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Asia's Revolutions: China, India, Vietnam 1885-1962 The aim of this introductory course is to develop a comparative understanding of the national independence movements in China, India, and Vietnam, as well as the context within which they unfolded, in the period 1885-1962. The course will introduce students to some of the figures in modern Asian history who played a major role in the transition of India and Vietnam from colonial subordination to independent nationhood and of China from its semi-colonial status to liberation. The principal figures whose writings will be studied and compared are Mohandas Gandhi and Mao Zedong. In addition we will study the biography of Ho Chi Minh in order to develop a third angle of comparison. The course will give due attention to other relevant figures such as Gokhale, Tilak, Jinnah, and Nehru in the case of India; Li Hongzhang, Sun Yatsen, Chen Duxiu, La Dazhao, and Chiang Kai-shek in the case of China; Phan Boi Chau in the case of Vietnam. The methodological emphasis is comparative: to examine the internal divisions and foreign pressures on the three countries in the context of continual war in Asia. Reference will be made to analyses of imperialism by Hobson, Mahan, Mackinder, and Lenin, as well as Mao, Gandhi, and Ho. French and British colonial practice will be compared to each other and also to Japan's failed bid to gain exclusive control over China by expanding its incorporation of Korea in the period 1895-1910 into China. The time period to be covered will start in 1884-1885 with the formation of the Indian National Congress, the Sino-French War over Vietnam (1884-1885), and the completion of the conquest of Tonkin. The course will end with the Sino-Indian War of 1962 and the onset of direct US military assistance to Vietnam (1961) and India (1962). For China, the chronology will tend to follow the war periods, Sino-French, Sino-Japanese, Russo-Japanese,

WWI, Manchurian invasion, WWII, Korea-Vietnam, Sino-Indian. For India, the chronology will tend to follow the inter-actions of the Raj, the Secretary of State (London), and the communal conflict (Muslim-Hindu) until the formation of Pakistan (first as commonwealth member, then as independent nation). The effect on India of the Russo-Japanese War, WWI and WWII on India is also considered. For Vietnam, the chronology will tend to follow the stages leading to the founding of the Communist Party and then the party's relations with its rivals. The party's role in Vietnam's relations with Laos and Cambodia as well as China and Russia are considered. READINGS INDIA Required: Mukherjee, The Penguin Gandhi Reader. "Imprisoned by History," in Waheguru Pal Singh Sidhu, JingDong Yuan; Lynne Rienner, China and India: Cooperation or Conflict? D. Arnold, Gandhi. Bipan Chandra, India's Struggle for Independence OR S. Wolpert, A New History of India Recommended or Reference Sarkar, Sumit, Modern Indian History (selections); V.B. Singh, From Naoroji to Nehru (Six Essays in Indian Economic Thought); Ali, Tariq, The Nehrus and the Gandhis. B.R. Nanda Three Statesmen, Introduction, Gokhale (selections), Gandhi, Nehru (selections); Sikri, Rise and Fulfillment of Indian National Movement;

CHINA Required McCleavy, Black Flags in Vietnam: The Tonkin War (selections) Schiffrin, "Sun Yatsen: His Life and Times" (in Cheng, Sun Yatsen's Doctrine in the Modern World pp. 12-49). Various articles by Mao in Road to Power, Selected Works, and Mao on Diplomacy. Selections from Chiang Kai-shek's China's Destiny. M. Meisner, Mao, A Political & Intellectual Portrait J. Chesneaux, China from the Opium War to the 1911 Revolution and China from the 1911 Revolution to Liberation Gyaneshwar Chaturvedi, India-China Relations 1947-present (1990; selections) M. Hauner, What Is Asia to Us? Recommended or Reference Fenby, Chiang Kai-shek (selections) Meisner, Li Dazhao (selections); Feigon, Chen Duxiu (selections); Maxwell, India's China War (selections)

VIETNAM Required Tai, Millenarianism and Peasant Politics in Vietnam (selections) Duiker, Ho Chi Minh A Life (selections) Quinn-Judge, Ho Chi Minh, The Missing Years (selections) Young, The Vietnam Wars (selections) Recommended or Reference Ho, Chi Minh, Revolutionary Writings. Marr, Vietnamese Anti-colonialism (selections) Schedule of topics and readings First Week / Second Week (first half)

A Survey of the Asian Scene between 1885 and 1905. Significance of this timeline for China, Vietnam, Korea, Japan, and India. The role of Russia in the Far East. Chesneaux, China from Opium War to 1911 (p. 293-382) Read: David Arnold, Gandhi (selections) and the 1909 essay Hind Swaraj (Critique of Civilization, 1911 English translation) and Antony Parel's introduction to Hind Swaraj. M. Hauner, What is Asia to Us? (p. 135-145) Second-Third Week China at the beginning of the 20th Century Sun Yat-sen: His Life and Times (Schiffrin, p. 12-49) Chesneaux, China from the 1911 Revolution (p. 3-20) Bergere, Sun Yat-sen (selections) Fourth Week Vietnam at the beginning of the 20th Century (Doumer's transformations; Phan Boi Chau in Japan) W. Duiker, Ho Chi Minh (selections) D. Marr Vietnamese Anticolonialism p. 98-119; 185-211 Compare Gandhi, Sun, and Ho as revolutionaries and their attitude toward foreign powers whose aid they sought: Gandhi from Britain; Sun from Japan, the US, and Soviet Russia; Phan from Japan and (later) Ho from France and the Versailles Peace Conference representatives. Fifth Week China After World War One The Struggle for Sun Yatsen's mantle: Nationalist Party versus Communist Party ­ allies and enemies. Chiang, China's Destiny (selections) Meisner, Mao Zedong (selections) Mao, Report on Hunan Peasant Movement.

Sixth Week Survey of the Wars: Sino-Japanese, Russo-Japanese, World War One (Asian aspects). Was World War Two in Asia inevitable? Check internet for summary and timelines of these wars. Hobson, Imperialism (selections) Lenin, Theses on National and Colonial Questions; Imperialism (selected chapters) Arnold, Gandhi (selections) Meisner, Mao Zedong (selections) How do Mao and Gandhi differ from Lenin and each other? Seventh Week World War Two in Asia Approaches: Japan, "Manchuria," and the Russian Revolution Chesneaux, China from the 1911 Revolution (pp. 65-259) Mao, On Contradiction Sarkar, Modern India, Chapter 7 (Political Movements and War 1937-1945) Eighth Week India After World War One, Gandhi, Nehru, and the Indian National Congress B. Chandra, India's Struggle for India (p. 124-269) Ninth Week General Review and Midterm Tenth Week Vietnam after World War One Quinn-Judge, Ho Chi Minh, The Missing Years (selections) Eleventh Week World War Two in Asia, The Indian National Army, The People's Liberation Army, The East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. Role of India, China, Vietnam and their relations with Japan

Gandhi and the "Quit India" movement Mao, The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party Saklani, "Nehru, Chiang Kai-shek, and the Second World War" in Madhavi Thampi, India and China in the Colonial World. Chesneaux, China From the 1911 Revolution (pp. 260-331) Twelfth Week The end of World War Two and the start of the so-called Cold War in Asia: civil war in China followed by Liberation (1949) and the partition of China and Korea. Independence of India (1947) followed by partition and communal warfare. Chesneaux (pp. 313-345) Khan, Yasmin, The Great Partition pp. 40-210; Sarkar, Modern India, Chapter 8 "Freedom and Parition" Meisner, Mao Zedong (selections) Mao, "On the People's Democratic Dictatorship" Was the Cold War a break with or a continuation of the preceding wars? France and the US in Vietnam. Young, The Vietnam Wars (selections) Chaturvedi, India-China Relations 1947-present day (1990) pp. 4055 and pp. 118-132. The Outbreak of the Sino-Indian War (1961-1962) Maxwell, India's China War (selections) Fourteenth Week Review

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