and reduction of HIVIAIDS stigma and discrimination.

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MAINSTREAMING HIVIAIDS programmes will be hlly integrated with all NACHU policies, strategies and programmes. This will ensure greater effectiveness and sustainability and leverage NACHU's strengths in support of HJYIAIDS programmes. HIVIAIDS programmes will be one of the objectives for the management and board. The HIVIAIDS programme status and review will be on the agenda of the Annual General Meeting.

INVOLVEMENT AND PARTICIPATION

In formulating and implementing HIVIAIDS programmes, the input of key stakeholders including members,

employees, partners and donors will be sought.

VCT

Recognizing the enormous benefits of people knowing their HIV status, NACHU will promote voluntary counseling and testing for its members, board, staff, employees and local communities.

MENEJA MKURUGENZI

GENERAL MANAGER

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HiVlAlDS lNFORMAT8ON SOURCES

1. Crystal Hill Consulting, P.0 BOX 142-00506, 4 Tel. 020- 2730600

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2. Kenya Aids Watch Institute (KAWI), P.0 BOX10013 - 00100, Tel. 020- 27266 13f2726083 3. Population Services International, P.0 BOX 22591- 00400, Tel. 4440125

4. Family Health International, P.0 Box 38835,

Tel. 2824000127139131415 5. Kenya Aids and Drug Alliance (KADA), P.0 BOX1876 - 00200,

6. Kenya Network of Women with AIDS (Kenwa), P.0 BOX10001- 00100, 7. National AIDS Control Council (NACC), P.0 Box 61307, Tel. 27151271271 1261 8. National AIDS and ST1 Control Programme (NASCOP), P.0 Box 19361, 9. Kenya AIDS NGOs Consortium, P.0 Box 69866, 10. Women Fighting Against AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK), Tel. 33208212 17039

Brown R, Macharia T,(2004),HIV/AIDS: Case Study Exercises For Training In The Care Of Hiv/Aids Patients In Resource Limited Settings, Don Bosco Printing Press; Makuyu, Kenya. Welbourn A,(1 999),STEPPING STONES: A Training Package On Hiv/Aids, Communication And Relationship Skills, ActionAID; London. Miles M. ,( 1 98 I ) , Learning To Work In Groups: A Practical Guide For Members And Trainers, Teachers college press; New York. E.Piwoz, E.Preble, (2000),HIVIAIDS & NUTRITION: A Review Of The Literature & Recommendations For Nutritional Care & Support In Sub-Saharan Africa, SARA; Washington DC. Aidstech, FHI, Training Manual: MDS/STD education & counseling, Durham. R. Nduati, W . Kiai, (1997),Communicating With Adolescents About Aids, Experience From Eastern & Southern Africa, IDRC; Ottawa. R. Granich, J. Mermin,(1999),HIV Health & your Community:A guide for action, Stanford university press; Carlifornia.

H. Tabifor,(2002),The Dignity of Human Sexuality & the Aids Challenge,Alpha & Omega Publication; Nairobi.

D. Sira,(2002), The Second Phase Of My Life: Should I Reveal I'm H N Positive, Nairobi. S. Paxton, (1999),Lifting The Burdens Of Secrecy: A Manual For HWPositive People Who Want To Speak Out In Public, APN+ ;Singapore. R. Tuju,(1996),MDS: Understanding The Challenge, English Press; Nairobi. WH0,(1992),Living With Aids In The Community: A Book To Help People Make The Best Of Life, ST1 Project; Uganda.

W . Muraah, W . Kiarie,(2001, HN/AIDS: Facts That Could Change Your Life, English Press; Nairobi.

IRACC,(1997),How To Cope With Aids, Print Displays; Nairobi.

Kaleeba, Kadowe, Kalinaki & Williams,(2000),OPEN SECRET: People Facing Up To Hiv & Aids In Uganda,Parchment Ltd; Oxford. R. Parker, P. Aggleton,(2002),HIVIAIDS-Related Stigma And Discrimination: A Conceptual Framework And Implications For Action, ABLA; Rio de Janeiro. NASCOP/MOH,(2002), raini in^ frome-~asedCaregivers To Care For PL WAAt Home, Giant Printers; Nairobi. J. Eitington,(l996), The Winning Trainer, Gulf Publishing Company;Texas. Pretty, Guijt, Scoones, Thompson,(l995),A Trainer's Guide For Participatory Learning And Action, IIED; London

H. Repke, E. Ayensu,(2001),HIVIAIDS: Knowledge Protects, GrafischesCentrum Cuno;

RECOMMENDED HIVIAIDS VIDEOS

1. HIVIAIDS: ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW (VOL.1,2 AND 3) By Dr. Muraah and Dr.

Kiarie; Crystal Hill Consulting

2. HIVIAIDS , Music ,Dance and Poetry ;By Shades Classics

3. Ukirnwi ana kwa ana ; By Ukweli Video Productions

%

4. The lost generation: Everyone's problem ;By Ukweli Video Productions

5. Its too late: Give me a chance to live; By Ukweli Video Productions

6. The Bushfire; By World View Kenya

7. Kosodo: The Village of GrandMothers ;By Help Orphans Project & Ukweli Video Pro-

8. Coming to say goodbye: Stories of AIDS in Africa ;Maryknoll Productions 9. Keep it Real : A youth talk show : Ukweli Video Productions

10. The silent epidemic : Raphael Tuju

1I . Everyone's child ; Media for Development Trust

12. HIVIAIDS Counseling : The Basics ;Kenya Redcross Society

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