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Appendix 1

PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS)

Table A­1

Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties Table A­2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases Table A­3 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods Table A­4 Saturated water--Temperature table Table A­5 Saturated water--Pressure table Table A­6 Superheated water Table A­7 Compressed liquid water Table A­8 Saturated ice­water vapor Figure A­9 T-s diagram for water Figure A­10 Mollier diagram for water Table A­11 Saturated refrigerant-134a-- Temperature table Table A­12 Saturated refrigerant-134a-- Pressure table Table A­13 Superheated refrigerant-134a Figure A­14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a Figure A­15 Nelson­Obert generalized compressibility chart Table A­16 Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude Table A­17 Ideal-gas properties of air Table A­18 Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 Table A­19 Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A­20

Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A­21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO Table A­22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 Table A­23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O Table A­24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O Table A­25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH Table A­26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 25°C, 1 atm Table A­27 Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons Table A­28 Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp Figure A­29 Generalized enthalpy departure chart Figure A­30 Generalized entropy departure chart Figure A­31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure Table A­32 One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas with k 1.4 Table A­33 One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k 1.4 Table A­34 Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k 1.4

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TABLE A ­ 1

Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties Gas constant, R kJ/kg · K* 0.2870 0.4882 0.2081 0.1064 0.0520 0.1430 0.1889 0.2968 0.05405 0.1173 0.06964 0.06876 0.08078 0.2765 0.1805 0.2964 2.0769 0.09647 4.1240 0.09921 0.5182 0.2595 0.1647 0.4119 0.2968 0.1889 0.2598 0.1885 0.1976 0.1298 0.08149 0.06052 0.4615 0.06332 Critical-point properties Temperature, K 132.5 405.5 151 562 584 425.2 304.2 133 556.4 417 536.6 384.7 451.7 305.5 516 282.4 5.3 507.9 33.3 209.4 191.1 513.2 416.3 44.5 126.2 309.7 154.8 370 365 430.7 374.2 471.2 647.1 289.8 Pressure, MPa 3.77 11.28 4.86 4.92 10.34 3.80 7.39 3.50 4.56 7.71 5.47 4.01 5.17 4.48 6.38 5.12 0.23 3.03 1.30 5.50 4.64 7.95 6.68 2.73 3.39 7.27 5.08 4.26 4.62 7.88 4.059 4.38 22.06 5.88 Volume, m3/kmol 0.0883 0.0724 0.0749 0.2603 0.1355 0.2547 0.0943 0.0930 0.2759 0.1242 0.2403 0.2179 0.1973 0.1480 0.1673 0.1242 0.0578 0.3677 0.0649 0.0924 0.0993 0.1180 0.1430 0.0417 0.0899 0.0961 0.0780 0.1998 0.1810 0.1217 0.1993 0.2478 0.0560 0.1186

Substance Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Bromine n-Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine Chloroform Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) Dichlorofluoromethane (R-21) Ethane Ethyl alcohol Ethylene Helium n-Hexane Hydrogen (normal) Krypton Methane Methyl alcohol Methyl chloride Neon Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Oxygen Propane Propylene Sulfur dioxide Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) Trichlorofluoromethane (R-11) Water Xenon

Formula -- NH3 Ar C6H6 Br2 C4H10 CO2 CO CCl4 Cl2 CHCl3 CCl2F2 CHCl2F C2H6 C2H5OH C2H4 He C6H14 H2 Kr CH4 CH3OH CH3Cl Ne N2 N2O O2 C3H8 C3H6 SO2 CF3CH2F CCl3F H2O Xe

Molar mass, M kg/kmol 28.97 17.03 39.948 78.115 159.808 58.124 44.01 28.011 153.82 70.906 119.38 120.91 102.92 30.070 46.07 28.054 4.003 86.179 2.016 83.80 16.043 32.042 50.488 20.183 28.013 44.013 31.999 44.097 42.081 64.063 102.03 137.37 18.015 131.30

*The unit kJ/kg · K is equivalent to kPa · m3/kg · K. The gas constant is calculated from R mass.

Ru /M, where Ru

8.31447 kJ/kmol · K and M is the molar

Source: K. A. Kobe and R. E. Lynn, Jr., Chemical Review 52 (1953), pp. 117­236; and ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), pp. 16.4 and 36.1.

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­2

Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (a) At 300 K Gas Air Argon Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam Formula -- Ar C4H10 CO2 CO C2H6 C2H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8H18 O2 C3H8 H2O Gas constant, R kJ/kg · K 0.2870 0.2081 0.1433 0.1889 0.2968 0.2765 0.2964 2.0769 4.1240 0.5182 0.4119 0.2968 0.0729 0.2598 0.1885 0.4615 cp kJ/kg · K 1.005 0.5203 1.7164 0.846 1.040 1.7662 1.5482 5.1926 14.307 2.2537 1.0299 1.039 1.7113 0.918 1.6794 1.8723 cv kJ/kg · K 0.718 0.3122 1.5734 0.657 0.744 1.4897 1.2518 3.1156 10.183 1.7354 0.6179 0.743 1.6385 0.658 1.4909 1.4108

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k 1.400 1.667 1.091 1.289 1.400 1.186 1.237 1.667 1.405 1.299 1.667 1.400 1.044 1.395 1.126 1.327

Note: The unit kJ/kg · K is equivalent to kJ/kg · °C. Source: Chemical and Process Thermodynamics 3/E by Kyle, B. G., © 2000. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

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TABLE A­2

Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Continued) (b) At various temperatures cp kJ/kg · K cv kJ/kg · K Air 1.003 1.005 1.008 1.013 1.020 1.029 1.040 1.051 1.063 1.075 1.087 1.099 1.121 1.142 0.716 0.718 0.721 0.726 0.733 0.742 0.753 0.764 0.776 0.788 0.800 0.812 0.834 0.855 1.401 1.400 1.398 1.395 1.391 1.387 1.381 1.376 1.370 1.364 1.359 1.354 1.344 1.336 k cp kJ/kg · K cv kJ/kg · K k cp kJ/kg · K cv kJ/kg · K k

Temperature, K 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000

Carbon dioxide, CO2 0.791 0.846 0.895 0.939 0.978 1.014 1.046 1.075 1.102 1.126 1.148 1.169 1.204 1.234 0.602 0.657 0.706 0.750 0.790 0.825 0.857 0.886 0.913 0.937 0.959 0.980 1.015 1.045 Nitrogen, N2 1.039 1.039 1.041 1.044 1.049 1.056 1.065 1.075 1.086 1.098 1.110 1.121 1.145 1.167 0.742 0.743 0.744 0.747 0.752 0.759 0.768 0.778 0.789 0.801 0.813 0.825 0.849 0.870 1.400 1.400 1.399 1.397 1.395 1.391 1.387 1.382 1.376 1.371 1.365 1.360 1.349 1.341 1.314 1.288 1.268 1.252 1.239 1.229 1.220 1.213 1.207 1.202 1.197 1.193 1.186 1.181

Carbon monoxide, CO 1.039 1.040 1.043 1.047 1.054 1.063 1.075 1.087 1.100 1.113 1.126 1.139 1.163 1.185 0.743 0.744 0.746 0.751 0.757 0.767 0.778 0.790 0.803 0.816 0.829 0.842 0.866 0.888 Oxygen, O2 0.913 0.918 0.928 0.941 0.956 0.972 0.988 1.003 1.017 1.031 1.043 1.054 1.074 1.090 0.653 0.658 0.668 0.681 0.696 0.712 0.728 0.743 0.758 0.771 0.783 0.794 0.814 0.830 1.398 1.395 1.389 1.382 1.373 1.365 1.358 1.350 1.343 1.337 1.332 1.327 1.319 1.313 1.400 1.399 1.398 1.395 1.392 1.387 1.382 1.376 1.370 1.364 1.358 1.353 1.343 1.335

Hydrogen, H2 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 14.051 14.307 14.427 14.476 14.501 14.513 14.530 14.546 14.571 14.604 14.645 14.695 14.822 14.983 9.927 10.183 10.302 10.352 10.377 10.389 10.405 10.422 10.447 10.480 10.521 10.570 10.698 10.859 1.416 1.405 1.400 1.398 1.398 1.397 1.396 1.396 1.395 1.394 1.392 1.390 1.385 1.380

Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), p. 783, Table A­4M. Originally published in Tables of Thermal Properties of Gases, NBS Circular 564, 1955.

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­2

Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Concluded) (c) As a function of temperature _ cp a bT cT 2 dT 3

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(T in K, cp in kJ/kmol · K) % error Temperature range, K Max. Avg.

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

9 9 9 9

Substance

Nitrogen Oxygen Air Hydrogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Water vapor Nitric oxide Nitrous oxide Nitrogen dioxide Ammonia Sulfur Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Acetylene Benzene Methanol Ethanol Hydrogen chloride Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane i-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane Ethylene Propylene

Formula

N2 O2 -- H2 CO CO2 H2O NO N2O NO2 NH3 S2 SO2 SO3 C2H2 C6H6 CH4O C2H6O HCl CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C2H4 C3H6

a

28.90 25.48 28.11 29.11 28.16 22.26 32.24 29.34 24.11 22.9 27.568 27.21 25.78 16.40 21.8 36.22 19.0 19.9 30.33 19.89 6.900 4.04 3.96 7.913 6.774 6.938 3.95 3.15

b

0.1571 1.520 0.1967 0.1916 0.1675 5.981 0.1923 0.09395 5.8632 5.715 2.5630 2.218 5.795 14.58 9.2143 48.475 9.152 20.96 0.7620 5.024 17.27 30.48 37.15 41.60 45.43 55.22 15.64 23.83 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

2 2 2 2

c

0.8081 0.7155 0.4802 0.4003 0.5372 3.501 1.055 0.9747 3.562 3.52 0.99072 1.628 3.812 11.20 6.527 31.57 1.22 10.38 1.327 1.269 6.406 15.72 18.34 23.01 22.46 28.65 8.344 12.18 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

5 5 5 5

d

2.873 1.312 1.966 0.8704 2.222 7.469 3.595 4.187 10.58 7.87 6.6909 3.986 8.612 32.42 18.21 77.62 8.039 20.05 4.338 11.01 7.285 31.74 35.00 49.91 42.29 57.69 17.67 24.62

273­1800 273­1800 273­1800 273­1800 273­1800 273­1800 273­1800 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1800 273­1800 273­1300 273­1500 273­1500 273­1000 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500 273­1500

0.59 1.19 0.72 1.01 0.89 0.67 0.53 0.97 0.59 0.46 0.91 0.99 0.45 0.29 1.46 0.34 0.18 0.40 0.22 1.33 0.83 0.40 0.54 0.25 0.56 0.72 0.54 0.73

0.34 0.28 0.33 0.26 0.37 0.22 0.24 0.36 0.26 0.18 0.36 0.38 0.24 0.13 0.59 0.20 0.08 0.22 0.08 0.57 0.28 0.12 0.24 0.13 0.21 0.20 0.13 0.17

2

5

9

2 2 2 2

5 5 5 5

9 9 9 9

2 2 2

5 5 5

9 9 9

2

5

9

2 2 2 2 2

5 5 5 5 5

9 9 9 9 9

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

Source: B. G. Kyle, Chemical and Process Thermodynamics (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984). Used with permission.

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TABLE A­3

Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods (a) Liquids Boiling data at 1 atm Normal boiling point, °C 33.3 Latent heat of vaporization hfg , kJ/kg 1357 Freezing data Freezing point, °C 77.7 Latent heat of fusion hif , kJ/kg 322.4 Liquid properties Temperature, °C 33.3 20 0 25 185.6 20 20 0.5 0 25 20 20 20 268.9 252.8 11.7 20 25 161.5 100 25 195.8 160 20 25 183 20 42.1 0 50 50 26.1 0 25 0 25 50 75 100 Density r, kg/m3 682 665 639 602 1394 879 1150 601 298 783 789 1109 1261 146.2 70.7 593.8 820 13,560 423 301 787 809 596 703 910 1141 640 581 529 449 1443 1374 1295 1207 1000 997 988 975 958 Specific heat cp, kJ/kg · K 4.43 4.52 4.60 4.80 1.14 1.72 3.11 2.31 0.59 2.46 2.84 2.84 2.32 22.8 10.0 2.28 2.00 0.139 3.49 5.79 2.55 2.06 2.97 2.10 1.80 1.71 2.0 2.25 2.53 3.13 1.23 1.27 1.34 1.43 4.22 4.18 4.18 4.19 4.22

Substance Ammonia

Argon Benzene Brine (20% sodium chloride by mass) n-Butane Carbon dioxide Ethanol Ethyl alcohol Ethylene glycol Glycerine Helium Hydrogen Isobutane Kerosene Mercury Methane Methanol Nitrogen Octane Oil (light) Oxygen Petroleum Propane

185.9 80.2 103.9 0.5 78.4* 78.2 78.6 198.1 179.9 268.9 252.8 11.7 204­293 356.7 161.5 64.5 195.8 124.8 183 -- 42.1

161.6 394 -- 385.2 230.5 (at 0°C) 838.3 855 800.1 974 22.8 445.7 367.1 251 294.7 510.4 1100 198.6 306.3 212.7 230­384 427.8

189.3 5.5 17.4 138.5 56.6 114.2 156 10.8 18.9 -- 259.2 160 24.9 38.9 182.2 97.7 210 57.5 218.8 187.7

28 126 -- 80.3 109 108 181.1 200.6 -- 59.5 105.7 -- 11.4 58.4 99.2 25.3 180.7 13.7 80.0

Refrigerant-134a

26.1

217.0

96.6

--

Water

100

2257

0.0

333.7

* Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 518 kPa, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point temperature of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of 56.5°C.)

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­3

Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods (Concluded ) (b) Solids (values are for room temperature unless indicated otherwise)

Substance Metals Aluminum 200 K 250 K 300 K 350 K 400 K 450 K 500 K Bronze (76% Cu, 2% Zn, 2% Al) Brass, yellow (65% Cu, 35% Zn) Copper 173°C 100°C 50°C 0°C 27°C 100°C 200°C Iron Lead Magnesium Nickel Silver Steel, mild Tungsten 0.797 0.859 0.902 0.929 0.949 0.973 0.997 0.400 0.400 Density, r kg/m3 Specific heat, cp kJ/kg · K Substance Nonmetals Asphalt Brick, common Brick, fireclay (500°C) Concrete Clay Diamond Glass, window Glass, pyrex Graphite Granite Gypsum or plaster board Ice 200 K 220 K 240 K 260 K 273 K Limestone Marble Plywood (Douglas Fir) Rubber (soft) Rubber (hard) Sand Stone Woods, hard (maple, oak, etc.) Woods, soft (fir, pine, etc.) 2110 1922 2300 2300 1000 2420 2700 2230 2500 2700 800 Density, r kg/m3

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Specific heat, cp kJ/kg · K

2,700

8,280 8,310

0.920 0.79 0.960 0.653 0.920 0.616 0.800 0.840 0.711 1.017 1.09 1.56 1.71 1.86 2.01 2.11 0.909 0.880 1.21 1.840 2.009 0.800 0.800 1.26 1.38

8,900

7,840 11,310 1,730 8,890 10,470 7,830 19,400

0.254 0.342 0.367 0.381 0.386 0.393 0.403 0.45 0.128 1.000 0.440 0.235 0.500 0.130

921 1650 2600 545 1100 1150 1520 1500 721 513

(c) Foods

Latent heat of Freezing Above Below fusion, point, °C freezing freezing kJ/kg 1.1 0.8 -- 0.6 -- 10.0 1.8 2.8 0.6 0.6 5.6 3.65 3.35 3.08 3.86 -- 2.15 3.52 3.32 3.32 3.32 2.95 1.90 1.78 1.68 1.97 1.04 1.33 1.85 1.77 1.77 1.77 1.63 281 251 224 301 53 130 267 247 247 247 210 Specific heat, kJ/kg · K Specific heat, kJ/kg · K Water content, % (mass) 95 88 87 78 64 83 93 90 94 64 93 Freezing point, °C 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.6 2.2 2.2 0.3 0.8 0.5 -- 0.4 Above freezing 4.02 3.79 3.75 3.45 2.98 3.62 3.96 3.86 3.99 2.98 3.96 Below freezing 2.04 1.95 1.94 1.82 1.65 1.89 2.01 1.97 2.02 1.65 2.01 Latent heat of fusion, kJ/kg 317 294 291 261 214 277 311 301 314 214 311

Food Apples Bananas Beef round Broccoli Butter Cheese, swiss Cherries Chicken Corn, sweet Eggs, whole Ice cream

Water content, % (mass) 84 75 67 90 16 39 80 74 74 74 63

Food Lettuce Milk, whole Oranges Potatoes Salmon fish Shrimp Spinach Strawberries Tomatoes, ripe Turkey Watermelon

Source: Values are obtained from various handbooks and other sources or are calculated. Water content and freezing-point data of foods are from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, SI version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chapter 30, Table 1. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for other foods.

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TABLE A­4

Saturated water--Temperature table

Specific volume, m3/kg Temp., T °C

0.01 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, uf

0.000 21.019 42.020 62.980 83.913 104.83 125.73 146.63 167.53 188.43 209.33 230.24 251.16 272.09 293.04 313.99 334.97 355.96 376.97 398.00 419.06 440.15 461.27 482.42 503.60 524.83 546.10 567.41 588.77 610.19 631.66 653.19 674.79 696.46 718.20 740.02 761.92 783.91 806.00 828.18 850.46

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, hf

0.001 21.020 42.022 62.982 83.915 104.83 125.74 146.64 167.53 188.44 209.34 230.26 251.18 272.12 293.07 314.03 335.02 356.02 377.04 398.09 419.17 440.28 461.42 482.59 503.81 525.07 546.38 567.75 589.16 610.64 632.18 653.79 675.47 697.24 719.08 741.02 763.05 785.19 807.43 829.78 852.26

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. vapor, hg Sat. Sat. liquid, Evap., vapor, sf sfg sg

0.0000 0.0763 0.1511 0.2245 0.2965 0.3672 0.4368 0.5051 0.5724 0.6386 0.7038 0.7680 0.8313 0.8937 0.9551 1.0158 1.0756 1.1346 1.1929 1.2504 1.3072 1.3634 1.4188 1.4737 1.5279 1.5816 1.6346 1.6872 1.7392 1.7908 1.8418 1.8924 1.9426 1.9923 2.0417 2.0906 2.1392 2.1875 2.2355 2.2831 2.3305 9.1556 8.9487 8.7488 8.5559 8.3696 8.1895 8.0152 7.8466 7.6832 7.5247 7.3710 7.2218 7.0769 6.9360 6.7989 6.6655 6.5355 6.4089 6.2853 6.1647 6.0470 5.9319 5.8193 5.7092 5.6013 5.4956 5.3919 5.2901 5.1901 5.0919 4.9953 4.9002 4.8066 4.7143 4.6233 4.5335 4.4448 4.3572 4.2705 4.1847 4.0997 9.1556 9.0249 8.8999 8.7803 8.6661 8.5567 8.4520 8.3517 8.2556 8.1633 8.0748 7.9898 7.9082 7.8296 7.7540 7.6812 7.6111 7.5435 7.4782 7.4151 7.3542 7.2952 7.2382 7.1829 7.1292 7.0771 7.0265 6.9773 6.9294 6.8827 6.8371 6.7927 6.7492 6.7067 6.6650 6.6242 6.5841 6.5447 6.5059 6.4678 6.4302

Sat. press., Psat kPa

0.6117 0.8725 1.2281 1.7057 2.3392 3.1698 4.2469 5.6291 7.3851 9.5953 12.352 15.763 19.947 25.043 31.202 38.597 47.416 57.868 70.183 84.609 101.42 120.90 143.38 169.18 198.67 232.23 270.28 313.22 361.53 415.68 476.16 543.49 618.23 700.93 792.18 892.60 1002.8 1123.5 1255.2 1398.8 1554.9

Sat. liquid, vf

0.001000 0.001000 0.001000 0.001001 0.001002 0.001003 0.001004 0.001006 0.001008 0.001010 0.001012 0.001015 0.001017 0.001020 0.001023 0.001026 0.001029 0.001032 0.001036 0.001040 0.001043 0.001047 0.001052 0.001056 0.001060 0.001065 0.001070 0.001075 0.001080 0.001085 0.001091 0.001096 0.001102 0.001108 0.001114 0.001121 0.001127 0.001134 0.001141 0.001149 0.001157

Sat. vapor, vg

206.00 147.03 106.32 77.885 57.762 43.340 32.879 25.205 19.515 15.251 12.026 9.5639 7.6670 6.1935 5.0396 4.1291 3.4053 2.8261 2.3593 1.9808 1.6720 1.4186 1.2094 1.0360 0.89133 0.77012 0.66808 0.58179 0.50850 0.44600 0.39248 0.34648 0.30680 0.27244 0.24260 0.21659 0.19384 0.17390 0.15636 0.14089 0.12721

Evap., ufg

2374.9 2360.8 2346.6 2332.5 2318.4 2304.3 2290.2 2276.0 2261.9 2247.7 2233.4 2219.1 2204.7 2190.3 2175.8 2161.3 2146.6 2131.9 2117.0 2102.0 2087.0 2071.8 2056.4 2040.9 2025.3 2009.5 1993.4 1977.3 1960.9 1944.2 1927.4 1910.3 1893.0 1875.4 1857.5 1839.4 1820.9 1802.1 1783.0 1763.6 1743.7

Sat. vapor, ug

2374.9 2381.8 2388.7 2395.5 2402.3 2409.1 2415.9 2422.7 2429.4 2436.1 2442.7 2449.3 2455.9 2462.4 2468.9 2475.3 2481.6 2487.8 2494.0 2500.1 2506.0 2511.9 2517.7 2523.3 2528.9 2534.3 2539.5 2544.7 2549.6 2554.4 2559.1 2563.5 2567.8 2571.9 2575.7 2579.4 2582.8 2586.0 2589.0 2591.7 2594.2

Evap., hfg

2500.9 2489.1 2477.2 2465.4 2453.5 2441.7 2429.8 2417.9 2406.0 2394.0 2382.0 2369.8 2357.7 2345.4 2333.0 2320.6 2308.0 2295.3 2282.5 2269.6 2256.4 2243.1 2229.7 2216.0 2202.1 2188.1 2173.7 2159.1 2144.3 2129.2 2113.8 2098.0 2082.0 2065.6 2048.8 2031.7 2014.2 1996.2 1977.9 1959.0 1939.8

2500.9 2510.1 2519.2 2528.3 2537.4 2546.5 2555.6 2564.6 2573.5 2582.4 2591.3 2600.1 2608.8 2617.5 2626.1 2634.6 2643.0 2651.4 2659.6 2667.6 2675.6 2683.4 2691.1 2698.6 2706.0 2713.1 2720.1 2726.9 2733.5 2739.8 2745.9 2751.8 2757.5 2762.8 2767.9 2772.7 2777.2 2781.4 2785.3 2788.8 2792.0

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­4

Saturated water--Temperature table (Continued)

Specific volume, m3/kg Temp., T °C

205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 315 320 325 330 335 340 345 350 355 360 365 370 373.95

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917

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, uf

872.86 895.38 918.02 940.79 963.70 986.76 1010.0 1033.4 1056.9 1080.7 1104.7 1128.8 1153.3 1177.9 1202.9 1228.2 1253.7 1279.7 1306.0 1332.7 1360.0 1387.7 1416.1 1445.1 1475.0 1505.7 1537.5 1570.7 1605.5 1642.4 1682.2 1726.2 1777.2 1844.5 2015.7

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, hf

874.87 897.61 920.50 943.55 966.76 990.14 1013.7 1037.5 1061.5 1085.7 1110.1 1134.8 1159.8 1185.1 1210.7 1236.7 1263.1 1289.8 1317.1 1344.8 1373.1 1402.0 1431.6 1462.0 1493.4 1525.8 1559.4 1594.6 1631.7 1671.2 1714.0 1761.5 1817.2 1891.2 2084.3

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. vapor, hg Sat. Sat. liquid, Evap., vapor, sf sfg sg

2.3776 2.4245 2.4712 2.5176 2.5639 2.6100 2.6560 2.7018 2.7476 2.7933 2.8390 2.8847 2.9304 2.9762 3.0221 3.0681 3.1144 3.1608 3.2076 3.2548 3.3024 3.3506 3.3994 3.4491 3.4998 3.5516 3.6050 3.6602 3.7179 3.7788 3.8442 3.9165 4.0004 4.1119 4.4070 4.0154 3.9318 3.8489 3.7664 3.6844 3.6028 3.5216 3.4405 3.3596 3.2788 3.1979 3.1169 3.0358 2.9542 2.8723 2.7898 2.7066 2.6225 2.5374 2.4511 2.3633 2.2737 2.1821 2.0881 1.9911 1.8906 1.7857 1.6756 1.5585 1.4326 1.2942 1.1373 0.9489 0.6890 0 6.3930 6.3563 6.3200 6.2840 6.2483 6.2128 6.1775 6.1424 6.1072 6.0721 6.0369 6.0017 5.9662 5.9305 5.8944 5.8579 5.8210 5.7834 5.7450 5.7059 5.6657 5.6243 5.5816 5.5372 5.4908 5.4422 5.3907 5.3358 5.2765 5.2114 5.1384 5.0537 4.9493 4.8009 4.4070

Sat. press., Psat kPa

1724.3 1907.7 2105.9 2319.6 2549.7 2797.1 3062.6 3347.0 3651.2 3976.2 4322.9 4692.3 5085.3 5503.0 5946.4 6416.6 6914.6 7441.8 7999.0 8587.9 9209.4 9865.0 10,556 11,284 12,051 12,858 13,707 14,601 15,541 16,529 17,570 18,666 19,822 21,044 22,064

Sat. liquid, vf

0.001164 0.001173 0.001181 0.001190 0.001199 0.001209 0.001219 0.001229 0.001240 0.001252 0.001263 0.001276 0.001289 0.001303 0.001317 0.001333 0.001349 0.001366 0.001384 0.001404 0.001425 0.001447 0.001472 0.001499 0.001528 0.001560 0.001597 0.001638 0.001685 0.001741 0.001808 0.001895 0.002015 0.002217 0.003106

Sat. vapor, vg

0.11508 0.10429 0.094680 0.086094 0.078405 0.071505 0.065300 0.059707 0.054656 0.050085 0.045941 0.042175 0.038748 0.035622 0.032767 0.030153 0.027756 0.025554 0.023528 0.021659 0.019932 0.018333 0.016849 0.015470 0.014183 0.012979 0.011848 0.010783 0.009772 0.008806 0.007872 0.006950 0.006009 0.004953 0.003106

Evap., ufg

1723.5 1702.9 1681.9 1660.5 1638.6 1616.1 1593.2 1569.8 1545.7 1521.1 1495.8 1469.9 1443.2 1415.7 1387.4 1358.2 1328.1 1296.9 1264.5 1230.9 1195.9 1159.3 1121.1 1080.9 1038.5 993.5 945.5 893.8 837.7 775.9 706.4 625.7 526.4 385.6 0

Sat. vapor, ug

2596.4 2598.3 2599.9 2601.3 2602.3 2602.9 2603.2 2603.1 2602.7 2601.8 2600.5 2598.7 2596.5 2593.7 2590.3 2586.4 2581.8 2576.5 2570.5 2563.6 2555.8 2547.1 2537.2 2526.0 2513.4 2499.2 2483.0 2464.5 2443.2 2418.3 2388.6 2351.9 2303.6 2230.1 2015.7

Evap., hfg

1920.0 1899.7 1878.8 1857.4 1835.4 1812.8 1789.5 1765.5 1740.8 1715.3 1689.0 1661.8 1633.7 1604.6 1574.5 1543.2 1510.7 1476.9 1441.6 1404.8 1366.3 1325.9 1283.4 1238.5 1191.0 1140.3 1086.0 1027.4 963.4 892.7 812.9 720.1 605.5 443.1 0

2794.8 2797.3 2799.3 2801.0 2802.2 2802.9 2803.2 2803.0 2802.2 2801.0 2799.1 2796.6 2793.5 2789.7 2785.2 2779.9 2773.7 2766.7 2758.7 2749.6 2739.4 2727.9 2715.0 2700.6 2684.3 2666.0 2645.4 2622.0 2595.1 2563.9 2526.9 2481.6 2422.7 2334.3 2084.3

Source: Tables A­4 through A­8 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the highly accurate Steam_IAPWS, which incorporates the 1995 Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use, issued by The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). This formulation replaces the 1984 formulation of Haar, Gallagher, and Kell (NBS/NRC Steam Tables, Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1984), which is also available in EES as the routine STEAM. The new formulation is based on the correlations of Saul and Wagner (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16, 893, 1987) with modifications to adjust to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The modifications are described by Wagner and Pruss (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22, 783, 1993). The properties of ice are based on Hyland and Wexler, "Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2O from 173.15 K to 473.15 K," ASHRAE Trans., Part 2A, Paper 2793, 1983.

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­5

Saturated water--Pressure table

Specific volume, m3/kg Press., P kPa

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 75 100 101.325 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, uf

29.302 54.686 73.431 88.422 100.98 121.39 137.75 168.74 191.79 225.93 251.40 271.93 289.24 317.58 340.49 384.36 417.40 418.95 444.23 466.97 486.82 504.50 520.47 535.08 548.57 561.11 572.84 583.89 594.32 604.22 622.65 639.54 655.16 669.72 683.37

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, hf

29.303 54.688 73.433 88.424 100.98 121.39 137.75 168.75 191.81 225.94 251.42 271.96 289.27 317.62 340.54 384.44 417.51 419.06 444.36 467.13 487.01 504.71 520.71 535.35 548.86 561.43 573.19 584.26 594.73 604.66 623.14 640.09 655.77 670.38 684.08 697.00 709.24

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. vapor, hg

2513.7 2524.7 2532.9 2539.4 2544.8 2553.7 2560.7 2574.0 2583.9 2598.3 2608.9 2617.5 2624.6 2636.1 2645.2 2662.4 2675.0 2675.6 2684.9 2693.1 2700.2 2706.3 2711.7 2716.5 2720.9 2724.9 2728.6 2732.0 2735.1 2738.1 2743.4 2748.1 2752.4 2756.2 2759.6

Sat. temp., Tsat °C

6.97 13.02 17.50 21.08 24.08 28.96 32.87 40.29 45.81 53.97 60.06 64.96 69.09 75.86 81.32 91.76 99.61 99.97 105.97 111.35 116.04 120.21 123.97 127.41 130.58 133.52 136.27 138.86 141.30 143.61 147.90 151.83 155.46 158.83 161.98 164.95 167.75

Sat. liquid, vf

Sat. vapor, vg

Evap., ufg

2355.2 2338.1 2325.5 2315.4 2306.9 2293.1 2282.1 2261.1 2245.4 2222.1 2204.6 2190.4 2178.5 2158.8 2142.7 2111.8 2088.2 2087.0 2068.8 2052.3 2037.7 2024.6 2012.7 2001.8 1991.6 1982.1 1973.1 1964.6 1956.6 1948.9 1934.5 1921.2 1908.8 1897.1 1886.1 1875.6 1865.6

Sat. vapor, ug

2384.5 2392.8 2398.9 2403.8 2407.9 2414.5 2419.8 2429.8 2437.2 2448.0 2456.0 2462.4 2467.7 2476.3 2483.2 2496.1 2505.6 2506.0 2513.0 2519.2 2524.5 2529.1 2533.2 2536.8 2540.1 2543.2 2545.9 2548.5 2550.9 2553.1 2557.1 2560.7 2563.9 2566.8 2569.4 2571.8 2574.0

Evap., hfg

2484.4 2470.1 2459.5 2451.0 2443.9 2432.3 2423.0 2405.3 2392.1 2372.3 2357.5 2345.5 2335.3 2318.4 2304.7 2278.0 2257.5 2256.5 2240.6 2226.0 2213.1 2201.6 2191.0 2181.2 2172.0 2163.5 2155.4 2147.7 2140.4 2133.4 2120.3 2108.0 2096.6 2085.8 2075.5

Sat. liquid, sf

0.1059 0.1956 0.2606 0.3118 0.3543 0.4224 0.4762 0.5763 0.6492 0.7549 0.8320 0.8932 0.9441 1.0261 1.0912 1.2132 1.3028 1.3069 1.3741 1.4337 1.4850 1.5302 1.5706 1.6072 1.6408 1.6717 1.7005 1.7274 1.7526 1.7765 1.8205 1.8604 1.8970 1.9308 1.9623

Evap., sfg

8.8690 8.6314 8.4621 8.3302 8.2222 8.0510 7.9176 7.6738 7.4996 7.2522 7.0752 6.9370 6.8234 6.6430 6.5019 6.2426 6.0562 6.0476 5.9100 5.7894 5.6865 5.5968 5.5171 5.4453 5.3800 5.3200 5.2645 5.2128 5.1645 5.1191 5.0356 4.9603 4.8916 4.8285 4.7699

Sat. vapor, sg

8.9749 8.8270 8.7227 8.6421 8.5765 8.4734 8.3938 8.2501 8.1488 8.0071 7.9073 7.8302 7.7675 7.6691 7.5931 7.4558 7.3589 7.3545 7.2841 7.2231 7.1716 7.1270 7.0877 7.0525 7.0207 6.9917 6.9650 6.9402 6.9171 6.8955 6.8561 6.8207 6.7886 6.7593 6.7322

0.001000 129.19 0.001001 87.964 0.001001 66.990 0.001002 54.242 0.001003 45.654 0.001004 0.001005 0.001008 0.001010 0.001014 0.001017 0.001020 0.001022 0.001026 0.001030 0.001037 0.001043 0.001043 0.001048 0.001053 0.001057 0.001061 0.001064 0.001067 0.001070 0.001073 0.001076 0.001079 0.001081 0.001084 0.001088 0.001093 0.001097 0.001101 0.001104 0.001108 0.001111 34.791 28.185 19.233 14.670 10.020 7.6481 6.2034 5.2287 3.9933 3.2403 2.2172 1.6941 1.6734 1.3750 1.1594 1.0037 0.88578 0.79329 0.71873 0.65732 0.60582 0.56199 0.52422 0.49133 0.46242 0.41392 0.37483 0.34261 0.31560 0.29260

0.27278 696.23 0.25552 708.40

2065.8 2762.8 1.9918 4.7153 6.7071 2056.4 2765.7 2.0195 4.6642 6.6837

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­5

Saturated water--Pressure table (Continued)

Specific volume, m3/kg Press., P kPa

800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 3000 3500 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000 21,000 22,000 22,064

|

919

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, uf

719.97 731.00 741.55 751.67 761.39 779.78 796.96 813.10 828.35 842.82

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, hf

720.87 731.95 742.56 752.74 762.51 781.03 798.33 814.59 829.96 844.55

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. vapor, hg

2768.3 2770.8 2773.0 2775.2 2777.1 2780.7 2783.8 2786.5 2788.9 2791.0 2795.2 2798.3 2800.5 2801.9 2803.2 2802.7 2800.8 2794.2 2784.6 2772.6 2758.7 2742.9 2725.5 2706.3 2685.4 2662.7 2637.9 2610.8 2581.0 2547.7 2510.0 2466.0 2412.1 2338.4 2172.6 2084.3

Sat. temp., Tsat °C

170.41 172.94 175.35 177.66 179.88 184.06 187.96 191.60 195.04 198.29 205.72 212.38 218.41 223.95 233.85 242.56 250.35 263.94 275.59 285.83 295.01 303.35 311.00 318.08 324.68 330.85 336.67 342.16 347.36 352.29 356.99 361.47 365.75 369.83 373.71 373.95

Sat. liquid, vf

0.001115 0.001118 0.001121 0.001124 0.001127 0.001133 0.001138 0.001144 0.001149 0.001154 0.001166 0.001177 0.001187 0.001197 0.001217 0.001235 0.001252 0.001286 0.001319 0.001352 0.001384 0.001418 0.001452 0.001488 0.001526 0.001566 0.001610 0.001657 0.001710 0.001770 0.001840 0.001926 0.002038 0.002207 0.002703 0.003106

Sat. vapor, vg

0.24035 0.22690 0.21489 0.20411 0.19436 0.17745 0.16326 0.15119 0.14078 0.13171

Evap., ufg

1856.1 1846.9 1838.1 1829.6 1821.4 1805.7 1790.9 1776.8 1763.4 1750.6 1720.6 1693.0 1667.3 1643.2 1598.5 1557.6 1519.3 1448.9 1384.1 1323.0 1264.5 1207.6 1151.8 1096.6 1041.3 985.5 928.7 870.3 809.4 745.1 675.9 598.9 509.0 391.9 140.8 0

Sat. vapor, ug

2576.0 2577.9 2579.6 2581.3 2582.8 2585.5 2587.8 2589.9 2591.8 2593.4

Evap., hfg

2047.5 2038.8 2030.5 2022.4 2014.6 1999.6 1985.4 1971.9 1958.9 1946.4 1917.1 1889.8 1864.3 1840.1 1794.9 1753.0 1713.5 1639.7 1570.9 1505.2 1441.6 1379.3 1317.6 1256.1 1194.1 1131.3 1067.0 1000.5 931.1 857.4 777.8 689.2 585.5 450.4 161.5 0

Sat. liquid, sf

2.0457 2.0705 2.0941 2.1166 2.1381 2.1785 2.2159 2.2508 2.2835 2.3143 2.3844 2.4467 2.5029 2.5542 2.6454 2.7253 2.7966 2.9207 3.0275 3.1220 3.2077 3.2866 3.3603 3.4299 3.4964 3.5606 3.6232 3.6848 3.7461 3.8082 3.8720 3.9396 4.0146 4.1071 4.2942 4.4070

Evap., sfg

4.6160 4.5705 4.5273 4.4862 4.4470 4.3735 4.3058 4.2428 4.1840 4.1287 4.0033 3.8923 3.7926 3.7016 3.5402 3.3991 3.2731 3.0530 2.8627 2.6927 2.5373 2.3925 2.2556 2.1245 1.9975 1.8730 1.7497 1.6261 1.5005 1.3709 1.2343 1.0860 0.9164 0.7005 0.2496 0

Sat. vapor, sg

6.6616 6.6409 6.6213 6.6027 6.5850 6.5520 6.5217 6.4936 6.4675 6.4430 6.3877 6.3390 6.2954 6.2558 6.1856 6.1244 6.0696 5.9737 5.8902 5.8148 5.7450 5.6791 5.6159 5.5544 5.4939 5.4336 5.3728 5.3108 5.2466 5.1791 5.1064 5.0256 4.9310 4.8076 4.5439 4.4070

0.11344 876.12 0.099587 906.12 0.088717 933.54 0.079952 958.87 0.066667 1004.6 0.057061 0.049779 0.039448 0.032449 0.027378 0.023525 0.020489 0.018028 0.015988 0.014264 0.012781 0.011487 0.010341 0.009312 0.008374 0.007504 0.006677 0.005862 0.004994 0.003644 0.003106 1045.4 1082.4 1148.1 1205.8 1258.0 1306.0 1350.9 1393.3 1433.9 1473.0 1511.0 1548.4 1585.5 1622.6 1660.2 1699.1 1740.3 1785.8 1841.6 1951.7 2015.7

2596.7 878.16 2599.1 908.47 2600.9 936.21 2602.1 961.87 2603.2 1008.3 2603.0 2601.7 2597.0 2589.9 2581.0 2570.5 2558.5 2545.2 2530.4 2514.3 2496.6 2477.1 2455.7 2432.0 2405.4 2375.0 2339.2 2294.8 2233.5 2092.4 2015.7 1049.7 1087.4 1154.5 1213.8 1267.5 1317.1 1363.7 1407.8 1450.2 1491.3 1531.4 1571.0 1610.3 1649.9 1690.3 1732.2 1776.8 1826.6 1888.0 2011.1 2084.3

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­6

Superheated water T °C v m3/kg

P Sat. 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 14.670 14.867 17.196 19.513 21.826 24.136 26.446 31.063 35.680 40.296 44.911 49.527 54.143 58.758 63.373 67.989 72.604 P Sat. 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.88578 0.95986 1.08049 1.19890 1.31623 1.54934 1.78142 2.01302 2.24434 2.47550 2.70656 2.93755 3.16848 3.39938 3.63026 P Sat. 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.37483 0.42503 0.47443 0.52261 0.57015 0.61731 0.71095 0.80409 0.89696 0.98966 1.08227 1.17480 1.26728 1.35972 1.45214

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

v m3/kg

P 3.2403 3.4187 3.8897 4.3562 4.8206 5.2841 6.2094 7.1338 8.0577 8.9813 9.9047 10.8280 11.7513 12.6745 13.5977 14.5209 P 0.60582 0.63402 0.71643 0.79645 0.87535 1.03155 1.18672 1.34139 1.49580 1.65004 1.80417 1.95824 2.11226 2.26624 2.42019 P 0.31560 0.35212 0.39390 0.43442 0.47428 0.51374 0.59200 0.66976 0.74725 0.82457 0.90179 0.97893 1.05603 1.13309 1.21012

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

v m3/kg

P

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

0.01 MPa (45.81°C)* 2437.2 2443.3 2515.5 2587.9 2661.4 2736.1 2812.3 2969.3 3132.9 3303.3 3480.8 3665.4 3856.9 4055.3 4260.0 4470.9 4687.4 2583.9 2592.0 2687.5 2783.0 2879.6 2977.5 3076.7 3280.0 3489.7 3706.3 3929.9 4160.6 4398.3 4642.8 4893.8 5150.8 5413.4 8.1488 8.1741 8.4489 8.6893 8.9049 9.1015 9.2827 9.6094 9.8998 10.1631 10.4056 10.6312 10.8429 11.0429 11.2326 11.4132 11.5857

0.05 MPa (81.32°C) 2483.2 2511.5 2585.7 2660.0 2735.1 2811.6 2968.9 3132.6 3303.1 3480.6 3665.2 3856.8 4055.2 4259.9 4470.8 4687.3 2645.2 2682.4 2780.2 2877.8 2976.2 3075.8 3279.3 3489.3 3706.0 3929.7 4160.4 4398.2 4642.7 4893.7 5150.7 5413.3 7.5931 7.6953 7.9413 8.1592 8.3568 8.5387 8.8659 9.1566 9.4201 9.6626 9.8883 10.1000 10.3000 10.4897 10.6704 10.8429

0.10 MPa (99.61°C) 2675.0 7.3589

1.6941 2505.6 1.6959 1.9367 2.1724 2.4062 2.6389 3.1027 3.5655 4.0279 4.4900 4.9519 5.4137 5.8755 6.3372 6.7988 7.2605 P 0.46242 0.47088 0.53434 0.59520 0.65489 0.77265 0.88936 1.00558 1.12152 1.23730 1.35298 1.46859 1.58414 1.69966 1.81516 P 0.24035 0.26088 0.29321 0.32416 0.35442 0.38429 0.44332 0.50186 0.56011 0.61820 0.67619 0.73411 0.79197 0.84980 0.90761 2506.2 2582.9 2658.2 2733.9 2810.7 2968.3 3132.2 3302.8 3480.4 3665.0 3856.7 4055.0 4259.8 4470.7 4687.2

2675.8 7.3611 2776.6 7.6148 2875.5 7.8356 2974.5 8.0346 3074.5 8.2172 3278.6 8.5452 3488.7 8.8362 3705.6 9.0999 3929.4 9.3424 4160.2 9.5682 4398.0 9.7800 4642.6 9.9800 4893.6 10.1698 5150.6 10.3504 5413.3 10.5229

0.20 MPa (120.21°C) 2529.1 2577.1 2654.6 2731.4 2808.8 2967.2 3131.4 3302.2 3479.9 3664.7 3856.3 4054.8 4259.6 4470.5 4687.1 2706.3 7.1270 2769.1 7.2810 2870.7 7.5081 2971.2 7.7100 3072.1 7.8941 3277.0 8.2236 3487.7 8.5153 3704.8 8.7793 3928.8 9.0221 4159.8 9.2479 4397.7 9.4598 4642.3 9.6599 4893.3 9.8497 5150.4 10.0304 5413.1 10.2029

0.30 MPa (133.52°C) 2543.2 2571.0 2651.0 2728.9 2807.0 2966.0 3130.6 3301.6 3479.5 3664.3 3856.0 4054.5 4259.4 4470.3 4686.9 2724.9 6.9917 2761.2 7.0792 2865.9 7.3132 2967.9 7.5180 3069.6 7.7037 3275.5 8.0347 3486.6 8.3271 3704.0 8.5915 3928.2 8.8345 4159.3 9.0605 4397.3 9.2725 4642.0 9.4726 4893.1 9.6624 5150.2 9.8431 5413.0 10.0157

0.40 MPa (143.61°C) 2553.1 2564.4 2647.2 2726.4 2805.1 2964.9 3129.8 3301.0 3479.0 3663.9 3855.7 4054.3 4259.2 4470.2 4686.7 2738.1 2752.8 2860.9 2964.5 3067.1 3273.9 3485.5 3703.3 3927.6 4158.9 4396.9 4641.7 4892.9 5150.0 5412.8 6.8955 6.9306 7.1723 7.3804 7.5677 7.9003 8.1933 8.4580 8.7012 8.9274 9.1394 9.3396 9.5295 9.7102 9.8828

0.50 MPa (151.83°C) 2560.7 2643.3 2723.8 2803.3 2883.0 2963.7 3129.0 3300.4 3478.6 3663.6 3855.4 4054.0 4259.0 4470.0 4686.6 2748.1 2855.8 2961.0 3064.6 3168.1 3272.4 3484.5 3702.5 3927.0 4158.4 4396.6 4641.4 4892.6 5149.8 5412.6 6.8207 7.0610 7.2725 7.4614 7.6346 7.7956 8.0893 8.3544 8.5978 8.8240 9.0362 9.2364 9.4263 9.6071 9.7797

0.60 MPa (158.83°C) 2566.8 2639.4 2721.2 2801.4 2881.6 2962.5 3128.2 3299.8 3478.1 3663.2 3855.1 4053.8 4258.8 4469.8 4686.4 2756.2 2850.6 2957.6 3062.0 3166.1 3270.8 3483.4 3701.7 3926.4 4157.9 4396.2 4641.1 4892.4 5149.6 5412.5 6.7593 6.9683 7.1833 7.3740 7.5481 7.7097 8.0041 8.2695 8.5132 8.7395 8.9518 9.1521 9.3420 9.5229 9.6955

0.80 MPa (170.41°C) 2576.0 2631.1 2715.9 2797.5 2878.6 2960.2 3126.6 3298.7 3477.2 3662.5 3854.5 4053.3 4258.3 4469.4 4686.1 2768.3 2839.8 2950.4 3056.9 3162.2 3267.7 3481.3 3700.1 3925.3 4157.0 4395.5 4640.5 4891.9 5149.3 5412.2 6.6616 6.8177 7.0402 7.2345 7.4107 7.5735 7.8692 8.1354 8.3794 8.6061 8.8185 9.0189 9.2090 9.3898 9.5625

*The temperature in parentheses is the saturation temperature at the specified pressure.

Properties of saturated vapor at the specified pressure.

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 921

Appendix 1 TABLE A­6

Superheated water (Continued) T °C v m3/kg

P Sat. 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.19437 0.20602 0.23275 0.25799 0.28250 0.30661 0.35411 0.40111 0.44783 0.49438 0.54083 0.58721 0.63354 0.67983 0.72610 P Sat. 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.12374 0.13293 0.14190 0.15866 0.17459 0.19007 0.22029 0.24999 0.27941 0.30865 0.33780 0.36687 0.39589 0.42488 0.45383 P Sat. 225 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.07995 0.08026 0.08705 0.09894 0.10979 0.12012 0.13015 0.13999 0.15931 0.17835 0.19722 0.21597 0.23466 0.25330 0.27190 0.29048

|

921

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s v kJ/kg K m3/kg

P 0.16326 0.16934 0.19241 0.21386 0.23455 0.25482 0.29464 0.33395 0.37297 0.41184 0.45059 0.48928 0.52792 0.56652 0.60509 P 0.11037 0.11678 0.12502 0.14025 0.15460 0.16849 0.19551 0.22200 0.24822 0.27426 0.30020 0.32606 0.35188 0.37766 0.40341 P 0.06667 0.07063 0.08118 0.09056 0.09938 0.10789 0.11620 0.13245 0.14841 0.16420 0.17988 0.19549 0.21105 0.22658 0.24207

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

v m3/kg

P 0.14078 0.14303 0.16356 0.18233 0.20029 0.21782 0.25216 0.28597 0.31951 0.35288 0.38614 0.41933 0.45247 0.48558 0.51866 P 0.09959 0.10381 0.11150 0.12551 0.13860 0.15122 0.17568 0.19962 0.22326 0.24674 0.27012 0.29342 0.31667 0.33989 0.36308 P 0.05706 0.05876 0.06845 0.07680 0.08456 0.09198 0.09919 0.11325 0.12702 0.14061 0.15410 0.16751 0.18087 0.19420 0.20750

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

1.00 MPa (179.88 C) 2582.8 2622.3 2710.4 2793.7 2875.7 2957.9 3125.0 3297.5 3476.3 3661.7 3853.9 4052.7 4257.9 4469.0 4685.8 2777.1 2828.3 2943.1 3051.6 3158.2 3264.5 3479.1 3698.6 3924.1 4156.1 4394.8 4640.0 4891.4 5148.9 5411.9 6.5850 6.6956 6.9265 7.1246 7.3029 7.4670 7.7642 8.0311 8.2755 8.5024 8.7150 8.9155 9.1057 9.2866 9.4593

1.20 MPa (187.96 C) 2587.8 2612.9 2704.7 2789.7 2872.7 2955.5 3123.4 3296.3 3475.3 3661.0 3853.3 4052.2 4257.5 4468.7 4685.5 2783.8 2816.1 2935.6 3046.3 3154.2 3261.3 3477.0 3697.0 3922.9 4155.2 4394.0 4639.4 4891.0 5148.5 5411.6 6.5217 6.5909 6.8313 7.0335 7.2139 7.3793 7.6779 7.9456 8.1904 8.4176 8.6303 8.8310 9.0212 9.2022 9.3750

1.40 MPa (195.04 C) 2591.8 2602.7 2698.9 2785.7 2869.7 2953.1 3121.8 3295.1 3474.4 3660.3 3852.7 4051.7 4257.0 4468.3 4685.1 2788.9 2803.0 2927.9 3040.9 3150.1 3258.1 3474.8 3695.5 3921.7 4154.3 4393.3 4638.8 4890.5 5148.1 5411.3 6.4675 6.4975 6.7488 6.9553 7.1379 7.3046 7.6047 7.8730 8.1183 8.3458 8.5587 8.7595 8.9497 9.1308 9.3036

1.60 MPa (201.37 C) 2594.8 2792.8 2645.1 2857.8 2692.9 2919.9 2781.6 3035.4 2866.6 3146.0 2950.8 3254.9 3120.1 3472.6 3293.9 3693.9 3473.5 3920.5 3659.5 4153.4 3852.1 4392.6 4051.2 4638.2 4256.6 4890.0 4467.9 5147.7 4684.8 5410.9 6.4200 6.5537 6.6753 6.8864 7.0713 7.2394 7.5410 7.8101 8.0558 8.2834 8.4965 8.6974 8.8878 9.0689 9.2418

1.80 MPa (207.11 C) 2597.3 2637.0 2686.7 2777.4 2863.6 2948.3 3118.5 3292.7 3472.6 3658.8 3851.5 4050.7 4256.2 4467.6 4684.5 2795.9 2847.2 2911.7 3029.9 3141.9 3251.6 3470.4 3692.3 3919.4 4152.4 4391.9 4637.6 4889.6 5147.3 5410.6 6.3775 6.4825 6.6088 6.8246 7.0120 7.1814 7.4845 7.7543 8.0005 8.2284 8.4417 8.6427 8.8331 9.0143 9.1872

2.00 MPa (212.38 C) 2599.1 2798.3 6.3390 2628.5 2836.1 6.4160 2680.3 2903.3 6.5475 2773.2 3024.2 6.7684 2860.5 3137.7 6.9583 2945.9 3248.4 7.1292 3116.9 3468.3 7.4337 3291.5 3690.7 7.7043 3471.7 3918.2 7.9509 3658.0 4151.5 8.1791 3850.9 4391.1 8.3925 4050.2 4637.1 8.5936 4255.7 4889.1 8.7842 4467.2 5147.0 8.9654 4684.2 5410.3 9.1384 3.50 MPa (242.56 C) 2603.0 2802.7 6.1244 6.1764 6.4484 6.6601 6.8428 7.0074 7.1593 7.4357 7.6855 7.9156 8.1304 8.3324 8.5236 8.7053 8.8786

2.50 MPa (223.95 C) 2602.1 2604.8 2663.3 2762.2 2852.5 2939.8 3026.2 3112.8 3288.5 3469.3 3656.2 3849.4 4049.0 4254.7 4466.3 4683.4 2801.9 6.2558 2805.5 6.2629 2880.9 6.4107 3009.6 6.6459 3127.0 6.8424 3240.1 7.0170 3351.6 7.1768 3462.8 7.3254 3686.8 7.5979 3915.2 7.8455 4149.2 8.0744 4389.3 8.2882 4635.6 8.4897 4887.9 8.6804 5146.0 8.8618 5409.5 9.0349

3.00 MPa (233.85 C) 2603.2 2644.7 2750.8 2844.4 2933.6 3021.2 3108.6 3285.5 3467.0 3654.3 3847.9 4047.7 4253.6 4465.3 4682.6 2803.2 2856.5 2994.3 3116.1 3231.7 3344.9 3457.2 3682.8 3912.2 4146.9 4387.5 4634.2 4886.7 5145.1 5408.8 6.1856 6.2893 6.5412 6.7450 6.9235 7.0856 7.2359 7.5103 7.7590 7.9885 8.2028 8.4045 8.5955 8.7771 8.9502

2624.0 2829.7 2738.8 2978.4 2836.0 3104.9 2927.2 3223.2 3016.1 3338.1 3104.5 3451.7 3282.5 3678.9 3464.7 3909.3 3652.5 4144.6 3846.4 4385.7 4046.4 4632.7 4252.5 4885.6 4464.4 5144.1 4681.8 5408.0

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 922

922

|

Thermodynamics

TABLE A­6

Superheated water (Continued) T °C v m3/kg

P Sat. 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.04978 0.05461 0.05887 0.06647 0.07343 0.08004 0.08644 0.09886 0.11098 0.12292 0.13476 0.14653 0.15824 0.16992 0.18157 P Sat. 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.03245 0.03619 0.04225 0.04742 0.05217 0.05667 0.06102 0.06527 0.07355 0.08165 0.08964 0.09756 0.10543 0.11326 0.12107 P Sat. 325 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.020489 0.023284 0.025816 0.029960 0.033524 0.036793 0.039885 0.042861 0.045755 0.048589 0.054132 0.059562 0.064919 0.070224 0.075492 0.080733

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s v kJ/kg K m3/kg

P 0.04406 0.04733 0.05138 0.05842 0.06477 0.07076 0.07652 0.08766 0.09850 0.10916 0.11972 0.13020 0.14064 0.15103 0.16140 P 0.027378 0.029492 0.035262 0.039958 0.044187 0.048157 0.051966 0.055665 0.062850 0.069856 0.076750 0.083571 0.090341 0.097075 0.103781 P 0.018028 0.019877 0.022440 0.026436 0.029782 0.032811 0.035655 0.038378 0.041018 0.043597 0.048629 0.053547 0.058391 0.063183 0.067938 0.072667

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s v kJ/kg K m3/kg

P 0.03945 0.04144 0.04535 0.05197 0.05784 0.06332 0.06858 0.07870 0.08852 0.09816 0.10769 0.11715 0.12655 0.13592 0.14527 P 0.023525 0.024279 0.029975 0.034344 0.038194 0.041767 0.045172 0.048463 0.054829 0.061011 0.067082 0.073079 0.079025 0.084934 0.090817 P

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

4.0 MPa (250.35 C) 2601.7 2668.9 2726.2 2827.4 2920.8 3011.0 3100.3 3279.4 3462.4 3650.6 3844.8 4045.1 4251.4 4463.5 4680.9 2800.8 2887.3 2961.7 3093.3 3214.5 3331.2 3446.0 3674.9 3906.3 4142.3 4383.9 4631.2 4884.4 5143.2 5407.2 6.0696 6.2312 6.3639 6.5843 6.7714 6.9386 7.0922 7.3706 7.6214 7.8523 8.0675 8.2698 8.4612 8.6430 8.8164

4.5 MPa (257.44 C) 2599.7 2651.4 2713.0 2818.6 2914.2 3005.8 3096.0 3276.4 3460.0 3648.8 3843.3 4043.9 4250.4 4462.6 4680.1 2798.0 2864.4 2944.2 3081.5 3205.7 3324.2 3440.4 3670.9 3903.3 4140.0 4382.1 4629.8 4883.2 5142.2 5406.5 6.0198 6.1429 6.2854 6.5153 6.7071 6.8770 7.0323 7.3127 7.5647 7.7962 8.0118 8.2144 8.4060 8.5880 8.7616

5.0 MPa (263.94 C) 2597.0 2632.3 2699.0 2809.5 2907.5 3000.6 3091.8 3273.3 3457.7 3646.9 3841.8 4042.6 4249.3 4461.6 4679.3 2794.2 2839.5 2925.7 3069.3 3196.7 3317.2 3434.7 3666.9 3900.3 4137.7 4380.2 4628.3 4882.1 5141.3 5405.7 5.9737 6.0571 6.2111 6.4516 6.6483 6.8210 6.9781 7.2605 7.5136 7.7458 7.9619 8.1648 8.3566 8.5388 8.7124

6.0 MPa (275.59 C) 2589.9 2668.4 2790.4 2893.7 2989.9 3083.1 3175.2 3267.2 3453.0 3643.2 3838.8 4040.1 4247.1 4459.8 4677.7 2784.6 2885.6 3043.9 3178.3 3302.9 3423.1 3541.3 3658.8 3894.3 4133.1 4376.6 4625.4 4879.7 5139.4 5404.1 5.8902 6.0703 6.3357 6.5432 6.7219 6.8826 7.0308 7.1693 7.4247 7.6582 7.8751 8.0786 8.2709 8.4534 8.6273

7.0 MPa (285.83 C) 2581.0 2633.5 2770.1 2879.5 2979.0 3074.3 3167.9 3261.0 3448.3 3639.5 3835.7 4037.5 4245.0 4457.9 4676.1 2772.6 2839.9 3016.9 3159.2 3288.3 3411.4 3531.6 3650.6 3888.3 4128.5 4373.0 4622.5 4877.4 5137.4 5402.6 5.8148 5.9337 6.2305 6.4502 6.6353 6.8000 6.9507 7.0910 7.3487 7.5836 7.8014 8.0055 8.1982 8.3810 8.5551

8.0 MPa (295.01 C) 2570.5 2592.3 2748.3 2864.6 2967.8 3065.4 3160.5 3254.7 3443.6 3635.7 3832.7 4035.0 4242.8 4456.1 4674.5 2758.7 2786.5 2988.1 3139.4 3273.3 3399.5 3521.8 3642.4 3882.2 4123.8 4369.3 4619.6 4875.0 5135.5 5401.0 5.7450 5.7937 6.1321 6.3658 6.5579 6.7266 6.8800 7.0221 7.2822 7.5185 7.7372 7.9419 8.1350 8.3181 8.4925

9.0 MPa (303.35 C) 2558.5 2647.6 2725.0 2849.2 2956.3 3056.3 3153.0 3248.4 3343.4 3438.8 3632.0 3829.6 4032.4 4240.7 4454.2 4672.9 2742.9 2857.1 2957.3 3118.8 3258.0 3387.4 3512.0 3634.1 3755.2 3876.1 4119.2 4365.7 4616.7 4872.7 5133.6 5399.5 5.6791 5.8738 6.0380 6.2876 6.4872 6.6603 6.8164 6.9605 7.0954 7.2229 7.4606 7.6802 7.8855 8.0791 8.2625 8.4371

10.0 MPa (311.00 C) 2545.2 2611.6 2699.6 2833.1 2944.5 3047.0 3145.4 3242.0 3338.0 3434.0 3628.2 3826.5 4029.9 4238.5 4452.4 4671.3 2725.5 2810.3 2924.0 3097.5 3242.4 3375.1 3502.0 3625.8 3748.1 3870.0 4114.5 4362.0 4613.8 4870.3 5131.7 5398.0 5.6159 5.7596 5.9460 6.2141 6.4219 6.5995 6.7585 6.9045 7.0408 7.1693 7.4085 7.6290 7.8349 8.0289 8.2126 8.3874

12.5 MPa (327.81 C) 2674.3 5.4638 2826.6 3040.0 3201.5 3343.6 3476.5 3604.6 3730.2 3854.6 4102.8 4352.9 4606.5 4864.5 5127.0 5394.1 5.7130 6.0433 6.2749 6.4651 6.6317 6.7828 6.9227 7.0540 7.2967 7.5195 7.7269 7.9220 8.1065 8.2819

0.013496 2505.6 0.016138 0.020030 0.023019 0.025630 0.028033 0.030306 0.032491 0.034612 0.038724 0.042720 0.046641 0.050510 0.054342 0.058147 2624.9 2789.6 2913.7 3023.2 3126.1 3225.8 3324.1 3422.0 3618.8 3818.9 4023.5 4233.1 4447.7 4667.3

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 923

Appendix 1 TABLE A­6

Superheated water (Concluded) T °C v m3/kg

P Sat. 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0.010341 0.011481 0.015671 0.018477 0.020828 0.022945 0.024921 0.026804 0.028621 0.032121 0.035503 0.038808 0.042062 0.045279 0.048469

|

923

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

v m3/kg

P

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s v kJ/kg K m3/kg

P

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

15.0 MPa (342.16 C) 2455.7 2520.9 2740.6 2880.8 2998.4 3106.2 3209.3 3310.1 3409.8 3609.3 3811.2 4017.1 4227.7 4443.1 4663.3 P 2610.8 2693.1 2975.7 3157.9 3310.8 3450.4 3583.1 3712.1 3839.1 4091.1 4343.7 4599.2 4858.6 5122.3 5390.3 5.3108 5.4438 5.8819 6.1434 6.3480 6.5230 6.6796 6.8233 6.9573 7.2037 7.4288 7.6378 7.8339 8.0192 8.1952

17.5 MPa (354.67 C)

20.0 MPa (365.75 C) 4.9310 5.5526 5.9043 6.1446 6.3390 6.5075 6.6593 6.7991 7.0531 7.2829 7.4950 7.6933 7.8802 8.0574

0.007932 2390.7 2529.5 5.1435 0.012463 0.015204 0.017385 0.019305 0.021073 0.022742 0.024342 0.027405 0.030348 0.033215 0.036029 0.038806 0.041556 2684.3 2845.4 2972.4 3085.8 3192.5 3295.8 3397.5 3599.7 3803.5 4010.7 4222.3 4438.5 4659.2 P 2902.4 3111.4 3276.7 3423.6 3561.3 3693.8 3823.5 4079.3 4334.6 4592.0 4852.8 5117.6 5386.5 5.7211 6.0212 6.2424 6.4266 6.5890 6.7366 6.8735 7.1237 7.3511 7.5616 7.7588 7.9449 8.1215

0.005862 2294.8 2412.1 0.009950 0.012721 0.014793 0.016571 0.018185 0.019695 0.021134 0.023870 0.026484 0.029020 0.031504 0.033952 0.036371 2617.9 2807.3 2945.3 3064.7 3175.3 3281.4 3385.1 3590.1 3795.7 4004.3 4216.9 4433.8 4655.2 P 2816.9 3061.7 3241.2 3396.2 3539.0 3675.3 3807.8 4067.5 4325.4 4584.7 4847.0 5112.9 5382.7

25.0 MPa 1849.4 2578.7 2805.0 2950.6 3165.9 3339.2 3493.5 3637.7 3776.0 4043.8 4307.1 4570.2 4835.4 5103.5 5375.1 4.0345 5.1400 5.4708 5.6759 5.9643 6.1816 6.3637 6.5243 6.6702 6.9322 7.1668 7.3821 7.5825 7.7710 7.9494 0.001792 0.002798 0.005299 0.006737 0.008691 0.010175 0.011445 0.012590 0.013654 0.015628 0.017473 0.019240 0.020954 0.022630 0.024279

30.0 MPa 1791.9 2152.8 2611.8 2821.0 3084.8 3279.7 3446.8 3599.4 3743.9 4020.0 4288.8 4555.8 4823.9 5094.2 5367.6 3.9313 4.4758 5.1473 5.4422 5.7956 6.0403 6.2373 6.4074 6.5599 6.8301 7.0695 7.2880 7.4906 7.6807 7.8602 0.001701 0.002105 0.003434 0.004957 0.006933 0.008348 0.009523 0.010565 0.011523 0.013278 0.014904 0.016450 0.017942 0.019398 0.020827

35.0 MPa 1762.4 1988.6 2373.5 2671.0 2997.9 3218.0 3399.0 3560.7 3711.6 3996.3 4270.6 4541.5 4812.4 5085.0 5360.2 3.8724 4.2144 4.7751 5.1946 5.6331 5.9093 6.1229 6.3030 6.4623 6.7409 6.9853 7.2069 7.4118 7.6034 7.7841

375 400 425 450 500 550 600 650 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

0.001978 0.006005 0.007886 0.009176 0.011143 0.012736 0.014140 0.015430 0.016643 0.018922 0.021075 0.023150 0.025172 0.027157 0.029115

1799.9 2428.5 2607.8 2721.2 2887.3 3020.8 3140.0 3251.9 3359.9 3570.7 3780.2 3991.5 4206.1 4424.6 4647.2 P

1738.1 2068.9 2452.9 2618.9 2824.0 2974.5 3103.4 3221.7 3334.3 3551.2 3764.6 3978.6 4195.2 4415.3 4639.2 P

1702.8 1914.9 2253.3 2497.5 2755.3 2925.8 3065.6 3190.9 3308.3 3531.6 3749.0 3965.8 4184.4 4406.1 4631.2 P

40.0 MPa 1742.6 1931.4 2199.0 2511.8 2906.5 3154.4 3350.4 3521.6 3679.2 3972.6 4252.5 4527.3 4801.1 5075.9 5352.8 3.8290 4.1145 4.5044 4.9449 5.4744 5.7857 6.0170 6.2078 6.3740 6.6613 6.9107 7.1355 7.3425 7.5357 7.7175 0.001560 0.001731 0.002009 0.002487 0.003890 0.005118 0.006108 0.006957 0.007717 0.009073 0.010296 0.011441 0.012534 0.013590 0.014620

50.0 MPa 1716.6 1874.4 2060.7 2284.7 2722.6 3025.4 3252.6 3443.5 3614.6 3925.8 4216.8 4499.4 4778.9 5058.1 5338.5 3.7642 4.0029 4.2746 4.5896 5.1762 5.5563 5.8245 6.0373 6.2179 6.5225 6.7819 7.0131 7.2244 7.4207 7.6048 0.001503 0.001633 0.001816 0.002086 0.002952 0.003955 0.004833 0.005591 0.006265 0.007456 0.008519 0.009504 0.010439 0.011339 0.012213

60.0 MPa 1699.9 1843.2 2001.8 2180.2 2570.3 2901.9 3156.8 3366.8 3551.3 3880.0 4182.1 4472.2 4757.3 5040.8 5324.5 3.7149 3.9317 4.1630 4.4140 4.9356 5.3517 5.6527 5.8867 6.0814 6.4033 6.6725 6.9099 7.1255 7.3248 7.5111

375 400 425 450 500 550 600 650 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

0.001641 0.001911 0.002538 0.003692 0.005623 0.006985 0.008089 0.009053 0.009930 0.011521 0.012980 0.014360 0.015686 0.016976 0.018239

1677.0 1855.0 2097.5 2364.2 2681.6 2875.1 3026.8 3159.5 3282.0 3511.8 3733.3 3952.9 4173.7 4396.9 4623.3

1638.6 1787.8 1960.3 2160.3 2528.1 2769.5 2947.1 3095.6 3228.7 3472.2 3702.0 3927.4 4152.2 4378.6 4607.5

1609.7 1745.2 1892.9 2055.1 2393.2 2664.6 2866.8 3031.3 3175.4 3432.6 3670.9 3902.0 4130.9 4360.5 4591.8

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924

|

Thermodynamics

TABLE A­7

Compressed liquid water T °C v m3/kg

P

Sat. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s v kJ/kg K m3/kg

P

2.9207 0.0001 0.2954 0.5705 0.8287 1.0723 1.3034 1.5236 1.7344 1.9374 2.1338 2.3251 2.5127 2.6983 2.8841 0.0014522 0.0009952 0.0009973 0.0010035 0.0010127 0.0010244 0.0010385 0.0010549 0.0010738 0.0010954 0.0011200 0.0011482 0.0011809 0.0012192 0.0012653 0.0013226 0.0013980

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s v kJ/kg K m3/kg

P

3.3603 0.0003 0.2943 0.5685 0.8260 1.0691 1.2996 1.5191 1.7293 1.9316 2.1271 2.3174 2.5037 2.6876 2.8710 3.0565 3.2488 0.0016572 0.0009928 0.0009951 0.0010013 0.0010105 0.0010221 0.0010361 0.0010522 0.0010708 0.0010920 0.0011160 0.0011435 0.0011752 0.0012121 0.0012560 0.0013096 0.0013783 0.0014733 0.0016311

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

5 MPa (263.94 C)

10 MPa (311.00 C)

1393.3 0.12 83.31 166.33 249.43 332.69 416.23 500.18 584.72 670.06 756.48 844.32 934.01 1026.2 1121.6 1221.8 1329.4 1407.9 10.07 93.28 176.37 259.55 342.94 426.62 510.73 595.45 681.01 767.68 855.80 945.82 1038.3 1134.3 1235.0 1343.3

15 MPa (342.16 C)

1585.5 0.18 83.01 165.75 248.58 331.59 414.85 498.50 582.69 667.63 753.58 840.84 929.81 1021.0 1115.1 1213.4 1317.6 1431.9 1567.9 1610.3 15.07 97.93 180.77 263.74 346.92 430.39 514.28 598.75 684.01 770.32 858.00 947.43 1039.2 1134.0 1233.0 1338.3 1454.0 1592.4 3.6848 0.0004 0.2932 0.5666 0.8234 1.0659 1.2958 1.5148 1.7243 1.9259 2.1206 2.3100 2.4951 2.6774 2.8586 3.0410 3.2279 3.4263 3.6555

0.0012862 1148.1 1154.5 0.0009977 0.04 5.03 0.0009996 83.61 88.61 0.0010057 166.92 171.95 0.0010149 250.29 255.36 0.0010267 333.82 338.96 0.0010410 417.65 422.85 0.0010576 501.91 507.19 0.0010769 586.80 592.18 0.0010988 672.55 678.04 0.0011240 759.47 765.09 0.0011531 847.92 853.68 0.0011868 938.39 944.32 0.0012268 1031.6 1037.7 0.0012755 1128.5 1134.9

P

Sat. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 0.0020378 0.0009904 0.0009929 0.0009992 0.0010084 0.0010199 0.0010337 0.0010496 0.0010679 0.0010886 0.0011122 0.0011390 0.0011697 0.0012053 0.0012472 0.0012978 0.0013611 0.0014450 0.0015693 0.0018248

20 MPa (365.75 C)

1785.8 0.23 82.71 165.17 247.75 330.50 413.50 496.85 580.71 665.28 750.78 837.49 925.77 1016.1 1109.0 1205.6 1307.2 1416.6 1540.2 1703.6 1826.6 20.03 102.57 185.16 267.92 350.90 434.17 517.84 602.07 687.05 773.02 860.27 949.16 1040.2 1134.0 1231.5 1334.4 1445.5 1571.6 1740.1 4.0146 0.0005 0.2921 0.5646 0.8208 1.0627 1.2920 1.5105 1.7194 1.9203 2.1143 2.3027 2.4867 2.6676 2.8469 3.0265 3.2091 3.3996 3.6086 3.8787 0.0009857 0.0009886 0.0009951 0.0010042 0.0010155 0.0010290 0.0010445 0.0010623 0.0010823 0.0011049 0.0011304 0.0011595 0.0011927 0.0012314 0.0012770 0.0013322 0.0014014 0.0014932 0.0016276 0.0018729

P

30 MPa

29.86 111.77 193.90 276.26 358.86 441.74 525.00 608.76 693.21 778.55 865.02 952.93 1042.7 1134.7 1229.8 1328.9 1433.7 1547.1 1675.6 1838.2 0.0003 0.2897 0.5607 0.8156 1.0564 1.2847 1.5020 1.7098 1.9094 2.1020 2.2888 2.4707 2.6491 2.8250 3.0001 3.1761 3.3558 3.5438 3.7499 4.0026 0.0009767 0.0009805 0.0009872 0.0009962 0.0010072 0.0010201 0.0010349 0.0010517 0.0010704 0.0010914 0.0011149 0.0011412 0.0011708 0.0012044 0.0012430 0.0012879 0.0013409 0.0014049 0.0014848 0.0015884

P

50 MPa

49.13 129.95 211.25 292.88 374.78 456.94 539.43 622.36 705.85 790.06 875.19 961.45 1049.1 1138.4 1229.9 1324.0 1421.4 1523.1 1630.7 1746.5 0.0010 0.2845 0.5528 0.8055 1.0442 1.2705 1.4859 1.6916 1.8889 2.0790 2.2628 2.4414 2.6156 2.7864 2.9547 3.1218 3.2888 3.4575 3.6301 3.8102

0.29 82.11 164.05 246.14 328.40 410.87 493.66 576.90 660.74 745.40 831.11 918.15 1006.9 1097.8 1191.5 1288.9 1391.7 1502.4 1626.8 1782.0

0.29 80.93 161.90 243.08 324.42 405.94 487.69 569.77 652.33 735.49 819.45 904.39 990.55 1078.2 1167.7 1259.6 1354.3 1452.9 1556.5 1667.1

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 925

Appendix 1 TABLE A­8

Saturated ice­water vapor Specific volume, m3/kg Temp., T °C

0.01 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

|

925

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. ice, ui

333.40 333.43 337.63 341.80 345.94 350.04 354.12 358.17 362.18 366.17 370.13 374.06 377.95 381.82 385.66 389.47 393.25 397.00 400.72 404.40 408.07 411.70

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. ice, hi

333.40 333.43 337.63 341.80 345.93 350.04 354.12 358.17 362.18 366.17 370.13 374.06 377.95 381.82 385.66 389.47 393.25 397.00 400.72 404.40 408.07 411.70

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. vapor, hg

2500.5 2500.5 2496.8 2493.2 2489.5 2485.8 2482.1 2478.4 2474.7 2471.0 2467.3 2463.6 2459.9 2456.2 2452.5 2448.8 2445.1 2441.4 2437.7 2434.0 2430.3 2426.6

Sat. press., Psat kPa

0.61169 0.61115 0.51772 0.43748 0.36873 0.30998 0.25990 0.21732 0.18121 0.15068 0.12492 0.10326 0.08510 0.06991 0.05725 0.04673 0.03802 0.03082 0.02490 0.02004 0.01608 0.01285

Sat. ice, vi

0.001091 0.001091 0.001091 0.001090 0.001090 0.001090 0.001089 0.001089 0.001088 0.001088 0.001088 0.001087 0.001087 0.001087 0.001087 0.001086 0.001086 0.001086 0.001085 0.001085 0.001085 0.001084

Sat. vapor, vg

205.99 206.17 241.62 283.84 334.27 394.66 467.17 554.47 659.88 787.51 942.51 1131.3 1362.0 1644.7 1992.2 2421.0 2951.7 3610.9 4432.4 5460.1 6750.5 8376.7

Subl., uig

2707.9 2707.9 2709.4 2710.8 2712.2 2713.5 2714.8 2716.1 2717.3 2718.6 2719.7 2720.9 2722.0 2723.1 2724.2 2725.2 2726.2 2727.2 2728.1 2729.0 2729.9 2730.7

Sat. vapor, ug

2374.5 2374.5 2371.8 2369.0 2366.2 2363.5 2360.7 2357.9 2355.2 2352.4 2349.6 2346.8 2344.1 2341.3 2338.5 2335.7 2332.9 2330.2 2327.4 2324.6 2321.8 2319.0

Subl., hig

2833.9 2833.9 2834.5 2835.0 2835.4 2835.8 2836.2 2836.6 2836.9 2837.2 2837.5 2837.7 2837.9 2838.1 2838.2 2838.3 2838.4 2838.4 2838.5 2838.4 2838.4 2838.3

Sat. ice, si

1.2202 1.2204 1.2358 1.2513 1.2667 1.2821 1.2976 1.3130 1.3284 1.3439 1.3593 1.3748 1.3903 1.4057 1.4212 1.4367 1.4521 1.4676 1.4831 1.4986 1.5141 1.5296

Subl., sig

10.374 10.375 10.453 10.533 10.613 10.695 10.778 10.862 10.947 11.033 11.121 11.209 11.300 11.391 11.484 11.578 11.673 11.770 11.869 11.969 12.071 12.174

Sat. vapor, sg

9.154 9.154 9.218 9.282 9.347 9.413 9.480 9.549 9.618 9.689 9.761 9.835 9.909 9.985 10.063 10.141 10.221 10.303 10.386 10.470 10.557 10.644

926

550 00 0

50 00

0 1200

h = 5000 kJ/kg 5000

4500

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 1200

|

1100

4800

h = 4200 kJ/ kg

4900

1100

4700 4600 4500

1000

k kg/m 3 k

4000 3800

3 k 3 k 300 k g/m 3 g g

1000

Den e si e ty ty = ty

900

3600 3400

4400 4300 4200 4100

Thermodynamics

900 800

4000

800

3200

P= = =3 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 00 b 0 r r 15 000 ar 5 5 100 000 1 1 0 0 0 0 80000 0 00 50 0 0 4 000 6000 0 0 0 30000 00 0 20 0 15 00 00 0 0

700

3000

10 0 00 0 0 0

3900

700

3800

28 3200

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 926

600

2600

2400

3700

600

3600

Temperature, °C

500

1800

3500

500

3400 3300

kJ/ 2200 kg h= 000 2

400

1600

0 140

0 80 0 60 0 50 0 40 0 35 00 3 0 25 0 20 0 15

400

0 10 80 0 6

3200

Sa tu

300

0 120 0 100

3100

ra

300

te d

200

14

ate tur Sa

id iqu dl

3000

va p

20

or

00

2900

200

00

22

00

1

1 20

00

1 00 0

% 10

24

h=

30 0% 0

4 4 40%

100

60 0

= ty ali Qu

100 k 1 1 4 4 40 g/m 3 g/m 3 g/m 3 30 0 0 20 0 0 1 15 1 30 kg 0 /m 3 0 8 8 8 1 1 1 0 6 4 10 kg kg/m 3 kg 3 2 1 1.5 1 3 kg/m 3 0 g g .8 1 1 1 0.6 .0 6 6 0.4 1 1 1 kg/m 3 4 4 0 0 0 .3 0.2 0.3 0.1 kg/m 3 k k 0.0 0 0 5 5 5 0.08 0. 0 01 6 6 6 0.1 0. 1 1 kg 04 /m 3 m m 4 0.04 3 3 3 0...0 0...02 0 0 15 5 5 0 0 0.0 3 3k 3 De n 0... g/m 3 en en / / 00 sity y y= 8 0 0 0.01 k k kg/m 3

% 20

00

26

00

2800

18

0 60

0

k J/k

80 0

g

Qu

100

50%

70

0. 0 0 0 006 0 0 0... .004 4 0 4 0 0 0. 03 0 0 00 2 2 2

h = 40

0k

%

80%

a lit

60%

y=

90 %

2650 h = 2600 kJ/kg 2650 2550

20 0

J/ k

g

0 0 1 2 3

4

5 Entropy, kJ/kg · K

6

7

8

9

0 10

FIGURE A­9 T-s diagram for water.

Copyright © 1984. From NBS/NRC Steam Tables/1 by Lester Haar, John S. Gallagher, and George S. Kell. Reproduced by permission of Routledge/Taylor & Francis Books, Inc.

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 927

Appendix 1

5000 2 3 4 5

11 11 °C 1100°C 10 10 °C 1000°C

|

927

6

C 0° 10 =1

7

8

9

10 5000

T

4000

300 00 bar

De n s 100 it y = 1 00 000 kg 800 /m 3 0 600 0 500 40000 3000 20 15 00 800 10 00 00 6 4000 5 0 00 30 2000 1 00 k g/ m 3 80 1150 00 60 40 50 30 20 15 10 k 10 g/ m 3

90 °C 900°C 90

4000

8 8 °C 800°C

250 00

P=

°C °C 700°C

200 00

150 00

1 kg

/m 3

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

0.1 kg

3 2 1.5 1.0

8 6 4

2000

98% 96% Qu 94% a lit y = 92% 90 % 88 86% % 84% 82% 80% 78 76 % 74 % 72 % 70 % 68 % %

0. 0. 3 0 0. .08 0.12 06 0 5 0. .1 04 0.0 5 0.0 0. 3 01 0. 5 01

0 0. .8 0.4 6

02 0.

P

=

r ba 08 0.0

De

nsi ty =

3000

0° 0° 500°C

40 400° 400°C

0.0 1

k g/ m 3

5

0° 600°C

/m 3

3000

= 30 = 300° T = 300°C

2000

% % % 66 % 64 % 62 % 0 0 60 % % 58% 5 5 56% % % 54% 2 2 52% 5 50% 5 48% 46% 44% 44% 44% 42% 40%

1000

2

3

4

5

6 Entropy, kJ/kg · K

7

8

9

1000 10

FIGURE A-10 Mollier diagram for water.

Copyright © 1984. From NBS/NRC Steam Tables/1 by Lester Haar, John S. Gallagher, and George S. Kell. Reproduced by permission of Routledge/Taylor & Francis Books, Inc.

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928

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­11

Saturated refrigerant-134a--Temperature table Specific volume, m3/kg Sat. Sat. Temp., press., liquid, T °C Psat kPa vf

40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 51.25 56.86 62.95 69.56 76.71 84.43 92.76 101.73 111.37 121.72 132.82 144.69 157.38 170.93 185.37 200.74 217.08 234.44 252.85 272.36 293.01 314.84 337.90 362.23 387.88 414.89 443.31 473.19 504.58 537.52 0.0007054 0.0007083 0.0007112 0.0007142 0.0007172 0.0007203 0.0007234 0.0007265 0.0007297 0.0007329 0.0007362 0.0007396 0.0007430 0.0007464 0.0007499 0.0007535 0.0007571 0.0007608 0.0007646 0.0007684 0.0007723 0.0007763 0.0007804 0.0007845 0.0007887 0.0007930 0.0007975 0.0008020 0.0008066 0.0008113

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, uf

0.036 2.475 4.992 7.517 10.05 12.59 15.13 17.69 20.25 22.82 25.39 27.98 30.57 33.17 35.78 38.40 41.03 43.66 46.31 48.96 51.63 54.30 56.99 59.68 62.39 65.10 67.83 70.57 73.32 76.08

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, Evap., hf hfg

225.86 224.61 223.35 222.09 220.81

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. vapor, hg

225.86 227.12 228.39 229.65 230.91

Sat. vapor, vg

0.36081 0.32732 0.29751 0.27090 0.24711 0.22580 0.20666 0.18946 0.17395 0.15995 0.14729 0.13583 0.12542 0.11597 0.10736 0.099516 0.092352 0.085802 0.079804 0.074304 0.069255 0.064612 0.060338 0.056398 0.052762 0.049403 0.046295 0.043417 0.040748 0.038271

Evap., ufg

207.40 206.04 204.67 203.29 201.91 200.52 199.12 197.72 196.30 194.88 193.45 192.01 190.56 189.09 187.62 186.14 184.64 183.13 181.61 180.08 178.53 176.97 175.39 173.80 172.19 170.56 168.92 167.26 165.58 163.88

Sat. vapor, ug

Sat. liquid, sf

0.00000 0.01072 0.02138 0.03199 0.04253 0.05301 0.06344 0.07382 0.08414 0.09441 0.10463 0.11481 0.12493 0.13501 0.14504 0.15504 0.16498 0.17489 0.18476 0.19459 0.20439 0.21415 0.22387 0.23356 0.24323 0.25286 0.26246 0.27204 0.28159 0.29112

Evap., sfg

0.96866 0.95511 0.94176 0.92859 0.91560 0.90278 0.89012 0.87762 0.86527 0.85307 0.84101 0.82908 0.81729 0.80561 0.79406 0.78263 0.77130 0.76008 0.74896 0.73794 0.72701 0.71616 0.70540 0.69471 0.68410 0.67356 0.66308 0.65266 0.64230 0.63198

Sat. vapor, sg

0.96866 0.96584 0.96315 0.96058 0.95813 0.95579 0.95356 0.95144 0.94941 0.94748 0.94564 0.94389 0.94222 0.94063 0.93911 0.93766 0.93629 0.93497 0.93372 0.93253 0.93139 0.93031 0.92927 0.92828 0.92733 0.92641 0.92554 0.92470 0.92389 0.92310

207.37 0.000 208.51 2.515 209.66 5.037 210.81 7.566 211.96 10.10 213.11 214.25 215.40 216.55 217.70 218.84 219.98 221.13 222.27 223.40 224.54 225.67 226.80 227.92 229.04 230.16 231.27 232.38 233.48 234.58 235.67 236.75 237.83 238.90 239.96 12.65 15.20 17.76 20.33 22.91 25.49 28.09 30.69 33.30 35.92 38.55 41.19 43.84 46.50 49.17 51.86 54.55 57.25 59.97 62.69 65.43 68.18 70.95 73.73 76.52

219.52 232.17 218.22 233.43 216.92 234.68 215.59 235.92 214.26 s237.17 212.91 211.55 210.18 208.79 207.38 205.96 204.52 203.07 201.60 200.11 198.60 197.07 195.51 193.94 192.35 190.73 189.09 187.42 185.73 184.01 238.41 239.64 240.87 242.09 243.30 244.51 245.72 246.91 248.10 249.28 250.45 251.61 252.77 253.91 255.04 256.16 257.27 258.37 259.46 260.53

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 929

Appendix 1 TABLE A­11

Saturated refrigerant-134a--Temperature table (Continued) Specific volume, m3/kg Sat. Sat. Temp., press., liquid, T °C Psat kPa vf

20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 52 56 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 572.07 608.27 646.18 685.84 727.31 770.64 815.89 863.11 912.35 963.68 1017.1 1072.8 1130.7 1191.0 1253.6 1386.2 1529.1 1682.8 1891.0 2118.2 2365.8 2635.3 2928.2 3246.9 3594.1 3975.1 0.0008161 0.0008210 0.0008261 0.0008313 0.0008366 0.0008421 0.0008478 0.0008536 0.0008595 0.0008657 0.0008720 0.0008786 0.0008854 0.0008924 0.0008996 0.0009150 0.0009317 0.0009498 0.0009750 0.0010037 0.0010372 0.0010772 0.0011270 0.0011932 0.0012933 0.0015269

|

929

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. Sat. liquid, Evap., vapor, uf ufg ug

78.86 81.64 84.44 87.26 90.09 92.93 95.79 98.66 101.55 104.45 107.38 110.32 113.28 116.26 119.26 125.33 131.49 137.76 145.77 154.01 162.53 171.40 180.77 190.89 202.40 218.72 162.16 160.42 158.65 156.87 155.05 153.22 151.35 149.46 147.54 145.58 143.60 141.58 139.52 137.42 135.29 130.88 126.28 121.46 115.05 108.14 100.60 92.23 82.67 71.29 56.47 29.19 241.02 242.06 243.10 244.12 245.14 246.14 247.14 248.12 249.08 250.04 250.97 251.89 252.80 253.68 254.55 256.21 257.77 259.22 260.82 262.15 263.13 263.63 263.44 262.18 258.87 247.91

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, Evap., hf hfg

79.32 82.14 84.98 87.83 90.69 93.58 96.48 99.40 102.33 105.29 108.26 111.26 114.28 117.32 120.39 126.59 132.91 139.36 147.62 156.13 164.98 174.24 184.07 194.76 207.05 224.79 182.27 180.49 178.69 176.85 174.99 173.08 171.14 169.17 167.16 165.10 163.00 160.86 158.67 156.43 154.14 149.39 144.38 139.10 132.02 124.32 115.85 106.35 95.44 82.35 65.21 33.58

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. vapor, hg

261.59 262.64 263.67 264.68 265.68 266.66 267.62 268.57 269.49 270.39 271.27 272.12 272.95 273.75 274.53 275.98 277.30 278.46 279.64 280.46 280.82 280.59 279.51 277.11 272.26 258.37

Sat. vapor, vg

0.035969 0.033828 0.031834 0.029976 0.028242 0.026622 0.025108 0.023691 0.022364 0.021119 0.019952 0.018855 0.017824 0.016853 0.015939 0.014265 0.012771 0.011434 0.009950 0.008642 0.007480 0.006436 0.005486 0.004599 0.003726 0.002630

Sat. liquid, sf

0.30063 0.31011 0.31958 0.32903 0.33846 0.34789 0.35730 0.36670 0.37609 0.38548 0.39486 0.40425 0.41363 0.42302 0.43242 0.45126 0.47018 0.48920 0.51320 0.53755 0.56241 0.58800 0.61473 0.64336 0.67578 0.72217

Evap., sfg

0.62172 0.61149 0.60130 0.59115 0.58102 0.57091 0.56082 0.55074 0.54066 0.53058 0.52049 0.51039 0.50027 0.49012 0.47993 0.45941 0.43863 0.41749 0.39039 0.36227 0.33272 0.30111 0.26644 0.22674 0.17711 0.08999

Sat. vapor, sg

0.92234 0.92160 0.92088 0.92018 0.91948 0.91879 0.91811 0.91743 0.91675 0.91606 0.91536 0.91464 0.91391 0.91315 0.91236 0.91067 0.90880 0.90669 0.90359 0.89982 0.89512 0.88912 0.88117 0.87010 0.85289 0.81215

Source: Tables A­11 through A­13 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the R134a, which is based on the fundamental equation of state developed by R. Tillner-Roth and H.D. Baehr, "An International Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to 70 MPa," J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994. The enthalpy and entropy values of saturated liquid are set to zero at 40°C (and 40°F).

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930

|

Thermodynamics

TABLE A­12

Saturated refrigerant-134a--Pressure table Specific volume, m3/kg Sat. Sat. Press., temp., liquid, P kPa Tsat °C vf

60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 240 280 320 360 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2500 3000 36.95 33.87 31.13 28.65 26.37 22.32 18.77 15.60 12.73 10.09 5.38 1.25 2.46 5.82 8.91 12.46 15.71 18.73 21.55 24.20 26.69 29.06 31.31 33.45 35.51 37.48 39.37 46.29 52.40 57.88 62.87 67.45 77.54 86.16 0.0007098 0.0007144 0.0007185 0.0007223 0.0007259 0.0007324 0.0007383 0.0007437 0.0007487 0.0007533 0.0007620 0.0007699 0.0007772 0.0007841 0.0007907 0.0007985 0.0008059 0.0008130 0.0008199 0.0008266 0.0008331 0.0008395 0.0008458 0.0008520 0.0008580 0.0008641 0.0008700 0.0008934 0.0009166 0.0009400 0.0009639 0.0009886 0.0010566 0.0011406

Internal energy, kJ/kg Sat. Sat. liquid, Evap., vapor, uf ufg ug

3.798 7.680 11.15 14.31 17.21 22.40 26.98 31.09 34.83 38.28 44.48 49.97 54.92 59.44 63.62 68.45 72.93 77.10 81.02 84.72 88.24 91.59 94.79 97.87 100.83 103.69 106.45 116.70 125.94 134.43 142.33 149.78 166.99 183.04 205.32 203.20 201.30 199.57 197.98 195.11 192.57 190.27 188.16 186.21 182.67 179.50 176.61 173.94 171.45 168.54 165.82 163.25 160.81 158.48 156.24 154.08 152.00 149.98 148.01 146.10 144.23 137.11 130.43 124.04 117.83 111.73 96.47 80.22 209.12 210.88 212.46 213.88 215.19 217.51 219.54 221.35 222.99 224.48 227.14 229.46 231.52 233.38 235.07 237.00 238.75 240.35 241.83 243.20 244.48 245.67 246.79 247.85 248.85 249.79 250.68 253.81 256.37 258.47 260.17 261.51 263.45 263.26

Enthalpy, kJ/kg Sat. liquid, hf

3.841 7.730 11.21 14.37 17.28 22.49 27.08 31.21 34.97 38.43 44.66 50.18 55.16 59.72 63.94 68.81 73.33 77.54 81.51 85.26 88.82 92.22 95.47 98.60 101.61 104.51 107.32 117.77 127.22 135.93 144.07 151.76 169.63 186.46

Entropy, kJ/kg · K Sat. liquid, sf

0.01634 0.03267 0.04711 0.06008 0.07188 0.09275 0.11087 0.12693 0.14139 0.15457 0.17794 0.19829 0.21637 0.23270 0.24761 0.26465 0.28023 0.29461 0.30799 0.32051 0.33230 0.34345 0.35404 0.36413 0.37377 0.38301 0.39189 0.42441 0.45315 0.47911 0.50294 0.52509 0.57531 0.62118

Sat. vapor, vg

0.31121 0.26929 0.23753 0.21263 0.19254 0.16212 0.14014 0.12348 0.11041 0.099867 0.083897 0.072352 0.063604 0.056738 0.051201 0.045619 0.041118 0.037408 0.034295 0.031646 0.029361 0.027371 0.025621 0.024069 0.022683 0.021438 0.020313 0.016715 0.014107 0.012123 0.010559 0.009288 0.006936 0.005275

Sat. Evap., vapor, hfg hg

223.95 222.00 220.25 218.65 217.16 214.48 212.08 209.90 207.90 206.03 202.62 199.54 196.71 194.08 191.62 188.71 185.98 183.38 180.90 178.51 176.21 173.98 171.82 169.71 167.66 165.64 163.67 156.10 148.90 141.93 135.11 128.33 111.16 92.63 227.79 229.73 231.46 233.02 234.44 236.97 239.16 241.11 242.86 244.46 247.28 249.72 251.88 253.81 255.55 257.53 259.30 260.92 262.40 263.77 265.03 266.20 267.29 268.31 269.26 270.15 270.99 273.87 276.12 277.86 279.17 280.09 280.79 279.09

Evap., sfg

0.94807 0.92775 0.90999 0.89419 0.87995 0.85503 0.83368 0.81496 0.79826 0.78316 0.75664 0.73381 0.71369 0.69566 0.67929 0.66069 0.64377 0.62821 0.61378 0.60030 0.58763 0.57567 0.56431 0.55349 0.54315 0.53323 0.52368 0.48863 0.45734 0.42873 0.40204 0.37675 0.31695 0.25776

Sat. vapor, sg

0.96441 0.96042 0.95710 0.95427 0.95183 0.94779 0.94456 0.94190 0.93965 0.93773 0.93458 0.93210 0.93006 0.92836 0.92691 0.92535 0.92400 0.92282 0.92177 0.92081 0.91994 0.91912 0.91835 0.91762 0.91692 0.91624 0.91558 0.91303 0.91050 0.90784 0.90498 0.90184 0.89226 0.87894

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­13

Superheated refrigerant-134a T °C v m3/kg

P Sat. 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

|

931

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

v m3/kg

P

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

26.37°C) 0.9518 0.9721 1.0030 1.0332 1.0628 1.0918 1.1203 1.1484 1.1762 1.2035 1.2305 1.2572 1.2836 1.3096

v m3/kg

P

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

18.77°C)

0.06 MPa (Tsat 209.12 220.60 227.55 234.66 241.92 249.35 256.95 264.71 272.64 280.73 288.99 297.41 306.00 314.74

36.95°C) 0.9644 1.0174 1.0477 1.0774 1.1066 1.1353 1.1636 1.1915 1.2191 1.2463 1.2732 1.2997 1.3260 1.3520

0.10 MPa (Tsat 215.19 219.66 226.75 233.95 241.30 248.79 256.44 264.25 272.22 280.35 288.64 297.08 305.69 314.46

0.14 MPa (Tsat 219.54 225.91 233.23 240.66 248.22 255.93 263.79 271.79 279.96 288.28 296.75 305.38 314.17

0.31121 0.33608 0.35048 0.36476 0.37893 0.39302 0.40705 0.42102 0.43495 0.44883 0.46269 0.47651 0.49032 0.50410 P

227.79 240.76 248.58 256.54 264.66 272.94 281.37 289.97 298.74 307.66 316.75 326.00 335.42 344.99

0.19254 0.19841 0.20743 0.21630 0.22506 0.23373 0.24233 0.25088 0.25937 0.26783 0.27626 0.28465 0.29303 0.30138 P

234.44 239.50 247.49 255.58 263.81 272.17 280.68 289.34 298.16 307.13 316.26 325.55 334.99 344.60

0.14014 0.14605 0.15263 0.15908 0.16544 0.17172 0.17794 0.18412 0.19025 0.19635 0.20242 0.20847 0.21449 P 0.08390 0.08617 0.09026 0.09423 0.09812 0.10193 0.10570 0.10942 0.11310 0.11675 0.12038 0.12398 P

239.16 246.36 254.60 262.93 271.38 279.97 288.70 297.57 306.59 315.77 325.09 334.57 344.20

0.9446 0.9724 1.0031 1.0331 1.0624 1.0912 1.1195 1.1474 1.1749 1.2020 1.2288 1.2553 1.2814

0.18 MPa (Tsat 222.99 225.02 232.48 240.00 247.64 255.41 263.31 271.36 279.56 287.91 296.42 305.07 313.88

12.73°C) 0.9397 0.9484 0.9798 1.0102 1.0399 1.0690 1.0975 1.1256 1.1532 1.1805 1.2074 1.2339 1.2602

0.20 MPa (Tsat 224.48 224.55 232.09 239.67 247.35 255.14 263.08 271.15 279.37 287.73 296.25 304.92 313.74

10.09°C) 0.9377 0.9380 0.9698 1.0004 1.0303 1.0595 1.0882 1.1163 1.1441 1.1714 1.1983 1.2249 1.2512

0.24 MPa (Tsat 227.14 231.29 238.98 246.74 254.61 262.59 270.71 278.97 287.36 295.91 304.60 313.44

5.38°C) 0.9346 0.9519 0.9831 1.0134 1.0429 1.0718 1.1001 1.1280 1.1554 1.1825 1.2092 1.2356

Sat. 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0.11041 0.11189 0.11722 0.12240 0.12748 0.13248 0.13741 0.14230 0.14715 0.15196 0.15673 0.16149 0.16622 P

242.86 245.16 253.58 262.04 270.59 279.25 288.05 296.98 306.05 315.27 324.63 334.14 343.80

0.09987 0.09991 0.10481 0.10955 0.11418 0.11874 0.12322 0.12766 0.13206 0.13641 0.14074 0.14504 0.14933 P 0.06360 0.06609 0.06925 0.07231 0.07530 0.07823 0.08111 0.08395 0.08675 0.08953 0.09229 0.09503 0.09775 0.10045 0.10314

244.46 244.54 253.05 261.58 270.18 278.89 287.72 296.68 305.78 315.01 324.40 333.93 343.60

247.28 251.97 260.65 269.36 278.16 287.06 296.08 305.23 314.51 323.93 333.49 343.20

0.28 MPa (Tsat 229.46 230.44 238.27 246.13 254.06 262.10 270.27 278.56 286.99 295.57 304.29 313.15 322.16 331.32 340.63 350.09

1.25°C) 0.9321 0.9362 0.9680 0.9987 1.0285 1.0576 1.0862 1.1142 1.1418 1.1690 1.1958 1.2222 1.2483 1.2742 1.2997 1.3250

0.32 MPa (Tsat 231.52 237.54 245.50 253.50 261.60 269.82 278.15 286.62 295.22 303.97 312.86 321.89 331.07 340.39 349.86

2.46°C) 0.9301 0.9544 0.9856 1.0157 1.0451 1.0739 1.1021 1.1298 1.1571 1.1840 1.2105 1.2367 1.2626 1.2882 1.3135

0.40 MPa (Tsat 235.07 235.97 244.18 252.36 260.58 268.90 277.32 285.86 294.53 303.32 312.26 321.33 330.55 339.90 349.41

8.91°C)

Sat. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

0.07235 0.07282 0.07646 0.07997 0.08338 0.08672 0.09000 0.09324 0.09644 0.09961 0.10275 0.10587 0.10897 0.11205 0.11512 0.11818

249.72 250.83 259.68 268.52 277.41 286.38 295.47 304.67 314.00 323.46 333.06 342.80 352.68 362.70 372.87 383.18

251.88 258.69 267.66 276.65 285.70 294.85 304.11 313.48 322.98 332.62 342.39 352.30 362.35 372.54 382.87

0.051201 0.051506 0.054213 0.056796 0.059292 0.061724 0.064104 0.066443 0.068747 0.071023 0.073274 0.075504 0.077717 0.079913 0.082096

255.55 0.9269 256.58 265.86 275.07 284.30 293.59 302.96 312.44 322.02 331.73 341.57 351.53 361.63 371.87 382.24 0.9305 0.9628 0.9937 1.0236 1.0528 1.0814 1.1094 1.1369 1.1640 1.1907 1.2171 1.2431 1.2688 1.2942

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932

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­13

Superheated refrigerant-134a (Continued) T °C v m3/kg

P Sat. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

v m3/kg

P

u kJ/kg

h kJ/kg

s kJ/kg K

v m3/kg

P

u kJ/kg

h s kJ/kg kJ/kg K

26.69°C) 265.03 268.45 278.57 288.53 298.42 308.33 318.28 328.29 338.40 348.60 358.90 369.32 379.86 390.52 401.31 0.9199 0.9313 0.9641 0.9954 1.0256 1.0549 1.0835 1.1114 1.1389 1.1658 1.1924 1.2186 1.2444 1.2699 1.2951

0.50 MPa (Tsat 238.75 242.40 250.84 259.26 267.72 276.25 284.89 293.64 302.51 311.50 320.63 329.89 339.29 348.83 358.51 368.33

15.71°C) 0.9240 0.9383 0.9703 1.0011 1.0309 1.0599 1.0883 1.1162 1.1436 1.1705 1.1971 1.2233 1.2491 1.2747 1.2999 1.3249

0.60 MPa (Tsat 241.83 249.22 257.86 266.48 275.15 283.89 292.73 301.67 310.73 319.91 329.23 338.67 348.25 357.96 367.81

21.55°C) 0.9218 0.9499 0.9816 1.0121 1.0417 1.0705 1.0987 1.1264 1.1536 1.1803 1.2067 1.2327 1.2584 1.2838 1.3088

0.70 MPa (Tsat 244.48 247.48 256.39 265.20 274.01 282.87 291.80 300.82 309.95 319.19 328.55 338.04 347.66 357.41 367.29

0.041118 0.042115 0.044338 0.046456 0.048499 0.050485 0.052427 0.054331 0.056205 0.058053 0.059880 0.061687 0.063479 0.065256 0.067021 0.068775 P

259.30 263.46 273.01 282.48 291.96 301.50 311.10 320.80 330.61 340.53 350.57 360.73 371.03 381.46 392.02 402.72

0.034295 0.035984 0.037865 0.039659 0.041389 0.043069 0.044710 0.046318 0.047900 0.049458 0.050997 0.052519 0.054027 0.055522 0.057006 P

262.40 270.81 280.58 290.28 299.98 309.73 319.55 329.46 339.47 349.59 359.82 370.18 380.66 391.27 402.01

0.029361 0.029966 0.031696 0.033322 0.034875 0.036373 0.037829 0.039250 0.040642 0.042010 0.043358 0.044688 0.046004 0.047306 0.048597 P

0.80 MPa (Tsat 246.79 254.82 263.86 272.83 281.81 290.84 299.95 309.15 318.45 327.87 337.40 347.06 356.85 366.76 376.81 386.99

31.31°C) 0.9183 0.9480 0.9802 1.0110 1.0408 1.0698 1.0981 1.1258 1.1530 1.1798 1.2061 1.2321 1.2577 1.2830 1.3080 1.3327

0.90 MPa (Tsat 248.85 253.13 262.44 271.60 280.72 289.86 299.06 308.34 317.70 327.18 336.76 346.46 356.28 366.23 376.31 386.52

35.51°C) 0.9169 0.9327 0.9660 0.9976 1.0280 1.0574 1.0860 1.1140 1.1414 1.1684 1.1949 1.2210 1.2467 1.2721 1.2972 1.3221

1.00 MPa (Tsat 250.68 251.30 260.94 270.32 279.59 288.86 298.15 307.51 316.94 326.47 336.11 345.85 355.71 365.70 375.81 386.04

39.37°C) 270.99 271.71 282.74 293.38 303.85 314.25 324.64 335.06 345.53 356.06 366.69 377.40 388.22 399.15 410.20 421.36 0.9156 0.9179 0.9525 0.9850 1.0160 1.0458 1.0748 1.1031 1.1308 1.1580 1.1846 1.2109 1.2368 1.2623 1.2875 1.3124

Sat. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

0.025621 0.027035 0.028547 0.029973 0.031340 0.032659 0.033941 0.035193 0.036420 0.037625 0.038813 0.039985 0.041143 0.042290 0.043427 0.044554 P

267.29 276.45 286.69 296.81 306.88 316.97 327.10 337.30 347.59 357.97 368.45 379.05 389.76 400.59 411.55 422.64

0.022683 0.023375 0.024809 0.026146 0.027413 0.028630 0.029806 0.030951 0.032068 0.033164 0.034241 0.035302 0.036349 0.037384 0.038408 0.039423 P

269.26 274.17 284.77 295.13 305.39 315.63 325.89 336.19 346.56 357.02 367.58 378.23 389.00 399.88 410.88 422.00

0.020313 0.020406 0.021796 0.023068 0.024261 0.025398 0.026492 0.027552 0.028584 0.029592 0.030581 0.031554 0.032512 0.033457 0.034392 0.035317 P

1.20 MPa (Tsat 253.81 257.63 267.56 277.21 286.75 296.26 305.80 315.38 325.03 334.77 344.61 354.56 364.61 374.78 385.08

46.29°C) 0.9130 0.9267 0.9614 0.9938 1.0248 1.0546 1.0836 1.1118 1.1394 1.1664 1.1930 1.2192 1.2449 1.2703 1.2954

1.40 MPa (Tsat 256.37 264.46 274.62 284.51 294.28 304.01 313.76 323.55 333.41 343.34 353.37 363.51 373.75 384.10

52.40°C) 0.9105 0.9389 0.9733 1.0056 1.0364 1.0661 1.0949 1.1230 1.1504 1.1773 1.2038 1.2298 1.2554 1.2807

1.60 MPa (Tsat 258.47 260.89 271.76 282.09 292.17 302.14 312.07 322.02 332.00 342.05 352.17 362.38 372.69 383.11

57.88°C) 277.86 280.69 293.25 305.07 316.52 327.76 338.91 350.02 361.12 372.26 383.44 394.69 406.02 417.44 0.9078 0.9163 0.9535 0.9875 1.0194 1.0500 1.0795 1.1081 1.1360 1.1632 1.1900 1.2163 1.2421 1.2676

Sat. 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

0.016715 0.017201 0.018404 0.019502 0.020529 0.021506 0.022442 0.023348 0.024228 0.025086 0.025927 0.026753 0.027566 0.028367 0.029158

273.87 278.27 289.64 300.61 311.39 322.07 332.73 343.40 354.11 364.88 375.72 386.66 397.69 408.82 420.07

0.014107 0.015005 0.016060 0.017023 0.017923 0.018778 0.019597 0.020388 0.021155 0.021904 0.022636 0.023355 0.024061 0.024757

276.12 285.47 297.10 308.34 319.37 330.30 341.19 352.09 363.02 374.01 385.07 396.20 407.43 418.76

0.012123 0.012372 0.013430 0.014362 0.015215 0.016014 0.016773 0.017500 0.018201 0.018882 0.019545 0.020194 0.020830 0.021456

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 933

Appendix 1

100 20

1500

|

750 20 10

933

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

300

700

kg/m 3 115 0 110 0 105 0 10 00 95 0 90 0 85 0 80 0

1450

1350

1300

1250

1200

10

1400

400

0 70

0 60 500

33 200 kg/m =200 kg/m Density = Densityh 160

120 90 70 60 50 40 32 24 16 12

0 0 100

4

R-134a 60

4

80

2

40 20 20 20 T = 0°C 0°C 0°

2 1

Pressure, MPa

1

0.4

2.1 6k J/k gK

­20 ­20 ­20

8 6

0.4

0.2

0.64 0.72 0.80

4 3.2

0.2 0.1

1.36

1.12

1.20

1.28

1.44

1.76

1.60

1.68

1.52

1.84

1.92

0.88

0.96

1.04

2.00

2.0 8

2.2 4

2.4 0

2.3 2

2.4 8

0.1

s=

2.4 1.6 1.2

satur ated liquid s

T = 160°C 160°C 160°

satura ted va por ­40 ­40

200

220

240

260

280

300

­40 ­40

100

120

140

180

0.04

­60 ­60 ­60

0.8 0.6 0.4

0.04

­20 ­20

0

20

40

60

80

X=0 .5

2.4 8

2.5 6

0.02

0.1

0.02 0.01 750

2.6 4

0.4

0.3

0.6

0.2

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.01 100

150

200

250

300

350

400 450 Enthalpy, kJ/kg

500

550

600

650

700

FIGURE A­14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a.

Note: The reference point used for the chart is different than that used in the R-134a tables. Therefore, problems should be solved using all property data either from the tables or from the chart, but not from both. Reprinted by permission of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

2.7 2

s=

0.3

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Thermodynamics

(a) Low pressures, 0 < PR < 1.0 TR = 5.00 3.00

8.0 0

7 7 5 070 0...7 . 5 0 0 0.6 0.60

0. 80

NOTE 1953

1.0

6.0 0

5.0 0

4.0 0 3.5 0

2.00

3.0 0 2 .6 0 2 .4 0 .2 0 2 2.0 0 1.8 0

1.60

0.9

1.40

1 .6 0 .5 0 1 1.4 0 1.3 0

1.30

0.8 5

0.8

COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR, Z = --­

0. 9

0

1.2 0

1 .1 0

1.00

1.20 1.15

Pv RT

0.7

---DEVIATION > 1.0%

TR = 2.5 Z 1.00 TR = 15 TR = 3.00

0.90

0.9 5

1.10

0.80 1.0 5

v R=

0 .7

0.6

NELSON -- OBERT GENERALIZED COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS

REDUCED PRESSURE, P = --­

R

1.00

0.5

P Pcr

30

REDUCED TEMPERATURE,

TR = --­

v vR = ­­--­­­ RTcr / Pcr

T Tcr

CHART No. 1

Z

0.95

20

2.00 1.60 1.40 1.20 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 15 12 10

0 0.7

T

R

=

1...0

0. 0. 0.60

65 6 0.6

0.85 0.80

PSEUDO REDUCED VOLUME,

0.4

vR r

0.90 0.00

0.05

0.75 0.10

PR

0.3 0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

REDUCED PRESSURE, P

R

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

(b) Intermediate pressures, 0 < PR < 7 1.10 TR = 5.00 1.00

00

3.50 2.50 2.00

00

00 60 1.40 1. 20 1.

0

5 3.

3.

2.

1.80

0 1 .0 0 0 90 0 .8 0 . 7 .

0

0.90

1.60 1.50

0 .3

0 .6

COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR, Z = --­

Pv RT

0.80

.5 0 =0 v R 0.45

0 0.4

0.70

1.40 0 0.3 1.30 0.25

5

=0 vR

.2 0

0.60 1.20 0.50 1.15 1.10 1.05 0.30 TR = 1.00 0.20 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

NELSON -- OBERT GENERALIZED COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS

REDUCED PRESSURE, P = --­

R

0.40

P Pcr

R

REDUCED TEMPERATURE, T = --­ PSEUDO REDUCED VOLUME,

T Tcr v vR = --­ RTcr / Pcr

CHART No. 2

1953

3.5

4.0

R

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

REDUCED PRESSURE, P

FIGURE A­15 Nelson­Obert generalized compressibility chart.

Used with permission of Dr. Edward E. Obert, University of Wisconsin.

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­16

Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude Altitude, m 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000 5200 5400 5600 5800 6000 6200 6400 6600 6800 7000 8000 9000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 Temperature, °C 15.00 13.70 12.40 11.10 9.80 8.50 7.20 5.90 4.60 3.30 2.00 0.70 0.59 1.89 3.19 4.49 5.79 7.09 8.39 9.69 10.98 12.3 13.6 14.9 16.2 17.5 18.8 20.1 21.4 22.7 24.0 25.3 26.6 27.9 29.2 30.5 36.9 43.4 49.9 56.5 56.5 56.5 56.5 Pressure, kPa 101.33 98.95 96.61 94.32 92.08 89.88 87.72 85.60 83.53 81.49 79.50 77.55 75.63 73.76 71.92 70.12 68.36 66.63 64.94 63.28 61.66 60.07 58.52 57.00 55.51 54.05 52.62 51.23 49.86 48.52 47.22 45.94 44.69 43.47 42.27 41.11 35.65 30.80 26.50 19.40 14.17 10.53 7.57 Gravity g, m/s2 9.807 9.806 9.805 9.805 9.804 9.804 9.803 9.802 9.802 9.801 9.800 9.800 9.799 9.799 9.798 9.797 9.797 9.796 9.796 9.795 9.794 9.794 9.793 9.793 9.792 9.791 9.791 9.790 9.789 9.785 9.788 9.788 9.787 9.786 9.785 9.785 9.782 9.779 9.776 9.770 9.764 9.758 9.751 Speed of Sound, m/s 340.3 339.5 338.8 338.0 337.2 336.4 335.7 334.9 334.1 333.3 332.5 331.7 331.0 330.2 329.4 328.6 327.8 327.0 326.2 325.4 324.6 323.8 323.0 322.2 321.4 320.5 319.7 318.9 318.1 317.3 316.5 315.6 314.8 314.0 313.1 312.3 308.1 303.8 299.5 295.1 295.1 295.1 295.1 Density, kg/m3 1.225 1.202 1.179 1.156 1.134 1.112 1.090 1.069 1.048 1.027 1.007 0.987 0.967 0.947 0.928 0.909 0.891 0.872 0.854 0.837 0.819 0.802 0.785 0.769 0.752 0.736 0.721 0.705 0.690 0.675 0.660 0.646 0.631 0.617 0.604 0.590 0.526 0.467 0.414 0.312 0.228 0.166 0.122 Viscosity m, kg/m · s 1.789 1.783 1.777 1.771 1.764 1.758 1.752 1.745 1.739 1.732 1.726 1.720 1.713 1.707 1.700 1.694 1.687 1.681 1.674 1.668 1.661 1.655 1.648 1.642 1.635 1.628 1.622 1.615 1.608 1.602 1.595 1.588 1.582 1.575 1.568 1.561 1.527 1.493 1.458 1.422 1.422 1.422 1.422 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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Thermal Conductivity, W/m · K 0.0253 0.0252 0.0252 0.0251 0.0250 0.0249 0.0248 0.0247 0.0245 0.0244 0.0243 0.0242 0.0241 0.0240 0.0239 0.0238 0.0237 0.0236 0.0235 0.0234 0.0233 0.0232 0.0231 0.0230 0.0229 0.0228 0.0227 0.0226 0.0224 0.0223 0.0222 0.0221 0.0220 0.0219 0.0218 0.0217 0.0212 0.0206 0.0201 0.0195 0.0195 0.0195 0.0195

Source: U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45° latitude and varies with the time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z 0) are taken to be P 101.325 kPa, T 15°C, r 1.2250 kg/m3, g 9.80665 m2/s.

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TABLE A­17

Ideal-gas properties of air T K 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 285 290 295 298 300 305 310 315 320 325 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 h kJ/kg 199.97 209.97 219.97 230.02 240.02 250.05 260.09 270.11 280.13 285.14 290.16 295.17 298.18 300.19 305.22 310.24 315.27 320.29 325.31 330.34 340.42 350.49 360.58 370.67 380.77 390.88 400.98 411.12 421.26 431.43 441.61 451.80 462.02 472.24 482.49 492.74 503.02 513.32 523.63 533.98 544.35 555.74 565.17 575.59 Pr 0.3363 0.3987 0.4690 0.5477 0.6355 0.7329 0.8405 0.9590 1.0889 1.1584 1.2311 1.3068 1.3543 1.3860 1.4686 1.5546 1.6442 1.7375 1.8345 1.9352 2.149 2.379 2.626 2.892 3.176 3.481 3.806 4.153 4.522 4.915 5.332 5.775 6.245 6.742 7.268 7.824 8.411 9.031 9.684 10.37 11.10 11.86 12.66 13.50 u kJ/kg 142.56 149.69 156.82 164.00 171.13 178.28 185.45 192.60 199.75 203.33 206.91 210.49 212.64 214.07 217.67 221.25 224.85 228.42 232.02 235.61 242.82 250.02 257.24 264.46 271.69 278.93 286.16 293.43 300.69 307.99 315.30 322.62 329.97 337.32 344.70 352.08 359.49 366.92 374.36 381.84 389.34 396.86 404.42 411.97 vr 1707.0 1512.0 1346.0 1205.0 1084.0 979.0 887.8 808.0 738.0 706.1 676.1 647.9 631.9 621.2 596.0 572.3 549.8 528.6 508.4 489.4 454.1 422.2 393.4 367.2 343.4 321.5 301.6 283.3 266.6 251.1 236.8 223.6 211.4 200.1 189.5 179.7 170.6 162.1 154.1 146.7 139.7 133.1 127.0 121.2 s° kJ/kg · K 1.29559 1.34444 1.39105 1.43557 1.47824 1.51917 1.55848 1.59634 1.63279 1.65055 1.66802 1.68515 1.69528 1.70203 1.71865 1.73498 1.75106 1.76690 1.78249 1.79783 1.82790 1.85708 1.88543 1.91313 1.94001 1.96633 1.99194 2.01699 2.04142 2.06533 2.08870 2.11161 2.13407 2.15604 2.17760 2.19876 2.21952 2.23993 2.25997 2.27967 2.29906 2.31809 2.33685 2.35531 T K 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 h kJ/kg 586.04 596.52 607.02 617.53 628.07 638.63 649.22 659.84 670.47 681.14 691.82 702.52 713.27 724.04 734.82 745.62 756.44 767.29 778.18 800.03 821.95 843.98 866.08 888.27 910.56 932.93 955.38 977.92 1000.55 1023.25 1046.04 1068.89 1091.85 1114.86 1137.89 1161.07 1184.28 1207.57 1230.92 1254.34 1277.79 1301.31 1324.93 Pr 14.38 15.31 16.28 17.30 18.36 19.84 20.64 21.86 23.13 24.46 25.85 27.29 28.80 30.38 32.02 33.72 35.50 37.35 39.27 43.35 47.75 52.59 57.60 63.09 68.98 75.29 82.05 89.28 97.00 105.2 114.0 123.4 133.3 143.9 155.2 167.1 179.7 193.1 207.2 222.2 238.0 254.7 272.3 u kJ/kg 419.55 427.15 434.78 442.42 450.09 457.78 465.50 473.25 481.01 488.81 496.62 504.45 512.33 520.23 528.14 536.07 544.02 551.99 560.01 576.12 592.30 608.59 624.95 641.40 657.95 674.58 691.28 708.08 725.02 741.98 758.94 776.10 793.36 810.62 827.88 845.33 862.79 880.35 897.91 915.57 933.33 951.09 968.95 vr 115.7 110.6 105.8 101.2 96.92 92.84 88.99 85.34 81.89 78.61 75.50 72.56 69.76 67.07 64.53 62.13 59.82 57.63 55.54 51.64 48.08 44.84 41.85 39.12 36.61 34.31 32.18 30.22 28.40 26.73 25.17 23.72 23.29 21.14 19.98 18.896 17.886 16.946 16.064 15.241 14.470 13.747 13.069 s° kJ/kg · K 2.37348 2.39140 2.40902 2.42644 2.44356 2.46048 2.47716 2.49364 2.50985 2.52589 2.54175 2.55731 2.57277 2.58810 2.60319 2.61803 2.63280 2.64737 2.66176 2.69013 2.71787 2.74504 2.77170 2.79783 2.82344 2.84856 2.87324 2.89748 2.92128 2.94468 2.96770 2.99034 3.01260 3.03449 3.05608 3.07732 3.09825 3.11883 3.13916 3.15916 3.17888 3.19834 3.21751

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­17

Ideal-gas properties of air (Concluded) T K 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 h kJ/kg 1348.55 1372.24 1395.97 1419.76 1443.60 1467.49 1491.44 1515.42 1539.44 1563.51 1587.63 1611.79 1635.97 1660.23 1684.51 1708.82 1733.17 Pr 290.8 310.4 330.9 352.5 375.3 399.1 424.2 450.5 478.0 506.9 537.1 568.8 601.9 636.5 672.8 710.5 750.0 u kJ/kg 986.90 1004.76 1022.82 1040.88 1058.94 1077.10 1095.26 1113.52 1131.77 1150.13 1168.49 1186.95 1205.41 1223.87 1242.43 1260.99 1279.65 vr s° kJ/kg · K T K h kJ/kg Pr u kJ/kg vr

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s° kJ/kg · K 3.52364 3.53879 3.55381 3.56867 3.58335 3.5979 3.6336 3.6684 3.7023 3.7354 3.7677 3.7994 3.8303 3.8605 3.8901 3.9191 3.9474

12.435 3.23638 11.835 3.25510 11.275 10.747 10.247 9.780 9.337 8.919 8.526 8.153 7.801 7.468 7.152 6.854 6.569 6.301 6.046 3.27345 3.29160 3.30959 3.32724 3.34474 3.36200 3.37901 3.39586 3.41247 3.42892 3.44516 3.46120 3.47712 3.49276 3.50829

1600 1757.57 1620 1782.00 1640 1660 1680 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250

791.2 1298.30 5.804 834.1 1316.96 5.574 1335.72 1354.48 1373.24 1392.7 1439.8 1487.2 1534.9 1582.6 1630.6 1678.7 1726.8 1775.3 1823.8 1872.4 1921.3 5.355 5.147 4.949 4.761 4.328 3.994 3.601 3.295 3.022 2.776 2.555 2.356 2.175 2.012 1.864

1806.46 878.9 1830.96 925.6 1855.50 974.2 1880.1 1025 1941.6 1161 2003.3 2065.3 2127.4 2189.7 2252.1 2314.6 2377.7 2440.3 2503.2 2566.4 1310 1475 1655 1852 2068 2303 2559 2837 3138 3464

Note: The properties Pr (relative pressure) and vr (relative specific volume) are dimensionless quantities used in the analysis of isentropic processes, and should not be confused with the properties pressure and specific volume. Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 785­86, table A­5. Originally published in J. H. Keenan and J. Kaye, Gas Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948).

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TABLE A­18

Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 _ _ T h u K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol 0 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 298 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 0 6,391 6,683 6,975 7,266 7,558 7,849 8,141 8,432 8,669 8,723 9,014 9,306 9,597 9,888 10,180 10,471 10,763 11,055 11,347 11,640 11,932 12,225 12,518 12,811 13,105 13,399 13,693 13,988 14,285 14,581 14,876 15,172 15,469 15,766 16,064 16,363 16,662 16,962 17,262 0 4,562 4,770 4,979 5,188 5,396 5,604 5,813 6,021 6,190 6,229 6,437 6,645 6,853 7,061 7,270 7,478 7,687 7,895 8,104 8,314 8,523 8,733 8,943 9,153 9,363 9,574 9,786 9,997 10,210 10,423 10,635 10,848 11,062 11,277 11,492 11,707 11,923 12,139 12,356 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 0 182.639 183.938 185.180 186.370 187.514 188.614 189.673 190.695 191.502 191.682 192.638 193.562 194.459 195.328 196.173 196.995 197.794 198.572 199.331 200.071 200.794 201.499 202.189 202.863 203.523 204.170 204.803 205.424 206.033 206.630 207.216 207.792 208.358 208.914 209.461 209.999 210.528 211.049 211.562 T K 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 _ h kJ/kmol 17,563 17,864 18,166 18,468 18,772 19,075 19,380 19,685 19,991 20,297 20,604 20,912 21,220 21,529 21,839 22,149 22,460 22,772 23,085 23,398 23,714 24,027 24,342 24,658 24,974 25,292 25,610 25,928 26,248 26,568 26,890 27,210 27,532 27,854 28,178 28,501 28,826 29,151 29,476 29,803 _ u kJ/kmol 12,574 12,792 13,011 13,230 13,450 13,671 13,892 14,114 14,337 14,560 14,784 15,008 15,234 15,460 15,686 15,913 16,141 16,370 16,599 16,830 17,061 17,292 17,524 17,757 17,990 18,224 18,459 18,695 18,931 19,168 19,407 19,644 19,883 20,122 20,362 20,603 20,844 21,086 21,328 21,571 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 212.066 212.564 213.055 213.541 214.018 214.489 214.954 215.413 215.866 216.314 216.756 217.192 217.624 218.059 218.472 218.889 219.301 219.709 220.113 220.512 220.907 221.298 221.684 222.067 222.447 222.822 223.194 223.562 223.927 224.288 224.647 225.002 225.353 225.701 226.047 226.389 226.728 227.064 227.398 227.728

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­18

Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 (Concluded) _ _ _ T h u s° K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 30,129 30,784 31,442 32,101 32,762 33,426 34,092 34,760 35,430 36,104 36,777 37,452 38,129 38,807 39,488 40,170 40,853 41,539 42,227 42,915 43,605 44,295 44,988 45,682 46,377 47,073 47,771 48,470 49,168 49,869 50,571 51,275 51,980 52,686 53,393 54,099 54,807 55,516 21,815 22,304 22,795 23,288 23,782 24,280 24,780 25,282 25,786 26,291 26,799 27,308 27,819 28,331 28,845 29,361 29,378 30,398 30,919 31,441 31,964 32,489 33,014 33,543 34,071 34,601 35,133 35,665 36,197 36,732 37,268 37,806 38,344 38,884 39,424 39,965 40,507 41,049 228.057 228.706 229.344 229.973 230.591 231.199 231.799 232.391 232.973 233.549 234.115 234.673 235.223 235.766 236.302 236.831 237.353 237.867 238.376 238.878 239.375 239.865 240.350 240.827 241.301 241.768 242.228 242.685 243.137 243.585 244.028 244.464 244.896 245.324 245.747 246.166 246.580 246.990 T K 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 _ h kJ/kmol 56,227 56,938 57,651 58,363 59,075 59,790 60,504 61,220 61,936 62,654 63,381 64,090 64,810 66,612 68,417 70,226 72,040 73,856 75,676 77,496 79,320 81,149 82,981 84,814 86,650 88,488 90,328 92,171 94,014 95,859 97,705 99,556 101,407 103,260 105,115 106,972 108,830 110,690 _ u kJ/kmol 41,594 42,139 42,685 43,231 43,777 44,324 44,873 45,423 45,973 46,524 47,075 47,627 48,181 49,567 50,957 52,351 53,749 55,149 56,553 57,958 59,366 60,779 62,195 63,613 65,033 66,455 67,880 69,306 70,734 72,163 73,593 75,028 76,464 77,902 79,341 80,782 82,224 83,668

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_ s° kJ/kmol · K 247.396 247.798 248.195 248.589 248.979 249.365 249.748 250.128 250.502 250.874 251.242 251.607 251.969 252.858 253.726 254.578 255.412 256.227 257.027 257.810 258.580 259.332 260.073 260.799 261.512 262.213 262.902 263.577 264.241 264.895 265.538 266.170 266.793 267.404 268.007 268.601 269.186 269.763

Source: Tables A­18 through A­25 are adapted from Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 787­98. Originally published in JANAF, Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971.

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TABLE A­19

Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 _ _ T h u K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol 0 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 298 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 0 6,404 6,694 6,984 7,275 7,566 7,858 8,150 8,443 8,682 8,736 9,030 9,325 9,620 9,916 10,213 10,511 10,809 11,109 11,409 11,711 12,012 12,314 12,618 12,923 13,228 13,525 13,842 14,151 14,460 14,770 15,082 15,395 15,708 16,022 16,338 16,654 16,971 17,290 17,609 0 4,575 4,782 4,989 5,197 5,405 5,613 5,822 6,032 6,203 6,242 6,453 6,664 6,877 7,090 7,303 7,518 7,733 7,949 8,166 8,384 8,603 8,822 9,043 9,264 9,487 9,710 9,935 10,160 10,386 10,614 10,842 11,071 11,301 11,533 11,765 11,998 12,232 12,467 12,703 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 0 196.171 197.461 198.696 199.885 201.027 202.128 203.191 204.218 205.033 205.213 206.177 207.112 208.020 208.904 209.765 210.604 211.423 212.222 213.002 213.765 214.510 215.241 215.955 216.656 217.342 218.016 218.676 219.326 219.963 220.589 221.206 221.812 222.409 222.997 223.576 224.146 224.708 225.262 225.808 T K 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 _ h kJ/kmol 17,929 18,250 18,572 18,895 19,219 19,544 19,870 20,197 20,524 20,854 21,184 21,514 21,845 22,177 22,510 22,844 23,178 23,513 23,850 24,186 24,523 24,861 25,199 25,537 25,877 26,218 26,559 26,899 27,242 27,584 27,928 28,272 28,616 28,960 29,306 29,652 29,999 30,345 30,692 31,041 _ u kJ/kmol 12,940 13,178 13,417 13,657 13,898 14,140 14,383 14,626 14,871 15,116 15,364 15,611 15,859 16,107 16,357 16,607 16,859 17,111 17,364 17,618 17,872 18,126 18,382 18,637 18,893 19,150 19,408 19,666 19,925 20,185 20,445 20,706 20,967 21,228 21,491 21,754 22,017 22,280 22,544 22,809 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 226.346 226.877 227.400 227.918 228.429 228.932 229.430 229.920 230.405 230.885 231.358 231.827 232.291 232.748 233.201 233.649 234.091 234.528 234.960 235.387 235.810 236.230 236.644 237.055 237.462 237.864 238.264 238.660 239.051 239.439 239.823 240.203 240.580 240.953 241.323 241.689 242.052 242.411 242.768 242.120

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­19

Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 (Concluded ) _ _ _ T h u s° K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 31,389 32,088 32,789 33,490 34,194 34,899 35,606 36,314 37,023 37,734 38,447 39,162 39,877 40,594 41,312 42,033 42,753 43,475 44,198 44,923 45,648 46,374 47,102 47,831 48,561 49,292 50,024 50,756 51,490 52,224 52,961 53,696 54,434 55,172 55,912 56,652 57,394 58,136 23,075 23,607 24,142 24,677 25,214 25,753 26,294 26,836 27,379 27,923 28,469 29,018 29,568 30,118 30,670 31,224 31,778 32,334 32,891 33,449 34,008 34,567 35,129 35,692 36,256 36,821 37,387 37,952 38,520 39,088 39,658 40,227 40,799 41,370 41,944 42,517 43,093 43,669 243.471 244.164 244.844 245.513 246.171 246.818 247.454 248.081 248.698 249.307 249.906 250.497 251.079 251.653 252.219 252.776 253.325 253.868 254.404 254.932 255.454 255.968 256.475 256.978 257.474 257.965 258.450 258.928 259.402 259.870 260.333 260.791 261.242 261.690 262.132 262.571 263.005 263.435 T K 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 _ h kJ/kmol 58,880 59,624 60,371 61,118 61,866 62,616 63,365 64,116 64,868 65,620 66,374 67,127 67,881 69,772 71,668 73,573 75,484 77,397 79,316 81,243 83,174 85,112 87,057 89,004 90,956 92,916 94,881 96,852 98,826 100,808 102,793 104,785 106,780 108,778 110,784 112,795 114,809 116,827 _ u kJ/kmol 44,247 44,825 45,405 45,986 46,568 47,151 47,734 48,319 48,904 49,490 50,078 50,665 51,253 52,727 54,208 55,697 57,192 58,690 60,193 61,704 63,219 64,742 66,271 67,802 69,339 70,883 72,433 73,987 75,546 77,112 78,682 80,258 81,837 83,419 85,009 86,601 88,203 89,804

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_ s° kJ/kmol · K 263.861 264.283 264.701 265.113 265.521 265.925 266.326 266.722 267.115 267.505 267.891 268.275 268.655 269.588 270.504 271.399 272.278 273.136 273.891 274.809 275.625 276.424 277.207 277.979 278.738 279.485 280.219 280.942 281.654 282.357 283.048 283.728 284.399 285.060 285.713 286.355 286.989 287.614

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­20

Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 _ _ T h u K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol 0 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 298 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 0 6,601 6,938 7,280 7,627 7,979 8,335 8,697 9,063 9,364 9,431 9,807 10,186 10,570 10,959 11,351 11,748 12,148 12,552 12,960 13,372 13,787 14,206 14,628 15,054 15,483 15,916 16,351 16,791 17,232 17,678 18,126 18,576 19,029 19,485 19,945 20,407 20,870 21,337 21,807 0 4,772 5,026 5,285 5,548 5,817 6,091 6,369 6,651 6,885 6,939 7,230 7,526 7,826 8,131 8,439 8,752 9,068 9,392 9,718 10,046 10,378 10,714 11,053 11,393 11,742 12,091 12,444 12,800 13,158 13,521 13,885 14,253 14,622 14,996 15,372 15,751 16,131 16,515 16,902 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 0 202.966 204.464 205.920 207.337 208.717 210.062 211.376 212.660 213.685 213.915 215.146 216.351 217.534 218.694 219.831 220.948 222.044 223.122 224.182 225.225 226.250 227.258 228.252 229.230 230.194 231.144 232.080 233.004 233.916 234.814 235.700 236.575 237.439 238.292 239.135 239.962 240.789 241.602 242.405 T K 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 _ h kJ/kmol 22,280 22,754 23,231 23,709 24,190 24,674 25,160 25,648 26,138 26,631 27,125 27,622 28,121 28,622 29,124 29,629 30,135 30,644 31,154 31,665 32,179 32,694 33,212 33,730 34,251 34,773 35,296 35,821 36,347 36,876 37,405 37,935 38,467 39,000 39,535 40,070 40,607 41,145 41,685 42,226 _ u kJ/kmol 17,291 17,683 18,076 18,471 18,869 19,270 19,672 20,078 20,484 20,894 21,305 21,719 22,134 22,522 22,972 23,393 23,817 24,242 24,669 25,097 25,527 25,959 26,394 26,829 27,267 27,706 28,125 28,588 29,031 29,476 29,922 30,369 30,818 31,268 31,719 32,171 32,625 33,081 33,537 33,995 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 243.199 243.983 244.758 245.524 246.282 247.032 247.773 248.507 249.233 249.952 250.663 251.368 252.065 252.755 253.439 254.117 254.787 255.452 256.110 256.762 257.408 258.048 258.682 259.311 259.934 260.551 261.164 261.770 262.371 262.968 263.559 264.146 264.728 265.304 265.877 266.444 267.007 267.566 268.119 268.670

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­20

Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 (Concluded) _ _ _ T h u s° K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 42,769 43,859 44,953 46,051 47,153 48,258 49,369 50,484 51,602 52,724 53,848 54,977 56,108 57,244 58,381 59,522 60,666 61,813 62,963 64,116 65,271 66,427 67,586 68,748 66,911 71,078 72,246 73,417 74,590 76,767 76,944 78,123 79,303 80,486 81,670 82,856 84,043 85,231 34,455 35,378 36,306 37,238 38,174 39,112 40,057 41,006 41,957 42,913 43,871 44,834 45,799 46,768 47,739 48,713 49,691 50,672 51,656 52,643 53,631 54,621 55,614 56,609 57,606 58,606 59,609 60,613 61,620 62,630 63,741 64,653 65,668 66,592 67,702 68,721 69,742 70,764 269.215 270.293 271.354 272.400 273.430 274.445 275.444 276.430 277.403 278.361 297.307 280.238 281.158 282.066 282.962 283.847 284.722 285.586 286.439 287.283 288.106 288.934 289.743 290.542 291.333 292.114 292.888 292.654 294.411 295.161 295.901 296.632 297.356 298.072 298.781 299.482 300.177 300.863 T K 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 _ h kJ/kmol 86,420 87,612 88,806 90,000 91,196 92,394 93,593 94,793 95,995 97,197 98,401 99,606 100,804 103,835 106,864 109,898 112,939 115,984 119,035 122,091 125,152 128,219 131,290 134,368 137,449 140,533 143,620 146,713 149,808 152,908 156,009 159,117 162,226 165,341 168,456 171,576 174,695 177,822 _ u kJ/kmol 71,787 72,812 73,840 74,868 75,897 76,929 77,962 78,996 80,031 81,067 82,105 83,144 84,185 86,791 89,404 92,023 94,648 97,277 99,912 102,552 105,197 107,849 110,504 113,166 115,832 118,500 121,172 123,849 126,528 129,212 131,898 134,589 137,283 139,982 142,681 145,385 148,089 150,801

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_ s° kJ/kmol · K 301.543 302.217 302.884 303.544 304.198 304.845 305.487 306.122 306.751 307.374 307.992 308.604 309.210 310.701 312.160 313.589 314.988 316.356 317.695 319.011 320.302 321.566 322.808 324.026 325.222 326.396 327.549 328.684 329.800 330.896 331.975 333.037 334.084 335.114 336.126 337.124 338.109 339.069

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A ­ 21

Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO _ _ _ T h u s° K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K 0 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 298 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 0 6,391 6,683 6,975 7,266 7,558 7,849 8,140 8,432 8,669 8,723 9,014 9,306 9,597 9,889 10,181 10,473 10,765 11,058 11,351 11,644 11,938 12,232 12,526 12,821 13,116 13,412 13,708 14,005 14,302 14,600 14,898 15,197 15,497 15,797 16,097 16,399 16,701 17,003 17,307 0 4,562 4,771 4,979 5,188 5,396 5,604 5,812 6,020 6,190 6,229 6,437 6,645 6,854 7,062 7,271 7,480 7,689 7,899 8,108 8,319 8,529 8,740 8,951 9,163 9,375 9,587 9,800 10,014 10,228 10,443 10,658 10,874 11,090 11,307 11,524 11,743 11,961 12,181 12,401 0 188.683 189.980 191.221 192.411 193.554 194.654 195.713 196.735 197.543 197.723 198.678 199.603 200.500 201.371 202.217 203.040 203.842 204.622 205.383 206.125 206.850 207.549 208.252 208.929 209.593 210.243 210.880 211.504 212.117 212.719 213.310 213.890 214.460 215.020 215.572 216.115 216.649 217.175 217.693 T K 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 _ h kJ/kmol 17,611 17,915 18,221 18,527 18,833 19,141 19,449 19,758 20,068 20,378 20,690 21,002 21,315 21,628 21,943 22,258 22,573 22,890 23,208 23,526 23,844 24,164 24,483 24,803 25,124 25,446 25,768 26,091 26,415 26,740 27,066 27,392 27,719 28,046 28,375 28,703 29,033 29,362 29,693 30,024 _ u kJ/kmol 12,622 12,843 13,066 13,289 13,512 13,736 13,962 14,187 14,414 14,641 14,870 15,099 15,328 15,558 15,789 16,022 16,255 16,488 16,723 16,957 17,193 17,429 17,665 17,902 18,140 18,379 18,617 18,858 19,099 19,341 19,583 19,826 20,070 20,314 20,559 20,805 21,051 21,298 21,545 21,793 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 218.204 218.708 219.205 219.695 220.179 220.656 221.127 221.592 222.052 222.505 222.953 223.396 223.833 224.265 224.692 225.115 225.533 225.947 226.357 226.762 227.162 227.559 227.952 228.339 228.724 229.106 229.482 229.856 230.227 230.593 230.957 231.317 231.674 232.028 232.379 232.727 233.072 233.413 233.752 234.088

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­21

Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO (Concluded) _ _ _ T h u s° K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 30,355 31,020 31,688 32,357 33,029 33,702 34,377 35,054 35,733 36,406 37,095 37,780 38,466 39,154 39,844 40,534 41,226 41,919 42,613 43,309 44,007 44,707 45,408 46,110 46,813 47,517 48,222 48,928 49,635 50,344 51,053 51,763 52,472 53,184 53,895 54,609 55,323 56,039 22,041 22,540 23,041 23,544 24,049 24,557 25,065 25,575 26,088 26,602 27,118 27,637 28,426 28,678 29,201 29,725 30,251 30,778 31,306 31,836 32,367 32,900 33,434 33,971 34,508 35,046 35,584 36,124 36,665 37,207 37,750 38,293 38,837 39,382 39,927 40,474 41,023 41,572 234.421 235.079 235.728 236.364 236.992 237.609 238.217 238.817 239.407 239.989 240.663 241.128 241.686 242.236 242.780 243.316 243.844 244.366 244.880 245.388 245.889 246.385 246.876 247.360 247.839 248.312 248.778 249.240 249.695 250.147 250.592 251.033 251.470 251.901 252.329 252.751 253.169 253.582 T K 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 _ h kJ/kmol 56,756 57,473 58,191 58,910 59,629 60,351 61,072 61,794 62,516 63,238 63,961 64,684 65,408 67,224 69,044 70,864 72,688 74,516 76,345 78,178 80,015 81,852 83,692 85,537 87,383 89,230 91,077 92,930 94,784 96,639 98,495 100,352 102,210 104,073 105,939 107,802 109,667 111,534 _ u kJ/kmol 42,123 42,673 43,225 43,778 44,331 44,886 45,441 45,997 46,552 47,108 47,665 48,221 48,780 50,179 51,584 52,988 54,396 55,809 57,222 58,640 60,060 61,482 62,906 64,335 65,766 67,197 68,628 70,066 71,504 72,945 74,383 75,825 77,267 78,715 80,164 81,612 83,061 84,513

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945

_ s° kJ/kmol · K 253.991 254.398 254.797 255.194 255.587 255.976 256.361 256.743 257.122 257.497 257.868 258.236 258.600 259.494 260.370 261.226 262.065 262.887 263.692 264.480 265.253 266.012 266.755 267.485 268.202 268.905 269.596 270.285 270.943 271.602 272.249 272.884 273.508 274.123 274.730 275.326 275.914 276.494

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­22

Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 _ _ T h u K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol 0 260 270 280 290 298 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 560 600 640 680 720 760 800 840 880 920 960 1000 1040 1080 1120 1160 1200 1240 1280 1320 1360 1400 0 7,370 7,657 7,945 8,233 8,468 8,522 9,100 9,680 10,262 10,843 11,426 12,010 12,594 13,179 13,764 14,350 14,935 16,107 17,280 18,453 19,630 20,807 21,988 23,171 24,359 25,551 26,747 27,948 29,154 30,364 31,580 32,802 34,028 35,262 36,502 37,749 39,002 40,263 41,530 0 5,209 5,412 5,617 5,822 5,989 6,027 6,440 6,853 7,268 7,684 8,100 8,518 8,936 9,355 9,773 10,193 10,611 11,451 12,291 13,133 13,976 14,821 15,669 16,520 17,375 18,235 19,098 19,966 20,839 21,717 22,601 23,490 24,384 25,284 26,192 27,106 28,027 28,955 29,889 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 0 126.636 127.719 128.765 129.775 130.574 130.754 132.621 134.378 136.039 137.612 139.106 140.529 141.888 143.187 144.432 145.628 146.775 148.945 150.968 152.863 154.645 156.328 157.923 159.440 160.891 162.277 163.607 164.884 166.114 167.300 168.449 169.560 170.636 171.682 172.698 173.687 174.652 175.593 176.510 T K 1440 1480 1520 1560 1600 1640 1680 1720 1760 1800 1840 1880 1920 1960 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 _ h kJ/kmol 42,808 44,091 45,384 46,683 47,990 49,303 50,622 51,947 53,279 54,618 55,962 57,311 58,668 60,031 61,400 63,119 64,847 66,584 68,328 70,080 71,839 73,608 75,383 77,168 78,960 80,755 82,558 84,368 86,186 88,008 89,838 91,671 93,512 95,358 97,211 99,065 100,926 102,793 104,667 106,545 _ u kJ/kmol 30,835 31,786 32,746 33,713 34,687 35,668 36,654 37,646 38,645 39,652 40,663 41,680 42,705 43,735 44,771 46,074 47,386 48,708 50,037 51,373 52,716 54,069 55,429 56,798 58,175 59,554 60,941 62,335 63,737 65,144 66,558 67,976 69,401 70,831 72,268 73,707 75,152 76,604 78,061 79,523 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 177.410 178.291 179.153 179.995 180.820 181.632 182.428 183.208 183.973 184.724 185.463 186.190 186.904 187.607 188.297 189.148 189.979 190.796 191.598 192.385 193.159 193.921 194.669 195.403 196.125 196.837 197.539 198.229 198.907 199.575 200.234 200.885 201.527 202.157 202.778 203.391 203.995 204.592 205.181 205.765

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­23

Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O _ _ T h u K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol 0 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 298 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 0 7,295 7,628 7,961 8,294 8,627 8,961 9,296 9,631 9,904 9,966 10,302 10,639 10,976 11,314 11,652 11,992 12,331 12,672 13,014 13,356 13,699 14,043 14,388 14,734 15,080 15,428 15,777 16,126 16,477 16,828 17,181 17,534 17,889 18,245 18,601 18,959 19,318 19,678 20,039 0 5,466 5,715 5,965 6,215 6,466 6,716 6,968 7,219 7,425 7,472 7,725 7,978 8,232 8,487 8,742 8,998 9,255 9,513 9,771 10,030 10,290 10,551 10,813 11,075 11,339 11,603 11,869 12,135 12,403 12,671 12,940 13,211 13,482 13,755 14,028 14,303 14,579 14,856 15,134 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 0 178.576 180.054 181.471 182.831 184.139 185.399 186.616 187.791 188.720 188.928 190.030 191.098 192.136 193.144 194.125 195.081 196.012 196.920 197.807 198.673 199.521 200.350 201.160 201.955 202.734 203.497 204.247 204.982 205.705 206.413 207.112 207.799 208.475 209.139 209.795 210.440 211.075 211.702 212.320 T K 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 _ h kJ/kmol 20,402 20,765 21,130 21,495 21,862 22,230 22,600 22,970 23,342 23,714 24,088 24,464 24,840 25,218 25,597 25,977 26,358 26,741 27,125 27,510 27,896 28,284 28,672 29,062 29,454 29,846 30,240 30,635 31,032 31,429 31,828 32,228 32,629 33,032 33,436 33,841 34,247 34,653 35,061 35,472 _ u kJ/kmol 15,413 15,693 15,975 16,257 16,541 16,826 17,112 17,399 17,688 17,978 18,268 18,561 18,854 19,148 19,444 19,741 20,039 20,339 20,639 20,941 21,245 21,549 21,855 22,162 22,470 22,779 23,090 23,402 23,715 24,029 24,345 24,662 24,980 25,300 25,621 25,943 26,265 26,588 26,913 27,240

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_ s° kJ/kmol · K 212.920 213.529 214.122 214.707 215.285 215.856 216.419 216.976 217.527 218.071 218.610 219.142 219.668 220.189 220.707 221.215 221.720 222.221 222.717 223.207 223.693 224.174 224.651 225.123 225.592 226.057 226.517 226.973 227.426 227.875 228.321 228.763 229.202 229.637 230.070 230.499 230.924 231.347 231.767 232.184

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­23

Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O (Concluded ) _ _ _ T h u s° K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 35,882 36,709 37,542 38,380 39,223 40,071 40,923 41,780 42,642 43,509 44,380 45,256 46,137 47,022 47,912 48,807 49,707 50,612 51,521 52,434 53,351 54,273 55,198 56,128 57,062 57,999 58,942 59,888 60,838 61,792 62,748 63,709 64,675 65,643 66,614 67,589 68,567 69,550 27,568 28,228 28,895 29,567 30,243 30,925 31,611 32,301 32,997 33,698 34,403 35,112 35,827 36,546 37,270 38,000 38,732 39,470 40,213 40,960 41,711 42,466 43,226 43,989 44,756 45,528 46,304 47,084 47,868 48,655 49,445 50,240 51,039 51,841 52,646 53,455 54,267 55,083 232.597 233.415 234.223 235.020 235.806 236.584 237.352 238.110 238.859 239.600 240.333 241.057 241.773 242.482 243.183 243.877 244.564 245.243 245.915 246.582 247.241 247.895 248.543 249.185 249.820 250.450 251.074 251.693 252.305 252.912 253.513 254.111 254.703 255.290 255.873 256.450 257.022 257.589 T K 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 _ h kJ/kmol 70,535 71,523 72,513 73,507 74,506 75,506 76,511 77,517 78,527 79,540 80,555 81,573 82,593 85,156 87,735 90,330 92,940 95,562 98,199 100,846 103,508 106,183 108,868 111,565 114,273 116,991 119,717 122,453 125,198 127,952 130,717 133,486 136,264 139,051 141,846 144,648 147,457 150,272 _ u kJ/kmol 55,902 56,723 57,547 58,375 59,207 60,042 60,880 61,720 62,564 63,411 64,259 65,111 65,965 68,111 70,275 72,454 74,649 76,855 79,076 81,308 83,553 85,811 88,082 90,364 92,656 94,958 97,269 99,588 101,917 104,256 106,605 108,959 111,321 113,692 116,072 118,458 120,851 123,250 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 258.151 258.708 259.262 259.811 260.357 260.898 261.436 261.969 262.497 263.022 263.542 264.059 264.571 265.838 267.081 268.301 269.500 270.679 271.839 272.978 274.098 275.201 276.286 277.354 278.407 279.441 280.462 281.464 282.453 283.429 284.390 285.338 286.273 287.194 288.102 288.999 289.884 290.756

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Appendix 1 TABLE A­24

Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O _ _ _ T h u s° K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K 0 298 300 500 1000 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 0 6,852 6,892 11,197 21,713 32,150 34,234 36,317 38,400 40,482 42,564 43,605 44,646 45,687 46,728 47,769 48,811 49,852 0 4,373 4,398 7,040 13,398 19,679 20,931 22,183 23,434 24,685 25,935 26,560 27,186 27,811 28,436 29,062 29,688 30,314 0 160.944 161.079 172.088 186.678 195.143 196.488 197.751 198.941 200.067 201.135 201.649 202.151 202.641 203.119 203.588 204.045 204.493 T K 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 _ h kJ/kmol 50,894 51,936 52,979 54,021 55,064 56,108 57,152 58,196 59,241 60,286 61,332 62,378 63,425 65,520 67,619 69,720 71,824 73,932 _ u kJ/kmol 30,940 31,566 32,193 32,820 33,447 34,075 34,703 35,332 35,961 36,590 37,220 37,851 38,482 39,746 41,013 42,283 43,556 44,832

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949

_ s° kJ/kmol · K 204.932 205.362 205.783 206.196 206.601 206.999 207.389 207.772 208.148 208.518 208.882 209.240 209.592 210.279 210.945 211.592 212.220 212.831

TABLE A­25

Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH _ _ T h u K kJ/kmol kJ/kmol 0 298 300 500 1000 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 0 9,188 9,244 15,181 30,123 46,046 49,358 52,706 56,089 59,505 62,952 64,687 66,428 68,177 69,932 71,694 73,462 75,236 0 6,709 6,749 11,024 21,809 33,575 36,055 38,571 41,123 43,708 46,323 47,642 48,968 50,301 51,641 52,987 54,339 55,697 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 0 183.594 183.779 198.955 219.624 232.506 234.642 236.672 238.606 240.453 242.221 243.077 243.917 244.740 245.547 246.338 247.116 247.879 T K 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 _ h kJ/kmol 77,015 78,801 80,592 82,388 84,189 85,995 87,806 89,622 91,442 93,266 95,095 96,927 98,763 102,447 106,145 109,855 113,578 117,312 _ u kJ/kmol 57,061 58,431 59,806 61,186 62,572 63,962 65,358 66,757 68,162 69,570 70,983 72,400 73,820 76,673 79,539 82,418 85,309 88,212 _ s° kJ/kmol · K 248.628 249.364 250.088 250.799 251.499 252.187 252.864 253.530 254.186 254.832 255.468 256.094 256.712 257.919 259.093 260.235 261.347 262.429

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Thermodynamics TABLE A­26

Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 25°C, 1 atm _ _ _ ° gf° s° hf Substance Formula kJ/kmol kJ/kmol kJ/kmol · K Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Water vapor Water Hydrogen peroxide Ammonia Methane Acetylene Ethylene Ethane Propylene Propane n-Butane n-Octane n-Octane n-Dodecane Benzene Methyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Ethyl alcohol Ethyl alcohol Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen Hydroxyl C(s) H2(g) N2(g) O2(g) CO(g) CO2(g) H2O(g) H2O( ) H2O2(g) NH3(g) CH4(g) C2H2(g) C2H4(g) C2H6(g) C3H6(g) C3H8(g) C4H10(g) C8H18(g) C8H18( ) C12H26(g) C6H6(g) CH3OH(g) CH3OH( ) C2H5OH(g) C2H5OH( ) O(g) H(g) N(g) OH(g) 0 0 0 0 110,530 393,520 241,820 285,830 136,310 46,190 74,850 +226,730 +52,280 84,680 +20,410 103,850 126,150 208,450 249,950 291,010 +82,930 200,670 238,660 235,310 277,690 +249,190 +218,000 +472,650 +39,460 0 0 0 0 137,150 394,360 228,590 237,180 105,600 16,590 50,790 +209,170 +68,120 32,890 +62,720 23,490 15,710 +16,530 +6,610 +50,150 +129,660 162,000 166,360 168,570 174,890 +231,770 +203,290 +455,510 +34,280 5.74 130.68 191.61 205.04 197.65 213.80 188.83 69.92 232.63 192.33 186.16 200.85 219.83 229.49 266.94 269.91 310.12 466.73 360.79 622.83 269.20 239.70 126.80 282.59 160.70 161.06 114.72 153.30 183.70

Source: From JANAF, Thermochemical Tables (Midland, MI: Dow Chemical Co., 1971); Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties, NBS Technical Note 270-3, 1968; and API Research Project 44 (Carnegie Press, 1953).

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 951

Appendix 1 TABLE A­27

Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons Molar mass, kg/kmol 12.011 2.016 28.013 16.043 32.042 26.038 30.070 46.069 44.097 58.123 70.134 72.150 78.114 84.161 86.177 92.141 100.204 114.231 142.285 100­110 170 200 18 Enthalpy of vaporization,2 kJ/kg -- -- -- 509 1168 -- 172 919 335 362 363 -- 433 392 366 412 365 363 361 350 270 230 -- Specific heat,1 cp kJ/kg · K 0.708 14.4 1.05 2.20 2.53 1.69 1.75 2.44 2.77 2.42 2.20 2.32 1.72 1.84 2.27 1.71 2.24 2.23 2.21 2.4 2.2 1.9 2 Higher heating value,3 kJ/kg 32,800 141,800 10,100 55,530 22,660 49,970 51,900 29,670 50,330 49,150 47,760 48,570 41,800 47,500 48,310 42,400 48,100 47,890 47,640 47,300 46,100 45,500 50,000

|

951

Fuel (phase) Carbon (s) Hydrogen (g) Carbon monoxide (g) Methane (g) Methanol ( ) Acetylene (g) Ethane (g) Ethanol ( ) Propane ( ) Butane ( ) 1-Pentene ( ) Isopentane ( ) Benzene ( ) Hexene ( ) Hexane ( ) Toluene ( ) Heptane ( ) Octane ( ) Decane ( ) Gasoline ( ) Light diesel ( ) Heavy diesel ( ) Natural gas (g)

1At 2At 3At

Formula C H2 CO CH4 CH4O C2H2 C2H6 C2H6O C3H8 C4H10 C5H10 C5H12 C6H6 C6H12 C6H14 C7H8 C7H16 C8H18 C10H22 CnH1.87n CnH1.8n CnH1.7n CnH3.8nN0.1n

Density,1 kg/L 2 -- -- -- 0.790 -- -- 0.790 0.500 0.579 0.641 0.626 0.877 0.673 0.660 0.867 0.684 0.703 0.730 0.72­0.78 0.78­0.84 0.82­0.88 --

Lower heating value,3 kJ/kg 32,800 120,000 10,100 50,050 19,920 48,280 47,520 26,810 46,340 45,370 44,630 44,910 40,100 44,400 44,740 40,500 44,600 44,430 44,240 44,000 43,200 42,800 45,000

1 atm and 20°C. 25°C for liquid fuels, and 1 atm and normal boiling temperature for gaseous fuels. 25°C. Multiply by molar mass to obtain heating values in kJ/kmol.

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952

|

Thermodynamics

TABLE A­28

Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp The equilibrium constant Kp for the reaction nA A + nB B nC C + nD D is defined as Kp Temp.,

K 298 500 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 H2 2H 164.005 92.827 39.803 30.874 24.463 19.637 15.866 12.840 10.353 8.276 6.517 5.002 3.685 2.534 1.516 0.609 0.202 0.934 2.486 3.725 4.743 5.590 O2 2O 186.975 105.630 45.150 35.005 27.742 22.285 18.030 14.622 11.827 9.497 7.521 5.826 4.357 3.072 1.935 0.926 0.019 0.796 2.513 3.895 5.023 5.963 N2 2N 367.480 213.372 99.127 80.011 66.329 56.055 48.051 41.645 36.391 32.011 28.304 25.117 22.359 19.937 17.800 15.898 14.199 12.660 9.414 6.807 4.666 2.865 H2O H2 + 1/2O2 92.208 52.691 23.163 18.182 14.609 11.921 9.826 8.145 6.768 5.619 4.648 3.812 3.086 2.451 1.891 1.392 0.945 0.542 0.312 0.996 1.560 2.032 H2O 1/2H2 + OH 106.208 60.281 26.034 20.283 16.099 13.066 10.657 8.728 7.148 5.832 4.719 3.763 2.937 2.212 1.576 1.088 0.501 0.044 0.920 1.689 2.318 2.843 CO2 CO + 1/2O2 103.762 57.616 23.529 17.871 13.842 10.830 8.497 6.635 5.120 3.860 2.801 1.894 1.111 0.429 0.169 0.701 1.176 1.599 2.490 3.197 3.771 4.245

1/ N 2 2

n n PCC PDD nA n PA PB B

+ 1/2O2 NO 35.052 20.295 9.388 7.569 6.270 5.294 4.536 3.931 3.433 3.019 2.671 2.372 2.114 1.888 1.690 1.513 1.356 1.216 0.921 0.686 0.497 0.341

Source: Gordon J. Van Wylen and Richard E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, English/SI Version, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986), p. 723, table A.14. Based on thermodynamic data given in JANAF, Thermochemical Tables (Midland, MI: Thermal Research Laboratory, The Dow Chemical Company, 1971).

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 953

Appendix 1

7.5 7.0

T

R

|

953

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65

6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0

0.75 0.80

Sa tur ate d liq uid

0.70 0.75 0.80 0.90 0.85

­ ­ ­ ­ hideal ­ h hideal ­ h Enthalpy departure Zh = --------­ = --------­ RuTcr RTcr

4.5

0.85

4.0 3.5 3.0

0.94 0.92 0.98 0.96 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 0.90 0.92 0.94 0.96 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.15

1.25

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0

ted ura Sat .90 0 or vap 5 0.9

0.98

1.40

1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80

1.1 1.2 0 0

1.

1

0 .3

1.90 2.00 2.20

0

00

1.5

2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 4.00

2.00

0.1

0.2

0.3 0.4 0.5

1.0

2.0

3.0 4.0 5.0

10

20

30

Reduced pressure, PR

­ ­ ­ ­ hideal ­ h hideal ­ h Enthalpy departure Zh = --------­ = --------­ RuTcr RTcr

0.500

0 0.9 0 9

0.400

0. 80

TR

=

TR

=

0.

Sa Sa ttuu rraa tteed dv vap ap oou rr

0.300

0 1.0

1.10

1.20

1.40 1.60

0.200

0.100

2.00 0.000 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 P

R

FIGURE A­29 Generalized enthalpy departure chart.

0.30

Source: John R. Howell and Richard O. Buckius, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, SI Version (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987), p. 558, fig. C.2, and p. 561, fig. C.5.

0.20

0.25

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954

|

Thermodynamics

sideal ­ s sideal ­ s Zs = --------­ = --------­ Ru R

10.0

Entropy departure

0.500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.000 0

9.0

8.0

TR r

1.10 1.20 1.40 1.60 2.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 PR

0.50

sideal ­ s sideal ­ s Entropy departure Zs = --------­ = --------­ Ru R

7.0

0.55 0.60

i s usd l qa dig ae taetd tur tra atau SS

6.0

0.65 0.70

5.0

0.75 0.80 0.85 0.80

0.75

0.90 0.90 0.92 0.98 0.94 0.96 1.02 1.06 0.98 1.10 0.94

0.85 0.92 0.96 1.00 1.04 1.08 0.94 0.98 1.02 1.06

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.20

1.15

1.30

FIGURE A­30 Generalized entropy departure chart.

Source: John R. Howell and Richard O. Buckius, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, SI Version (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987), p. 559, fig. C.3, and p. 561, fig. C.5.

1.0.95 00

1.0

or ted vap 0 Satura 0.9

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.40.5

4 1.0 .10 1 1.20 1.40 1.60

1.40 1.60 2.00 3.00

1.50 1.80 2.50

1.0

2.0

3.0 4.0 5.0

R

10

0. 80

r oour aapp .90 dvv =0 tteed a TR urra tu St Saa 0 1.0

20

30

Reduced pressure, P

ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1 Normal Temperature Barometric Pressure: 101.325 kPa

0.36 30

©1992 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Sea Level

100

4 0.9

28 120

0.40

· 26 90

30

30

10.0

0.4

3

1.0 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

5.0

0.45 24 80

­0

0.

0.2

0.1

4.0

­· 1.0 1.5 ­ 5.0 2.0 4.0 ­ 2.0 HS ­ · Sensible heat ----------­ = ---- ­ 24.0 0.0 Total heat HT ­ .0 1.0 1.0

.5

­ 0.2

0.9

y ai r

0

110 22 0.50 20 0.55

2.0

3.0

olu 2v

dr

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 955

eter

%

25 we t bu lb t

100

90

18

jo ilo )k (h 60 y lp

0 0.9

em per atu re ° C

80 %

log r ki

0.60

En

a th

70

50

m te

8 0.8

r pe

20

at

C e° 20

%

ur

16

0.65

90 14

0.70 0.75 12 80 0.80 0.85 0.90 10 0.95 1.0 8 70

% 50

15

%

30

6 0.8

15

40

10

4 0.8

30%

20

10

Humidity ratio ( ) grams moisture per kilogram dry air

40

t Sa

u

n tio ra

6

0%

5

2 0.8

20%

5

0 0.8

ity 10% re umid lative h

6

4 60 2

0

0

10

20 Dry bulb temperature °C

Appendix 1

30

40

50

Prepared by Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies, University of Idaho.

HS Sensible heat ----------­ = ---- Total heat HT

Enthalpy h ------------ = ---- Humidity ratio

2.5

m

es ul

pe

am gr ilo 70 rk

bi e cu

25

cm pe ram dry air

FIGURE A­31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure.

Reprinted by permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA; used with permission.

8 0.7

| 955

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956

Ma* A A* P P0 r r0 T T0

k 1 Ma B 2 (k 1)Ma2 0.5(k 1 2 k 1 ca b a1 Ma2bd Ma k 1 2 k (k 1) k 1 a1 Ma2b 2 1 (k 1) k 1 a1 Ma2b 2 1 k 1 a1 Ma2b 2

|

Thermodynamics

TABLE A­32

1) (k 1)

One-dimensional isentropic compressible flow functions for an ideal gas with k 1.4 Ma 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 5.0 Ma* 0 0.1094 0.2182 0.3257 0.4313 0.5345 0.6348 0.7318 0.8251 0.9146 1.0000 1.1583 1.2999 1.4254 1.5360 1.6330 1.7179 1.7922 1.8571 1.9140 1.9640 2.2361 2.2495 A/A* 5.8218 2.9635 2.0351 1.5901 1.3398 1.1882 1.0944 1.0382 1.0089 1.0000 1.0304 1.1149 1.2502 1.4390 1.6875 2.0050 2.4031 2.8960 3.5001 4.2346 25.000 P/P0 1.0000 0.9930 0.9725 0.9395 0.8956 0.8430 0.7840 0.7209 0.6560 0.5913 0.5283 0.4124 0.3142 0.2353 0.1740 0.1278 0.0935 0.0684 0.0501 0.0368 0.0272 0.0019 0 r/r0 1.0000 0.9950 0.9803 0.9564 0.9243 0.8852 0.8405 0.7916 0.7400 0.6870 0.6339 0.5311 0.4374 0.3557 0.2868 0.2300 0.1841 0.1472 0.1179 0.0946 0.0760 0.0113 0 T/T0 1.0000 0.9980 0.9921 0.9823 0.9690 0.9524 0.9328 0.9107 0.8865 0.8606 0.8333 0.7764 0.7184 0.6614 0.6068 0.5556 0.5081 0.4647 0.4252 0.3894 0.3571 0.1667 0

3.0 A/A* 2.5

Compressible flow functions

2.0 Ma* 1.5

1.0

0.5 P/P0 0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Ma 2.0

T/T0 r/r*

2.5

3.0

cen84959_ch18-ap01.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 957

T01 Ma2 P2 P1 r2 r1 T2 T1 P 02 P 01 P 02 P1

T02

(k 1)Ma2 1 B 2kMa2 k 1 kMa2 1 kMa2 2 (k 2 (k 1) 1)

Appendix 1 TABLE A­33

2 1 k 1 1 V1 V2

One-dimensional normal shock functions for an ideal gas with k Ma1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 4.0 5.0 Ma2 1.0000 0.9118 0.8422 0.7860 0.7397 0.7011 0.6684 0.6405 0.6165 0.5956 0.5774 0.5613 0.5471 0.5344 0.5231 0.5130 0.5039 0.4956 0.4882 0.4814 0.4752 0.4350 0.4152 0.3780 P2/P1 1.0000 1.2450 1.5133 1.8050 2.1200 2.4583 2.8200 3.2050 3.6133 4.0450 4.5000 4.9783 5.4800 6.0050 6.5533 7.1250 7.7200 8.3383 8.9800 9.6450 10.3333 18.5000 29.000 r2/r1 1.0000 1.1691 1.3416 1.5157 1.6897 1.8621 2.0317 2.1977 2.3592 2.5157 2.6667 2.8119 2.9512 3.0845 3.2119 3.3333 3.4490 3.5590 3.6636 3.7629 3.8571 4.5714 5.0000 6.0000 T2/T1 1.0000 1.0649 1.1280 1.1909 1.2547 1.3202 1.3880 1.4583 1.5316 1.6079 1.6875 1.7705 1.8569 1.9468 2.0403 2.1375 2.2383 2.3429 2.4512 2.5632 2.6790 4.0469 5.8000 P02/P01 1.0000 0.9989 0.9928 0.9794 0.9582 0.9298 0.8952 0.8557 0.8127 0.7674 0.7209 0.6742 0.6281 0.5833 0.5401 0.4990 0.4601 0.4236 0.3895 0.3577 0.3283 0.1388 0.0617 0

|

957

1.4 P02/P1 1.8929 2.1328 2.4075 2.7136 3.0492 3.4133 3.8050 4.2238 4.6695 5.1418 5.6404 6.1654 6.7165 7.2937 7.8969 8.5261 9.1813 9.8624 10.5694 11.3022 12.0610 21.0681 32.6335

1 1

2kMa2 1 k 1)Ma2 1

P2 P1 T2 T1 2 2

1)Ma2 1

Ma2(k 1 Ma2(k 2

Ma1 1 c Ma2 1 (1

Ma2(k 2 Ma2(k 1

1) 2 (k d 1) 2

1)/[2(k

1)]

kMa2)[1 Ma2(k 1 2 1 kMa2 2

1) 2]k (k

1)

5.0 P02 /P1 4.0 P2 /P1

r2 /r1

Normal shock functions

3.0 T2/T1

2.0

1.0 Ma2 P02/P01 0 1.0 1.5 2.0 Ma1 2.5 3.0

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958

T0 * T0 P0 P* 0 T T* P P* V V* (k k 1

|

Thermodynamics

1)Ma2[2 (k 1)Ma2] (1 kMa2)2 2 1 a kMa2 (k k 1)Ma2 k (k b 1

1)

TABLE A­34

Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k Ma 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 T0/T 0 * 0.0000 0.0468 0.1736 0.3469 0.5290 0.6914 0.8189 0.9085 0.9639 0.9921 1.0000 0.9787 0.9343 0.8842 0.8363 0.7934 0.7561 0.7242 0.6970 0.6738 0.6540 P0/P 0 * 1.2679 1.2591 1.2346 1.1985 1.1566 1.1141 1.0753 1.0431 1.0193 1.0049 1.0000 1.0194 1.0777 1.1756 1.3159 1.5031 1.7434 2.0451 2.4177 2.8731 3.4245 T/T* 0.0000 0.0560 0.2066 0.4089 0.6151 0.7901 0.9167 0.9929 1.0255 1.0245 1.0000 0.9118 0.8054 0.7017 0.6089 0.5289 0.4611 0.4038 0.3556 0.3149 0.2803 1.4 P/P* 2.4000 2.3669 2.2727 2.1314 1.9608 1.7778 1.5957 1.4235 1.2658 1.1246 1.0000 0.7958 0.6410 0.5236 0.4335 0.3636 0.3086 0.2648 0.2294 0.2004 0.1765 V/V* 0.0000 0.0237 0.0909 0.1918 0.3137 0.4444 0.5745 0.6975 0.8101 0.9110 1.0000 1.1459 1.2564 1.3403 1.4046 1.4545 1.4938 1.5252 1.5505 1.5711 1.5882

Ma(1 k) 2 a b 1 kMa2 1 1 r* r k kMa2 (1 1 k)Ma2 kMa2

3.5

* P0 /P0

3.0

2.5 Rayleigh flow functions

2.0

V/V *

1.5

1.0

* T0 /T 0

0.5 P/P* 0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Ma 2.0 2.5

T/T *

3.0

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Appendix 2

PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS)

Table A­1E Table A­2E Table A­3E Table A­4E Table A­5E Table A­6E Table A­7E Table A­8E Figure A­9E Figure A­10E Table A­11E Table A­12E Table A­13E Figure A­14E

Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods Saturated water--Temperature table Saturated water--Pressure table Superheated water Compressed liquid water Saturated ice­water vapor T-s diagram for water Mollier diagram for water Saturated refrigerant-134a-- Temperature table Saturated refrigerant-134a--Pressure table Superheated refrigerant-134a P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a

Table A­16E Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude Table A­17E Ideal-gas properties of air Table A­18E Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 Table A­19E Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 Table A­20E Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A­21E Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO Table A­22E Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 Table A­23E Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O Table A­26E Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 77°C, 1 atm Table A­27E Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons Figure A­31E Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure

|

959

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960

|

Thermodynamics

TABLE A­1E

Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties Molar mass, M lbm/lbmol 28.97 17.03 39.948 78.115 159.808 58.124 44.01 28.011 153.82 70.906 119.38 120.91 102.92 30.020 46.07 28.054 4.003 86.178 2.016 83.80 16.043 32.042 50.488 20.183 28.013 44.013 31.999 44.097 42.081 64.063 102.03 137.37 18.015 131.30 Gas constant, R Btu/ lbm · R* 0.06855 0.1166 0.04971 0.02542 0.01243 0.03417 0.04513 0.07090 0.01291 0.02801 0.01664 0.01643 0.01930 0.06616 0.04311 0.07079 0.4961 0.02305 0.9851 0.02370 0.1238 0.06198 0.03934 0.09840 0.07090 0.04512 0.06206 0.04504 0.04719 0.03100 0.01946 0.01446 0.1102 0.01513 psia · lbm · R* ft3/ Critical-point properties Temperature, R 238.5 729.8 272 1012 1052 765.2 547.5 240 1001.5 751 965.8 692.4 813.0 549.8 929.0 508.3 9.5 914.2 59.9 376.9 343.9 923.7 749.3 80.1 227.1 557.4 278.6 665.9 656.9 775.2 673.6 848.1 1164.8 521.55 Pressure, psia 547 1636 705 714 1500 551 1071 507 661 1120 794 582 749 708 926 742 33.2 439 188.1 798 673 1154 968 395 492 1054 736 617 670 1143 588.7 635 3200 852 Volume, ft3/lbmol 1.41 1.16 1.20 4.17 2.17 4.08 1.51 1.49 4.42 1.99 3.85 3.49 3.16 2.37 2.68 1.99 0.926 5.89 1.04 1.48 1.59 1.89 2.29 0.668 1.44 1.54 1.25 3.20 2.90 1.95 3.19 3.97 0.90 1.90

Substance Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Bromine n-Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine Chloroform Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) Dichlorofluoromethane (R-21) Ethane Ethyl alcohol Ethylene Helium n-Hexane Hydrogen (normal) Krypton Methane Methyl alcohol Methyl chloride Neon Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Oxygen Propane Propylene Sulfur dioxide Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) Trichlorofluoromethane (R-11) Water Xenon

*Calculated from R Ru /M, where Ru

Formula -- NH3 Ar C6H6 Br2 C4H10 CO2 CO CCl4 Cl2 CHCl3 CCl2F2 CHCl2F C2H6 C2H5OH C2H4 He C6H14 H2 Kr CH4 CH3OH CH3Cl Ne N2 N2O O2 C3H8 C3H6 SO2 CF3CH2F CCl3F H2O Xe

0.3704 0.6301 0.2686 0.1374 0.06714 0.1846 0.2438 0.3831 0.06976 0.1517 0.08988 0.08874 0.1043 0.3574 0.2329 0.3825 2.6809 0.1245 5.3224 0.1280 0.6688 0.3349 0.2125 0.5316 0.3830 0.2438 0.3353 0.2433 0.2550 1.1675 0.1052 0.07811 0.5956 0.08172

1.98588 Btu/lbmol · R

10.7316 psia · ft3/lbmol · R and M is the molar mass.

Source: K. A. Kobe and R. E. Lynn, Jr., Chemical Review 52 (1953), pp. 117­236, and ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), pp. 16.4 and 36.1.

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­2E

Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (a) At 80°F Gas Air Argon Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam Formula -- Ar C4H10 CO2 CO C2H6 C2H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8H18 O2 C3H8 H2O Gas constant, R Btu/lbm · R 0.06855 0.04971 0.03424 0.04513 0.07090 0.06616 0.07079 0.4961 0.9851 0.1238 0.09840 0.07090 0.01742 0.06206 0.04504 0.1102 cp Btu/lbm · R 0.240 0.1253 0.415 0.203 0.249 0.427 0.411 1.25 3.43 0.532 0.246 0.248 0.409 0.219 0.407 0.445 cv Btu/lbm · R 0.171 0.0756 0.381 0.158 0.178 0.361 0.340 0.753 2.44 0.403 0.1477 0.177 0.392 0.157 0.362 0.335

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961

k 1.400 1.667 1.09 1.285 1.399 1.183 1.208 1.667 1.404 1.32 1.667 1.400 1.044 1.395 1.124 1.329

Source: Gordon J. Van Wylen and Richard E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, English/SI Version, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986), p. 687, Table A­8E.

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TABLE A­2E

Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Continued) (b) At various temperatures Temp., °F cp Btu/lbm · R cv Btu/lbm · R Air 40 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000 0.240 0.240 0.241 0.243 0.245 0.248 0.250 0.254 0.257 0.259 0.263 0.276 0.286 0.171 0.172 0.173 0.174 0.176 0.179 0.182 0.185 0.188 0.191 0.195 0.208 0.217 Hydrogen, H2 40 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000 3.397 3.426 3.451 3.461 3.466 3.469 3.473 3.477 3.494 3.502 3.513 3.618 3.758 2.412 2.441 2.466 2.476 2.480 2.484 2.488 2.492 2.509 2.519 2.528 2.633 2.773 1.409 1.404 1.399 1.398 1.397 1.397 1.396 1.395 1.393 1.392 1.390 1.374 1.355 0.248 0.248 0.249 0.250 0.251 0.254 0.256 0.260 0.262 0.265 0.269 0.283 0.293 1.401 1.400 1.397 1.394 1.389 1.383 1.377 1.371 1.365 1.358 1.353 1.330 1.312 0.195 0.205 0.217 0.229 0.239 0.247 0.255 0.262 0.269 0.275 0.280 0.298 0.312 k cp Btu/lbm · R cv Btu/lbm · R k cp cv Btu/lbm · R Btu/lbm · R k Carbon monoxide, CO 0.248 0.249 0.249 0.251 0.253 0.256 0.259 0.262 0.266 0.269 0.273 0.287 0.297 0.177 0.178 0.179 0.180 0.182 0.185 0.188 0.191 0.195 0.198 0.202 0.216 0.226 Oxygen, O2 1.400 1.399 1.398 1.396 1.393 1.388 1.383 1.377 1.371 1.364 1.359 1.334 1.319 0.219 0.220 0.223 0.226 0.230 0.235 0.239 0.242 0.246 0.249 0.252 0.263 0.270 0.156 0.158 0.161 0.164 0.168 0.173 0.177 0.181 0.184 0.187 0.190 0.201 0.208 1.397 1.394 1.387 1.378 1.368 1.360 1.352 1.344 1.337 1.331 1.326 1.309 1.298 1.400 1.399 1.397 1.394 1.389 1.384 1.377 1.371 1.364 1.357 1.351 1.328 1.314

Carbon dioxide, C02 0.150 0.160 0.172 0.184 0.193 0.202 0.210 0.217 0.224 0.230 0.235 0.253 0.267 Nitrogen, N2 0.177 0.178 0.178 0.179 0.180 0.183 0.185 0.189 0.191 0.194 0.198 0.212 0.222 1.300 1.283 1.262 1.246 1.233 1.223 1.215 1.208 1.202 1.197 1.192 1.178 1.169

Note: The unit Btu/lbm · R is equivalent to Btu/lbm · °F. Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), p. 830, Table A­4. Originally published in Tables of Properties of Gases, NBS Circular 564, 1955.

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­2E

Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Concluded ) (c) As a function of temperature cp a bT cT 2 dT 3

(T in R, cp in Btu/lbmol · R)

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963

Substance Nitrogen Oxygen Air Hydrogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Water vapor Nitric oxide Nitrous oxide Nitrogen dioxide Ammonia Sulfur Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Acetylene Benzene Methanol Ethanol Hydrogen chloride Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane i-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane Ethylene Propylene

Formula N2 O2 -- H2 CO CO2 H2O NO N2O NO2 NH3 S2 SO2 SO3 C2H2 C6H6 CH4O C2H6O HCl CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C2H4 C3H6

a 6.903 6.085 6.713 6.952 6.726 5.316 7.700 7.008 5.758 5.48 6.5846 6.499 6.157 3.918 5.21 8.650 4.55 4.75 7.244 4.750 1.648 0.966 0.945 1.890 1.618 1.657 0.944 0.753

b 0.02085 0.2017 0.02609 0.02542 0.02222 0.79361 0.02552 0.01247 0.7780 0.7583 0.34028 0.2943 0.7689 1.935 1.2227 6.4322 1.214 2.781 0.1011 0.6666 2.291 4.044 4.929 5.520 6.028 7.328 2.075 3.162 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

c 0.05957 0.05275 0.03540 0.02952 0.03960 0.2581 0.07781 0.07185 0.2596 0.260 0.073034 0.1200 0.2810 0.8256 0.4812 2.327 0.0898 0.7651 0.09783 0.09352 0.4722 1.159 1.352 1.696 1.656 2.112 0.6151 0.8981 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

d 0.1176 0.05372 0.08052 0.03565 0.09100 0.3059 0.1472 0.1715 0.4331 0.322 0.27402 0.1632 0.3527 1.328 0.7457 3.179 0.329 0.821 0.1776 0.4510 0.2984 1.300 1.433 2.044 1.732 2.363 0.7326 1.008 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

% error Temperature range, R Max. Avg. 491-3240 491-3240 491-3240 491-3240 491-3240 491-3240 491-3240 491-2700 491-2700 491-2700 491-2700 491-3240 491-3240 491-2340 491-2700 491-2700 491-1800 491-2700 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 491-2740 0.59 1.19 0.72 1.02 0.89 0.67 0.53 0.97 0.59 0.46 0.91 0.99 0.45 0.29 1.46 0.34 0.18 0.40 0.22 1.33 0.83 0.40 0.54 0.25 0.56 0.72 0.54 0.73 0.34 0.28 0.33 0.26 0.37 0.22 0.24 0.36 0.26 0.18 0.36 0.38 0.24 0.13 0.59 0.20 0.08 0.22 0.08 0.57 0.28 0.12 0.24 0.13 0.21 0.20 0.13 0.17

Source: Chemical and Process Thermodynamics 3/E by Kyle, B. G., © 2000. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

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TABLE A­3E

Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods (a) Liquids Boiling data at 1 atm Normal boiling point, °F 27.9 Latent heat of vaporization, hfg Btu/lbm 24.54 Freezing data Freezing point, °F 107.9 Latent heat of fusion, hif Btu/lbm 138.6 Liquid properties Temperature, °F 27.9 0 40 80 302.6 68 Density, r lbm/ft3 42.6 41.3 39.5 37.5 87.0 54.9 Specific heat, cp Btu/lbm · R 1.06 1.083 1.103 1.135 0.272 0.411

Substance Ammonia

Argon Benzene Brine (20% sodium chloride by mass) n-Butane Carbon dioxide Ethanol Ethyl alcohol Ethylene glycol Glycerine Helium Hydrogen Isobutane Kerosene Mercury Methane Methanol Nitrogen Octane Oil (light) Oxygen Petroleum Propane

302.6 176.4

69.5 169.4

308.7 41.9

12.0 54.2

219.0 31.1 109.2* 172.8 173.5 388.6 355.8 452.1 423.0 10.9 399­559 674.1 258.7 148.1 320.4 256.6 -- 297.3 -- 43.7

-- 165.6 99.6 (at 32°F) 360.5 368 344.0 419 9.80 191.7 157.8 108 126.7 219.6 473 85.4 131.7 -- 91.5 99­165 184.0

0.7 217.3 69.8 173.6 248.8 12.6 66.0 -- 434.5 255.5 12.8 38.0 296.0 143.9 346.0 71.5 361.8 305.8

-- 34.5 -- 46.9 46.4 77.9 86.3 -- 25.6 45.5 -- 4.90 25.1 42.7 10.9 77.9 5.9 34.4

Refrigerant-134a

15.0

93.3

141.9

--

Water

212

970.1

32

143.5

68 31.1 32 77 68 68 68 452.1 423.0 10.9 68 77 258.7 160 77 320.4 260 68 77 297.3 68 43.7 32 100 40 15 32 90 32 90 150 212

71.8 37.5 57.8 48.9 49.3 69.2 78.7 9.13 4.41 37.1 51.2 847 26.4 20.0 49.1 50.5 38.2 43.9 56.8 71.2 40.0 36.3 33.0 29.4 88.5 86.0 80.9 73.6 62.4 62.1 61.2 59.8

0.743 0.552 0.583 0.588 0.678 0.678 0.554 5.45 2.39 0.545 0.478 0.033 0.834 1.074 0.609 0.492 0.643 0.502 0.430 0.408 0.478 0.538 0.604 0.673 0.283 0.294 0.318 0.348 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.01

*Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 75.1 psia, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point temperature of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of 69.8°F.)

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­3E

Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods (Continued) (b) Solids (values are for room temperature unless indicated otherwise) Density, r lbm/ft3 Specific heat, cp Btu/lbm · R Density, r lbm/ft3

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965

Substance Metals

Aluminum 100°F 32°F 100°F 200°F 300°F 400°F 500°F Bronze (76% Cu, 2% Zn, 2% Al) Brass, yellow (65% Cu, 35% Zn) Copper 60°F 0°F 100°F 200°F 390°F Iron Lead Magnesium Nickel Silver Steel, mild Tungsten

Substance Nonmetals

Specific heat, cp Btu/lbm · R

170

517 519

0.192 0.212 0.218 0.224 0.229 0.235 0.240 0.0955 0.0955

555

490 705 108 555 655 489 1211

0.0862 0.0893 0.0925 0.0938 0.0963 0.107 0.030 0.239 0.105 0.056 0.119 0.031

Asphalt Brick, common Brick, fireclay (500°C) Concrete Clay Diamond Glass, window Glass, pyrex Graphite Granite Gypsum or plaster board Ice 50°F 0°F 20°F 32°F Limestone Marble Plywood (Douglas fir) Rubber (soft) Rubber (hard) Sand Stone Woods, hard (maple, oak, etc.) Woods, soft (fir, pine, etc.)

132 120 144 144 62.4 151 169 139 156 169 50

0.220 0.189 0.229 0.156 0.220 0.147 0.191 0.200 0.170 0.243 0.260 0.424 0.471 0.491 0.502 0.217 0.210

57.5 103 162 34.0 68.7 71.8 94.9 93.6 45.0 32.0

(c) Foods

Specific heat, Btu/lbm · R Above freezing 0.873 0.801 0.737 0.921 -- 0.513 0.841 0.793 0.793 0.793 0.705 Below freezing 0.453 0.426 0.402 0.471 0.249 0.318 0.441 0.423 0.423 0.423 0.390 Latent heat of fusion, Btu/lbm 121 108 96 129 23 56 115 106 106 106 90 Water content, % (mass) 95 88 87 78 64 83 93 90 94 64 93 Specific heat, Btu/lbm · R Freezing point, Above Below °F freezing freezing 32 31 31 31 28 28 31 31 31 -- 31 0.961 0.905 0.897 0.825 0.713 0.865 0.945 0.921 0.953 0.713 0.945 0.487 0.465 0.462 0.435 0.393 0.450 0.481 0.471 0.484 0.393 0.481 Latent heat of fusion, Btu/lbm 136 126 125 112 92 119 134 129 135 92 134

Food Apples Bananas Beef round Broccoli Butter Cheese, Swiss Cherries Chicken Corn, sweet Eggs, whole Ice cream

Water content, % (mass) 84 75 67 90 16 39 80 74 74 74 63

Freezing point, °F 30 31 -- 31 -- 14 29 27 31 31 22

Food Lettuce Milk, whole Oranges Potatoes Salmon fish Shrimp Spinach Strawberries Tomatoes, ripe Turkey Watermelon

Source: Values are obtained from various handbooks and other sources or are calculated. Water content and freezing-point data of foods are from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, I-P version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chap. 30, Table 1. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for other foods.

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TABLE A­4E

Saturated water--Temperature table

Specific volume, ft3/lbm Sat. press., Psat psia 0.08871 0.09998 0.12173 0.14756 0.17812 0.21413 0.25638 0.30578 0.36334 0.43016 0.50745 0.59659 0.69904 0.81643 0.95052 1.2767 1.6951 2.2260 2.8931 3.7234 4.7474 5.9999 7.5197 9.3497 11.538 14.136 14.709 17.201 20.795 24.985 29.844 35.447 41.877 49.222 57.573 67.028 77.691 89.667 103.07 118.02 134.63 153.03 173.36 195.74 220.33 Sat. liquid, vf 0.01602 0.01602 0.01602 0.01602 0.01602 Sat. vapor, vg 3299.9 2945.7 2443.6 2035.8 1703.1 Sat. liquid, uf 0.000 3.004 8.032 13.05 18.07 23.07 28.08 33.08 38.08 43.07 48.06 53.06 58.05 63.04 68.03 78.01 88.00 97.99 107.98 117.98 127.98 138.00 148.02 158.05 168.10 178.15 180.16 188.22 198.31 208.41 218.54 228.68 238.85 249.04 259.26 269.51 279.79 290.11 300.46 310.85 321.29 331.76 342.29 352.87 363.50 Internal energy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, ug 1021.0 1022.0 1023.7 1025.3 1026.9 1028.6 1030.2 1031.8 1033.5 1035.1 1036.7 1038.3 1040.0 1041.6 1043.2 1046.4 1049.6 1052.7 1055.9 1059.0 1062.0 1065.1 1068.1 1071.0 1074.0 1076.8 1077.4 1079.6 1082.4 1085.1 1087.7 1090.3 1092.8 1095.2 1097.5 1099.8 1101.9 1104.0 1105.9 1107.7 1109.4 1111.0 1112.5 1113.9 1115.1 Sat. liquid, hf 0.000 3.004 8.032 13.05 18.07 23.07 28.08 33.08 38.08 43.07 48.07 53.06 58.05 63.04 68.03 78.02 88.00 97.99 107.99 117.99 128.00 138.02 148.04 158.08 168.13 178.20 180.21 188.28 198.37 208.49 218.63 228.79 238.98 249.20 259.45 269.73 280.05 290.40 300.80 311.24 321.73 332.28 342.88 353.53 364.25 Enthalpy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, hg 1075.2 1076.5 1078.7 1080.9 1083.1 1085.3 1087.4 1089.6 1091.8 1093.9 1096.1 1098.3 1100.4 1102.6 1104.7 1109.0 1113.2 1117.4 1121.6 1125.7 1129.8 1133.9 1137.9 1141.8 1145.7 1149.5 1150.3 1153.3 1157.0 1160.5 1164.0 1167.4 1170.7 1173.9 1177.0 1180.0 1182.8 1185.5 1188.1 1190.5 1192.7 1194.8 1196.7 1198.5 1200.1 Sat. liquid, sf 0.00000 0.00609 0.01620 0.02620 0.03609 0.04586 0.05554 0.06511 0.07459 0.08398 0.09328 0.10248 0.11161 0.12065 0.12961 0.14728 0.16466 0.18174 0.19855 0.21508 0.23136 0.24739 0.26318 0.27874 0.29409 0.30922 0.31222 0.32414 0.33887 0.35342 0.36779 0.38198 0.39601 0.40989 0.42361 0.43720 0.45065 0.46396 0.47716 0.49024 0.50321 0.51607 0.52884 0.54152 0.55411 Entropy, Btu/lbm · R Sat. vapor, sg 2.1867 2.1762 2.1589 2.1421 2.1256 2.1096 2.0940 2.0788 2.0639 2.0494 2.0352 2.0214 2.0079 1.9947 1.9819 1.9570 1.9332 1.9105 1.8888 1.8680 1.8481 1.8289 1.8106 1.7930 1.7760 1.7597 1.7565 1.7439 1.7288 1.7141 1.6999 1.6862 1.6730 1.6601 1.6475 1.6354 1.6235 1.6120 1.6007 1.5897 1.5789 1.5683 1.5580 1.5478 1.5378

Temp., T °F 32.018 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390

Evap., ufg 1021.0 1019.0 1015.6 1012.2 1008.9 1005.5 1002.1 998.76 995.39 992.02 988.65 985.28 981.90 978.52 975.14 968.36 961.56 954.73 947.87 940.98 934.05 927.08 920.06 912.99 905.87 898.68 897.24 891.43 884.10 876.70 869.21 861.62 853.94 846.16 838.27 830.25 822.11 813.84 805.43 796.87 788.16 779.28 770.23 761.00 751.58

Evap., hfg 1075.2 1073.5 1070.7 1067.8 1065.0 1062.2 1059.4 1056.5 1053.7 1050.9 1048.0 1045.2 1042.4 1039.5 1036.7 1031.0 1025.2 1019.4 1013.6 1007.8 1001.8 995.88 989.85 983.76 977.60 971.35 970.09 965.02 958.59 952.06 945.41 938.65 931.76 924.74 917.57 910.24 902.75 895.09 887.25 879.22 870.98 862.53 853.86 844.96 835.81

Evap., sfg 2.18672 2.17011 2.14271 2.11587 2.08956 2.06377 2.03847 2.01366 1.98931 1.96541 1.94196 1.91892 1.89630 1.87408 1.85225 1.80970 1.76856 1.72877 1.69024 1.65291 1.61670 1.58155 1.54741 1.51421 1.48191 1.45046 1.44427 1.41980 1.38989 1.36069 1.33216 1.30425 1.27694 1.25018 1.22393 1.19818 1.17289 1.14802 1.12355 1.09945 1.07570 1.05227 1.02914 1.00628 0.98366

0.01603 1430.4 0.01604 1206.1 0.01604 1020.8 0.01605 867.18 0.01606 739.27 0.01607 0.01609 0.01610 0.01612 0.01613 0.01617 0.01620 0.01625 0.01629 0.01634 0.01639 0.01645 0.01651 0.01657 0.01663 0.01670 0.01671 0.01677 0.01684 0.01692 0.01700 0.01708 0.01717 0.01726 0.01735 0.01745 0.01755 0.01765 0.01776 0.01787 0.01799 0.01811 0.01823 0.01836 0.01850 632.41 542.80 467.40 403.74 349.83 264.96 202.94 157.09 122.81 96.929 77.185 61.982 50.172 40.920 33.613 27.798 26.782 23.136 19.374 16.316 13.816 11.760 10.059 8.6439 7.4607 6.4663 5.6266 4.9144 4.3076 3.7885 3.3425 2.9580 2.6252 2.3361 2.0842

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­4E

Saturated water--Temperature table (Concluded)

Specific volume, ft3/lbm Sat. press., Psat psia 247.26 276.69 308.76 343.64 381.49 422.47 466.75 514.52 565.96 621.24 680.56 744.11 812.11 884.74 962.24 1044.8 1132.7 1226.2 1325.5 1430.8 1542.5 1660.9 1786.2 1918.9 2059.3 2207.8 2364.9 2531.2 2707.3 2894.1 3093.0 3200.1 Sat. liquid, vf 0.01864 0.01878 0.01894 0.01910 0.01926 0.01944 0.01962 0.01981 0.02001 0.02022 0.02044 0.02067 0.02092 0.02118 0.02146 0.02176 0.02207 0.02242 0.02279 0.02319 0.02362 0.02411 0.02464 0.02524 0.02593 0.02673 0.02767 0.02884 0.03035 0.03255 0.03670 0.04975 Sat. vapor, vg 1.8639 1.6706 1.5006 1.3505 1.2178 1.0999 0.99510 0.90158 0.81794 0.74296 0.67558 0.61489 0.56009 0.51051 0.46553 0.42465 0.38740 0.35339 0.32225 0.29367 0.26737 0.24309 0.22061 0.19972 0.18019 0.16184 0.14444 0.12774 0.11134 0.09451 Sat. liquid, uf 374.19 384.94 395.76 406.65 417.61 428.66 439.79 451.01 462.34 473.77 485.32 496.99 508.80 520.76 532.88 545.18 557.68 570.40 583.37 596.61 610.18 624.11 638.47 653.35 668.86 685.16 702.48 721.23 742.11 766.81 Internal energy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, ug 1116.2 1117.1 1117.8 1118.4 1118.9 1119.1 1119.2 1119.0 1118.7 1118.1 1117.3 1116.2 1114.8 1113.1 1111.1 1108.8 1106.0 1102.8 1099.2 1095.0 1090.3 1084.8 1078.6 1071.5 1063.2 1053.6 1042.2 1028.5 1011.1 987.6 948.3 866.6 Sat. liquid, hf 375.04 385.90 396.84 407.86 418.97 430.18 441.48 452.90 464.43 476.09 487.89 499.84 511.94 524.23 536.70 549.39 562.31 575.49 588.95 602.75 616.92 631.52 646.62 662.32 678.74 696.08 714.59 734.74 757.32 784.24 822.76 896.07 Enthalpy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, hg 1201.4 1202.6 1203.6 1204.3 1204.8 1205.1 1205.1 1204.9 1204.3 1203.5 1202.3 1200.8 1199.0 1196.7 1194.0 1190.9 1187.2 1183.0 1178.2 1172.8 1166.6 1159.5 1151.5 1142.4 1131.9 1119.7 1105.4 1088.3 1066.9 1038.2 991.1 896.1 Sat. liquid, sf 0.56663 0.57907 0.59145 0.60377 0.61603 0.62826 0.64044 0.65260 0.66474 0.67686 0.68899 0.70112 0.71327 0.72546 0.73770 0.75000 0.76238 0.77486 0.78748 0.80026 0.81323 0.82645 0.83998 0.85389 0.86828 0.88332 0.89922 0.91636 0.93541 0.95797 0.99023 1.05257 Entropy, Btu/lbm · R

|

967

Temp., T °F 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 705.10

Evap., ufg 741.97 732.14 722.08 711.80 701.26 690.47 679.39 668.02 656.34 644.32 631.94 619.17 605.99 592.35 578.23 563.58 548.33 532.45 515.84 498.43 480.10 460.73 440.14 418.12 394.36 368.44 339.74 307.22 269.00 220.77 146.50 0

Evap., hfg 826.39 816.71 806.74 796.46 785.87 774.94 763.65 751.98 739.91 727.40 714.44 700.99 687.01 672.47 657.31 641.47 624.91 607.55 589.29 570.04 549.67 528.03 504.92 480.07 453.14 423.65 390.84 353.54 309.57 253.96 168.32 0

Evap., sfg 0.96127 0.93908 0.91707 0.89522 0.87349 0.85187 0.83033 0.80885 0.78739 0.76594 0.74445 0.72290 0.70126 0.67947 0.65751 0.63532 0.61284 0.59003 0.56679 0.54306 0.51871 0.49363 0.46765 0.44056 0.41206 0.38177 0.34906 0.31296 0.27163 0.22089

Sat. vapor, sg 1.5279 1.5182 1.5085 1.4990 1.4895 1.4801 1.4708 1.4615 1.4521 1.4428 1.4334 1.4240 1.4145 1.4049 1.3952 1.3853 1.3752 1.3649 1.3543 1.3433 1.3319 1.3201 1.3076 1.2944 1.2803 1.2651 1.2483 1.2293 1.2070 1.1789

0.07482 801.75 0.04975 866.61

0.14514 1.1354 0 1.0526

Source: Tables A­4E through A­8E are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the highly accurate Steam_IAPWS, which incorporates the 1995 Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use, issued by The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). This formulation replaces the 1984 formulation of Haar, Gallagher, and Kell (NBS/NRC Steam Tables, Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1984), which is also available in EES as the routine STEAM. The new formulation is based on the correlations of Saul and Wagner (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16, 893, 1987) with modifications to adjust to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The modifications are described by Wagner and Pruss (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22, 783, 1993). The properties of ice are based on Hyland and Wexler, "Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2O from 173.15 K to 473.15 K," ASHRAE Trans., Part 2A, Paper 2793, 1983.

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­5E

Saturated water--Pressure table

Specific volume, ft3/lbm Sat. temp., Tsat °F 101.69 126.02 141.41 152.91 162.18 170.00 182.81 193.16 211.95 212.99 227.92 240.03 250.30 259.25 267.22 274.41 280.99 287.05 292.69 297.95 302.91 307.59 312.02 316.24 320.26 324.11 327.81 334.77 341.25 347.32 353.03 358.42 363.54 368.41 373.07 377.52 381.80 400.97 417.35 431.74 444.62 456.31 467.04 476.97 486.24 Sat. liquid, vf 0.01614 0.01623 0.01630 0.01636 0.01641 0.01645 0.01652 0.01659 0.01671 0.01672 0.01683 0.01692 0.01700 0.01708 0.01715 0.01721 0.01727 0.01732 0.01738 0.01743 0.01748 0.01752 0.01757 0.01761 0.01765 0.01770 0.01774 0.01781 0.01789 0.01796 0.01802 0.01809 0.01815 0.01821 0.01827 0.01833 0.01839 0.01865 0.01890 0.01912 0.01934 0.01955 0.01975 0.01995 0.02014 Sat. vapor, vg 333.49 173.71 118.70 90.629 73.525 61.982 47.347 38.425 26.805 26.297 20.093 16.307 13.749 11.901 10.501 9.4028 8.5175 7.7882 7.1766 6.6560 6.2075 5.8167 5.4733 5.1689 4.8972 4.6532 4.4327 4.0410 3.7289 3.4557 3.2202 3.0150 2.8347 2.6749 2.5322 2.4040 2.2882 1.8440 1.5435 1.3263 1.1617 1.0324 0.92819 0.84228 0.77020 Sat. liquid, uf 69.72 94.02 109.39 120.89 130.17 138.00 150.83 161.22 180.12 181.16 196.21 208.45 218.84 227.92 236.02 243.34 250.05 256.25 262.01 267.41 272.50 277.31 281.87 286.22 290.38 294.36 298.19 305.41 312.16 318.48 324.45 330.11 335.49 340.62 345.53 350.24 354.78 375.23 392.89 408.55 422.70 435.67 447.68 458.90 469.46 Internal energy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, ug 1043.7 1051.5 1056.3 1059.9 1062.7 1065.1 1068.9 1072.0 1077.4 1077.7 1081.8 1085.1 1087.8 1090.1 1092.1 1093.9 1095.4 1096.9 1098.1 1099.3 1100.4 1101.4 1102.3 1103.2 1104.0 1104.8 1105.5 1106.8 1107.9 1109.0 1109.9 1110.8 1111.6 1112.3 1113.0 1113.6 1114.1 1116.3 1117.7 1118.5 1119.0 1119.2 1119.1 1118.8 1118.3 Sat. liquid, hf 69.72 94.02 109.40 120.90 130.18 138.02 150.86 161.25 180.16 181.21 196.27 208.52 218.93 228.03 236.14 243.49 250.21 256.42 262.20 267.62 272.72 277.55 282.13 286.50 290.67 294.67 298.51 305.78 312.55 318.92 324.92 330.61 336.02 341.19 346.14 350.89 355.46 376.09 393.94 409.79 424.13 437.30 449.51 460.93 471.70 Enthalpy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, hg 1105.4 1115.8 1122.2 1126.9 1130.7 1133.9 1139.0 1143.1 1150.3 1150.7 1156.2 1160.6 1164.1 1167.2 1169.8 1172.2 1174.2 1176.1 1177.8 1179.4 1180.8 1182.1 1183.4 1184.5 1185.6 1186.6 1187.5 1189.2 1190.8 1192.1 1193.4 1194.5 1195.5 1196.4 1197.3 1198.1 1198.8 1201.6 1203.3 1204.4 1205.0 1205.2 1205.0 1204.5 1203.9 Sat. liquid, sf 0.13262 0.17499 0.20090 0.21985 0.23488 0.24739 0.26757 0.28362 0.31215 0.31370 0.33582 0.35347 0.36821 0.38093 0.39213 0.40216 0.41125 0.41958 0.42728 0.43443 0.44112 0.44741 0.45335 0.45897 0.46431 0.46941 0.47427 0.48341 0.49187 0.49974 0.50711 0.51405 0.52061 0.52682 0.53274 0.53839 0.54379 0.56784 0.58818 0.60590 0.62168 0.63595 0.64900 0.66107 0.67231 Entropy, Btu/lbm · R Sat. vapor, sg 1.9776 1.9194 1.8858 1.8621 1.8438 1.8289 1.8056 1.7875 1.7566 1.7549 1.7319 1.7141 1.6995 1.6872 1.6766 1.6672 1.6588 1.6512 1.6442 1.6378 1.6319 1.6264 1.6212 1.6163 1.6117 1.6073 1.6032 1.5954 1.5883 1.5818 1.5757 1.5700 1.5647 1.5596 1.5548 1.5503 1.5460 1.5270 1.5111 1.4973 1.4852 1.4742 1.4642 1.4550 1.4463

Press., P psia 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 14.696 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600

Evap., ufg 973.99 957.45 946.90 938.97 932.53 927.08 918.08 910.75 897.27 896.52 885.63 876.67 868.98 862.19 856.09 850.52 845.39 840.61 836.13 831.90 827.90 824.09 820.45 816.97 813.62 810.40 807.29 801.37 795.79 790.51 785.49 780.69 776.10 771.68 767.42 763.31 759.32 741.02 724.77 709.98 696.31 683.52 671.42 659.91 648.88

Evap., hfg 1035.7 1021.7 1012.8 1006.0 1000.5 995.88 988.15 981.82 970.12 969.47 959.93 952.03 945.21 939.16 933.69 928.68 924.03 919.70 915.61 911.75 908.08 904.58 901.22 898.00 894.89 891.89 888.99 883.44 878.20 873.21 868.45 863.88 859.49 855.25 851.16 847.19 843.33 825.47 809.41 794.65 780.87 767.86 755.48 743.60 732.15

Evap., sfg 1.84495 1.74444 1.68489 1.64225 1.60894 1.58155 1.53800 1.50391 1.44441 1.44441 1.39606 1.36060 1.33132 1.30632 1.28448 1.26506 1.24756 1.23162 1.21697 1.20341 1.19078 1.17895 1.16783 1.15732 1.14737 1.13791 1.12888 1.11201 1.09646 1.08204 1.06858 1.05595 1.04405 1.03279 1.02210 1.01191 1.00219 0.95912 0.92289 0.89143 0.86350 0.83828 0.81521 0.79388 0.77400

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­5E

Saturated water--Pressure table (Concluded)

Specific volume, ft3/lbm Sat. temp., Tsat °F 503.13 518.27 532.02 544.65 567.26 587.14 604.93 621.07 635.85 668.17 695.41 705.10 Sat. liquid, vf 0.02051 0.02087 0.02124 0.02159 0.02232 0.02307 0.02386 0.02470 0.02563 0.02860 0.03433 0.04975 Sat. vapor, vg 0.65589 0.56920 0.50107 0.44604 0.36241 0.30161 0.25516 0.21831 0.18815 0.13076 0.08460 0.04975 Sat. liquid, uf 488.96 506.74 523.19 538.58 566.89 592.79 616.99 640.03 662.33 717.67 783.39 866.61 Internal energy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, ug 1116.9 1115.0 1112.7 1110.1 1103.8 1096.3 1087.7 1077.9 1066.8 1031.2 969.8 866.6 Sat. liquid, hf 491.62 509.83 526.73 542.57 571.85 598.76 624.06 648.26 671.82 730.90 802.45 896.07 Enthalpy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, hg 1201.9 1199.3 1196.2 1192.6 1184.2 1174.4 1163.2 1150.6 1136.4 1091.7 Sat. liquid, sf 0.69279 0.71117 0.72793 0.74341 0.77143 0.79658 0.81972 0.84144 0.86224 0.91311 0.97321 1.05257 Entropy, Btu/lbm · R

|

969

Press., P psia 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2500 3000 3200.1

Evap., ufg 627.98 608.30 589.54 571.49 536.87 503.50 470.69 437.86 404.46 313.53 186.41 0

Evap., hfg 710.29 689.48 669.46 650.03 612.39 575.66 539.18 502.35 464.60 360.79

Evap., sfg 0.73771 0.70502 0.67505 0.64722 0.59632 0.54991 0.50645 0.46482 0.42409 0.31988

Sat. vapor, sg 1.4305 1.4162 1.4030 1.3906 1.3677 1.3465 1.3262 1.3063 1.2863 1.2330

214.32 1016.8 0 896.1

0.18554 1.1587 0 1.0526

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­6E

Superheated water

T °F v ft3/lbm P Sat. 333.49 200 392.53 240 416.44 280 440.33 320 464.20 360 488.07 400 511.92 440 535.77 500 571.54 600 631.14 700 690.73 800 750.31 1000 869.47 1200 988.62 1400 1107.8 P Sat. 240 280 320 360 400 440 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 26.297 27.429 29.085 30.722 32.348 33.965 35.576 37.986 41.988 45.981 49.967 57.930 65.885 73.836 81.784 P Sat. 320 360 400 440 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 7.1766 7.4863 7.9259 8.3548 8.7766 9.4005 10.4256 11.4401 12.4484 14.4543 16.4525 18.4464 20.438 22.428 24.417 u Btu/lbm h Btu/lbm s Btu/ lbm · R v ft3/lbm P 73.525 78.153 83.009 87.838 92.650 97.452 102.25 107.03 114.21 126.15 138.09 150.02 173.86 197.70 221.54 P 1.7549 1.7742 1.8010 1.8260 1.8496 1.8721 1.8936 1.9243 1.9718 2.0156 2.0565 2.1312 2.1986 2.2604 2.3178 20.093 20.478 21.739 22.980 24.209 25.429 26.644 28.458 31.467 34.467 37.461 43.438 49.407 55.373 61.335 P 1.6442 1.6636 1.6897 1.7138 1.7364 1.7682 1.8168 1.8613 1.9026 1.9777 2.0454 2.1073 2.1648 2.2187 2.2694 5.4733 5.5440 5.8876 6.2187 6.5420 7.0177 7.7951 8.5616 9.3218 10.8313 12.3331 13.8306 15.3257 16.8192 18.3117 u Btu/lbm h Btu/lbm s Btu/ lbm · R v ft3/lbm P 38.425 38.849 41.326 43.774 46.205 48.624 51.035 53.441 57.041 63.029 69.007 74.980 86.913 98.840 110.762 P 10.501 10.713 11.363 11.999 12.625 13.244 14.165 15.686 17.197 18.702 21.700 24.691 27.678 30.662 P u Btu/lbm s h Btu/ Btu/lbm lbm · R

1.0 psia (101.69°F)* 1043.7 1077.5 1091.2 1105.0 1118.9 1132.9 1147.1 1161.3 1182.8 1219.4 1256.8 1295.1 1374.2 1457.1 1543.7 1105.4 1150.1 1168.3 1186.5 1204.8 1223.3 1241.8 1260.4 1288.6 1336.2 1384.6 1433.9 1535.1 1640.0 1748.7 1.9776 2.0509 2.0777 2.1030 2.1271 2.1502 2.1722 2.1934 2.2237 2.2709 2.3146 2.3553 2.4299 2.4972 2.5590

5.0 psia (162.18°F) 1062.7 1076.2 1090.3 1104.3 1118.4 1132.5 1146.7 1160.9 1182.6 1219.2 1256.7 1294.9 1374.2 1457.0 1543.7 1130.7 1148.5 1167.1 1185.6 1204.1 1222.6 1241.3 1260.0 1288.2 1335.9 1384.4 1433.7 1535.0 1640.0 1748.7 1.8438 1.8716 1.8989 1.9246 1.9490 1.9722 1.9944 2.0156 2.0461 2.0933 2.1371 2.1778 2.2524 2.3198 2.3816

10 psia (193.16°F) 1072.0 1074.5 1089.1 1103.4 1117.6 1131.9 1146.2 1160.5 1182.2 1219.0 1256.5 1294.8 1374.1 1457.0 1543.6 1143.1 1146.4 1165.5 1184.4 1203.1 1221.8 1240.6 1259.4 1287.8 1335.6 1384.2 1433.5 1534.9 1639.9 1748.6 1.7875 1.7926 1.8207 1.8469 1.8716 1.8950 1.9174 1.9388 1.9693 2.0167 2.0605 2.1013 2.1760 2.2433 2.3052

15 psia (212.99°F) 1077.7 1087.8 1102.4 1116.9 1131.3 1145.7 1160.1 1181.9 1218.7 1256.3 1294.6 1374.0 1456.9 1543.6 1634.0 1150.7 1163.9 1183.2 1202.2 1221.1 1239.9 1258.8 1287.3 1335.3 1383.9 1433.3 1534.8 1639.8 1748.5 1861.0

20 psia (227.92°F) 1081.8 1086.5 1101.4 1116.1 1130.7 1145.1 1159.7 1181.6 1218.5 1256.1 1294.5 1373.8 1456.8 1543.5 1633.9 1156.2 1162.3 1181.9 1201.2 1220.2 1239.3 1258.3 1286.9 1334.9 1383.7 1433.1 1534.6 1639.7 1748.4 1860.9 1.7319 1.7406 1.7679 1.7933 1.8171 1.8398 1.8614 1.8922 1.9398 1.9837 2.0247 2.0994 2.1668 2.2287 2.2861

40 psia (267.22°F) 1092.1 1097.3 1112.9 1128.1 1143.1 1157.9 1180.2 1217.5 1255.3 1293.9 1373.4 1456.5 1543.3 1633.7 1169.8 1176.6 1197.1 1216.9 1236.5 1256.0 1285.0 1333.6 1382.6 1432.3 1534.1 1639.3 1748.1 1860.7 1.6766 1.6858 1.7128 1.7376 1.7610 1.7831 1.8143 1.8625 1.9067 1.9478 2.0227 2.0902 2.1522 2.2096

60 psia (292.69°F) 1098.1 1109.6 1125.5 1140.9 1156.1 1178.8 1216.5 1254.5 1293.3 1373.0 1456.2 1543.0 1633.5 1727.6 1825.2 1177.8 1192.7 1213.5 1233.7 1253.6 1283.1 1332.2 1381.6 1431.5 1533.5 1638.9 1747.8 1860.5 1976.6 2096.3

80 psia (312.02°F) 1102.3 1105.9 1122.7 1138.7 1154.3 1177.3 1215.4 1253.8 1292.6 1372.6 1455.9 1542.8 1633.3 1727.5 1825.0 1183.4 1187.9 1209.9 1230.8 1251.2 1281.2 1330.8 1380.5 1430.6 1532.9 1638.5 1747.5 1860.2 1976.5 2096.1 1.6212 1.6271 1.6545 1.6794 1.7026 1.7350 1.7841 1.8289 1.8704 1.9457 2.0135 2.0755 2.1330 2.1869 2.2376

100 psia (327.81°F) 1187.5 1206.1 1227.8 1248.7 1279.3 1329.4 1379.5 1429.8 1532.4 1638.1 1747.2 1860.0 1976.3 2096.0 1.6032 1.6263 1.6521 1.6759 1.7088 1.7586 1.8037 1.8453 1.9208 1.9887 2.0508 2.1083 2.1622 2.2130

4.4327 1105.5 4.6628 4.9359 5.2006 5.5876 6.2167 6.8344 7.4457 8.6575 9.8615 11.0612 12.2584 13.4541 14.6487 1119.8 1136.4 1152.4 1175.9 1214.4 1253.0 1292.0 1372.2 1455.6 1542.6 1633.2 1727.3 1824.9

*The temperature in parentheses is the saturation temperature at the specified pressure.

Properties of saturated vapor at the specified pressure.

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­6E

Superheated water (Continued )

T °F v ft3/lbm P Sat. 360 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 3.7289 3.8446 4.0799 4.3613 4.6340 4.9010 5.1642 5.6829 6.1950 7.2083 8.2137 9.2149 10.2135 11.2106 12.2067 P Sat. 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2.5322 2.6490 2.8514 3.0433 3.2286 3.4097 3.7635 4.1104 4.4531 4.7929 5.4674 6.1377 6.8054 7.4716 8.1367 P Sat. 450 500 550 600 650 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1.8440 2.0027 2.1506 2.2910 2.4264 2.5586 2.6883 2.9429 3.1930 3.4403 3.9295 4.4144 4.8969 5.3777 5.8575 u Btu/lbm h Btu/lbm s Btu/ lbm · R v ft3/lbm P 3.2202 3.2584 3.4676 3.7147 3.9525 4.1845 4.4124 4.8604 5.3017 6.1732 7.0367 7.8961 8.7529 9.6082 10.4624 P 2.2882 2.3615 2.5488 2.7247 2.8939 3.0586 3.3796 3.6934 4.0031 4.3099 4.9182 5.5222 6.1238 6.7238 7.3227 P 1.6806 1.8034 1.9415 2.0715 2.1964 2.3179 2.4369 2.6699 2.8984 3.1241 3.5700 4.0116 4.4507 4.8882 5.3247 s u h Btu/ Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R 140 psia (353.03°F) 1109.9 1113.4 1131.5 1152.6 1172.9 1192.7 1212.3 1251.4 1290.8 1371.3 1455.0 1542.1 1632.8 1727.0 1824.6 1193.4 1197.8 1221.4 1248.9 1275.3 1301.1 1326.6 1377.3 1428.1 1531.3 1637.3 1746.6 1859.5 1975.9 2095.7 1.5757 1.5811 1.6092 1.6403 1.6686 1.6948 1.7195 1.7652 1.8072 1.8832 1.9512 2.0134 2.0711 2.1250 2.1758 v ft3/lbm P 2.8347 3.0076 3.2293 3.4412 3.6469 3.8484 4.2434 4.6316 5.3968 6.1540 6.9070 7.6574 8.4063 9.1542 P 2.0423 2.0728 2.2457 2.4059 2.5590 2.7075 2.9956 3.2765 3.5530 3.8268 4.3689 4.9068 5.4422 5.9760 6.5087 P 1.5435 1.6369 1.7670 1.8885 2.0046 2.1172 2.2273 2.4424 2.6529 2.8605 3.2704 3.6759 4.0789 4.4803 4.8807 u Btu/lbm

|

971

s h Btu/ Btu/lbm lbm · R

120 psia (341.25°F) 1107.9 1116.7 1134.0 1154.5 1174.4 1193.9 1213.4 1252.2 1291.4 1371.7 1455.3 1542.3 1633.0 1727.2 1824.8 1190.8 1202.1 1224.6 1251.4 1277.3 1302.8 1328.0 1378.4 1429.0 1531.8 1637.7 1746.9 1859.8 1976.1 2095.8 1.5883 1.6023 1.6292 1.6594 1.6872 1.7131 1.7375 1.7829 1.8247 1.9005 1.9684 2.0305 2.0881 2.1420 2.1928

160 psia (363.54°F) 1111.6 1129.0 1150.7 1171.4 1191.4 1211.3 1250.6 1290.2 1370.9 1454.7 1541.8 1632.6 1726.9 1824.5 1195.5 1218.0 1246.3 1273.2 1299.4 1325.2 1376.3 1427.3 1530.7 1636.9 1746.3 1859.3 1975.7 2095.5 1.5647 1.5914 1.6234 1.6522 1.6788 1.7037 1.7498 1.7920 1.8682 1.9363 1.9986 2.0563 2.1102 2.1610

180 psia (373.07°F) 1113.0 1126.3 1148.7 1169.8 1190.2 1210.2 1249.8 1289.5 1329.7 1370.5 1454.3 1541.6 1632.4 1726.7 1824.4 1197.3 1214.5 1243.7 1271.2 1297.7 1323.8 1375.2 1426.5 1478.0 1530.1 1636.5 1746.0 1859.1 1975.6 2095.4 1.5548 1.5752 1.6082 1.6376 1.6646 1.6897 1.7361 1.7785 1.8179 1.8549 1.9231 1.9855 2.0432 2.0971 2.1479

200 psia (381.80°F) 1114.1 1123.5 1146.7 1168.2 1188.9 1209.1 1249.0 1288.9 1329.2 1370.1 1454.0 1541.4 1632.2 1726.5 1824.3 1198.8 1210.9 1241.0 1269.0 1296.0 1322.3 1374.1 1425.6 1477.3 1529.6 1636.1 1745.7 1858.8 1975.4 2095.3 1.5460 1.5602 1.5943 1.6243 1.6516 1.6771 1.7238 1.7664 1.8059 1.8430 1.9113 1.9737 2.0315 2.0855 2.1363

225 psia (391.80°F) 1115.3 1119.7 1144.1 1166.2 1187.2 1207.7 1248.0 1288.1 1328.5 1369.5 1453.6 1541.1 1632.0 1726.4 1824.1 1200.3 1206.0 1237.6 1266.3 1293.8 1320.5 1372.7 1424.5 1476.5 1528.9 1635.6 1745.4 1858.6 1975.2 2095.1 1.5360 1.5427 1.5783 1.6091 1.6370 1.6628 1.7099 1.7528 1.7925 1.8296 1.8981 1.9606 2.0184 2.0724 2.1232

250 psia (400.97°F) 1116.3 1141.3 1164.1 1185.6 1206.3 1226.8 1247.0 1287.3 1327.9 1369.0 1453.3 1540.8 1631.7 1726.2 1823.9 1201.6 1234.0 1263.6 1291.5 1318.6 1345.1 1371.4 1423.5 1475.6 1528.2 1635.0 1745.0 1858.3 1974.9 2094.9 1.5270 1.5636 1.5953 1.6237 1.6499 1.6743 1.6974 1.7406 1.7804 1.8177 1.8863 1.9488 2.0066 2.0607 2.1116

275 psia (409.45°F) 1117.0 1138.5 1162.0 1183.9 1204.9 1225.6 1246.0 1286.5 1327.3 1368.5 1452.9 1540.5 1631.5 1726.0 1823.8 1202.6 1230.3 1260.8 1289.3 1316.7 1343.5 1370.0 1422.4 1474.8 1527.4 1634.5 1744.6 1858.0 1974.7 2094.7 1.5187 1.5499 1.5825 1.6115 1.6380 1.6627 1.6860 1.7294 1.7694 1.8068 1.8755 1.9381 1.9960 2.0501 2.1010

300 psia (417.35°F) 1117.7 1135.6 1159.8 1182.1 1203.5 1224.4 1244.9 1285.7 1326.6 1367.9 1452.5 1540.2 1631.3 1725.8 1823.6 1203.3 1226.4 1257.9 1287.0 1314.8 1341.9 1368.6 1421.3 1473.9 1526.7 1634.0 1744.2 1857.7 1974.5 2094.6 1.5111 1.5369 1.5706 1.6001 1.6270 1.6520 1.6755 1.7192 1.7593 1.7968 1.8657 1.9284 1.9863 2.0404 2.0913

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­6E

Superheated water (Continued )

T °F v ft3/lbm P Sat. 450 500 550 600 650 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1.3263 1.3739 1.4921 1.6004 1.7030 1.8018 1.8979 2.0848 2.2671 2.4464 2.7996 3.1484 3.4947 3.8394 4.1830 P Sat. 500 550 600 650 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0.92815 0.99304 1.07974 1.15876 1.23312 1.30440 1.44097 1.57252 1.70094 1.82726 1.95211 2.1988 2.4430 2.6856 2.9271 P Sat. 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0.56920 0.61586 0.67799 0.73279 0.78330 0.83102 0.87678 0.96434 1.04841 1.13024 1.21051 1.36797 1.52283 1.67606 1.82823 s u h Btu/ Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R 350 psia (431.74°F) 1118.5 1129.3 1155.2 1178.6 1200.6 1221.9 1242.8 1284.1 1325.3 1366.9 1451.7 1539.6 1630.8 1725.4 1823.3 1204.4 1218.3 1251.9 1282.2 1310.9 1338.6 1365.8 1419.1 1472.2 1525.3 1633.0 1743.5 1857.1 1974.0 2094.2 1.4973 1.5128 1.5487 1.5795 1.6073 1.6328 1.6567 1.7009 1.7414 1.7791 1.8483 1.9111 1.9691 2.0233 2.0742 v ft3/lbm P 1.1617 1.1747 1.2851 1.3840 1.4765 1.5650 1.6507 1.8166 1.9777 2.1358 2.4465 2.7527 3.0565 3.3586 3.6597 P 0.77020 0.79526 0.87542 0.94605 1.01133 1.07316 1.19038 1.30230 1.41097 1.51749 1.62252 1.82957 2.0340 2.2369 2.4387 P 0.44604 0.45375 0.51431 0.56411 0.60844 0.64944 0.68821 0.76136 0.83078 0.89783 0.96327 1.09101 1.21610 1.33956 1.46194 u h Btu/lbm Btu/lbm s Btu/ lbm · R v ft3/lbm P 1.0324 1.1233 1.2152 1.3001 1.3807 1.4584 1.6080 1.7526 1.8942 2.1718 2.4450 2.7157 2.9847 3.2527 P 0.65589 0.72799 0.79332 0.85242 0.90769 1.01125 1.10921 1.20381 1.29621 1.38709 1.56580 1.74192 1.91643 2.08987 P 0.34549 0.37894 0.42703 0.46735 0.50344 0.53687 0.59876 0.65656 0.71184 0.76545 0.86944 0.97072 1.07036 1.16892 s u h Btu/ Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R 450 psia (456.31°F) 1119.2 1145.4 1171.1 1194.6 1216.9 1238.5 1280.8 1322.7 1364.7 1450.1 1538.4 1629.8 1724.6 1822.6 1205.2 1238.9 1272.3 1302.8 1331.9 1360.0 1414.7 1468.6 1522.4 1631.0 1742.0 1856.0 1973.2 2093.5 1.4742 1.5103 1.5441 1.5737 1.6005 1.6253 1.6706 1.7117 1.7499 1.8196 1.8827 1.9409 1.9952 2.0462

400 psia (444.62°F) 1119.0 1122.5 1150.4 1174.9 1197.6 1219.4 1240.7 1282.5 1324.0 1365.8 1450.9 1539.0 1630.3 1725.0 1823.0 1205.0 1209.4 1245.6 1277.3 1306.9 1335.3 1362.9 1417.0 1470.4 1523.9 1632.0 1742.7 1856.5 1973.6 2093.9 1.4852 1.4901 1.5288 1.5610 1.5897 1.6158 1.6401 1.6849 1.7257 1.7636 1.8331 1.8960 1.9541 2.0084 2.0594

500 psia (467.04°F) 1119.1 1140.1 1167.1 1191.4 1214.3 1236.4 1279.2 1321.4 1363.6 1406.2 1449.4 1537.8 1629.4 1724.2 1822.3 1205.0 1231.9 1267.0 1298.6 1328.4 1357.0 1412.5 1466.9 1521.0 1575.3 1630.0 1741.2 1855.4 1972.7 2093.1 1.4642 1.4928 1.5284 1.5590 1.5865 1.6117 1.6576 1.6992 1.7376 1.7735 1.8075 1.8708 1.9291 1.9834 2.0345

600 psia (486.24°F) 1118.3 1128.2 1158.7 1184.9 1209.0 1231.9 1275.8 1318.7 1361.4 1404.4 1447.8 1536.6 1628.4 1723.4 1821.7 1203.9 1216.5 1255.9 1289.9 1321.3 1351.0 1408.0 1463.3 1518.1 1572.9 1627.9 1739.7 1854.2 1971.8 2092.4 1.4463 1.4596 1.4996 1.5325 1.5614 1.5877 1.6348 1.6771 1.7160 1.7522 1.7865 1.8501 1.9085 1.9630 2.0141

700 psia (503.13°F) 1116.9 1149.5 1177.9 1203.4 1227.2 1272.4 1316.0 1359.2 1402.5 1446.2 1535.4 1627.5 1722.7 1821.0 1201.9 1243.8 1280.7 1313.8 1344.8 1403.4 1459.7 1515.2 1570.4 1625.9 1738.2 1853.1 1970.9 2091.7 1.4305 1.4730 1.5087 1.5393 1.5666 1.6150 1.6581 1.6974 1.7341 1.7685 1.8324 1.8911 1.9457 1.9969

800 psia (518.27°F) 1115.0 1139.4 1170.5 1197.6 1222.4 1246.0 1268.9 1313.3 1357.0 1400.7 1444.6 1534.2 1626.5 1721.9 1820.4 1199.3 1230.5 1270.9 1306.0 1338.4 1369.1 1398.7 1456.0 1512.2 1568.0 1623.8 1736.7 1851.9 1970.0 2091.0 1.4162 1.4476 1.4866 1.5191 1.5476 1.5735 1.5975 1.6413 1.6812 1.7181 1.7528 1.8170 1.8759 1.9306 1.9819

1000 psia (544.65°F) 1110.1 1115.2 1154.1 1185.1 1212.4 1237.6 1261.7 1307.7 1352.5 1396.9 1441.4 1531.8 1624.6 1720.3 1819.1 1192.6 1199.2 1249.3 1289.5 1325.0 1357.8 1389.0 1448.6 1506.2 1563.1 1619.7 1733.7 1849.6 1968.2 2089.6 1.3906 1.3972 1.4457 1.4827 1.5140 1.5418 1.5670 1.6126 1.6535 1.6911 1.7263 1.7911 1.8504 1.9053 1.9568

1250 psia (572.45°F) 1102.0 1129.5 1167.5 1198.7 1226.4 1252.2 1300.5 1346.7 1392.2 1437.4 1528.7 1622.2 1718.4 1817.5 1181.9 1217.2 1266.3 1306.8 1342.9 1376.4 1439.0 1498.6 1556.8 1614.5 1729.8 1846.7 1966.0 2087.9 1.3623 1.3961 1.4414 1.4771 1.5076 1.5347 1.5826 1.6249 1.6635 1.6993 1.7649 1.8246 1.8799 1.9315

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­6E

Superheated water (Concluded)

T °F v ft3/lbm P Sat. 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 1000 1100 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0.27695 0.28189 0.33310 0.37198 0.40535 0.43550 0.46356 0.49015 0.54031 0.58781 0.63355 0.72172 0.80714 0.89090 0.97358 P Sat. 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0.13076 0.16849 0.20327 0.22949 0.25174 0.27165 0.29001 0.30726 0.33949 0.36966 0.42631 0.48004 0.53205 0.58295 u Btu/lbm s h Btu/ Btu/lbm lbm · R v ft3/lbm P 0.22681 0.26292 0.30252 0.33455 0.36266 0.38835 0.41238 0.45719 0.49917 0.53932 0.61621 0.69031 0.76273 0.83406 P 0.08460 0.09838 0.14840 0.17601 0.19771 0.21640 0.23321 0.24876 0.27732 0.30367 0.35249 0.39830 0.44237 0.48532 u h Btu/lbm Btu/lbm s Btu/ lbm · R v ft3/lbm P 0.18815 0.20586 0.24894 0.28074 0.30763 0.33169 0.35390 0.39479 0.43266 0.46864 0.53708 0.60269 0.66660 0.72942

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973

s u h Btu/ Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R 2000 psia (635.85°F) 1066.8 1091.4 1147.6 1187.4 1220.5 1250.0 1277.5 1328.7 1377.5 1425.1 1519.5 1615.0 1712.5 1812.6 P 1136.4 1167.6 1239.8 1291.3 1334.3 1372.8 1408.5 1474.9 1537.6 1598.5 1718.3 1838.0 1959.2 2082.6 1.2863 1.3146 1.3783 1.4218 1.4567 1.4867 1.5134 1.5606 1.6021 1.6400 1.7081 1.7693 1.8255 1.8778

1500 psia (596.26°F) 1092.1 1097.2 1147.2 1183.6 1214.4 1242.2 1268.2 1293.1 1340.9 1387.3 1433.3 1525.7 1619.8 1716.4 1815.9 1169.0 1175.4 1239.7 1286.9 1326.9 1363.1 1396.9 1429.2 1490.8 1550.5 1609.2 1726.0 1843.8 1963.7 2086.1 1.3362 1.3423 1.4016 1.4433 1.4771 1.5064 1.5328 1.5569 1.6007 1.6402 1.6767 1.7432 1.8033 1.8589 1.9108

1750 psia (617.17°F) 1080.5 1122.8 1166.8 1201.5 1231.7 1259.3 1285.4 1334.9 1382.4 1429.2 1522.6 1617.4 1714.5 1814.2 1153.9 1207.9 1264.7 1309.8 1349.1 1385.1 1419.0 1482.9 1544.1 1603.9 1722.1 1840.9 1961.5 2084.3 1.3112 1.3607 1.4108 1.4489 1.4807 1.5088 1.5341 1.5796 1.6201 1.6572 1.7245 1.7852 1.8410 1.8931

2500 psia (668.17°F) 1031.2 1098.4 1154.9 1195.9 1230.1 1260.7 1289.1 1316.1 1367.3 1416.6 1513.3 1610.1 1708.6 1809.4 P 1091.7 1176.3 1249.0 1302.0 1346.6 1386.4 1423.3 1458.2 1524.4 1587.6 1710.5 1832.2 1954.8 2079.1 1.2330 1.3072 1.3686 1.4116 1.4463 1.4761 1.5028 1.5271 1.5710 1.6103 1.6802 1.7424 1.7991 1.8518

3000 psia (695.41°F) 969.8 1005.3 1114.1 1167.5 1208.2 1242.8 1273.9 1302.8 1356.8 1408.0 1507.0 1605.3 1704.7 1806.1 P 1016.8 1059.9 1196.5 1265.3 1317.9 1362.9 1403.3 1440.9 1510.8 1576.6 1702.7 1826.4 1950.3 2075.6 1.1587 1.1960 1.3118 1.3676 1.4086 1.4423 1.4716 1.4978 1.5441 1.5850 1.6567 1.7199 1.7773 1.8304 0.02492 0.03065 0.10460 0.13639 0.15847 0.17659 0.19245 0.20687 0.23289 0.25654 0.29978 0.33994 0.37833 0.41561

3500 psia 679.9 779.9 1125.4 1222.6 1286.5 1337.8 1382.4 1423.0 1496.9 1565.4 1694.8 1820.5 1945.8 2072.1 0.8632 0.9511 1.2434 1.3224 1.3721 1.4106 1.4428 1.4711 1.5201 1.5627 1.6364 1.7006 1.7586 1.8121

663.7 760.0 1057.6 1134.3 1183.8 1223.4 1257.8 1289.0 1346.1 1399.3 1500.7 1600.4 1700.8 1802.9 P

4000 psia 676.1 763.6 1009.2 1172.1 1251.8 1310.9 1360.5 1404.4 1482.8 1554.1 1621.6 1687.0 1814.7 1941.4 2068.6 0.8577 0.9347 1.1410 1.2734 1.3355 1.3799 1.4157 1.4463 1.4983 1.5426 1.5821 1.6182 1.6835 1.7422 1.7961 0.02379 0.02678 0.03373 0.05937 0.08551 0.10390 0.11863 0.13128 0.15298 0.17185 0.18902 0.20508 0.23505 0.26320 0.29023

5000 psia 670.3 746.6 853.0 1041.8 1171.5 1252.1 1313.6 1365.5 1453.8 1531.1 1602.7 1671.1 1803.1 1932.5 2061.7 0.8485 0.9156 1.0054 1.1581 1.2593 1.3198 1.3643 1.4004 1.4590 1.5070 1.5490 1.5868 1.6542 1.7142 1.7689 0.02325 0.02564 0.02981 0.03949 0.05815 0.07584 0.09010 0.10208 0.12211 0.13911 0.15434 0.16841 0.19438 0.21853 0.24155

6000 psia 666.1 736.5 821.8 941.0 1083.1 1187.7 1263.7 1324.7 1424.0 1507.8 1583.8 1655.4 1791.5 1923.7 2054.9 0.8408 0.9028 0.9747 1.0711 1.1819 1.2603 1.3153 1.3578 1.4237 1.4758 1.5203 1.5598 1.6294 1.6907 1.7463

650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1600 1800 2000

0.02448 0.02871 0.06370 0.10520 0.12848 0.14647 0.16176 0.17538 0.19957 0.22121 0.24128 0.26028 0.29620 0.33033 0.36335

657.9 742.3 962.1 1094.2 1156.7 1202.5 1240.7 1274.6 1335.1 1390.3 1443.0 1494.3 1595.5 1696.8 1799.7

648.3 721.8 821.8 986.9 1092.4 1155.9 1203.9 1244.0 1312.2 1372.1 1427.8 1481.4 1585.6 1689.0 1793.2

640.3 708.1 788.7 897.1 1018.6 1103.5 1163.7 1211.4 1288.4 1353.4 1412.5 1468.4 1575.7 1681.1 1786.7

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­7E

Compressed liquid water

T °F v ft3/lbm P Sat. 32 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 0.019750 0.015994 0.015998 0.016107 0.016317 0.016607 0.016972 0.017417 0.017954 0.018609 0.019425 u h Btu/lbm Btu/lbm s v Btu/lbm · R ft3/lbm P 0.021595 0.015966 0.015972 0.016083 0.016292 0.016580 0.016941 0.017380 0.017910 0.018552 0.019347 0.020368 P 0.034335 0.015859 0.015870 0.015988 0.016475 0.017242 0.018338 0.019062 0.019960 0.021405 0.022759 0.024765 0.028821 u h s v Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm · R ft3/lbm 1000 psia (544.65°F) 538.58 0.03 17.99 67.69 117.42 167.31 217.51 268.24 319.77 372.48 426.93 484.03 542.57 2.99 20.95 70.67 120.43 170.38 220.65 271.46 323.08 375.91 430.51 487.80 0.74341 0.00005 0.03593 0.12899 0.21416 0.29289 0.36634 0.43551 0.50132 0.56463 0.62635 0.68764 P 0.023456 0.015939 0.015946 0.016059 0.016267 0.016553 0.016911 0.017345 0.017866 0.018496 0.019271 0.020258 0.021595 u h s Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm · R 1500 psia (596.26°F) 605.07 0.05 17.95 67.53 117.14 166.92 217.00 267.57 318.91 371.37 425.47 482.01 542.50 P 0.015756 0.015773 0.015897 0.016375 0.017112 0.018145 0.018812 0.019620 0.020862 0.021943 0.023358 0.025366 0.026777 611.58 4.48 22.38 71.98 121.66 171.52 221.69 272.39 323.87 376.51 430.82 487.63 548.50 0.80836 0.00008 0.03584 0.12869 0.21369 0.29229 0.36560 0.43463 0.50025 0.56333 0.62472 0.68550 0.74731

500 psia (467.04°F) 447.68 0.01 18.03 67.86 117.70 167.70 218.04 268.92 320.64 373.61 428.44 449.51 1.49 19.51 69.35 119.21 169.24 219.61 270.53 322.30 375.33 430.24 0.64900 0.00001 0.03601 0.12930 0.21462 0.29349 0.36708 0.43641 0.50240 0.56595 0.62802

P Sat. 32 50 100 200 300 400 450 500 560 600 640 680 700 0.025634 0.015912 0.015921 0.016035 0.016527 0.017310 0.018442 0.019199 0.020154 0.021739 0.023317

2000 psia (635.85°F) 662.33 0.07 17.91 67.36 166.54 266.92 370.30 424.06 480.08 552.21 605.77 671.82 5.96 23.80 73.30 172.66 273.33 377.12 431.16 487.54 560.26 614.40 0.86224 0.00010 0.03574 0.12838 0.29170 0.43376 0.56205 0.62314 0.68346 0.75692 0.80898

3000 psia (695.41°F) 783.39 0.10 17.83 67.04 165.79 265.65 368.22 421.36 476.45 546.59 597.42 654.52 728.63 802.45 8.90 26.64 75.91 174.94 275.22 378.41 431.94 487.53 558.47 610.06 668.27 744.64 0.97321 0.00011 0.03554 0.12776 0.29053 0.43204 0.55959 0.62010 0.67958 0.75126 0.80086 0.85476 0.92288

5000 psia 14.71 32.25 81.12 179.51 279.07 381.14 433.80 488.10 556.38 604.72 656.56 714.14 746.56 0.00002 0.03505 0.12652 0.28824 0.42874 0.55492 0.61445 0.67254 0.74154 0.78803 0.83603 0.88745 0.91564

0.13 17.65 66.41 164.36 263.24 364.35 416.40 469.94 537.08 584.42 634.95 690.67 721.78

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­8E

Saturated ice--water vapor

Specific volume, ft3/lbm Sat. ice, vi Sat. vapor, vg Sat. ice, ui

143.34 143.35 144.35 146.85 149.32 151.76 154.18 156.57 158.94 161.28 163.60 165.90 168.16 170.41 172.63 174.83 177.00

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975

Temp., T °F

32.018 32 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Sat. press., Psat psia

0.08871 0.08864 0.08086 0.06405 0.05049 0.03960 0.03089 0.02397 0.01850 0.01420 0.01083 0.00821 0.00619 0.00463 0.00344 0.00254 0.00186

Internal energy, Btu/lbm Subl., uig

1164.2 1164.2 1164.6 1165.4 1166.2 1167.0 1167.8 1168.5 1169.2 1169.9 1170.6 1171.2 1171.8 1172.4 1173.0 1173.5 1174.0

Enthalpy, Btu/lbm Sat. ice, hi

143.34 143.35 144.35 146.85 149.32 151.76 154.18 156.57 158.94 161.28 163.60 165.90 168.16 170.41 172.63 174.83 177.00

Entropy, Btu/Ibm · R Sat. vapor, hg

1075.0 1075.0 1074.2 1072.0 1069.8 1067.6 1065.4 1063.1 1060.9 1058.7 1056.5 1054.3 1052.1 1049.9 1047.7 1045.5 1043.3

Sat. vapor, ug

1020.9 1020.9 1020.2 1018.6 1016.9 1015.2 1013.6 1011.9 1010.3 1008.6 1007.0 1005.3 1003.6 1002.0 1000.3 998.7 997.0

Subl., hig

1218.3 1218.4 1218.5 1218.8 1219.1 1219.3 1219.5 1219.7 1219.9 1220.0 1220.1 1220.2 1220.3 1220.3 1220.3 1220.3 1220.3

Sat. ice, si

0.29146 0.29148 0.29353 0.29865 0.30377 0.30889 0.31401 0.31913 0.32426 0.32938 0.33451 0.33964 0.34478 0.34991 0.35505 0.36019 0.36534

Subl., sig

2.4779 2.4779 2.4883 2.5146 2.5414 2.5687 2.5965 2.6248 2.6537 2.6832 2.7133 2.7440 2.7754 2.8074 2.8401 2.8735 2.9076

Sat. vapor, sg

2.1864 2.1865 2.1948 2.2160 2.2376 2.2598 2.2825 2.3057 2.3295 2.3538 2.3788 2.4044 2.4306 2.4575 2.4850 2.5133 2.5423

0.01747 3299.6 0.01747 3302.6 0.01747 3605.8 0.01746 4505.8 0.01746 5657.6 0.01745 7138.9 0.01744 9054.0 0.01743 11,543 0.01743 14,797 0.01742 19,075 0.01741 24,731 0.01740 32,257 0.01740 42,335 0.01739 55,917 0.01738 74,345 0.01738 99,526 0.01737 134,182

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Thermodynamics

1800

Constant n Pressure lbf/in 2

13

1780

00

1500

1760

1740

12

50

1500

1500 0

12

11

00

1400

1720

10000

8000 5000 6000 3 204 4000 2 5 00 3000

1700

50

1400

1680

1 000

11

10

1300

00

1660

400 300 200

1640

50

100

0.1 1

130 0

600

1620

60 0

10

1200

00

30

0.05053

0.2

120 0

1600

14.696

95

0

10

1580

0.4

1560

1100

90

0

6

2

0.6

110 0

1540

85

80

75

0

0

4

1520

1000

0

1500

1480

100 0

150 00 100 80 00 00

1

900

70

65

0

0

1460

900 800 700

32

400

04

0

5

1420

1400

60

55

0

bm

00

20

0.0 0.03 5 60 53

me ft 3/l

1360

20

25

00

30

0

1380

0

700

50

50

100

45

00

0

10

1320

Con stan t Qu ality , Pe rcen t

1000

0 .4

400

1 280

2000

500

600

0.2

1300

0 Constant Enthalpy Btu/lbm 35 0

30

C o n sta

500

40

200

1 0.

n t V olu

600

1340

15

00

0

600

500

300

0.6

1 260

1 240

0

400

200

1

25

20

0

400

100

1220

1 20

2

0

1220

60

0

15

30

0

1200 0

300

1180

1 4 .6

C o ns

t

lu m e a nt V o

3 f t /l b m

96

5

10

20

10

50

0

1160

10

50

0 .5

200

0 70

1

100

85

0

90

0

2

95

0

10

10 5 00 0

85

11

00

4

1140

200

6

95

1120

35

45

30

40

25

15

20

10

1000

2000

0 .1

500

0 .2

1100

100 60 32 2.4

0.0

5

0.5

1.0 Entropy, Btu/lbm·R

1.5

2.0

FIGURE A­9E T-s diagram for water.

Source: Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969).

Temperature, ºF

00 60 00 50

2

1440

800

10

0

a F eat ° pe perh n nt Su o ta Cons

8 800 m u tu/lb lp lpy B E ha nt Ent Co Consta 700

50 115 00 110

0 0 100

00 900

0 600

500

400

0 0 0 450

7 70

4 400

75

0 0 0 0 65

0 500

0 0 0 350

0 0 0 0 5 5 5 55

0 0 6 60

0

0

30 30 30 300

250

0 0 0 200

90

0 80

7 75

15 15 15 150

6 65

100

60

55

50

50

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Appendix 2

Entropy, Btu/lbm · R 1.5

10,00 0 psi a 5000

|

977

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9 °F 1100°F

2.0

2.1

2.2

1600

1550

3204 200 0

1000

100 0

500

1500

900

300 200

1450 Enthalpy, Btu / lbm

800

100

psia

°F 700°F

50

1400

600

20

1350

10

1300

8 5 6 2p 3 4 sia

500

1250

400

300

satu line ration x= 0.9 8 0.9 6 0.9 4 0.9 2 0.9 0 0.8 8 0. 86

8 8 84 0 0 0.

2 08 08 0.8 0 08 08 0.8

1200

1.0

0. 5

200°F 200° 200°F

1150

0. 2

100

2.2

1100 2.1 1050 2.0 1000 1.9 950

FIGURE A­10E Mollier diagram for water.

Source: Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keyes, Philip G. Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969).

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7 1.8 Entropy, Btu/lbm · R

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978

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­11E

Saturated refrigerant-134a--Temperature table

Specific volume, ft3/lbm Sat. Temp., press., T °F Psat psia 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 7.432 8.581 9.869 11.306 12.906 14.680 16.642 18.806 21.185 23.793 26.646 29.759 33.147 36.826 40.813 45.124 49.776 54.787 60.175 65.957 72.152 78.780 85.858 93.408 101.45 110.00 119.08 128.72 138.93 149.73 161.16 173.23 185.96 213.53 244.06 277.79 314.94 355.80 400.66 449.90 504.00 563.76 Sat. liquid, vf 0.01130 0.01136 0.01143 0.01150 0.01156 0.01163 0.01171 0.01178 0.01185 0.01193 0.01201 0.01209 0.01217 0.01225 0.01234 0.01242 0.01251 0.01261 0.01270 0.01280 0.01290 0.01301 0.01312 0.01323 0.01334 0.01347 0.01359 0.01372 0.01386 0.01400 0.01415 0.01430 0.01446 0.01482 0.01521 0.01567 0.01619 0.01681 0.01759 0.01860 0.02009 0.02309 Sat. vapor, vg 5.7796 5.0509 4.4300 3.8988 3.4426 3.0494 2.7091 2.4137 2.1564 1.9316 1.7345 1.5612 1.4084 1.2732 1.1534 1.0470 0.95205 0.86727 0.79136 0.72323 0.66195 0.60671 0.55681 0.51165 0.47069 0.43348 0.39959 0.36869 0.34045 0.31460 0.29090 0.26913 0.24909 0.21356 0.18315 0.15692 0.13410 0.11405 0.09618 0.07990 0.06441 0.04722 Internal energy, Btu/lbm Sat. liquid, uf 0.016 1.484 2.990 4.502 6.019 7.543 9.073 10.609 12.152 13.702 15.259 16.823 18.394 19.973 21.560 23.154 24.757 26.369 27.990 29.619 31.258 32.908 34.567 36.237 37.919 39.612 41.317 43.036 44.768 46.514 48.276 50.054 51.849 55.495 59.226 63.059 67.014 71.126 75.448 80.082 85.267 91.986 Evap., ufg 89.167 88.352 87.532 86.706 85.874 85.036 84.191 83.339 82.479 81.610 80.733 79.846 78.950 78.043 77.124 76.195 75.253 74.298 73.329 72.346 71.347 70.333 69.301 68.251 67.181 66.091 64.979 63.844 62.683 61.496 60.279 59.031 57.749 55.071 52.216 49.144 45.799 42.097 37.899 32.950 26.651 16.498 Sat. vapor, ug 89.15 89.84 90.52 91.21 91.89 92.58 93.26 93.95 94.63 95.31 95.99 96.67 97.34 98.02 98.68 99.35 100.01 100.67 101.32 101.97 102.61 103.24 103.87 104.49 105.10 105.70 106.30 106.88 107.45 108.01 108.56 109.08 109.60 110.57 111.44 112.20 112.81 113.22 113.35 113.03 111.92 108.48 Enthalpy, Btu/lbm Sat. liquid, hf 0.000 1.502 3.011 4.526 6.047 7.574 9.109 10.650 12.199 13.755 15.318 16.889 18.469 20.056 21.653 23.258 24.873 26.497 28.131 29.775 31.431 33.097 34.776 36.466 38.169 39.886 41.617 43.363 45.124 46.902 48.698 50.512 52.346 56.080 59.913 63.864 67.958 72.233 76.752 81.631 87.140 94.395 Evap., hfg Sat. vapor, hg Sat. liquid, sf 0.00000 0.00355 0.00708 0.01058 0.01405 0.01749 0.02092 0.02431 0.02769 0.03104 0.03438 0.03769 0.04098 0.04426 0.04752 0.05076 0.05398 0.05720 0.06039 0.06358 0.06675 0.06991 0.07306 0.07620 0.07934 0.08246 0.08559 0.08870 0.09182 0.09493 0.09804 0.10116 0.10428 0.11054 0.11684 0.12321 0.12970 0.13634 0.14323 0.15055 0.15867 0.16922 Entropy, Btu/lbm · R Evap., sfg 0.23135 0.22687 0.22248 0.21817 0.21394 0.20978 0.20569 0.20166 0.19770 0.19380 0.18996 0.18617 0.18243 0.17874 0.17509 0.17148 0.16791 0.16437 0.16087 0.15740 0.15396 0.15053 0.14713 0.14375 0.14038 0.13703 0.13368 0.13033 0.12699 0.12365 0.12029 0.11693 0.11354 0.10670 0.09971 0.09251 0.08499 0.07701 0.06835 0.05857 0.04666 0.02839 Sat. vapor, sg 0.23135 0.23043 0.22956 0.22875 0.22798 0.22727 0.22660 0.22598 0.22539 0.22485 0.22434 0.22386 0.22341 0.22300 0.22260 0.22224 0.22189 0.22157 0.22127 0.22098 0.22070 0.22044 0.22019 0.21995 0.21972 0.21949 0.21926 0.21904 0.21881 0.21858 0.21834 0.21809 0.21782 0.21724 0.21655 0.21572 0.21469 0.21335 0.21158 0.20911 0.20533 0.19761

97.100 97.10 96.354 97.86 95.601 98.61 94.839 99.36 94.068 100.12 93.288 100.86 92.498 101.61 91.698 90.886 90.062 89.226 88.377 87.514 86.636 85.742 84.833 83.907 82.963 82.000 81.017 80.013 78.988 77.939 76.866 75.767 74.641 73.485 72.299 71.080 69.825 68.533 67.200 65.823 62.924 59.801 56.405 52.671 48.499 43.726 38.053 30.785 19.015 102.35 103.08 103.82 104.54 105.27 105.98 106.69 107.40 108.09 108.78 109.46 110.13 110.79 111.44 112.09 112.71 113.33 113.94 114.53 115.10 115.66 116.20 116.73 117.23 117.71 118.17 119.00 119.71 120.27 120.63 120.73 120.48 119.68 117.93 113.41

Source: Tables A­11E through A­13E are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The routine used in calculations is the R134a, which is based on the fundamental equation of state developed by R. Tillner-Roth and H.D. Baehr, "An International Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for Temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to 70 MPa," J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994. The enthalpy and entropy values of saturated liquid are set to zero at 40°C (and 40°F).

cen84959_ch19-ap02.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 979

Appendix 2 TABLE A­12E

Saturated refrigerant-134a--Pressure table

Specific volume, ft3/lbm Sat. temp., T °F 53.09 29.52 14.15 2.43 7.17 15.37 22.57 29.01 34.86 40.23 45.20 49.84 54.20 58.30 62.19 65.89 69.41 72.78 76.02 79.12 85.00 90.49 95.64 100.51 105.12 109.50 113.69 117.69 121.53 125.22 132.21 138.73 144.85 150.62 156.09 168.64 179.86 190.02 199.29 Sat. liquid, vf 0.01113 0.01144 0.01165 0.01182 0.01196 0.01209 0.01221 0.01232 0.01242 0.01252 0.01261 0.01270 0.01279 0.01287 0.01295 0.01303 0.01310 0.01318 0.01325 0.01332 0.01347 0.01360 0.01374 0.01387 0.01400 0.01413 0.01426 0.01439 0.01452 0.01464 0.01490 0.01516 0.01543 0.01570 0.01598 0.01672 0.01757 0.01860 0.01995 Sat. vapor, vg 8.3785 4.3753 2.9880 2.2772 1.8429 1.5492 1.3369 1.1760 1.0497 0.94791 0.86400 0.79361 0.73370 0.68205 0.63706 0.59750 0.56244 0.53113 0.50301 0.47760 0.43347 0.39644 0.36491 0.33771 0.31401 0.29316 0.27466 0.25813 0.24327 0.22983 0.20645 0.18677 0.16996 0.15541 0.14266 0.11664 0.09642 0.07987 0.06551 Sat. liquid, uf 3.918 3.135 7.803 11.401 14.377 16.939 19.205 21.246 23.110 24.832 26.435 27.939 29.357 30.700 31.979 33.201 34.371 35.495 36.578 37.623 39.612 41.485 43.258 44.945 46.556 48.101 49.586 51.018 52.402 53.743 56.310 58.746 61.071 63.301 65.452 70.554 75.385 80.092 84.871 Internal energy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, ug 87.36 90.59 92.70 94.30 95.61 96.72 97.69 98.55 99.33 100.04 100.69 101.30 101.86 102.39 102.88 103.35 103.79 104.21 104.61 104.99 105.70 106.35 106.95 107.51 108.02 108.50 108.95 109.36 109.75 110.11 110.77 111.34 111.83 112.25 112.60 113.18 113.35 113.03 112.04 Sat. liquid, hf 3.907 3.156 7.835 11.445 14.432 17.006 19.284 21.337 23.214 24.948 26.564 28.080 29.510 30.867 32.159 33.394 34.577 35.715 36.811 37.869 39.886 41.787 43.589 45.304 46.945 48.519 50.035 51.497 52.912 54.285 56.917 59.419 61.813 64.115 66.339 71.638 76.686 81.641 86.718 Enthalpy, Btu/lbm Sat. vapor, hg 95.11 98.68 100.99 102.73 104.13 105.32 106.35 107.26 108.07 108.81 109.49 110.11 110.69 111.22 111.73 112.20 112.64 113.06 113.46 113.83 114.53 115.16 115.73 116.26 116.74 117.18 117.59 117.96 118.30 118.62 119.17 119.63 120.00 120.30 120.52 120.74 120.48 119.68 118.10 Sat. liquid, sf 0.00945 0.00742 0.01808 0.02605 0.03249 0.03793 0.04267 0.04688 0.05067 0.05413 0.05733 0.06029 0.06307 0.06567 0.06813 0.07047 0.07269 0.07481 0.07684 0.07879 0.08246 0.08589 0.08911 0.09214 0.09501 0.09774 0.10034 0.10284 0.10524 0.10754 0.11192 0.11603 0.11992 0.12362 0.12715 0.13542 0.14314 0.15056 0.15805 Entropy, Btu/lbm · R

|

979

Press., P psia 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500

Evap., ufg 91.280 87.453 84.893 82.898 81.231 79.780 78.485 77.307 76.221 75.209 74.258 73.360 72.505 71.688 70.905 70.151 69.424 68.719 68.035 67.371 66.091 64.869 63.696 62.564 61.467 60.401 59.362 58.345 57.349 56.371 54.458 52.591 50.757 48.945 47.143 42.627 37.963 32.939 27.168

Evap., hfg 99.022 95.528 93.155 91.282 89.701 88.313 87.064 85.920 84.858 83.863 82.924 82.030 81.176 80.357 79.567 78.804 78.064 77.345 76.645 75.962 74.641 73.371 72.144 70.954 69.795 68.662 67.553 66.464 65.392 64.335 62.256 60.213 58.192 56.184 54.176 49.099 43.798 38.041 31.382

Evap., sfg 0.24353 0.22206 0.20908 0.19962 0.19213 0.18589 0.18053 0.17580 0.17158 0.16774 0.16423 0.16098 0.15796 0.15512 0.15245 0.14993 0.14753 0.14525 0.14307 0.14097 0.13703 0.13335 0.12990 0.12665 0.12357 0.12062 0.11781 0.11511 0.11250 0.10998 0.10517 0.10061 0.09625 0.09205 0.08797 0.07814 0.06848 0.05854 0.04762

Sat. vapor, sg 0.23408 0.22948 0.22715 0.22567 0.22462 0.22383 0.22319 0.22268 0.22225 0.22188 0.22156 0.22127 0.22102 0.22080 0.22059 0.22040 0.22022 0.22006 0.21991 0.21976 0.21949 0.21924 0.21901 0.21879 0.21857 0.21836 0.21815 0.21795 0.21774 0.21753 0.21710 0.21665 0.21617 0.21567 0.21512 0.21356 0.21161 0.20911 0.20566

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­13E

Superheated refrigerant-134a

T °F v ft3/lbm P Sat. 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 4.3753 4.4856 4.7135 4.9380 5.1600 5.3802 5.5989 5.8165 6.0331 6.2490 6.4642 6.6789 6.8930 7.1068 P Sat. 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 1.5492 1.5691 1.6528 1.7338 1.8130 1.8908 1.9675 2.0434 2.1185 2.1931 2.2671 2.3408 2.4141 2.4871 2.5598 P Sat. 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 0.7936 0.8179 0.8636 0.9072 0.9495 0.9908 1.0312 1.0709 1.1101 1.1489 1.1872 1.2252 1.2629 1.3004 1.3377 s u h Btu/ Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R 10 psia (Tsat 90.59 92.13 95.41 98.77 102.20 105.72 109.32 113.01 116.79 120.66 124.61 128.65 132.77 136.98 29.52°F) 0.22948 0.23350 0.24174 0.24976 0.25761 0.26531 0.27288 0.28033 0.28767 0.29490 0.30203 0.30908 0.31604 0.32292 v ft3/lbm P 2.9880 3.1001 3.2551 3.4074 3.5577 3.7064 3.8540 4.0006 4.1464 4.2915 4.4361 4.5802 4.7239 P 1.1760 1.2126 1.2768 1.3389 1.3995 1.4588 1.5173 1.5750 1.6321 1.6887 1.7449 1.8007 1.8562 1.9114 P 0.6821 0.6857 0.7271 0.7662 0.8037 0.8401 0.8756 0.9105 0.9447 0.9785 1.0118 1.0449 1.0776 1.1101 1.1424 u Btu/lbm s h Btu/ Btu/lbm lbm · R 14.15°F) 0.22715 0.23310 0.24127 0.24922 0.25700 0.26463 0.27212 0.27950 0.28677 0.29393 0.30100 0.30798 0.31487 v ft3/lbm P 2.2772 2.2922 2.4130 2.5306 2.6461 2.7600 2.8726 2.9842 3.0950 3.2051 3.3146 3.4237 3.5324 P 0.9479 s u h Btu/ Btu/lbm Btu/lbm lbm · R 20 psia (Tsat 94.30 94.72 98.19 101.70 105.28 108.93 112.66 116.47 120.37 124.35 128.41 132.55 136.78 2.43°F) 0.22567 0.22671 0.23504 0.24311 0.25097 0.25866 0.26621 0.27363 0.28093 0.28812 0.29521 0.30221 0.30912

15 psia (Tsat 92.70 95.08 98.48 101.95 105.50 109.13 112.84 116.63 120.51 124.48 128.53 132.66 136.88

98.68 100.43 104.14 107.91 111.75 115.67 119.68 123.78 127.96 132.22 136.57 141.01 145.53 150.13

100.99 103.68 107.52 111.41 115.38 119.42 123.54 127.74 132.02 136.39 140.84 145.37 149.99

102.73 103.20 107.12 111.07 115.07 119.15 123.29 127.52 131.82 136.21 140.67 145.22 149.85

30 psia (Tsat 96.72 97.56 101.17 104.82 108.53 112.30 116.15 120.08 124.08 128.16 132.32 136.57 140.89 145.30 149.78

15.37°F) 0.22383 0.22581 0.23414 0.24219 0.25002 0.25767 0.26517 0.27254 0.27979 0.28693 0.29398 0.30092 0.30778 0.31456 0.32126

40 psia (Tsat 98.55 100.61 104.34 108.11 111.93 115.82 119.78 123.81 127.91 132.10 136.36 140.70 145.12 149.61

29.01°F) 0.22268 0.22738 0.23565 0.24363 0.25140 0.25900 0.26644 0.27375 0.28095 0.28803 0.29501 0.30190 0.30871 0.31543

50 psia (Tsat 100.04

40.23°F) 0.22188

105.32 106.27 110.35 114.45 118.59 122.80 127.07 131.42 135.84 140.34 144.91 149.56 154.29 159.10 163.99

107.26 109.58 113.79 118.02 122.29 126.62 131.01 135.47 140.00 144.60 149.27 154.03 158.86 163.76

108.81

1.0019 1.0540 1.1043 1.1534 1.2015 1.2488 1.2955 1.3416 1.3873 1.4326 1.4776 1.5223 P 0.59750 0.62430 0.66009 0.69415 0.72698 0.75888 0.79003 0.82059 0.85065 0.88030 0.90961 0.93861 0.96737 0.99590

103.84 107.68 111.55 115.48 119.47 123.53 127.66 131.87 136.15 140.50 144.93 149.44

113.11 117.43 121.77 126.16 130.59 135.09 139.65 144.28 148.98 153.76 158.60 163.53

0.23031 0.23847 0.24637 0.25406 0.26159 0.26896 0.27621 0.28333 0.29036 0.29728 0.30411 0.31086

60 psia (Tsat 101.30 103.31 107.23 111.16 115.14 119.16 123.25 127.41 131.63 135.93 140.30 144.75 149.27 153.87 158.54

49.84°F) 0.22127 0.22570 0.23407 0.24211 0.24991 0.25751 0.26496 0.27226 0.27943 0.28649 0.29344 0.30030 0.30707 0.31376 0.32037

70 psia (Tsat 102.39 102.73 106.76 110.76 114.78 118.85 122.97 127.15 131.40 135.71 140.10 144.56 149.10 153.71 158.39

58.30°F) 0.22080 0.22155 0.23016 0.23836 0.24628 0.25398 0.26149 0.26885 0.27607 0.28317 0.29015 0.29704 0.30384 0.31055 0.31718

80 psia (Tsat 103.35 106.26 110.34 114.42 118.52 122.68 126.89 131.16 135.49 139.90 144.37 148.92 153.54 158.24

65.89°F) 0.22040 0.22661 0.23499 0.24304 0.25083 0.25841 0.26583 0.27310 0.28024 0.28726 0.29418 0.30100 0.30773 0.31438

110.11 112.39 116.82 121.24 125.68 130.16 134.70 139.30 143.96 148.69 153.48 158.35 163.29 168.31 173.39

111.22 111.62 116.18 120.68 125.19 129.73 134.31 138.94 143.63 148.39 153.21 158.10 163.06 168.09 173.19

112.20 115.51 120.11 124.69 129.29 133.91 138.58 143.31 148.09 152.93 157.84 162.82 167.86 172.98

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­13E

Superheated refrigerant-134a (Concluded )

T °F v ft3/lbm P Sat. 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 0.53113 0.54388 0.57729 0.60874 0.63885 0.66796 0.69629 0.72399 0.75119 0.77796 0.80437 0.83048 0.85633 0.88195 P Sat. 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 0.33771 0.36243 0.38551 0.40711 0.42766 0.44743 0.46657 0.48522 0.50345 0.52134 0.53895 0.55630 0.57345 0.59041 P Sat. 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 0.22983 0.24541 0.26412 0.28115 0.29704 0.31212 0.32658 0.34054 0.35410 0.36733 0.38029 0.39300 0.40552 u Btu/lbm h Btu/lbm s Btu/ lbm · R v ft3/lbm P 0.47760 0.47906 0.51076 0.54022 0.56821 0.59513 0.62122 0.64667 0.67158 0.69605 0.72016 0.74396 0.76749 0.79079 P u Btu/lbm h Btu/lbm s Btu/ lbm · R v ft3/lbm P u h Btu/lbm Btu/lbm 120 psia (Tsat

|

981

s Btu/ lbm · R

90 psia (Tsat 104.21 105.74 109.91 114.04 118.19 122.38 126.62 130.92 135.27 139.69 144.19 148.75 153.38 158.08

72.78°F) 0.22006 0.22330 0.23189 0.24008 0.24797 0.25563 0.26311 0.27043 0.27762 0.28468 0.29162 0.29847 0.30522 0.31189

100 psia (Tsat 104.99 105.18 109.45 113.66 117.86 122.08 126.35 130.67 135.05 139.49 143.99 148.57 153.21 157.93

79.12°F) 0.21976 0.22016 0.22900 0.23733 0.24534 0.25309 0.26063 0.26801 0.27523 0.28233 0.28931 0.29618 0.30296 0.30964

90.49°F)

113.06 114.80 119.52 124.18 128.83 133.51 138.22 142.97 147.78 152.65 157.58 162.58 167.64 172.77

113.83 114.05 118.90 123.65 128.37 133.09 137.85 142.64 147.47 152.37 157.32 162.34 167.42 172.56

0.39644 106.35 0.41013 0.43692 0.46190 0.48563 0.50844 0.53054 0.55206 0.57312 0.59379 0.61413 0.63420 0.65402 P 108.48 112.84 117.15 121.46 125.79 130.17 134.59 139.07 143.61 148.21 152.88 157.62

115.16 0.21924 117.59 122.54 127.41 132.25 137.09 141.95 146.85 151.80 156.79 161.85 166.96 172.14 0.22362 0.23232 0.24058 0.24851 0.25619 0.26368 0.27100 0.27817 0.28521 0.29214 0.29896 0.30569

140 psia (Tsat 107.51 111.96 116.41 120.81 125.22 129.65 134.12 138.64 143.21 147.85 152.54 157.30 162.13 167.02

100.50°F) 0.21879 0.22773 0.23628 0.24443 0.25227 0.25988 0.26730 0.27455 0.28166 0.28864 0.29551 0.30228 0.30896 0.31555

160 psia (Tsat 108.50 111.01 115.62 120.13 124.62 129.12 133.64 138.20 142.81 147.48 152.20 156.98 161.83 166.74

109.50°F) 0.21836 0.22337 0.23230 0.24069 0.24871 0.25645 0.26397 0.27131 0.27849 0.28554 0.29246 0.29927 0.30598 0.31260

180 psia (Tsat 109.36 109.94 114.77 119.42 124.00 128.57 133.15 137.76 142.40 147.10 151.85 156.66 161.53 166.46

117.69°F) 0.21795 0.21910 0.22850 0.23718 0.24540 0.25330 0.26094 0.26837 0.27562 0.28273 0.28970 0.29656 0.30331 0.30996

116.26 121.35 126.40 131.36 136.30 141.24 146.21 151.21 156.26 161.35 166.50 171.71 176.98 182.32

0.29316 0.30578 0.32774 0.34790 0.36686 0.38494 0.40234 0.41921 0.43564 0.45171 0.46748 0.48299 0.49828 0.51338 P

117.18 120.06 125.32 130.43 135.49 140.52 145.55 150.62 155.71 160.85 166.04 171.28 176.58 181.94

0.25813 0.26083 0.28231 0.30154 0.31936 0.33619 0.35228 0.36779 0.38284 0.39751 0.41186 0.42594 0.43980 0.45347 P

117.96 118.63 124.17 129.46 134.64 139.77 144.88 150.01 155.16 160.34 165.57 170.85 176.18 181.56

200 psia (Tsat 110.11 113.85 118.66 123.35 128.00 132.64 137.30 141.99 146.72 151.50 156.33 161.22 166.17

125.22°F) 0.21753 0.22481 0.23384 0.24229 0.25035 0.25812 0.26565 0.27298 0.28015 0.28718 0.29408 0.30087 0.30756

300 psia (Tsat 112.60 113.82 119.52 124.78 129.85 134.83 139.77 144.70 149.65 154.63 159.64 164.70

156.09°F)

400 psia (Tsat

179.86°F)

118.62 122.93 128.44 133.76 138.99 144.19 149.38 154.59 159.82 165.09 170.40 175.77 181.18

0.14266 0.14656 0.16355 0.17776 0.19044 0.20211 0.21306 0.22347 0.23346 0.24310 0.25246 0.26159

120.52 121.95 128.60 134.65 140.42 146.05 151.59 157.11 162.61 168.12 173.66 179.22

0.21512 0.09642 113.35 0.21745 0.22802 0.23733 0.24594 0.25410 0.26192 0.26947 0.27681 0.28398 0.29098 0.29786

120.48 0.21161

0.09658 0.11440 0.12746 0.13853 0.14844 0.15756 0.16611 0.17423 0.18201 0.18951

113.41 120.52 126.44 131.95 137.26 142.48 147.65 152.80 157.97 163.15

120.56 128.99 135.88 142.20 148.25 154.14 159.94 165.70 171.44 177.18

0.21173 0.22471 0.23500 0.24418 0.25270 0.26077 0.26851 0.27599 0.28326 0.29035

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982

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­20 3000 2000

Thermodynamics

20

bm/ 3 ft3

60

65

100

140

50

45

40

35

180

30

220

3 18 lbm/ft3 12 9.6

260 3000 2000 1000

80

85

95

90

55

70

60

24

1000 R-134a

75 l

= D e n sit y

22

0

7.2 4.8 3.6 2.4 1.8 1.2 0.96 0.72

80 80 180

140

T = 100°F = 100°F T = 100°F

400 200

400 200 100

60 60 60

100 Pressure, psia

20

40

-20 -20 -20

0.48 0.36 0.24 0.18

0.20 0.22 0.24

0.3 0B tu/l bm ·R 0.3 2

40 20 10

620

-0.04 -0.02

0. 0.00 0.02

20 10

0.14 0.16 0.18

0.04 0.06 0.08

0.10 0.12

0.26

0.3 4

0.3 6

0.12 0.096

0.3 8

0 500 .42

0.28

id

0.4 0

-60 -60 -60

T = -1 0 0 ° F T = -1 0 0 ° F T = -1 0 0 ° F

T = 3 0 0° F

p o ur

ate d

te d va

220

s atur

60 100 1 40

0.8

0.3

0.6

0.7

0.9

1 80

260

340

380

4 2

4 20

4 60

s=

5 40 580

li q u

0.072 0.048 0.036 0.024 0.018 0.012

4 2 1 260

s atu ra

- 60 -20 20

0.2

0.1

0.4

0.4 2

0.4 4

0.5

s=

1 ­20

20

60

100

140

180

220

Enthalpy, Btu/lbm

FIGURE A­14E P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a.

Reprinted by permission of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

0.4 6

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­16E

Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude Altitude, ft 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000 22,000 24,000 26,000 28,000 30,000 32,000 34,000 36,000 38,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 55,000 60,000 Temperature, °F 59.00 57.22 55.43 53.65 51.87 50.09 48.30 46.52 44.74 42.96 41.17 39.39 37.61 35.83 34.05 32.26 30.48 28.70 26.92 25.14 23.36 19.79 16.23 12.67 9.12 5.55 1.99 1.58 5.14 8.70 12.2 19.4 26.5 33.6 40.7 47.8 54.9 62.0 69.2 69.7 69.7 69.7 69.7 69.7 69.7 Pressure, psia 14.7 14.4 14.2 13.9 13.7 13.4 13.2 12.9 12.7 12.5 12.2 12.0 11.8 11.6 11.3 11.1 10.9 10.7 10.5 10.3 10.1 9.72 9.34 8.99 8.63 8.29 7.97 7.65 7.34 7.05 6.76 6.21 5.70 5.22 4.78 4.37 3.99 3.63 3.30 3.05 2.73 2.148 1.691 1.332 1.048 Gravity, g, ft/s2 32.174 32.173 32.171 32.169 32.168 32.166 32.165 32.163 32.162 32.160 32.159 32.157 32.156 32.154 32.152 32.151 32.149 32.148 32.146 32.145 32.145 32.140 32.137 32.134 32.131 32.128 32.125 32.122 32.119 32.115 32.112 32.106 32.100 32.094 32.088 32.082 32.08 32.07 32.06 32.06 32.05 32.04 32.02 32.00 31.99 Speed of sound, ft/s 1116 1115 1113 1111 1109 1107 1105 1103 1101 1099 1097 1095 1093 1091 1089 1087 1085 1083 1081 1079 1077 1073 1069 1065 1061 1057 1053 1049 1045 1041 1037 1029 1020 1012 1003 995 987 978 969 968 968 968 968 968 968 Density, lbm/ft3 0.07647 0.07536 0.07426 0.07317 0.07210 0.07104 0.06998 0.06985 0.06792 0.06690 0.06590 0.06491 0.06393 0.06296 0.06200 0.06105 0.06012 0.05919 0.05828 0.05738 0.05648 0.05473 0.05302 0.05135 0.04973 0.04814 0.04659 0.04508 0.04361 0.04217 0.04077 0.03808 0.03553 0.03311 0.03082 0.02866 0.02661 0.02468 0.02285 0.02079 0.01890 0.01487 0.01171 0.00922 0.00726 Viscosity m, lbm/ft · s 1.202 1.199 1.196 1.193 1.190 1.186 1.183 1.180 1.177 1.173 1.170 1.167 1.164 1.160 1.157 1.154 1.150 1.147 1.144 1.140 1.137 1.130 1.124 1.117 1.110 1.104 1.097 1.090 1.083 1.076 1.070 1.056 1.042 1.028 1.014 1.000 0.986 0.971 0.956 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

|

983

Thermal conductivity, Btu/h · ft · R 0.0146 0.0146 0.0146 0.0145 0.0145 0.0144 0.0144 0.0143 0.0143 0.0142 0.0142 0.0141 0.0141 0.0141 0.0140 0.0140 0.0139 0.0139 0.0138 0.0138 0.0137 0.0136 0.0136 0.0135 0.0134 0.0133 0.0132 0.0132 0.0130 0.0129 0.0128 0.0126 0.0124 0.0122 0.0121 0.0119 0.0117 0.0115 0.0113 0.0113 0.0113 0.0113 0.0113 0.0113 0.0113

Source: U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45° latitude and varies with the time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z 0) are taken to be P 14.696 psia, T 59°F, r 0.076474 lbm/ft3, g 32.1741 ft2/s.

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­17E

Ideal-gas properties of air T R 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 537 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1040 1080 1120 1160 1200 1240 1280 1320 1360 1400 1440 1480 1520 1560 h Btu/lbm 85.97 90.75 95.53 100.32 105.11 109.90 114.69 119.48 124.27 128.10 129.06 133.86 138.66 143.47 148.28 153.09 157.92 162.73 167.56 172.39 177.23 182.08 186.94 191.81 196.69 201.56 206.46 211.35 216.26 221.18 226.11 231.06 236.02 240.98 250.95 260.97 271.03 281.14 291.30 301.52 311.79 322.11 332.48 342.90 353.37 363.89 374.47 385.08 Pr 0.3363 0.4061 0.4858 0.5760 0.6776 0.7913 0.9182 1.0590 1.2147 1.3593 1.3860 1.5742 1.7800 2.005 2.249 2.514 2.801 3.111 3.446 3.806 4.193 4.607 5.051 5.526 6.033 6.573 7.149 7.761 8.411 9.102 9.834 10.61 11.43 12.30 14.18 16.28 18.60 21.18 24.01 27.13 30.55 34.31 38.41 42.88 47.75 53.04 58.78 65.00 u Btu/lbm 61.29 64.70 68.11 71.52 74.93 78.36 81.77 85.20 88.62 91.53 92.04 95.47 98.90 102.34 105.78 109.21 112.67 116.12 119.58 123.04 126.51 129.99 133.47 136.97 140.47 143.98 147.50 151.02 154.57 158.12 161.68 165.26 168.83 172.43 179.66 186.93 194.25 201.63 209.05 216.53 224.05 231.63 239.25 246.93 254.66 262.44 270.26 278.13 vr 396.6 346.6 305.0 270.1 240.6 215.33 193.65 174.90 158.58 146.34 144.32 131.78 120.70 110.88 102.12 94.30 87.27 80.96 75.25 70.07 65.38 61.10 57.20 53.63 50.35 47.34 44.57 42.01 39.64 37.44 35.41 33.52 31.76 30.12 27.17 24.58 22.30 20.29 18.51 16.93 15.52 14.25 13.12 12.10 11.17 10.34 9.578 8.890 s° T Btu/lbm · R R 0.50369 0.51663 0.52890 0.54058 0.55172 0.56235 0.57255 0.58233 0.59173 0.59945 0.60078 0.60950 0.61793 0.62607 0.63395 0.64159 0.64902 0.65621 0.66321 0.67002 0.67665 0.68312 0.68942 0.69558 0.70160 0.70747 0.71323 0.71886 0.72438 0.72979 0.73509 0.74030 0.74540 0.75042 0.76019 0.76964 0.77880 0.78767 0.79628 0.80466 0.81280 0.82075 0.82848 0.83604 0.84341 0.85062 0.85767 0.86456 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 h Btu/lbm 395.74 409.13 422.59 436.12 449.71 463.37 477.09 490.88 504.71 518.71 532.55 546.54 560.59 574.69 588.82 603.00 617.22 631.48 645.78 660.12 674.49 688.90 703.35 717.83 732.33 746.88 761.45 776.05 790.68 805.34 820.03 834.75 849.48 864.24 879.02 893.83 908.66 923.52 938.40 953.30 968.21 983.15 998.11 1013.1 1028.1 1043.1 1058.1 1073.2 Pr 71.13 80.89 90.95 101.98 114.0 127.2 141.5 157.1 174.0 192.3 212.1 223.5 256.6 281.4 308.1 336.8 367.6 400.5 435.7 473.3 513.5 556.3 601.9 650.4 702.0 756.7 814.8 876.4 941.4 1011 1083 1161 1242 1328 1418 1513 1613 1719 1829 1946 2068 2196 2330 2471 2618 2773 2934 3103 u Btu/lbm 286.06 296.03 306.06 316.16 326.32 336.55 346.85 357.20 367.61 378.08 388.60 399.17 409.78 420.46 431.16 441.91 452.70 463.54 474.40 485.31 496.26 507.25 518.26 529.31 540.40 551.52 562.66 573.84 585.04 596.28 607.53 618.82 630.12 641.46 652.81 664.20 675.60 687.04 698.48 709.95 721.44 732.95 744.48 756.04 767.60 779.19 790.80 802.43 vr s° Btu/lbm · R 0.87130 0.87954 0.88758 0.89542 0.90308 0.91056 0.91788 0.92504 0.93205 0.93891 0.94564 0.95222 0.95919 0.96501 0.97123 0.97732 0.98331 0.98919 0.99497 1.00064 1.00623 1.01172 1.01712 1.02244 1.02767 1.03282 1.03788 1.04288 1.04779 1.05264 1.05741 1.06212 1.06676 1.07134 1.07585 1.08031 1.08470 1.08904 1.09332 1.09755 1.10172 1.10584 1.10991 1.11393 1.11791 1.12183 1.12571 1.12955

8.263 7.556 6.924 6.357 5.847 5.388 4.974 4.598 4.258 3.949 3.667 3.410 3.176 2.961 2.765 2.585 2.419 2.266 2.125 1.996 1.876 1.765 1.662 1.566 1.478 1.395 1.318 1.247 1.180 1.118 1.060 1.006 0.955 0.907 0.8621 0.8202 0.7807 0.7436 0.7087 0.6759 0.6449 0.6157 0.5882 0.5621 0.5376 0.5143 0.4923 0.4715

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­17E

Ideal-gas properties of air (Concluded) T R 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4300 4400 4500 h Btu/lbm 1088.3 1103.4 1118.5 1133.6 1148.7 1179.0 1209.4 1239.9 Pr 3280 3464 3656 3858 4067 4513 4997 5521 u Btu/lbm 814.06 825.72 837.40 849.09 860.81 884.28 907.81 931.39 vr 0.4518 0.4331 0.4154 0.3985 0.3826 0.3529 0.3262 0.3019 s° Btu/lbm · R 1.13334 1.13709 1.14079 1.14446 1.14809 1.15522 1.16221 1.16905 T R 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 h Btu/lbm 1270.4 1300.9 1331.5 1362.2 1392.9 1423.6 1454.4 1485.3 Pr 6089 6701 7362 8073 8837 9658 10,539 11,481 u Btu/lbm 955.04 978.73 1002.5 1026.3 1050.1 1074.0 1098.0 1122.0 vr 0.2799 0.2598 0.2415 0.2248 0.2096 0.1956 0.1828 0.1710

|

985

s° Btu/lbm · R 1.17575 1.18232 1.18876 1.19508 1.20129 1.20738 1.21336 1.21923

Note: The properties Pr (relative pressure) and vr (relative specific volume) are dimensionless quantities used in the analysis of isentropic processes, and should not be confused with the properties pressure and specific volume. Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 832­33, Table A­5. Originally published in J. H. Keenan and J. Kaye, Gas Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948).

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­18E

Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 _ _ T h u R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 537 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 2,082.0 2,221.0 2,360.0 2,498.9 2,638.0 2,777.0 2,916.1 3,055.1 3,194.1 3,333.1 3,472.2 3,611.3 3,729.5 3,750.3 3,889.5 4,028.7 4,167.9 4,307.1 4,446.4 4,585.8 4,725.3 4,864.9 5,004.5 5,144.3 5,284.1 5,424.2 5,564.4 5,704.7 5,845.3 5,985.9 6,126.9 6,268.1 6,409.6 6,551.2 6,693.1 6,835.4 6,977.9 7,120.7 7,263.8 7,407.2 1,486.2 1,585.5 1,684.4 1,784.0 1,883.4 1,982.6 2,082.0 2,181.3 2,280.6 2,379.9 2,479.3 2,578.6 2,663.1 2,678.0 2,777.4 2,876.9 2,976.4 3,075.9 3,175.5 3,275.2 3,374.9 3,474.8 3,574.7 3,674.7 3,774.9 3,875.2 3,975.7 4,076.3 4,177.1 4,278.1 4,379.4 4,480.8 4,582.6 4,684.5 4,786.7 4,889.3 4,992.0 5,095.1 5,198.5 5,302.2 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 41.695 42.143 42.564 42.962 43.337 43.694 44.034 44.357 44.665 44.962 45.246 45.519 45.743 45.781 46.034 46.278 46.514 46.742 46.964 47.178 47.386 47.588 47.785 47.977 48.164 48.345 48.522 48.696 48.865 49.031 49.193 49.352 49.507 49.659 49.808 49.955 50.099 50.241 50.380 50.516 T R 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 _ h Btu/lbmol 7,551.0 7,695.0 7,839.3 7,984.0 8,129.0 8,274.4 8,420.0 8,566.1 8,712.6 8,859.3 9,006.4 9,153.9 9,301.8 9,450.0 9,598.6 9,747.5 9,896.9 10,046.6 10,196.6 10,347.0 10,497.8 10,648.0 10,800.4 10,952.2 11,104.3 11,256.9 11,409.7 11,562.8 11,716.4 11,870.2 12,024.3 12,178.9 12,333.7 12,488.8 12,644.3 12,800.2 12,956.3 13,112.7 13,269.5 13,426.5 _ u Btu/lbmol 5,406.2 5,510.5 5,615.2 5,720.1 5,825.4 5,931.0 6,037.0 6,143.4 6,250.1 6,357.2 6,464.5 6,572.3 6,680.4 6,788.9 6,897.8 7,007.0 7,116.7 7,226.7 7,337.0 7,447.6 7,558.7 7,670.1 7,781.9 7,893.9 8,006.4 8,119.2 8,232.3 8,345.7 8,459.6 8,573.6 8,688.1 8,802.9 8,918.0 9,033.4 9,149.2 9,265.3 9,381.7 9,498.4 9,615.5 9,732.8 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 50.651 50.783 50.912 51.040 51.167 51.291 51.143 51.534 51.653 51.771 51.887 51.001 52.114 52.225 52.335 52.444 52.551 52.658 52.763 52.867 52.969 53.071 53.171 53.271 53.369 53.465 53.561 53.656 53.751 53.844 53.936 54.028 54.118 54.208 54.297 54.385 54.472 54.559 54.645 54.729

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­18E

Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 (Concluded) _ _ _ T h u s° R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol · R 1900 1940 1980 2020 2060 2100 2140 2180 2220 2260 2300 2340 2380 2420 2460 2500 2540 2580 2620 2660 2700 2740 2780 2820 2860 2900 2940 2980 3020 3060 3100 3140 3180 3220 3260 3300 3340 3380 3420 3460 13,742 14,058 14,375 14,694 15,013 15,334 15,656 15,978 16,302 16,626 16,951 17,277 17,604 17,392 18,260 18,590 18,919 19,250 19,582 19,914 20,246 20,580 20,914 21,248 21,584 21,920 22,256 22,593 22,930 23,268 23,607 23,946 24,285 24,625 24,965 25,306 25,647 25,989 26,331 26,673 9,968 10,205 10,443 10,682 10,923 11,164 11,406 11,649 11,893 12,138 12,384 12,630 12,878 13,126 13,375 13,625 13,875 14,127 14,379 14,631 14,885 15,139 15,393 15,648 15,905 16,161 16,417 16,675 16,933 17,192 17,451 17,710 17,970 18,231 18,491 18,753 19,014 19,277 19,539 19,802 54.896 55.061 55.223 55.383 55.540 55.694 55.846 55.995 56.141 56.286 56.429 56.570 56.708 56.845 56.980 57.112 57.243 57.372 57.499 57.625 57.750 57.872 57.993 58.113 58.231 58.348 58.463 58.576 58.688 58.800 58.910 59.019 59.126 59.232 59.338 59.442 59.544 59.646 59.747 59.846 T R 3500 3540 3580 3620 3660 3700 3740 3780 3820 3860 3900 3940 3980 4020 4060 4100 4140 4180 4220 4260 4300 4340 4380 4420 4460 4500 4540 4580 4620 4660 4700 4740 4780 4820 4860 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 _ h Btu/lbmol 27,016 27,359 27,703 28,046 28,391 28,735 29,080 29,425 29,771 30,117 30,463 30,809 31,156 31,503 31,850 32,198 32,546 32,894 33,242 33,591 33,940 34,289 34,638 34,988 35,338 35,688 36,038 36,389 36,739 37,090 37,441 37,792 38,144 38,495 38,847 39,199 40,080 40,962 41,844 42,728 _ u Btu/lbmol 20,065 20,329 20,593 20,858 21,122 21,387 21,653 21,919 22,185 22,451 22,718 22,985 23,252 23,520 23,788 24,056 24,324 24,593 24,862 25,131 25,401 25,670 25,940 26,210 26,481 26,751 27,022 27,293 27,565 27,836 28,108 28,379 28,651 28,924 29,196 29,468 30,151 30,834 31,518 32,203

|

987

_ s° Btu/lbmol · R 59.944 60.041 60.138 60.234 60.328 60.422 60.515 60.607 60.698 60.788 60.877 60.966 61.053 61.139 61.225 61.310 61.395 61.479 61.562 61.644 61.726 61.806 61.887 61.966 62.045 62.123 62.201 62.278 62.354 62.429 62.504 62.578 62.652 62.725 62.798 62.870 63.049 63.223 63.395 63.563

Source: Tables A­18E through A­23E are adapted from Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 834­44. Originally published in J. H. Keenan and J. Kaye, Gas Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1945).

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­19E

Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 _ _ T h u R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 537 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 2,073.5 2,212.6 2,351.7 2,490.8 2,630.0 2,769.1 2,908.3 3,047.5 3,186.9 3,326.5 3,466.2 3,606.1 3,725.1 3,746.2 3,886.6 4,027.3 4,168.3 4,309.7 4,451.4 4,593.5 4,736.2 4,879.3 5,022.9 5,167.0 5,311.4 5,456.4 5,602.0 5,748.1 5,894.8 6,041.9 6,189.6 6,337.9 6,486.7 6,636.1 6,786.0 6,936.4 7,087.5 7,238.9 7,391.0 7,543.6 1,477.8 1,577.1 1,676.5 1,775.9 1,875.3 1,974.8 2,074.3 2,173.8 2,273.4 2,373.3 2,473.2 2,573.4 2,658.7 2,673.8 2,774.5 2,875.5 2,976.8 3,078.4 3,180.4 3,282.9 3,385.8 3,489.2 3,593.1 3,697.4 3,802.4 3,907.5 4,013.3 4,119.7 4,226.6 4,334.1 4,442.0 4,550.6 4,659.7 4,769.4 4,879.5 4,990.3 5,101.6 5,213.3 5,325.7 5,438.6 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 44.927 45.375 45.797 46.195 46.571 46.927 47.267 47.591 47.900 48.198 48.483 48.757 48.982 49.021 49.276 49.522 49.762 49.993 50.218 50.437 50.650 50.858 51.059 51.257 51.450 51.638 51.821 52.002 52.179 52.352 52.522 52.688 52.852 53.012 53.170 53.326 53.477 53.628 53.775 53.921 T R 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 _ h Btu/lbmol 7,696.8 7,850.4 8,004.5 8,159.1 8,314.2 8,469.8 8,625.8 8,782.4 8,939.4 9,096.7 9,254.6 9,412.9 9,571.9 9,730.7 9,890.2 10,050.1 10,210.4 10,371.0 10,532.0 10,693.3 10,855.1 11,017.1 11,179.6 11,342.4 11,505.4 11,668.8 11,832.5 11,996.6 12,160.9 12,325.5 12,490.4 12,655.6 12,821.1 12,986.9 13,153.0 13,319.2 13,485.8 13,652.5 13,819.6 13,986.8 _ u Btu/lbmol 5,552.1 5,665.9 5,780.3 5,895.2 6,010.6 6,126.5 6,242.8 6,359.6 6,476.9 6,594.5 6,712.7 6,831.3 6,950.2 7,069.6 7,189.4 7,309.6 7,430.1 7,551.1 7,672.4 7,793.9 7,916.0 8,038.3 8,161.1 8,284.2 8,407.4 8,531.1 8,655.1 8,779.5 8,904.1 9,029.0 9,154.1 9,279.6 9,405.4 9,531.5 9,657.9 9,784.4 9,911.2 10,038.2 10,165.6 10,293.1 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 54.064 54.204 54.343 54.480 54.614 54.748 54.879 55.008 55.136 55.262 55.386 55.508 55.630 55.750 55.867 55.984 56.099 56.213 56.326 56.437 56.547 56.656 56.763 56.869 56.975 57.079 57.182 57.284 57.385 57.484 57.582 57.680 57.777 57.873 57.968 58.062 58.155 58.247 58.339 58.428

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­19E

Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 (Concluded) _ _ _ T h u s° R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol · R 1900 1940 1980 2020 2060 2100 2140 2180 2220 2260 2300 2340 2380 2420 2460 2500 2540 2580 2620 2660 2700 2740 2780 2820 2860 2900 2940 2980 3020 3060 3100 3140 3180 3220 3260 3300 3340 3380 3420 3460 14,322 14,658 14,995 15,333 15,672 16,011 16,351 16,692 17,036 17,376 17,719 18,062 18,407 18,572 19,097 19,443 19,790 20,138 20,485 20,834 21,183 21,533 21,883 22,232 22,584 22,936 23,288 23,641 23,994 24,348 24,703 25,057 25,413 25,769 26,175 26,412 26,839 27,197 27,555 27,914 10,549 10,806 11,063 11,321 11,581 11,841 12,101 12,363 12,625 12,888 13,151 13,416 13,680 13,946 14,212 14,479 14,746 15,014 15,282 15,551 15,821 16,091 16,362 16,633 16,905 17,177 17,450 17,723 17,997 18,271 18,546 18,822 19,098 19,374 19,651 19,928 20,206 20,485 20,763 21,043 58.607 58.782 58.954 59.123 59.289 59.451 59.612 59.770 59.926 60.077 60.228 60.376 60.522 60.666 60.808 60.946 61.084 61.220 61.354 61.486 61.616 61.744 61.871 61.996 62.120 62.242 62.363 62.483 62.599 62.716 62.831 62.945 63.057 63.169 63.279 63.386 63.494 63.601 63.706 63.811 T R 3500 3540 3580 3620 3660 3700 3740 3780 3820 3860 3900 3940 3980 4020 4060 4100 4140 4180 4220 4260 4300 4340 4380 4420 4460 4500 4540 4580 4620 4660 4700 4740 4780 4820 4860 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 _ h Btu/lbmol 28,273 28,633 28,994 29,354 29,716 30,078 30,440 30,803 31,166 31,529 31,894 32,258 32,623 32,989 33,355 33,722 34,089 34,456 34,824 35,192 35,561 35,930 36,300 36,670 37,041 37,412 37,783 38,155 38,528 38,900 39,274 39,647 40,021 40,396 40,771 41,146 42,086 43,021 43,974 44,922 _ u Btu/lbmol 21,323 21,603 21,884 22,165 22,447 22,730 23,013 23,296 23,580 23,864 24,149 24,434 24,720 25,006 25,292 25,580 25,867 26,155 26,144 26,733 27,022 27,312 27,602 27,823 28,184 28,475 28,768 29,060 29,353 29,646 29,940 30,234 30,529 30,824 31,120 31,415 32,157 32,901 33,648 34,397

|

989

_ s° Btu/lbmol · R 63.914 64.016 64.114 64.217 64.316 64.415 64.512 64.609 64.704 64.800 64.893 64.986 65.078 65.169 65.260 65.350 64.439 65.527 65.615 65.702 65.788 65.873 65.958 66.042 66.125 66.208 66.290 66.372 66.453 66.533 66.613 66.691 66.770 66.848 66.925 67.003 67.193 67.380 67.562 67.743

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TABLE A­20E

Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 _ _ _ T h u s° R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol · R 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 537 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 2,108.2 2,256.6 2,407.3 2,560.5 2,716.4 2,874.7 3,035.7 3,199.4 3,365.7 3,534.7 3,706.2 3,880.3 4,027.5 4,056.8 4,235.8 4,417.2 4,600.9 4,786.6 4,974.9 5,165.2 5,357.6 5,552.0 5,748.4 5,946.8 6,147.0 6,349.1 6,552.9 6,758.3 6,965.7 7,174.7 7,385.3 7,597.6 7,811.4 8,026.8 8,243.8 8,462.2 8,682.1 8,903.4 9,126.2 9,350.3 1,512.4 1,621.1 1,732.1 1,845.6 1,961.8 2,080.4 2,201.7 2,325.6 2,452.2 2,581.5 2,713.3 2,847.7 2,963.8 2,984.4 3,123.7 3,265.4 3,409.4 3,555.6 3,704.0 3,854.6 4,007.2 4,161.9 4,318.6 4,477.3 4,637.9 4,800.1 4,964.2 5,129.9 5,297.6 5,466.9 5,637.7 5,810.3 5,984.4 6,160.1 6,337.4 6,516.1 6,696.2 6,877.8 7,060.9 7,245.3 46.353 46.832 47.289 47.728 48.148 48.555 48.947 49.329 49.698 50.058 50.408 50.750 51.032 51.082 51.408 51.726 52.038 52.343 52.641 52.934 53.225 53.503 53.780 54.051 54.319 54.582 54.839 55.093 55.343 55.589 55.831 56.070 56.305 56.536 56.765 56.990 57.212 57.432 57.647 57.861 T R 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 _ h Btu/lbmol 9,575.8 9,802.6 10,030.6 10,260.1 10,490.6 10,722.3 10,955.3 11,189.4 11,424.6 11,661.0 11,898.4 12,136.9 12,376.4 12,617.0 12,858.5 13,101.0 13,344.7 13,589.1 13,834.5 14,080.8 14,328.0 14,576.0 14,824.9 15,074.7 15,325.3 15,576.7 15,829.0 16,081.9 16,335.7 16,590.2 16,845.5 17,101.4 17,358.1 17,615.5 17,873.5 18,132.2 18,391.5 18,651.5 18,912.2 19,173.4 _ u Btu/lbmol 7,431.1 7,618.1 7,806.4 7,996.2 8,187.0 8,379.0 8,572.3 8,766.6 8,962.1 9,158.8 9,356.5 9,555.3 9,755.0 9,955.9 10,157.7 10,360.5 10,564.5 10,769.2 10,974.8 11,181.4 11,388.9 11,597.2 11,806.4 12,016.5 12,227.3 12,439.0 12,651.6 12,864.8 13,078.9 13,293.7 13,509.2 13,725.4 13,942.4 14,160.1 14,378.4 14,597.4 14,816.9 15,037.2 15,258.2 15,479.7 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 58.072 58.281 58.485 58.689 58.889 59.088 59.283 59.477 59.668 59.858 60.044 60.229 60.412 60.593 60.772 60.949 61.124 61.298 61.469 61.639 61.800 61.974 62.138 62.302 62.464 62.624 62.783 62.939 63.095 63.250 63.403 63.555 63.704 63.853 64.001 64.147 64.292 64.435 64.578 64.719

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­20E

Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 (Concluded ) _ _ _ T h u s° R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol · R 1900 1940 1980 2020 2060 2100 2140 2180 2220 2260 2300 2340 2380 2420 2460 2500 2540 2580 2620 2660 2700 2740 2780 2820 2860 2900 2940 2980 3020 3060 3100 3140 3180 3220 3260 3300 3340 3380 3420 3460 19,698 20,224 20,753 21,284 21,818 22,353 22,890 23,429 23,970 24,512 25,056 25,602 26,150 26,699 27,249 27,801 28,355 28,910 29,465 30,023 30,581 31,141 31,702 32,264 32,827 33,392 33,957 34,523 35,090 35,659 36,228 36,798 37,369 37,941 38,513 39,087 39,661 40,236 40,812 41,388 15,925 16,372 16,821 17,273 17,727 18,182 18,640 19,101 19,561 20,024 20,489 20,955 21,423 21,893 22,364 22,837 23,310 23,786 24,262 24,740 25,220 25,701 26,181 26,664 27,148 27,633 28,118 28,605 29,093 29,582 30,072 30,562 31,054 31,546 32,039 32,533 33,028 33,524 34,020 34,517 64.999 65.272 65.543 65.809 66.069 66.327 66.581 66.830 67.076 67.319 67.557 67.792 68.025 68.253 68.479 68.702 68.921 69.138 69.352 69.563 69.771 69.977 70.181 70.382 70.580 70.776 70.970 71.160 71.350 71.537 71.722 71.904 72.085 72.264 72.441 72.616 72.788 72.960 73.129 73.297 T R 3500 3540 3580 3620 3660 3700 3740 3780 3820 3860 3900 3940 3980 4020 4060 4100 4140 4180 4220 4260 4300 4340 4380 4420 4460 4500 4540 4580 4620 4660 4700 4740 4780 4820 4860 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 _ h Btu/lbmol 41,965 42,543 43,121 43,701 44,280 44,861 45,442 46,023 46,605 47,188 47,771 48,355 48,939 49,524 50,109 50,695 51,282 51,868 52,456 53,044 53,632 54,221 54,810 55,400 55,990 56,581 57,172 57,764 58,356 58,948 59,541 60,134 60,728 61,322 61,916 62,511 64,000 65,491 66,984 68,471 _ u Btu/lbmol 35,015 35,513 36,012 36,512 37,012 37,513 38,014 38,517 39,019 39,522 40,026 40,531 41,035 41,541 42,047 42,553 43,060 43,568 44,075 44,584 45,093 45,602 46,112 46,622 47,133 47,645 48,156 48,668 49,181 49,694 50,208 50,721 51,236 51,750 52,265 52,781 54,071 55,363 56,658 57,954

|

991

_ s° Btu/lbmol · R 73.462 73.627 73.789 73.951 74.110 74.267 74.423 74.578 74.732 74.884 75.033 75.182 75.330 75.477 75.622 75.765 75.907 76.048 76.188 76.327 76.464 76.601 76.736 76.870 77.003 77.135 77.266 77.395 77.581 77.652 77.779 77.905 78.029 78.153 78.276 78.398 78.698 78.994 79.284 79.569

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­21E

Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, _ _ T h u R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 537 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 2,081.9 2,220.9 2,359.9 2,498.8 2,637.9 2,776.9 2,916.0 3,055.0 3,194.0 3,333.0 3,472.1 3,611.2 3,725.1 3,750.3 3,889.5 4,028.7 4,168.0 4,307.4 4,446.9 4,586.6 4,726.2 4,886.0 5,006.1 5,146.4 5,286.8 5,427.4 5,568.2 5,709.4 5,850.7 5,992.3 6,134.2 6,276.4 6,419.0 6,561.7 6,704.9 6,848.4 6,992.2 7,136.4 7,281.0 7,425.9 1,486.1 1,585.4 1,684.7 1,783.9 1,883.3 1,982.6 2,081.9 2,181.2 2,280.5 2,379.8 2,479.2 2,578.6 2,663.1 2,677.9 2,777.4 2,876.9 2,976.5 3,076.2 3,175.9 3,275.8 3,375.8 3,475.9 3,576.3 3,676.9 3,777.5 3,878.4 3,979.5 4,081.0 4,182.6 4,284.5 4,386.6 4,489.1 4,592.0 4,695.0 4,798.5 4,902.3 5,006.3 5,110.8 5,215.7 5,320.9 CO _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 43.223 43.672 44.093 44.490 44.866 45.223 45.563 45.886 46.194 46.491 46.775 47.048 47.272 47.310 47.563 47.807 48.044 48.272 48.494 48.709 48.917 49.120 49.317 49.509 49.697 49.880 50.058 50.232 50.402 50.569 50.732 50.892 51.048 51.202 51.353 51.501 51.646 51.788 51.929 52.067 T R 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 _ h Btu/lbmol 7,571.1 7,716.8 7,862.9 8,009.2 8,156.1 8,303.3 8,450.8 8,598.8 8,747.2 8,896.0 9,045.0 9,194.6 9,344.6 9,494.8 9,645.5 9,796.6 9,948.1 10,100.0 10,252.2 10,404.8 10,557.8 10,711.1 10,864.9 11,019.0 11,173.4 11,328.2 11,483.4 11,638.9 11,794.7 11,950.9 12,107.5 12,264.3 12,421.4 12,579.0 12,736.7 12,894.9 13,053.2 13,212.0 13,371.0 13,530.2 _ u Btu/lbmol 5,426.4 5,532.3 5,638.7 5,745.4 5,851.5 5,960.0 6,067.8 6,176.0 6,284.7 6,393.8 6,503.1 6,613.0 6,723.2 6,833.7 6,944.7 7,056.1 7,167.9 7,280.1 7,392.6 7,505.4 7,618.7 7,732.3 7,846.4 7,960.8 8,075.4 8,190.5 8,306.0 8,421.8 8,537.9 8,654.4 8,771.2 8,888.3 9,005.7 9,123.6 9,241.6 9,360.0 9,478.6 9,597.7 9,717.0 9,836.5 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 52.203 52.337 52.468 52.598 52.726 52.852 52.976 53.098 53.218 53.337 53.455 53.571 53.685 53.799 53.910 54.021 54.129 54.237 54.344 54.448 54.522 54.665 54.757 54.858 54.958 55.056 55.154 55.251 55.347 55.411 55.535 55.628 55.720 55.811 55.900 55.990 56.078 56.166 56.253 56.339

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­21E

Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, _ _ T h u R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol 1900 1940 1980 2020 2060 2100 2140 2180 2220 2260 2300 2340 2380 2420 2460 2500 2540 2580 2620 2660 2700 2740 2780 2820 2860 2900 2940 2980 3020 3060 3100 3140 3180 3220 3260 3300 3340 3380 3420 3460 13,850 14,170 14,492 14,815 15,139 15,463 15,789 16,116 16,443 16,722 17,101 17,431 17,762 18,093 18,426 18,759 19,093 19,427 19,762 20,098 20,434 20,771 21,108 21,446 21,785 22,124 22,463 22,803 23,144 23,485 23,826 24,168 24,510 24,853 25,196 25,539 25,883 26,227 26,572 26,917 10,077 10,318 10,560 10,803 11,048 11,293 11,539 11,787 12,035 12,284 12,534 12,784 13,035 13,287 13,541 13,794 14,048 14,303 14,559 14,815 15,072 15,330 15,588 15,846 16,105 16,365 16,225 16,885 17,146 17,408 17,670 17,932 18,195 18,458 18,722 18,986 19,250 19,515 19,780 20,045 CO (Concluded) _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 56.509 56.677 56.841 57.007 57.161 57.317 57.470 57.621 57.770 57.917 58.062 58.204 58.344 58.482 58.619 58.754 58.885 59.016 59.145 59.272 59.398 59.521 59.644 59.765 59.884 60.002 60.118 60.232 60.346 60.458 60.569 60.679 60.787 60.894 61.000 61.105 61.209 61.311 61.412 61.513 T R 3500 3540 3580 3620 3660 3700 3740 3780 3820 3860 3900 3940 3980 4020 4060 4100 4140 4180 4220 4260 4300 4340 4380 4420 4460 4500 4540 4580 4620 4660 4700 4740 4780 4820 4860 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 _ h Btu/lbmol 27,262 27,608 27,954 28,300 28,647 28,994 29,341 29,688 30,036 30,384 30,733 31,082 31,431 31,780 32,129 32,479 32,829 33,179 33,530 33,880 34,231 34,582 34,934 35,285 35,637 35,989 36,341 36,693 37,046 37,398 37,751 38,104 38,457 38,811 39,164 39,518 40,403 41,289 42,176 43,063 _ u Btu/lbmol 20,311 20,576 20,844 21,111 21,378 21,646 21,914 22,182 22,450 22,719 22,988 23,257 23,527 23,797 24,067 24,337 24,608 24,878 25,149 25,421 25,692 25,934 26,235 26,508 26,780 27,052 27,325 27,598 27,871 28,144 28,417 28,691 28,965 29,239 29,513 29,787 30,473 31,161 31,849 32,538

|

993

_ s° Btu/lbmol · R 61.612 61.710 61.807 61.903 61.998 62.093 62.186 62.279 62.370 62.461 62.511 62.640 62.728 62.816 62.902 62.988 63.072 63.156 63.240 63.323 63.405 63.486 63.567 63.647 63.726 63.805 63.883 63.960 64.036 64.113 64.188 64.263 64.337 64.411 64.484 64.556 64.735 64.910 65.082 65.252

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994

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­22E

Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2 _ _ T h u R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 537 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1100 1200 1300 2,063.5 2,189.4 2,317.2 2,446.8 2,577.8 2,710.2 2,843.7 2,978.1 3,113.5 3,249.4 3,386.1 3,523.2 3,640.3 3,660.9 3,798.8 3,937.1 4,075.6 4,214.3 4,353.1 4,492.1 4,631.1 4,770.2 4,909.5 5,048.8 5,188.1 5,327.6 5,467.1 5,606.7 5,746.3 5,885.9 6,025.6 6,165.3 6,305.1 6,444.9 6,584.7 6,724.6 6,864.5 7,564.6 8,265.8 8,968.7 1,467.7 1,553.9 1,642.0 1,731.9 1,823.2 1,915.8 2,009.6 2,104.3 2,200.0 2,296.2 2,393.2 2,490.6 2,573.9 2,588.5 2,686.7 2,785.3 2,884.1 2,983.1 3,082.1 3,181.4 3,280.7 3,380.1 3,479.6 3,579.2 3,678.8 3,778.6 3,878.4 3,978.3 4,078.2 4,178.0 4,278.0 4,378.0 4,478.1 4,578.1 4,678.3 4,778.4 4,878.6 5,380.1 5,882.8 6,387.1 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 27.337 27.742 28.130 28.501 28.856 29.195 29.520 29.833 30.133 20.424 30.703 30.972 31.194 31.232 31.482 31.724 31.959 32.187 32.407 32.621 32.829 33.031 33.226 33.417 33.603 33.784 33.961 34.134 34.302 34.466 34.627 34.784 34.938 35.087 35.235 35.379 35.520 36.188 36.798 37.360 T R 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 _ h Btu/lbmol 9,673.8 10,381.5 11,092.5 11,807.4 12,526.8 13,250.9 13,980.1 14,714.5 15,454.4 16,199.8 16,950.6 17,707.3 18,469.7 19,237.8 20,011.8 20,791.5 21,576.9 22,367.7 23,164.1 23,965.5 24,771.9 25,582.9 26,398.5 27,218.5 28,042.8 28,871.1 29,703.5 30,539.8 31,379.8 32,223.5 33,070.9 33,921.6 34,775.7 35,633.0 36,493.4 35,356.9 38,223.3 39,092.8 39,965.1 40,840.2 _ u Btu/lbmol 6,893.6 7,402.7 7,915.1 8,431.4 8,952.2 9,477.8 10,008.4 10,544.2 11,085.5 11,632.3 12,184.5 12,742.6 13,306.4 13,876.0 14,451.4 15,032.5 15,619.3 16,211.5 16,809.3 17,412.1 18,019.9 18,632.4 19,249.4 19,870.8 20,496.5 21,126.2 21,760.0 22,397.7 23,039.2 23,684.3 24,333.1 24,985.2 25,640.7 26,299.4 26,961.2 27,626.1 28,294.0 28,964.9 29,638.6 30,315.1 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 37.883 38.372 38.830 39.264 39.675 40.067 40.441 40.799 41.143 41.475 41.794 42.104 42.403 42.692 42.973 43.247 43.514 43.773 44.026 44.273 44.513 44.748 44.978 45.203 45.423 45.638 45.849 46.056 46.257 46.456 46.651 46.842 47.030 47.215 47.396 47.574 47.749 47.921 48.090 48.257

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­23E

Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O _ _ T h u R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 537 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 2,367.6 2,526.8 2,686.0 2,845.1 3,004.4 3,163.8 3,323.2 3,482.7 3,642.3 3,802.0 3,962.0 4,122.0 4,258.0 4,282.4 4,442.8 4,603.7 4,764.7 4,926.1 5,087.8 5,250.0 5,412.5 5,575.4 5,738.8 5,902.6 6,066.9 6,231.7 6,396.9 6,562.6 6,728.9 6,895.6 7,062.9 7,230.9 7,399.4 7,568.4 7,738.0 7,908.2 8,078.2 8,250.4 8,422.4 8,595.0 1,771.8 1,891.3 2,010.8 2,130.2 2,249.8 2,369.4 2,489.1 2,608.9 2,728.8 2,848.8 2,969.1 3,089.4 3,191.9 3,210.0 3,330.7 3,451.9 3,573.2 3,694.9 3,816.8 3,939.3 4,062.1 4,185.3 4,309.0 4,433.1 4,557.6 4,682.7 4,808.2 4,934.2 5,060.8 5,187.8 5,315.3 5,443.6 5,572.4 5,701.7 5,831.6 5,962.0 6,093.0 6,224.8 6,357.1 6,490.0 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 40.439 40.952 41.435 41.889 42.320 42.728 43.117 43.487 43.841 44.182 44.508 44.821 45.079 45.124 45.415 45.696 45.970 46.235 46.492 46.741 46.984 47.219 47.450 47.673 47.893 48.106 48.316 48.520 48.721 48.916 49.109 49.298 49.483 49.665 49.843 50.019 50.191 50.360 50.528 50.693 T R 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 _ h Btu/lbmol 8,768.2 8,942.0 9,116.4 9,291.4 9,467.1 9,643.4 9,820.4 9,998.0 10,176.1 10,354.9 10,534.4 10,714.5 10,895.3 11,076.6 11,258.7 11,441.4 11,624.8 11,808.8 11,993.4 12,178.8 12,364.8 12,551.4 12,738.8 12,926.8 13,115.6 13,305.0 13,494.4 13,685.7 13,877.0 14,069.2 14,261.9 14,455.4 14,649.5 14,844.3 15,039.8 15,236.1 15,433.0 15,630.6 15,828.7 16,027.6 _ u Btu/lbmol 6,623.5 6,757.5 6,892.2 7,027.5 7,163.5 7,300.1 7,437.4 7,575.2 7,713.6 7,852.7 7,992.5 8,132.9 8,274.0 8,415.5 8,557.9 8,700.9 8,844.6 8,988.9 9,133.8 9,279.4 9,425.7 9,572.7 9,720.3 9,868.6 10,017.6 10,167.3 10,317.6 10,468.6 10,620.2 10,772.7 10,925.6 11,079.4 11,233.8 11,388.9 11,544.7 11,701.2 11,858.4 12,016.3 12,174.7 12,333.9

|

995

_ s° Btu/lbmol · R 50.854 51.013 51.171 51.325 51.478 51.360 51.777 51.925 52.070 52.212 52.354 52.494 52.631 52.768 52.903 53.037 53.168 53.299 53.428 53.556 53.682 53.808 53.932 54.055 54.117 54.298 54.418 54.535 54.653 54.770 54.886 54.999 55.113 55.226 55.339 55.449 55.559 55.668 55.777 55.884

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996

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Thermodynamics

TABLE A­23E

Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O (Concluded) _ _ _ T h u s° R Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol Btu/lbmol · R 1900 1940 1980 2020 2060 2100 2140 2180 2220 2260 2300 2340 2380 2420 2460 2500 2540 2580 2620 2660 2700 2740 2780 2820 2860 2900 2940 2980 3020 3060 3100 3140 3180 3220 3260 3300 3340 3380 3420 3460 16,428 16,830 17,235 17,643 18,054 18,467 18,883 19,301 19,722 20,145 20,571 20,999 21,429 21,862 22,298 22,735 23,175 23,618 24,062 24,508 24,957 25,408 25,861 26,316 26,773 27,231 27,692 28,154 28,619 29,085 29,553 30,023 30,494 30,967 31,442 31,918 32,396 32,876 33,357 33,839 12,654 12,977 13,303 13,632 13,963 14,297 14,633 14,972 15,313 15,657 16,003 16,352 16,703 17,057 17,413 17,771 18,131 18,494 18,859 19,226 19,595 19,967 20,340 20,715 21,093 21,472 21,853 22,237 22,621 23,085 23,397 23,787 24,179 24,572 24,968 25,365 25,763 26,164 26,565 26,968 56.097 56.307 56.514 56.719 56.920 57.119 57.315 57.509 57.701 57.889 58.077 58.261 58.445 58.625 58.803 58.980 59.155 59.328 59.500 59.669 59.837 60.003 60.167 60.330 60.490 60.650 60.809 60.965 61.120 61.274 61.426 61.577 61.727 61.874 62.022 62.167 62.312 62.454 62.597 62.738 T R 3500 3540 3580 3620 3660 3700 3740 3780 3820 3860 3900 3940 3980 4020 4060 4100 4140 4180 4220 4260 4300 4340 4380 4420 4460 4500 4540 4580 4620 4660 4700 4740 4780 4820 4860 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 _ h Btu/lbmol 34,324 34,809 35,296 35,785 36,274 36,765 37,258 37,752 38,247 38,743 39,240 39,739 40,239 40,740 41,242 41,745 42,250 42,755 43,267 43,769 44,278 44,788 45,298 45,810 46,322 46,836 47,350 47,866 48,382 48,899 49,417 49,936 50,455 50,976 51,497 52,019 53,327 54,640 55,957 57,279 _ u Btu/lbmol 27,373 27,779 28,187 28,596 29,006 29,418 29,831 30,245 30,661 31,077 31,495 31,915 32,335 32,757 33,179 33,603 34,028 34,454 34,881 35,310 35,739 36,169 36,600 37,032 37,465 37,900 38,334 38,770 39,207 39,645 40,083 40,523 40,963 41,404 41,856 42,288 43,398 44,512 45,631 46,754 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 62.876 63.015 63.153 63.288 63.423 63.557 63.690 63.821 63.952 64.082 64.210 64.338 64.465 64.591 64.715 64.839 64.962 65.084 65.204 65.325 65.444 65.563 65.680 65.797 65.913 66.028 66.142 66.255 66.368 66.480 66.591 66.701 66.811 66.920 67.028 67.135 67.401 67.662 67.918 68.172

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Appendix 2 TABLE A­26E

Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, 77°F, 1 atm _ h° f Substance Formula Btu/lbmol Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Water vapor Water Hydrogen peroxide Ammonia Methane Acetylene Ethylene Ethane Propylene Propane n-Butane n-Octane n-Octane n-Dodecane Benzene Methyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Ethyl alcohol Ethyl alcohol Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen Hydroxyl C(s) H2(g) N2(g) O2(g) CO(g) CO2(g) H2O(g) H2O( ) H2O2(g) NH3(g) CH4(g) C2H2(g) C2H4(g) C2H6(g) C3H6(g) C3H8(g) C4H10(g) C8H18(g) C8H18( ) C12H26(g) C6H6(g) CH3OH(g) CH3OH( ) C2H5OH(g) C2H5OH( ) O(g) H(g) N(g) OH(g) 0 0 0 0 47,540 169,300 104,040 122,970 58,640 19,750 32,210 97,540 22,490 36,420 8,790 44,680 54,270 89,680 107,530 125,190 35,680 86,540 102,670 101,230 119,470 107,210 93,780 203,340 16,790 and absolute entropy at _ g° f Btu/lbmol 0 0 0 0 59,010 169,680 98,350 102,040 45,430 7,140 21,860 87,990 29,306 14,150 26,980 10,105 6,760 7,110 2,840 21,570 55,780 69,700 71,570 72,520 75,240 99,710 87,460 195,970 14,750 _ s° Btu/lbmol · R 1.36 31.21 45.77 49.00 47.21 51.07 45.11 16.71 55.60 45.97 44.49 48.00 52.54 54.85 63.80 64.51 74.11 111.55 86.23 148.86 64.34 57.29 30.30 67.54 38.40 38.47 27.39 36.61 43.92

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997

Source: From JANAF, Thermochemical Tables (Midland, MI: Dow Chemical Co., 1971), Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties, NBS Technical Note 270-3, 1968; and API Research Project 44 (Carnegie Press, 1953).

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TABLE A­27E

Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons Molar mass, lbm/lbmol 12.011 2.016 28.013 16.043 32.042 26.038 30.070 46.069 44.097 58.123 70.134 72.150 78.114 84.161 86.177 92.141 100.204 114.231 142.285 100­110 170 200 18 Enthalpy of vaporization,2 Btu/lbm -- -- -- 219 502 -- 74 395 144 156 156 -- 186 169 157 177 157 156 155 151 116 99 -- Specific heat,1 cp Btu/ lbm · °F 0.169 3.44 0.251 0.525 0.604 0.404 0.418 0.583 0.662 0.578 0.525 0.554 0.411 0.439 0.542 0.408 0.535 0.533 0.528 0.57 0.53 0.45 0.48 Higher heating value,3 Btu/lbm 14,100 60,970 4,340 23,880 9,740 21,490 22,320 12,760 21,640 21,130 20,540 20,890 17,970 20,430 20,770 18,230 20,680 20,590 20,490 20,300 19,800 19,600 21,500 Lower heating value,3 Btu/lbm 14,100 51,600 4,340 21,520 8,570 20,760 20,430 11,530 19,930 19,510 19,190 19,310 17,240 19,090 19,240 17,420 19,180 19,100 19,020 18,900 18,600 18,400 19,400

Fuel (phase) Carbon (s) Hydrogen (g) Carbon monoxide (g) Methane (g) Methanol ( ) Acetylene (g) Ethane (g) Ethanol ( ) Propane ( ) Butane ( ) 1-Pentene ( ) Isopentane ( ) Benzene ( ) Hexene ( ) Hexane ( ) Toluene ( ) Heptane ( ) Octane ( ) Decane ( ) Gasoline ( ) Light diesel ( ) Heavy diesel ( ) Natural gas (g)

1At 2At 3At

Formula C H2 CO CH4 CH4O C2H2 C2H6 C2H6O C3H8 C4H10 C5H10 C5H12 C6H6 C6H12 C6H14 C7H8 C7H16 C8H18 C10H22 CnH1.87n CnH1.8n CnH1.7n CnH3.8nN0.1n

Density,1 lbm/ft3 125 -- -- -- 49.3 -- -- 49.3 31.2 36.1 40.0 39.1 54.7 42.0 41.2 54.1 42.7 43.9 45.6 45­49 49­52 51­55 --

1 atm and 68°F. 77°F for liquid fuels, and 1 atm and normal boiling temperature for gaseous fuels. 77°F. Multiply by molar mass to obtain heating values in Btu/lbmol.

ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1 Normal Temperature Barometric Pressure: 29.921 inches of mercury

55 60

Vo

©1992 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

90

e lum

50

, cu

.028

Sea Level

85 45

60 .026

per ry lb d

. ft.

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air

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cen84959_ch19-ap02.qxd 8/11/06 1:21 PM Page 999

0.2

0.1

tu

En

re

°F

er a

p

90

em

30

nt r ati o

80 %

70

%

tu

Sa

40

%

Humidity ratio, pounds moisture per pound dry air

35

30

midity ative hu 10% Rel

Dry bulb temperature °F

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

10

15 Dry bulb temperature, °F

Appendix 2

20

25

Prepared by Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies, University of Idaho.

120

000 5000 3

80

r fd y ai r

We t bu lb t e mp e ra t

0

.022

0.6 0.5

40

ure

0.4

o

FIGURE A­31E Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure.

From the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA: used with permission.

200

0

QS Sensible heat ----------­ = ---- QT Total heat

2.0 4.0 ­ · ­ 2 4.0 .0 ­1 .0

80

75

.020 50 .018

­ 0.1

15 00

d un po er p 35 tu

.5 ­ 0 0.4 ­ .3 ­0 ­ 0.2

0

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Enthalpy h ------------ = ---- Humidity ratio 65

% 70

75

.016

14. 5

70

.014

45

25 60

50 %

65

60

%

.012

14. 0

.010

20 50

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40 .008

15 30

45

13. 5

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35 .004

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| 999

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