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Living Psychology

by

Karen Huffman

PowerPoint ® Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 9: Life Span Development

Judith Phillips, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Lecture Overview

Studying Development Physical Development Cognitive Development Social, Moral, and Personality Development Living Psychology- Meeting the Challenges of Adulthood

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Developmental Psychology: studies age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Studying Development:

Module 9.1

Theoretical debates include: Nature vs. Nurture- heredity vs. environment. Continuity vs. Stages- continuous and gradual vs. periods of abrupt change and then periods of little change. Stability vs. Change- characteristics maintained vs. characteristics different.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

The interactionist perspective has been preferred by most psychologists and this has evolved into the biopsychosocial model.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Research Methods Used to Study Development

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Physical Development:

Module 9.2

Prenatal and Early Childhood: Two Major Divisions Prenatal Physical Development Early Childhood Physical Development

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Three Stages of Prenatal Development

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2.

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Germinal Period: conception to implantation in the uterus. Embryonic Period: uterine implantation through the eighth week. Fetal Period: eighth week until birth.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Hazards to Prenatal Development

Teratogens: environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the placenta barrier. Categories of teratogens include: Legal and illegal drugs Diseases and malnutrition Exposure to X-rays and stress exposure

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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Early Childhood Physical Development

Three key areas of change in early childhood: brain, motor, and sensory/perceptual development.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Brain Development

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Neurons grow in size and the number of dendrites and axons increase.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Motor Development

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An orderly emergence of active movement skills.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Sensory and Perceptual Development

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Senses of smell, taste, touch and hearing are quite developed at birth. Sense of vision is poorly developed at birth.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Adolescence and Puberty

A time of many physical changes.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Adulthood

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Middle Age: For women menopause is an important life milestone. For men male climacteric occurs. Late Adulthood: Primary aging (gradual changes). Secondary aging (changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Cognitive Development:

Module 9.3

Jean Piaget proposed that an infant begins at a cognitively "primitive" level and progresses in distinct stages. Schemas are the most basic unit of intellect. They act as patterns that organize our interactions with the environment.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Schemas grow and change because of two processes: Assimilation: absorbing new information into existing schemas. Accommodation: adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years Preoperational: 2 to 7 years Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years Formal Operational: 11 years and up

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Social, Moral, and Personality Development: Module 9.4

Social Development Attachment: a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time. Attachment and Harlow's work with monkeys: feeding or contact comfort?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Levels of Attachment

Ainsworth's strange situation procedure identified three types of attachment in children: Securely attached: child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated. and is happy when mother returns.

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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Avoidant: child treats mother and stranger the same and rarely cries when mother leaves. Anxious/Ambivalent: child is upset as mother leaves. When mother returns, child seeks closeness, but also squirms away.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Moral Development

Kohlberg developed a model of moral development based on responses to moral dilemmas.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Kohlberg's Levels and Stages

PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 1: punishment-obedience orientation Stage 2: instrumental-exchange orientation CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 3: good child orientation Stage 4: law-and-order orientation POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 5: social-contract orientation Stage 6: universal ethics orientation

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Personality Development

Erikson identified eight psychosocial stages of development:

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Trust vs. mistrust (0-1 year) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3 years) Initiative vs. guilt (3-6 years) Industry vs. inferiority (6-12 years) identity vs. role confusion (adolescence) Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood) Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood) Ego integrity vs. despair (late adulthood)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Living Psychology- Meeting the Challenges of Adulthood: Module

9.5

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Good Marital Relationships: establish "love maps." have shared power and mutual support. practice conflict management. have similar values, beliefs, interests, etc. have a supportive social environment. maintain a positive emphasis.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Effects of Work and Retirement

Work. How can we find a career that suits our personality and interests? Retirement. Should we follow the activity, disengagement, or socio-emotional selectivity theory?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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Death and Dying

Cultures interpret and respond to death differently. Different ages interpret and respond to death differently: Permanence Universality Nonfunctionality

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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

Stages of Death

Kübler-Ross developed a five stage theory of the psychological processes surrounding death: Denial ("It can't be true!") Anger ("Why me? It's not fair!") Bargaining ("I'll change everything!") Depression ("I've lost everything.") Acceptance ("I know my time is near.")

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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005 Huffman: Living Psychology

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