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SEARCH AND RESCUE TRAINING

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE MANUAL (IAMSAR MANUAL)

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Maritime Organisation (IMO) To enable the States to meet the obligations which they have accepted under the Convention on International Civil Aviation International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR), 1979, Internation Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 It replace the manuals MERSAR and IMOSAR vide IMO Reso. AL 894 (21)

SAR CONVENTION The main contents of this convention are · Create SAR organisation · Form bilateral agreements · Create Rescue Co ­ Ordination Centre ( RCC ) and Rescue sub- centre (RSC) · Identify rescue units · Create communication network · Prepare action plan · Identify duties of On ­ Scene Co- ordinator ( OSC ) · Establish sip reporting system SOLAS CONVENTION On receiving a distress cal at sea from any sources, Master of a ship is bound to proceed with all possible speed for rendering assistance and inform the distressed ship that he is doing so, unless "He is unable to do so or considers it unreasonable or unnecessary to do so" If so he shall record his record in the ship's log and intimate the search and resume service. Master of the distressed ship or the search and rescue service may requisition one or more ships from amongst the ships which have answered the distress call. In such a case the requisitioned

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ships shall continue to proceed to render assistance whilst the ships not so requisitioned are relieved of the obligation stated above. Master of a ship is also relieved of this obligation if he is informed by the distressed persons or by the search and rescue service or by the Master of another ship which has reached the distressed persons, that assistance is no longer required.

IAMSAR MANUAL CONSISTS OF 3 VOLUMES AS FOLLOWS Volume I --- Organisation and Management Volume II --- Mission Co ­ Oridnation Volume III --- Mobile Facilities

Volume ­ I

· Concept of SAR services and systems based on global, regional and National perspectives. · Components of SAR ­ Communication, RCC, RSC, Support facilities and n-scene coordination · Training and qualification of SAR personnel · Organising and managing the system

Volume ­ II

· Concept of SAR services and systems based on global, regional and National perspectives. · Communication system. · Emergency stages --- Uncertainty, alert & distress, and Stages of SAR incident --Awareness & initial action. · Search planning --- Area of coverage, limitations of the facilities. · Search techniques and patterns · Rescue Planning and operation · Emergency assistance for incidents other than SAR

Volume III --- Mobile Facilities

Purpose This volume of the IAMSAR manual provides guidance to the ship's Master · To support SAR operation. · To perform OSC functions. · Requiring SAR assistance

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Communication Equipment · · · · · Radiotelegraphy --- 500 Khz Radiotelephony --- 2182 Khz VHF --- 156.8 Mhz. ( Channel 16 ). Aircraft distress frequency --- 121.5 Mhz. GMDSS Equipement --- INMARSAT Ship earth station A - INMARSAT Ship earth station C - VHF DSC --- 156.525 Mhz ( Channel 70 ) - MF DSC --- 2184.5 Khz - HF DSC --- 4207.5, 6312,8414.5, 12577, 16804.5 Khz. - NBDP MF --- 2174.5 Khz. - NB, DP HF --- 4177.5, 6268, 8376.5, 12520, 16695 Khz - NA VTEX - Hand held VHF - EPIRB - SART

Receipt Of Distress Call · · · · · Alarm signal Distress message from a ship, received directly or by relay. Distress message from an aircraft, usually relayed by the Coast Radio Station (CRS). Alert signal from distressed ship's equipment, relayed by shore. Visual or sound signal from nearby vessels.

Ship Requiring Assistance The Master should send the distress call without delay, followed by the following information · · · · · · · · · Identity Position Nature of distress Kind of assistance required Weather Time of abandoning the ship No. of crew remaining on board No and type of survival craft launched Emergency location aids used or available in the survival craft

Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai If the Master requires medical assistance then he should send the following information · Ship's data - Name and call sign - Position and last port of call - Destination port, ETA, course and speed - Agent's name, address and contact number - Physician and / or medicines available on board - Feasibility of helicopter operation Patient's data - Name, age, gender, nationality and language - Respiration, pulse rate, temperature, blood pressure, location of pain and other symptoms. - Nature of illness or injury, its cause and related history - Medication given - Time of last food consumption - Ability to eat, drink, walk and general mobility

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Actions by Assisting Ship 1. Proceed with all possible speed. 2. Acknowledge receipt of the distress call. 3. Gather the following information about the distressed craft · Position, course and speed · Identity, call sign and name · Nature of distress · Type of assistance required · Type of vessel · Number of persons on board and number of casualties · Nature of cargo · Other pertinent information 4. Maintain continuous watch on all frequencies 5. Maintain communication with the distressed ship and inform him · Own ship's identity, call sign and name · Own ship's position, speed and ETA · Distressed craft's true bearing and distance 6. Post extra lookout as follows By day --- high up on the ship By night --- at the bow, as low as possible, to hear calls for help and to get the best night vision 7. Pass on all information to the SAR Mission Co ­ Ordinator (SMC). 8. Maintain radar plot of all ships in the vicinity and estimate their ETAs. 9. Assess the distress situation to prepare for rescue operation. 10. Keep life saving, rescue, signalling and medical equipment in readiness.

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11. Hoist a crane or a derrick, one on either side, with cargo net, to pick up the survivors from the water. 12. Fix a boat s rope from the bow to the stern, hanging at the water level, to secure the boar rope from the bow to the stern, hanging at the water level, to secure the boats or other crafts which come alongside. 13. Rig scrambling nets, pilot ladder and ropes, at the lowest deck, to enable the survivors to board the ship. 14. Keep a lifeboat / liferaft ready for use as a barding station 15. Keep the LTA ready for use to establish contact with the distressed craft or own ship's survival craft. 16. Set flood lights as required at night. 17. Communication with the OSC on the assigned frequencies. 18. Use Intercode to facilitate communication. 19. Use visual means of communications as follows · Signalling lamp · International code flags · International distress signals --- Annex IV of Collision Regulation · Life saving signals --- Regulations 16 of Chapter V of SOLAS Con. 20. Keep ship's crew members suitably equipped and ready to enter water assist survivors. 21. If the rescue ship cannot go close to the distressed craft due to fire heavy weather, then tow a lifeboat / liferaft to a close position 22. Use oil to reduce the effect of sea in heavy weather as follows --· Vegetable, fish or animal oil is most suitable · Lubricating oil may be used · Fuel oil shall not be used · 200 Its. Of lubricating oil, discharged slowly through a rubber hose, just above the sea level, whilst the ship is proceeding at slow speed, can effectively quell a sea area of 5000 m2 23. Approach a ship on fire from the windward and a survival craft from the leeward 24. Gather all possible information from the survivors, depending on their condition. 25. Deliver the survivors to a place of safety as soon as possible. 26. Transfer injured persons to another ship having a doctor or land them to a shore hospital along with the following information. · Nature of injury and how did it occur · Past medical history · Vital signs and symptoms · Treatment given · Times when tourniquets, splints or compress bandages were used

Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai Handling Deceased Persons · · · · Searching for or recovering bodies is not part of SAR operation but may be necessary. Bodies in an aircraft should not be removed without authorization from the SMC except under compelling circumstances. Identify the deceased If a body is picked up or if a survivor dies on the ship, then prepare a waybill, stating therein --- Name, age, place, date, time and cause of death. Transmit the same to the appropriate RCC. Place the body in a proper bag, slow it in a suitable place and hand it over to the appropriate authorities along with the waybill.

·

Assisting a Ditching Aircraft · · · · · · Maintain continuous communication (preferably by voice) with the aircraft. Locate the aircraft visually or by radar. Transmit homing bearing or transmit a signal to enable the aircraft to take his bearing. By day make black smoke By night direct a search light vertically up, but not towards the aircraft, and switch on the deck lights. Give following information to the pilot --Wind direction and force Direction, height and length of primary and secondary well State of sea and weather. Set your own course parallel to the aircraft's course. If his course is not known then set a course parallel to the main swell

Contact With Media Dealing with the media is normally the responsibility of the RCC, but sometime the rescuing ship, bringing survivors to a port may be approached by the media for information, in which case the following steps should be taken 1. Appoint a spokesperson who shall only give the facts of the case and shall avoid giving any personal judgement or demeaning information about the · Rescued or missing persons. · Competence of the Master or crew involved. · Conduct of the SAR operation. · Reason for the accident or how it could have been avoided 2. Do not give the names of the missing or distressed persons till their relatives have been informed. 3. Do not give the names of the owner or operator of the ship till they have been informed. 4. Do not reveal the names of the informants.

Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai Providing Escort Service 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Provide moral support to the persons on the distressed ship. Assume the navigation and communication functions of the ship, Visually inspect the exterior of the craft for damages. Give advice on ditching the aircraft and abandoning or beaching the ship. Provide illumination during the above operations. Provide emergency and survival equipment Direct other SAR facilities to the scene.

On Scene Co Ordination When two or more facilities are working on the same SAR mission, then one of them may be required to co ­ ordinate the activities of all other facilities. The OSC shall be nominated, as early as possible, by the SMC who is located at the RCC, which is involved in the SAR mission, or by mutual agreement between the ships. The OSC may be an aircraft, a ship, any other SAR unit or a nearby facility. Separate co ­ordinators may be appointed for surface and aircraft activities. Normally the person in-charge of the facility which arrives first on the scene will assume the functions of the OSC till he is relieved by the SMC. Functions of OSC 1. Inform SMC on assuming duty. 2. Receive search action or rescue action plan from the SMC or make such a plan yourself. 3. Modify the plan as required, in consultation with the SMC, if ­ additional facilities arrive additional information is received, of weather changes 4. Monitor performance of other facilities 5. Ensure safe operation of the search activity, with proper separation 6. Maintain record of the operation of the facilities Arrival and departure of the facilities Areas searched Track spacing used Sightings and leads reported Actions taken and results obtained 7. Establish a traffic co­ ordinating system amongst the ships proceeding to the rescue. 8. Release the facilities if not required or ask for mote specific facility as required. 9. Consider the risks inherent in any SAR operation against the chances of success and the safety of the SAR personnel. Some practical concerns could be as follows Danger of the distressed craft causing harm to the rescue facility Adverse weather conditions. Insufficient information from the distressed craft Low probability of giving effective assistance. Problems of accommodating and providing food and other amenities to a large number of survivors

Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai Adverse effect on the stability of the ship due to the presence of large number of survivors Suitability of the ship for helicopter operations 10. Stop engines occasionally during the search to listen for cries for help. 11. Collision regulation will apply at all times. Use manoeuvring and warning signals as required. Situation Report ( SITREP ) 1. Send initial SITREP in short form as soon as sufficient details are available, without waiting for all the details. Subsequently follow it with periodical reports in full form without repeating the earlier information. 2. Send "No change" SITREPS every 3 hours if there is nothing new to report. 3. Contents of the SITREP are as follows · Prefix ( Mayday, Pan, Saycurity ) · Name of the recipient · Number of the report · Identity of casualty · Position · Situation · No. of persons at risk · Assistance required. Additional contents may be as follows · Description of casualty · Weather · Initial action taken · Search area · Co ­ ordinating instructions · Future plans · Names of the survivors · Name of the facility carrying the survivors Search Area ( A ) 1. Establish the datum depending on the · Reporting time of the incident and time lost till a facility reached the scene. · Position of the distressed craft as determined by all possible means. · Estimated drift due to wind and current 2. Determine the Track Spacing (S), with the help of the prescribed tables, depending on the search object, visibility and wind & sea state , as follows --S = tabulated spacing x weather factor

Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai 3. All facilities should proceed at the same speed (V) which will be the maximum speed of the slowest ship 4. If the search has to commence immediately then the area of the search shall be a square of side 20 miles, with the datum at the centre. 5. If time is available for computing the search area then calculated the area to be covered by each ship in a certain time ( T ) as follows --A ( for each ship ) = S x V x T 6. Reduce the values of S, V & A in restricted visibility 7. Total search area for all the ships together shall be in the form of a square with the datum at the centre. 8. Divide the total area into sub-areas of appropriate size and assign them to the various facilities accordingly 9. Place a marker at the datum for future reference. 10. When alone, start the search using the Expanding Square search pattern. As other facilities arrive, select one of the other suitable patterns. 11. Radar search is effective if number of ships are available. There is no prescribed pattern but all the ships should proceed in a single line abreast of each other, maintaining a track spacing of 1 ½ times the prescribed detection ranges for different objects. Termination of search If one search of the selected area is unsuccessful then · Re ­ search the same area after allowing for additional drift during the internal, or · Expand the area after allowing for additional drift, or · Expand the are more in one direction than in the other, or · Determine and search in a new area based on additional information Terminate an unsuccessful search, in consultation with the SMC, provided that there is no possibility of · The survivors being found in the area searched · Detection of the object · The survivors being alive. · The facilities being able to continue with the search. If the search is successful then · Conduct the rescue operations as described earlier. · Ensure that all survivors are accounted for

Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai · · · Gather all possible information from the survivors and relay it to the SMC Inform all search facilities that the search is terminated. Send the final SITREP.

6S

4S

2S 5S 3S S S 3S DATUM 2S 4S 6S

5S

7S

Expanding square search (SS)

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