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Kennedy School of Government Harvard University

9/19/2012(rev 10-16)

MLD- 110A: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FOR PUBLIC PURPOSES FALL 2012

Class meetings: Tuesday and Thursday, 2:40 to 4:00 Littauer 280 Instructor: Peter Zimmerman Rubinstein 115 617-495-1358 [email protected] Office Hours Wednesday: 3:00- 5:00 Thursday: 4:15-5:00 (some)Fridays 10:00-12:00 and by appointment Several review sessions Friday 10:10-11:30 Littauer 130 Assistant: Jean Dombrowski 617-495-1320 [email protected] Course Assistant: Sujoyini Mandal [email protected] Improving public sector performance is crucial as a foundation for social and economic development and for restoring trust in government. This course focuses on strategic management and leadership in the public sectors of democratic societies. It critically examines and applies the assumptions, concepts and tools of new approaches to public management that are being applied around the world. Management and leadership are activities intended to influence, guide, channel and direct the actions of others toward desired ends through formal and informal organizations. Public management is the work of mobilizing others to accomplish socially useful purposes and advance the public interest.

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The course is designed for students with experience. It presents a practice-oriented approach to the problems that managers face and aims at the development of integrated strategies for improving performance in solving serious problems in the public sphere. It complements specialized courses that focus in more detail on the particular tools that managers use, and should help students integrate the knowledge they have gained from their experience and from previous course work. Leaders of public organizations mobilize resources, both within their own agencies and from outside networks, to meet the needs of the people they serve. In the public sector, these decisions must be made in the context of complicated internal and external environments, and with due regard for the demands of democratic accountability. Important strategic actions that will be examined in the course include: setting and articulating goals and missions; aligning strategy with mission; leading organizational change; managing with performance information; improving work processes; structuring networks and partnerships; and dealing with crises and environments in transition. Management and leadership activities are strategic in two senses: As one's actions take into account and are conditioned on the predicted response of others. Strategic behavior exploits the interdependence of human perception, interpretation, analysis and action in social, political, and organizational life. As one acts to bring coherence and focus to one's actions and the actions of others across time and space. Strategic management brings coordination, alignment, coherence and force to the actions of diverse individuals in dispersed settings.

The course format includes lectures, case discussions and small group work. Most class meetings will center on case discussions, aimed at helping students practice the analytic and decisionmaking processes involved in strategic management. The cases for class discussion are set in the United States, in other industrialized countries and in developing countries. We will have a few visitors to class, and we'll conduct an optional site visit to a nearby city to see a management system in action. Information about these and about other HKS events relevant to the course will be posted on the class website. Course Requirements Course requirements include class preparation and participation, written responses to readings and cases, two short individual assignments, one group assignment and a final paper. There will be no final exam. Grades will be determined approximately as follows:

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Class participation and responses to readings Group performance management assignment (#2) Individual assignments # 1 and #3 Final paper on improving operations and culture

35% 15% 20% 30%

The distribution of final grades will conform to the Kennedy School's suggested grading curve. Class participation and responses to readings and cases. Productive case discussions depend on students not only reading but also analyzing cases and materials, and coming to class ready to present a diagnosis of the problems presented by the case and a plausible solution. Required readings have been kept relatively modest so that students will be able to read them carefully, think about them, discuss them in study groups, and prepare short written responses to focusing questions. Please bring your name cards to each class. By the third class, students should choose a seat to which they will be assigned for the remainder of the course. Name cards and assigned seats will make it much easier for all of us to learn each other's names. By Tuesday, September 11, please post a paragraph introducing yourself, your background and interests on the course website. Reading responses. A focusing question for each class will be posted in the assignments section of the course webpage. Reading response questions for the first half of the course are also included in the class outline below. You must submit a total of ten written reading responses, approximately one per week, in addition to the required written assignments. Reading responses should be between 200 and 250 words. They must be posted on the course website by 7:00 PM of the day before class. We prefer that you not use attachments for these short reading assignments; i.e., that you write your reading response in the space provided. Student reading responses will be public. You are encouraged to read the responses of your classmates, and to react and build on them as appropriate. Unless indicated otherwise, you may work together on your reading responses. If, at some point, you would like your reading response to be confidential, you may email it to the instructor and the teaching fellow in lieu of posting it on the website. The course website will also offer opportunities for student discussion and elaboration of topics discussed in class. Participation in website discussions will be assessed as part of the participation grade. Additional readings, resources and announcements will also be posted on the website.

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Study groups. We will assign students to study groups for the purposes of submitting a group response to one of the classes and for Assignment #2, a group assignment. We will also use the groups occasionally in other classes. We urge you to meet regularly in study groups to discuss the cases and prepare for class. Written assignments: In addition to reading responses, there are four required written assignments, two individual assignments and one group assignment. These assignments are due on September 26, October 26, and November (tba). Final Paper: Due December 17 The final paper is your opportunity to apply what you have learned in the course to a public or non-governmental organization of your choosing. You should select an agency that you are familiar with; in most cases this will be an organization in which you have worked or plan to work. You may also write on an agency about which you wish to learn. In such cases, it is important to establish that you can learn enough about the organization so that your paper has a solid foundation. You make work in pairs, if you so choose. You should choose a problem or opportunity to improve the work the agency does, and that can be addressed by applying some of the concepts and tools explored in the course. In a 10-12 page paper (max 3000 words) you should: Describe the problem or opportunity you are addressing; Analyze the pluses and minuses of using specific management tools to address the problem or opportunity; Make short and long term recommendations to management Append a brief note on your sources.

We will provide more details on this assignment later in the term. Readings: Many required cases and readings will be available on-line, through links provided in this syllabus or through the online materials section of the website. Some materials will be in the course packet, which you are required to purchase. There are five required books for the course: Mark Moore, Creating Public Value, Harvard University Press, 1997 Joseph Nye, The Powers to Lead , Oxford, 2008 Edgar Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, (fourth edition) Jossey Bass, 2010 Max Bazerman and Don Moore, Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, (seventh edition), Wiley, 2009 W. Richard Scott and Gerald Davis, Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural and Open Systems Perspectives, Pearson/Prentice Hall , 2007

All are available for purchase at the Coop. The books are also on reserve in the Kennedy School library. 4

Readings for this course are available and marked on the syllabus as follows: B: O: W: P: available in the book noted above available on-line at the link provided in this syllabus or through library resources. available from the course website in the "online readings" section available in course packets distributed by the Course Materials Distribution Office (CMO) in Belfer 7.

All readings will also be on reserve at the Kennedy School library.

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Thu-6 Sept Tue-11 Sept Thu-13 Sept Tue-18 Sept Thu-20 Sept Tue-25 Sept

Class Schedule: Introduction to Strategic Management for Public Purposes

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10 11

What is Strategy ­ Aravind Eye Hospital Organizations I ­Student Aid in Sweden Organizations II - Cuban Missile Crisis Leaders and Managers I ­ Mayor MacLean and Corruption in La Paz Leaders and Managers II - General Petraeus & Ambassador Bremer in Iraq Thu-27Sept Leading Change ­ Melody Johnson and the Providence Schools Tue­2 Oct Leading Change - Paul O'Neill at ALCOA Thu-4 Oct Leading Change ­ Julie Morath at Children's Hospital Fri-5 Oct Review Session ­ Strategy - 10:10-11:30, L-130 Tue-9 Oct Organizing for Performance ­ Bratton, Giuliani and Crime in New York City Thu-11 Oct Organizing for Performance - Mayor Anthony Williams and Performance Management in Washington

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Tue-16 Oct Field Study-Somerstat meeting, Somerville City Hall, 8:15- 11:15

Tue-16 Oct Thu-18 Oct Organizing for Performance- Paying the Bills in Andalusia Leading Change - Josette Sheeran at the World Food Program Fri- 19 Oct Review Session: Motivation and Change, 10:10- 11:30, L-130 Tue-23 Oct Organizing for Performance- Sue Vardon and Centrelink Thu-25 Oct Organization, Teams and Leadership ­Lessons from Everest Tue-30 Oct Organization, Teams and Leadership- Orpheus Chamber Orchestra Thu-1 Nov Organizing for Performance - Doug Rauch and the American Food Paradox Tue-6 Nov Organizing for Performance- CARE Kenya: Making Social Enterprise Sustainable Thu-8 Nov Organizing for Performance- Michelle Rhee & DC Public Schools Tue-13 Nov Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnership Don Berwick and Campaign to Save 100,000 Lives Thu-15 Nov Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnership Rev. Jeff Brown and Ten Point Coalition 5

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22 23 24 25 26

FRI-16 Nov Review Session: Cognition and Decision: 10:10-11:30l L130

Tue-20 Nov Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnership Congo River Basin Project Tue-27 Nov Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnership Adrian Benepe and New York Parks Thu-29 Nov Leadership and Decision ­ Columbia Shuttle Disaster Tue-4 Dec Leadership and Decision TBA Thu-6 Dec TBA

Class Schedule, Assignments and Readings

1 Thu-6 Sept Introduction to Strategic Management for Public Purposes Readings: Mark Moore, Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in the Public Sector, Harvard University Press, 1997, pp. 13-23 [B] Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, pp. 7-22 [B] Joseph Nye, Powers to Lead, Chapter 1, pp. 1-25 [B] James March, Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning , Organization Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, Special Issue: Organizational Learning: Papers in Honor of (and by) James G. March (1991) [W]

Reading Response #1: Is the town librarian described in the Moore reading an admirable strategic manager and/or leader? 2 Tue-11 Sept The Concept of Strategy ­ Dr. Venkataswamy and Aravind Case: Aravind Eye Hospital, HBS case 9-593-098 [P] Readings: Mark Moore, Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in the Public Sector, Harvard University Press, 1997, pp. 57-76 [B] Michael Porter, What is Strategy, HBR reprint 96608 [P] Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Integrating Strategy Planning and Operational Execution, HBSP reprint B0805A [P] Henry Mintzberg, The Strategy Concept 1: Five Ps for Strategy, California Management Review, Fall 1987, Vol. 30 Issue 1, p. 11-24 [W] Donald F. Kettl, "The Global Revolution in Public Management: Driving Themes, Missing Links," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 446-462, 1997 [W] Herman B. Leonard, "A Short Note on Public Sector Strategy-Building" (November 2002) [W]

Reading Response #2: What grade would you assign to Aravind's strategy and why? Tue- 11 Sept: Please post a paragraph introducing yourself and your objectives on the course website (in the Discussion section) 6

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Thu-13 Sept Organizations I - Billy Olsson and Student Aid in Sweden Case: Student Aid in Sweden (abridged ) [W] Readings: W. Richard Scott and Gerald Davis, The Subject is Organizations, The Verb is Organizing, pp. 1-58 in Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural and Open Systems Perspectives, Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2007 [B] Philip Selznick, Leadership in Administration: A Sociological Interpretation, pp. 5-22 [P] Johan P. Olsen, "Maybe it is Time to Rediscover Bureaucracy," Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2005. 16:1-24 [W]

Reading Response # 3: By what right under what authority does Billy Olsson pursue new missions and new business? 4 Tue-18 Sept Organizations II The Cuban Missile Crisis Case: Thirteen Days (movie, viewed prior to class) Readings: Allison and Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (Glenview: Longman, 1999), pp. 1-11, 13-23, 143-153, 255-263 [P] Max Bazerman and Don Moore, Judgment in Managerial Decision Making (7th edition), Wiley 2009 , pp. 1-12 [B] Joseph Nye, Powers to Lead, Chapter 2, Leadership and Power, pp. 27-52 [B]

Reading Response #4: 5 Thu-20 Sept Leaders and Managers I - Mayor MacLean in La Paz Case: Corruption in La Paz: A Mayor Fights City Hall (KSG case C16- 99-1523.0) [W] Readings: Michael Gazzaiga, Who's in Charge, Harper Collins, New York, 2011, pp. 730 [P] Daniel Kahneman, Thinking Fast and Slow, Farrar Straus & Giroux, New York, 2011, pp. 19- 30 [P] Joseph Nye, Powers to Lead, Chapter 3, Types and Skills, pp. 53-84 [B] Edgar Schein, Chapter 13, How Founders/Leaders Create Organizational Cultures Integration, pp. 219 -233, in Organizational Culture and Leadership (fourth edition) Jossey Bass, 2010 [B]

Reading Response #5: Identify an early initiative through which Mayor MacLean can address the incentives for corruption.

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Tue-25 Sept Leaders and Managers II - General Petraeus and Ambassador Bremer in Iraq Case: The Accidental Statesman: General Petraeus and the City Of Mosul, Iraq KSG case C 15-06-1834 (abridged) [W] L. Paul Bremer, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build A Future of Hope, Simon and Shuster, New York, 2006, pp 39-45, 50-59 [P] L. Paul Bremer, What We Got Right in Iraq, Washington Post, May 13, 2007 [W] Readings: Joseph Nye, Powers to Lead, Chapter 4, Contextual Intelligence, pp. 85-108 [B] Bazerman and Moore, Judgment in Managerial Decision Making (7th edition), Wiley 2009 , Chapter 2, Common Biases, pp. 13-41 [B]

Reading Response #6: Identify one or two biases that may have influenced the perceptions and decisions of General Petraeus. Identify one or two biases that may have influenced the perceptions and decisions of Ambassador Bremer.

Wed- 26 Sept, 5:00 PM -- Assignment #1: Providence Schools Superintendent Melody

Johnson (see readings for 27 Sept below) has decided to suspend school for a day and hold a "celebration" for the Providence teachers in early December. Put yourself in her position. What will you say in your opening remarks? Please draft the opening paragraphs (300 words max) for her (your) speech, post it on the website and bring it with you to class. (Several of you may have the opportunity to give your opening remarks to the class). 7 Thu- 27Sept Leading Change ­ Melody Johnson and the Providence Schools Case: Winning Hearts and Minds: Reforming the Providence School District (A) [W] Readings: Edgar Schein, chapter 14, How Leaders Embed and Transmit Culture (pp. 235- 257) in Organizational Culture and Leadership (fourth edition) Jossey Bass, 2010 [B] Harvard Business School, Principles of Effective Persuasion, HBS note 9497-059 [P] Optional: John P. Kotter, "Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail"[P]

Reading Response # 7 None required- See Assignment 1

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Tue ­ 2 Oct Leading Change - Paul O'Neill at ALCOA Case: Vision and Strategy: Paul O'Neill at ALCOA and OMB(abridged) [W] Readings: HBS Press, excerpt, chapter 2, Motivation: The Not So Secret Ingredient, pp. 1-20 (HBS note 7386BC), 2006 [P] Dan Ciampa and Michael Watkins, Right from the Start , Getting Oriented, pp. 121-139, HBS press 1999 [P]

Reading Response #8: Why do you believe that Paul O'Neill decided to concentrate on improving workplace safety when he became CEO of ALCOA? 9 Thu-4 Oct Leading Change ­ Julie Morath at Children's Hospital Case: Children's Hospital and Clinics (A), HBS case 9-302-050 [P] Reading: Anita Tucker, Amy Edmondson, Why Hospitals Don't Learn From Failure: Organizational and Psychological Dynamics that Inhibit System Change, California Management Review, vol. 45, no. 2, Winter 2003 [W] Lawrence Rothstein, The Empowerment Effort That Came Undone , HBR case and commentary (reprint 95111) [P]

Reading Response #9: How do you assess the progress of Julie Morath in creating a culture of safety at Children's? Is she succeeding, or are things threatening to "come undone?"

Fri-5 Oct

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Review Session ­ Strategy

10:10-11:30, L-130

Tue-9 Oct

Organizing for Performance ­ Bratton, Giuliani and Crime in New York City

Case: Assertive Policing, Plummeting Crime: The NYPD Takes on Crime in New York City [W] Readings: Bob Behn, "The Theory Behind Baltimore's CitiStat" APPAM Research Conference 2006 [W] Robert Simons, "Control in an Age of Empowerment," Harvard Business Review, Reprint 95211, 1995 [P] Reading Response #10: What risks do you see in Bratton's approach? How might it "come undone"?

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Thu-11 Oct

Organizing for Performance- Mayor Anthony Williams in Washington DC

Case: Mayor Anthony Williams and Performance Management in Washington DC, HKS case 16-02-1647.0 [W] Readings: Mark Moore, Creating Public Value, Mobilizing Support, Legitimacy and Co Production: The Functions of Political Management, pp. 105-134 [B] Robert S. Kaplan, "The Balanced Scorecard for Public-Sector Organizations," Balanced Scorecard Report [P] Reading Response #11: Why did Anthony Williams choose scorecards as one of his first mayoral initiatives? What were the potential benefits and risks of this choice?

Tue-16 Oct Field Study-Somerstat meeting, Somerville City Hall, 8:15- 11:00

12 Tue-16 Oct Organizing for Performance ­Pam Syfert and Charlotte Case: Charlotte (A) & (B) Readings: Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Using the Balanced Scorecard as Strategic Management System, Best of HBR, 1996

Reading Response #12: What is most important for Ramirez to accomplish as head of the treasury section? What should be his specific objectives? 13 Thu-18 Oct Leading Change- Josette Sheeran at the World Food Program Case: · The World Food Programme During the Global Food Crisis, HBS Case 9709-024 [P] Reading: Karl Weick and Robert Quinn, Organizational Change and Development, Annual Review of Psychology, 50:361-386, 1999 [W]

Reading Response #13: Which approach should Josette Sheeran recommend to the WFP Executive Board (at the end of the case)?

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Tue-23 Oct

Organizing for Performance- Sue Vardon ­ Organizing Social Services in Australia

Case: Centrelink (Abridged) HKS case C16-99-1524.3 [W] Readings: Edgar Schein, chapter 6, Assumptions About Managing Internal Integration (pp 93- 113) in Organizational Culture and Leadership (fourth edition) Jossey Bass, 2010 [B] "Organizational Alignment: The 7-S Model," Harvard Business School Note 9-497-045, 1996 [P] · Mark Moore, Creating Public Value, chapter 6 , Reengineering Public Sector Production: Operational Management, pp. 193-238 [B] Reading Response #14: How well has Sue Vardon done in positioning Centrelink for its new environment? What are the most important things for her to do next? 15 Thu-25 Oct Organization, Teams and Leadership- Disaster on Mt Everest Case: Michael Roberto, Lessons from Everest: Interaction of Cognitive Bias, Psychological Safety and System Complexity, California Management Review, Vol. 45, # 1, Fall 2002 [W] Readings: Richard Hackman, Essential Features of Real Teams in Leading Teams: Setting the Stage for Great Performances , HBS press , pp 41-60 [P] Bazerman and Moore , chapter 3, Bounded Awareness in Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, seventh edition, Wiley, 2009, pp. 42-61 [B]

Reading Response #15: Why did the Hall and Fischer climbing teams ignore their 2:00 pm turnaround rule?

Friday, 26 October, 5:00pm: Assignment # 2: Scorecards, Performance Stat or ?? details posted on course page

16 Tue-30 Oct Organization, Teams and Leadership ­ Orpheus Chamber Orchestra Case: Orpheus Chamber Orchestra (video) on course web site Reading: J. Richard Hackman, Learning more by crossing levels: evidence from airplanes, hospitals, and orchestras, Journal of Organizational Behavior 24, 905­922 (2003) [W] Hackman and Edmondson, Groups as Agents of Change , Working Paper, 25 March 2007 http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~hackman/csvsearch.cgi?search=hackman

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Reading Response #16: Would you like to be assigned to a planning unit in your organization with norms similar to those of Orpheus? For those whose first name begins with A-K: What advantages would such norms bring to your work? For those whose first name begins with L-Z: What disadvantages would such norms bring to your work? 17 Thu-1 Nov Organizing for Performance- Doug Rauch and the Food Desert Case: Doug Rauch: Solving the American Food Paradox, HBS Case 9-512-012 [P] Readings:

Reading Response #17: Should Rauch join with Whole Foods? Why or why not?

Fri-2 Nov

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Review Session: Motivation and Change, 10:10- 11:30, L-130

Organizing for Performance ­ George Odo and Sustainable Enterprise

Tue- 6 Nov

Case: Care Kenya: Making Social Enterprise Sustainable , Ivey School of Business case 905M56 (handed out in class) Readings: · John D. Donahue and Richard J. Zeckhauser, "Public-Private Collaboration," in The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, 2006 [P] · Merilee Grindle, "Good Enough Governance Revisited, A Report for DFID, February 2006 http://www.odi.org.uk/events/states_06/29thMar/Grindle%20Paper%20gegred ux2005.pdf Reading Response #18: What should be George Odo's next steps as he contemplates CARE's likely withdrawal? 19 Thu-8-Nov Organizing for Performance ­ Michelle Rhee and DC Public Schools Case: Michelle Rhee and the DC Public Schools, HKS case 1957.0 [W] Readings: Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Leadership for Change: Enduring Skills for Change Masters , HBS note 9-304-062 [P] Peter Drucker, Managing Oneself [W] Joseph Nye, Powers to Lead, Chapter 5 Good and Bad Leaders pp109-145 [B]

Reading Response #19: What was Michelle Rhee's most valuable contribution to change in the DC Schools?

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Tue-13-Nov Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnerships Don Berwick and 100,000 Lives Campaign Case: Institute for Healthcare Improvement: The Campaign to Save 100,000 Lives (Stanford Business School Case L-13) [P] Readings: Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (fifth edition), The Free Press, New York, 2003 pp 300-316, 330-342, 349-364 [P] Atul Gawande, The Checklist, The New Yorker, December 10, 2007 [W] Andrew D. Hackbarth, C. Joseph McCannon, Lindsay Martin, MSPH, Robert Lloyd, PhD, and David R. Calkins, MD, MPP, The Hard Count: Calculating Lives Saved in the 100,000 Lives Campaign [W] Robert M. Wachter, MD and Peter J. Pronovost PhD, The 100,000 Lives Campaign: a Scientific and Policy Review, Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, Vol. 32, No. 11, November 2006 [W]

Reading Response #20: What, in your view, were the one or two most important features of the 100,000 Lives campaign? 21 Thu-15 Nov Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnerships Rev. Jeffrey Brown and Ten Point Coalition Case: Rev. Jeffrey Brown: Cops, Kids and Ministers [P] Reading W. Richard Scott and Gerald Davis, chapter 11, Networks in and Around Organizations, pp. 278-309, in Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural and Open Systems Perspectives, Pearson Prentice Hall , 2007 [B] HBS Note on Building Coalitions [P]

Reading Response #21: What is Reverend Brown's distinctive contribution to reducing youth violence in Boston? 22 Tue-20 Nov Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnerships Congo River Basin Project

Case: Congo River Basin Project- Negotiating Change (parts A and B) to be handed out in class Readings: Leigh Thompson, Win-Win Negotiation: Expanding the Pie in The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator, Prentice Hall, 2009, pp.74-95 [P]

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Thu-24 Nov-Thanksgiving Break ­ No Class

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Tue-27Nov

Organizing for Performance, Collaboration and Partnerships Adrian Benepe and New York Parks

Case: Parks and Partnership in NYC: Adrian Benepe's Challenge(A) (HKS C1604-1743.0) [W] Readings: John D. Donahue and Richard J. Zeckhauser, Collaborative Governance, Princeton, 2011, pp 3-24, 27-38 [P] Reading Response #22: What risks do you see in Adrian Benepe's approach? 24 Thu-29 Nov Leadership and Decision- Columbia Shuttle Disaster Case: Columbia's Final Mission, HBS case 9-304-090 [P] Reading: Zimmerman and Lerner, Decisions, Decisions, Government Executive Magazine, 29 September, 2010 [W] Bazerman and Moore , chapter 5, Motivational and Affective Influences on Decision Making, in Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, seventh edition, Wiley, 2009, pp 84-100 [B]

Reading Response #23: Assess the performance of Rodney Rocha and Linda Ham in the Columbia case. Did each do all that he or she should have done ? 25 26 Tue-4 Dec Thu-6 Dec Leadership and Decision, TBA TBA

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