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Power and Glory in Turbulent Times: The History of Leadership from Henry V to Mark Zuckerberg Spring 2012

Professor Nancy F. Koehn

Assistant: Vanessa Thompson Rock Center 316A 617-495-6202 [email protected]

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COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course examines the effectiveness of individual leaders who lived and worked in moments of great turbulence. The course aims to understand the choices they made, including the strategies they used, the values they lived by, and the tradeoffs they accepted as they created widespread power in companies, nations, and communities. It also focuses on the impact, immediate and long-term, that each of these individuals had, and how this impact was related to their animating missions. Particular attention is paid to what it means to lead forcefully in times of ongoing turmoil, and to the relevant lessons that these leaders offer for our own moment, in the early 21st century. Finally, the course strives to draw credible inspiration from these individuals and the contexts in which they acted. This course will offer students the opportunity to explore the lives of a range of men and women-- from business, government, and other realms--during widespread disruption. It covers the individual journeys of these people, the changes in the nature of the organizations they led, and the dynamic environments in which they each lived and worked. Throughout the course, students are encouraged to examine the choices each leader made, the path he or she traveled, the values and objectives he or she nurtured, and the larger stage on which that person acted. This perspective provides a broad understanding of the long-term impact of leadership and innovation on business, government, and society. In looking closely at the agency of other individuals who have exerted lasting influence, students are challenged to consider their own agency, along with their ambitions and ideas about leadership. The course will draw on a range of materials from the humanities and social sciences, including case studies, articles, book chapters, plays, and multimedia offerings. The leaders studied will include:

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Henry V Winston Churchill Josiah Wedgwood Alexander Hamilton Frederick Douglass Abraham Lincoln H.J. Heinz John D. Rockefeller Madam C.J. Walker Milton Hershey Estée Lauder Gloria Steinem Dietrich Bonhoeffer Martin Luther King, Jr. Rachel Carson Gary Hirshberg Bono

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18. Howard Schultz 19. Robert Moses 20. William Tyndale 21. Oprah Winfrey 22. Katherine Graham 23. Steve Jobs 24. Mark Zuckerberg 25. Ernest Shackleton ­ OPTIONAL CLASS

Core Questions

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How did leaders create the authority they wielded? How did they acknowledge and exercise the responsibilities that accompanied such authority? Towards what end did these leaders work? How did they come to terms with their work? The American philosopher Mortimer Adler, drawing on Aristotle, noted that a good leader must have three qualities: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos. Logos was a capacity to move the minds of people, and to give consistent, unwavering motivation for action. Pathos is the ability to affect the emotional hearts of people. Ethos is one's moral core, and the base from which a speaker persuades others. How did each individual leader evidence these qualities, and to what extent? David Foster Wallace, the American novelist, once wrote that true leaders are people "who help us overcome the limitations of our own laziness and selfishness and weakness and fear and get us to do better, harder things than we can get ourselves to do on our own." How has this concept of leadership changed over time? What have we learned from these shifts? To what extent have these leaders been driven by ethical values? How have they come to terms with themselves and with the missions of their organizations? How important was a "clean" business or organization to them? How do we learn from effective leaders - both those with whom we have direct experience and those whom we know indirectly - through reputation or impact? What qualities are most important for effective leaders, here and now?

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Power and Glory in Turbulent Times Outline of the Course

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Monday, January 23 Monday, January 30 Monday, February 6 Monday, February 13 Monday, February 20 Monday, February 27 Monday, March 5 Monday, March 12 Monday, March 19 Monday, March 26 Monday, April 2 Monday, April 9 Monday, April 16 Monday, April 23 Thursday, April 19

Warrior Kings Path Breakers to the Modern World Servants to a Mighty Cause Market Leaders President's Day: No Class Passing it Forward Breaking Through Boundaries Spring Break: No Class The Cost of Commitment Stewards of Sustainability Entrepreneurial Success and Social Impact Unleashing the Power of Knowledge "My Life is My Message" Power and Responsibility in Turbulent Times The Quest for Fame ­ OPTIONAL CLASS

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Power and Glory in Turbulent Times Spring 2012

List of Materials

Books: William Shakespeare, Henry V. Edited by A.R. Humphreys. (London: Penguin Books Ltd., July 2010). Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave: Written by Himself. (New York: Penguin Classics, 1986). Nancy F. Koehn, Brand New: How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers' Trust from Wedgwood to Dell. (Harvard Business School Press: Boston, 2001). Cases: The Strategic Vision of Alexander Hamilton Slavery Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War John D. Rockefeller and the Creation of Standard Oil Candy Land: The Utopian Vision of Milton Hershey Madam C. J. Walker: Entrepreneur, Leader, and Philanthropist Oprah Winfrey Gary Hirshberg and Stonyfield Farm Bono and U2 Starbucks Coffee Company in the 21st Century Leadership in Crisis: Ernest Shackleton and the Epic Voyage of the Endurance 795-075 792-001 805-115 807-110 805-066 807-145 809-068 811-096 809-148 808-019 803-127

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Supplied Readings in Course Packet: Roy Jenkins, Winston Churchill. A Biography (New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), Chapter 33: "The Battle of Britain and the Beginning of the Blitz," Pages 630-646. John Keegan, Winston Churchill. A Penguin Life (New York: Penguin, 2002), Chapter 2: "Family and Youth," Pages 18-34; Chapter 7: "The Coming of War, 1933-1940," Pages 111-129; Chapter 8: "A Prime Minister Alone, 1940-1941," Pages 130-150 and Pages 184-192 (Located at the end of Chapter 10: "Apotheosis"). Selection of Churchill's Speeches, taken from Graham Stewart. His Finest Hours: The War Speeches of Winston Churchill. (London: Quercus, 2007), Pages 10-14, 37-40, 42-45, 46-52, 53-59, 70-79. Frederick Douglass, Autobiographies. (New York: Library of America, 1994). From Autobiography #2 (My Bondage and My Freedom): "The Last Flogging," Pages 286-287; "Introduced to the Abolitionists," Pages 364-369; "21 Months in Great Britain," Pages 372-375. From Autobiography #3 (Life and Times): "Secession and War," Pages 775-780; "The Black Man at the White House," Pages 784-788; Pages 793-798; Pages 912-914. Frederick Douglass, Selected Speeches. Excerpts from "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?" (July 5, 1852): Pages 359-361, Pages 366-371 ("The Present,") and Pages 377-381 ("The Church Responsible"); "What the Black Man Wants," (April 1865), Pages 157-165. Gloria Steinem, Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995). "Life Between the Lines," Introduction to Outrageous Acts. Pages 3-31. Nancy Hass, "Gloria Steinem Still Wants More." Newsweek Magazine. August 7, 2011. Accessed at http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/08/07/gloria-steinem-the-future-of-the-fight-forwomen-s-rights.html. Gloria Steinem, "Statement of Gloria Steinem, Writer and Critic". Source: Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, The "Equal Rights" Amendment: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary, 91st Cong., 2d sess., May 5, 6, and 7, 1970. Accessed at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/7025. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, A Testament to Freedom: The Essential Writings of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Edited by Geffrey B. Kelly and F. Burton Nelson (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1990). Read: Editor's Introduction: "Solidarity with the Oppressed: Bonhoeffer the Man," Pages 3-46; "Christ and Peace" (Fall, 1932), Pages 98-101; "The Church is Dead" (August 29, 1932), Pages 108-111; "[Editors' Introduction]: The Church Struggle and Nazi Racial Policies," Pages 133- 135; "The Bethel Confession" (August 1933), Pages 141-144. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Letters and Papers from Prison, Edited by Eberhard Bethge (New York: Macmillan, 1972). Read: "Prologue: After Ten Years: A Reckoning Made at New Year 1943," Pages 3-17; Letter to his parents from September 5, 1943, Pages 104-106; Excerpt from Letter commemorating baptism of Eberhard Bethge's son from May 1944, Pages 296-299; Letter to Eberhard Bethge (July 21, 1944), Pages 369-370.

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"King, Martin Luther, Jr." Entry from Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition, Edited by Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Oxford African American Studies Center. Accessed at: http://www.oxfordaasc.com/article/opr/t0002/e2213 Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference." (February 4, 1958). Accessed at: http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_580204_005/ Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." (April 16, 1963). Accessed at: http://mlkkpp01.stanford.edu/kingweb/popular_requests/frequentdocs/birmingham.pdf

Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream." (Speech delivered August 28, 1963). Accessed at:

http://www.vlib.us/amdocs/texts/mlkdream.html

"Memphis Sanitation Workers' Strike (1968)." Entry from the Martin Luther King, Jr. Encyclopedia. Authored and edited by Clayborn Carson, Tenisha Armstrong, Susan Carson, Erin Cook, and Susan Englander (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2008). Accessed at: http://mlkkpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_memphis_sanitation_workers_strike_1968/

Martin Luther King, Jr., "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (Speech delivered April 3, 1968 at Mason Temple/Church of God in Christ Headquarters, Memphis, Tennessee). Accessed at: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988). Pages 264-286; 299-302; 700-711; and 725-730. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002). "Introduction" by Linda Lear, Pages x-xix; 1-13; 84-127; 276-297; and "Afterword," by E. O. Wilson, pp. 357-363. Rachel Carson, "Letter to Dorothy Freeman" (September 1963), reprinted in Lost Woods: The Discovered Writings of Rachel Carson, edited by Linda Lear (Boston: Beacon Press, 1998), pp. 246247. Jonathan Norton Leonard, "Rachel Carson Dies of Cancer; `Silent Spring' Author was 56," New York Times (April 15, 1964). Accessed at: http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/10/05/reviews/carson-obit.html Howard Schultz: We Had to Own the Mistakes," The HBR Interview, Harvard Business Review (July 2010). Accessed at http://hbr.org/2010/07/the-hbr-interview-we-had-to-own-the-mistakes/ar/1 Howard Schultz with Joanne Gordon, Onward: How Starbucks Fought for Its Life without Losing Its Soul (New York: Rodale, 2011), pp. read 8-25, 97-110, and 314-328; skim pp. 170-180, 192-207. David A. Kaplan, "Howard Schultz Brews Strong Coffee at Starbucks," Fortune (November 17, 2011). Accessed at: http://management.fortune.cnn.com/2011/11/17/starbucks-howard-schultz-business-personyear/ George Timothy, "The Translator's Tale: Celebrating the five-hundredth birthday of William Tyndale, the father of the English Bible," Christianity Today (October 24, 1994), pp. 36-38.

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"Christmas Specials--William Tyndale: A hero for the information age." The Economist, (December 20, 2008). William Tyndale, Tyndale's New Testament, Translated by William Tyndale and edited by David Daniell (New Haven: Yale, 1989). Read: "The Introduction," pp. vii--xxxiii; "W. T., Unto the Reader" and "William Tyndale, yet once more to the Christian Reader," pp. 3-16 inclusive; "The Glossary," pp. 23-26; Chapters 1-14 of "The Gospel of St. Matthew," pp. 21-40. William Tyndale's First Five Books of Moses, Called the Pentateuch. Translated in part by William Tyndale and compiled by J.I. Mombert (New York: Anson D.F. Randolph and Co., 1884). Read: "W.T. To The Reader," pp. 2-6; Chapters 1-4 of Genesis, pp. 15-25. As a reference, use the "Glossary of obsolete words and phrases," on pp. cxxxiv-xcliii. Bruce Watson, "A Freedom Summer Activist Becomes a Math Revolutionary (Robert Moses)," Smithsonian 26, No. 11 (February 1, 1996), pp. 114-117. Robert P. Moses, Quality Education as a Constitutional Right, edited by Theresa Perry, Robert P. Moses, Joan T. Wynne, Ernesto Cortes, Jr., and Lisa Delpit (Boston: Beacon, 2010). Read: "Constitutional Property vs. Constitutional People," pp. 70-92. Robert P. Moses, Radical Equations: Math Literacy and Civil Rights (Boston: Beacon, 2001). Read: Chapter 1, "Algebra and Civil Rights?" pp. 3-22; Chapter 3, "Standin' at the Crossroads," pp. 58-87; Chapter 5, "Pedagogy," pp. 114-133. Also, skim the appendix. Nancy Franklin, "Oprah Winfrey's New Cable Channel," New Yorker 84, no. 5 (January 24, 2011), pp.72-74. Accessed at: http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/television/2011/01/24/110124crte_television_franklin?cu rrentPage=all Meg James and Joe Flint, "Oprah's Success Hasn't Followed Her to OWN," Los Angeles Times (March 31, 2012). Home Edition. Article accessed at: http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-ctoprah20120331,0,5382925.story?page=2&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=MHC_Today%3A_4.5.1 2_4_4_112&utm_source=Fire%20Engine%20RED Katharine Graham, "A Vigilant Press: Its Job To Inform," Speech Delivered at Colby College (March 20, 1974), printed in Vital Speeches of the Day 40:15, pp. 460-462. Katharine Graham, Personal History (New York: Random House, 1997), pp. 432-508. Nora Ephron, "Paper Route," New York Times (February 9, 1997). Katherine Graham. Interview with Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose (February 5, 1997). Accessed at: http://www.charlierose.com/view/interview/5721 Watch the first 13 minutes on her life

up to her husband's illness.

Evan Thomas, "An American Original: Katharine Graham, 1917-2001," Newsweek 138, no. 5 (July

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30, 2001). Accessed at: http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2001/07/29/an-americanoriginal.html "Katharine Graham, 1917-2001," Washington Post (July 18, 2001). Accessed at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/20/AR2006032000789.html

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Power and Glory in Turbulent Times Spring 2012 I. Monday, January 23 LEADERS: Henry V Warrior Kings

Winston Churchill READINGS: William Shakespeare, Henry V. Edited by A.R. Humphreys. (London: Penguin Books Ltd., July 2010) Roy Jenkins, Winston Churchill. A Biography (New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001). Read: Chapter 33, "The Battle of Britain and the Beginning of the Blitz," Pages 630-646. [In the Course Packet.] John Keegan, Winston Churchill. A Penguin Life (New York: Penguin, 2002). Read: Chapter 2, "Family and Youth," Pages 18-34; Chapter 7, "The Coming of War, 19331940," Pages 111-129; Chapter 8, "A Prime Minister Alone, 1940-1941," Pages 130150 and Pages 184-192 (Located at the end of Chapter 10: "Apotheosis"). [In the Course Packet.] Selection of Churchill's Speeches, taken from Graham Stewart. His Finest Hours: The War Speeches of Winston Churchill. (London: Quercus, 2007) [In the Course Packet.]

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Pages 10-14: "A hush over Europe": Broadcast to the American People. August 8, 1939. Pages 37-40: "Blood, toil, tears and sweat": House of Commons, London. May 13, 1940. Pages 42-45: "Arm yourselves, and be ye men of valour": World Broadcast. May 19, 1940. Pages 46-52: "Fight them on the beaches": On Dunkirk and the spirit of resistance. House of Commons, London. June 4, 1940. Pages 53-59: "Their finest hour": On preparations for a Battle of Britain: House of Commons, London. Later broadcast on June 18, 1940. Pages 70-77: "Never in the field of human conflict": House of Commons, London. August 20, 1940.

of history plays (along with Richard II and Henry IV, parts I and II) about the civil unrest of the Wars of the Roses. Henry V and the other plays in this series deal with the first two decades of the struggle: from 1399 to about 1415 (another series of history plays, which includes Henry VI, parts I, II and III, and Richard III take up the remaining decades of the struggle: from about 1422 to 1485). In Henry V, Shakespeare explores the making of a warrior king and the larger stage on which he acts, contrasting his actions and motivations as ruler with those of his younger "wilder days" as the

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Instructor's Note: William Shakespeare wrote Henry V in the late 1590s. It forms part of a series

prodigal son and heir of Henry IV. The playwright also examines the source of and maintenance of Henry V's authority in the midst of upheaval at home and abroad. Discussion Questions:

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Related Core Question: How did Henry V and Churchill create the authority they wielded? How did they acknowledge and exercise the responsibilities that accompanied such authority? How do leaders evidence logos, or the capacity to move the minds of people and give consistent motivation for action? How did Churchill and Henry V move the British people to resolute action? How did they help others see the significance of their individual actions in a symbolic context? How did they convince others to accept great personal risk? Churchill, as early as his teens, felt impatient to enter the greater stage of politics. As one Churchill biographer, Roy Jenkins, put it, he "was never one to confine his eyes to the narrow ground beneath his feet. He always looked up to the high trees." How important is this ability to see the larger picture ­ and envision oneself within it? What, if any, costs are entailed in such a line of sight (and the personal ambition accompanying it)? If war is a crucible that tests individual purpose and character, how does it help us understand a leader's best qualities? How are leaders themselves shaped by the crisis of war? Are wartime leaders potentially less effective in peacetime? To what extent must an effective leader have a sense of a mission beyond him or herself? Beyond his or her time? Where and when does this sense of duty develop? How is it honed or sharpened over time? Is it a type of obsession? How do great leaders transform early failure and missteps into opportunity in their rise? Path Breakers to the Modern World

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II. Monday, January 30 LEADERS:

Josiah Wedgwood Alexander Hamilton

READINGS: Nancy F. Koehn, Brand New: How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers' Trust from Wedgwood to Dell. (Harvard Business School Press: Boston, 2001). Read: Chapter 2: "Josiah Wedgwood, 1730-1975," Pages 11-42. The Strategic Vision of Alexander Hamilton Discussion Questions:

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795-075

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A managerial scholar has defined entrepreneurship as "the relentless pursuit of opportunity without regard to the resources currently controlled." With this definition in mind, was Wedgwood an entrepreneur? If so, what opportunities did he pursue? What were the key drivers of Josiah Wedgwood's success? As McCraw writes, "Hamilton always thought strategically. He dwelled on the big picture." What did it mean to "think continentally" in the case of Hamilton? What was the essence of Hamilton's vision? What did Hamilton see that Jefferson did not and why is the difference in these two visions important? Consider the lack of a template for a new nation, in Hamilton's case, and for a mass market in Wedgwood's. In the absence of any template, how did the leaders create an economic (and larger) strategy? Related Core Question: Towards what end did these leaders work?

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III. Monday, February 6 LEADERS:

Servants to a Mighty Cause

Frederick Douglass Abraham Lincoln

READINGS: Slavery Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War

792-001 805-115

Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave: Written by Himself. (New York: Penguin Classics, 1986). Read: Pages 47-End. Frederick Douglass, Autobiographies. (New York: Library of America, 1994). Read: From Autobiography #2 (My Bondage and My Freedom): "The Last Flogging," Pages 286-287; "Introduced to the Abolitionists," Pages 364-369; "21 Months in Great Britain," Pages 372-375. From Autobiography #3 (Life and Times): "Secession and War," Pages 775-780; "The Black Man at the White House," Pages 784-788; Pages 793-798; Pages 912-914. [In the Course Packet.] Frederick Douglass, Selected Speeches. Read: Excerpts from "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?" (July 5, 1852): Pages 359-361, Pages 366-371 ("The Present,")

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and Pages 377-381 ("The Church Responsible"); "What the Black Man Wants," (April 1865), Pages 157-165. [In the Course Packet.]

Discussion Questions:

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What was the institutional failure that Frederick Douglass set out to address? What failure did Lincoln try to right? How did each leader motivate others to join them in their respective endeavors? How did each of these men deal with the obstacles in their path? How, if at all, did these two leaders draw on personal lessons learned early on in their lives to weather and manage crisis? How did they maintain their dedication and purpose to a greater cause through the bloodshed and the turbulence of the Civil War? How, if at all, did they transform crises into opportunities for growth and renewal? What were the most important attributes of each man that allowed them to be effective leaders? What were some of the weaknesses that you see in each of these men that made them less effective? How do you evaluate the experience of each leader? What did it cost them personally to work in the name of their missions? More generally, how do leaders discover their core principles? Through what process do they internalize these principles, which then guide their actions and choices? Related Core Question: David Foster Wallace, the American novelist, once wrote that true leaders are people "who help us overcome the limitations of our own laziness and selfishness and weakness and fear and get us to do better, harder things than we can get ourselves to do on our own." How, if at all, does this quote apply to the leadership of Lincoln and to that of Douglass?

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IV. Monday, February 13 LEADERS: H.J. Heinz

Market Leaders

John D. Rockefeller

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READINGS: Nancy F. Koehn, Brand New: How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers' Trust from Wedgwood to Dell. (Harvard Business School Press: Boston, 2001). Read: Chapter 3, "H.J Heinz, 1844-1919," Pages 43-90. John D. Rockefeller and the Creation of Standard Oil 807-110

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How did each of these entrepreneurs come to create a new market and then lead it so effectively? How did each of these individuals define success? What drove Henry Heinz? What drove John D. Rockefeller? How do your answers to these questions affect your understanding of how they achieved such success? How important is the specific path an individual takes towards his or her goal?

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V. Monday, February 27 LEADERS:

Passing it Forward

Madame C.J. Walker Milton Hershey

CASES:

Madame C.J. Walker: Entrepreneur, Leader and Philanthropist Candy Land: The Utopian Vision of Milton Hershey

807-145 805-066

Discussion Questions:

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Both Madame C.J. Walker and Milton Hershey came, effectively, from nothing. Through building successful businesses, they both ended up having enormous social impact. When they died, they were each at the top of their business game. As enormously successful entrepreneurs and institution builders, what were the key drivers, for each, of such achievement? How did each of these individuals come to terms with such success? Madame C.J. Walker famously named the social and educational progress of young AfricanAmericans as one of her primary motivators. She stayed connected to the issues facing black

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society even as her fortune grew. How is a business leader's commitment to a larger social agenda compatible with the economic imperative for growth? How can it be detrimental? What do you make of Milton Hershey's repeated failures both before and after he started the chocolate company? What can we learn about leadership in the 21st century from the life and work of Milton Hershey? Related Core Question: To what extent have leaders been driven by ethical values? How have they come to terms with themselves and with the missions of their organizations? How important was a "clean" business or organization to them?

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VI. Monday, March 5 LEADERS: Estée Lauder Gloria Steinem

Breaking Through Boundaries

READINGS: Nancy F. Koehn, Brand New: How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers' Trust from Wedgwood to Dell. (Harvard Business School Press: Boston, 2001). Read: Chapter 5: "Estée Lauder," Pages 137-199. Gloria Steinem, Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995). Read: "Life Between the Lines": Introduction to Outrageous Acts, Pages 3-31. [In the Course Packet.] Nancy Hass, "Gloria Steinem Still Wants More." Newsweek Magazine. August 7, 2011. Accessed at http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/08/07/gloria-steinemthe-future-of-the-fight-for-women-s-rights.html. [In the Course Packet.] Gloria Steinem, "Statement of Gloria Steinem, Writer and Critic". Source: Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, The "Equal Rights" Amendment: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary, 91st Cong., 2d sess., May 5, 6, and 7, 1970. Accessed at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/7025. [In the Course Packet.]

Discussion Questions:

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How much flexibility did Estée Lauder have as a female entrepreneur pursuing her mission? What type of stage was she most effective on? How did upbringing and her experience affect her chances of success in the 1930s and 1940s?

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Compare and contrast the limits of Estée Lauder's opportunities to those open to Gloria Steinem in the 1960s and 1970s. What values and principles did Lauder hold fast to over her career? How did her vision for women differ from Steinem's? How did the vision and impact of each leader evolve over the three or four decades that they were each active? How do you assess the ambition of each of these women, and how did this affect their evolving visions? What did each woman understand better than their male and females colleagues in their respective arenas? What could Lauder and Steinem see that others could not? How would you compare Estee Lauder and Gloria Steinem as pioneers? How influential have their views and work been for modern women? How would you assess these two women as leaders?

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VII.

Monday, March 19 Dietrich Bonhoeffer

The Cost of Commitment

LEADERS:

Martin Luther King, Jr. READINGS: Professor's note on the readings: You have before you a range of primary and secondary source readings from and about Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Martin Luther King, Jr. Both sets of secondary sources readings--the editors' introductions to Bonhoeffer and the encyclopedia entry and excerpts from Taylor Branch's Pulitzer-prize winning history, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63, as well as the timelines--are intended to provide you a sense of the broad context in which each of these leaders worked and developed. The excerpts from Parting the Waters are often dense with details about the myriad of people and organizations that lit the early kindling of the fire of civil rights activism. Do not worry about parsing out the different people and groups too closely. Instead focus on the larger picture of trying to organize effective, nonviolent action in the face of all kinds of significant obstacles. Pay attention as well to King's role in these early days and how it is related to his own internal conversations with himself and his calling. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, A Testament to Freedom: The Essential Writings of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Edited by Geffrey B. Kelly and F. Burton Nelson (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1990). Read: Editor's Introduction: "Solidarity with the

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Oppressed: Bonhoeffer the Man," Pages 3-46; "Christ and Peace" (Fall, 1932), Pages 98-101; "The Church is Dead" (August 29, 1932), Pages 108-111; "[Editors' Introduction]: The Church Struggle and Nazi Racial Policies," Pages 133- 135; "The Bethel Confession" (August 1933), Pages 141-144. [In the Course Packet.] Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Letters and Papers from Prison, Edited by Eberhard Bethge (New York: Macmillan, 1972). Read: "Prologue: After Ten Years: A Reckoning Made at New Year 1943," Pages 3-17; Letter to his parents from September 5, 1943, Pages 104-106; Excerpt from Letter commemorating baptism of Eberhard Bethge's son from May 1944, Pages 296-299; Letter to Eberhard Bethge (July 21, 1944), Pages 369-370. [In the Course Packet.] "King, Martin Luther, Jr." Entry from Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition, Edited by Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Oxford African American Studies Center. Accessed at: http://www.oxfordaasc.com/article/opr/t0002/e2213 [In Course Packet] Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference." (February 4, 1958). Accessed at: http://mlkkpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_580204_005/ [In Course Packet] Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." (April 16, 1963). Accessed at: http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/kingweb/popular_requests/frequentdocs/birmingham.pdf [In Course Packet] Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream." (Speech delivered August 28, 1963). Accessed at: http://www.vlib.us/amdocs/texts/mlkdream.html [In Course Packet] "Memphis Sanitation Workers' Strike (1968)." Entry from the Martin Luther King, Jr. Encyclopedia. Authored and edited by Clayborn Carson, Tenisha Armstrong, Susan Carson, Erin Cook, and Susan Englander (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2008). Accessed at: http://mlk-

kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_memphis_sanitation_workers_strike _1968/ [In Course Packet]

Martin Luther King, Jr., "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (Speech delivered April 3, 1968 at Mason Temple/Church of God in Christ Headquarters, Memphis, Tennessee). Accessed at: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm [In Course Packet] Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988). Read: Pages 264-286; 299-302; 700-711; and 725-730.

Discussion Questions:

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1.

Both Bonhoeffer and King were freedom fighters who put their lives in danger. Both spent time in prison. Political and civic leaders often risk personal safety and security, persecution, jail time, and, in some cases, death, in the pursuit of their higher goals. How do they change accepted culture mores and rigid institutional practices by embracing these risks? How have the personal lives of leaders suffered in the pursuit of their causes? Have their missions been compatible with fulfilled personal lives? What concessions have they had to make?

2.

VIII. Monday, March 26 LEADERS: Rachel Carson Gary Hirshberg

Stewards of Sustainability

READINGS: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002). "Introduction" by Linda Lear, Pages x-xix; 1-13; 84-127; 276-297; and "Afterword," by E. O. Wilson, pp. 357-363 [In Course Packet]. Rachel Carson, "Letter to Dorothy Freeman" (September 1963), reprinted in Lost Woods: The Discovered Writings of Rachel Carson, edited by Linda Lear (Boston: Beacon Press, 1998), pp. 246-247. Jonathan Norton Leonard, "Rachel Carson Dies of Cancer; `Silent Spring' Author was 56," New York Times (April 15, 1964). Accessed at: http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/10/05/reviews/carson-obit.html Gary Hirshberg and Stonyfield Farm N9-312-122

Discussion Questions:

1.

Gary Hirshberg's work at Stonyfield Farm was, in part, inspired by the movement launched by Rachel Carson. How did both of these stewards contend with the widespread but deeply flawed notion that natural resources are limitless? How did each leader advance the important--concept that the principles of the sustainability movement are not inimical, but in fact complementary, to the objectives of business?

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2.

How do corporations and businesses that assess their environmental impact stand to benefit financially? What role can environmentally responsible business leaders take in correcting the mistakes of their predecessors? Why should leaders consider placing sustainable values high on their agenda? What difficult questions can sustainability help modern businesses answer? Using a ten-point scale--with one as a trivial concern and ten as a ticking time bomb-- assess the importance of the environment as a global issue today. Given your ranking, who are the people and which are the institutions best equipped to lead effectively on this issue?

3.

4.

IX. Monday, April 2 LEADERS: Bono Howard Schultz

Entrepreneurial Success and Social Impact

Professor's note on the readings: As you know, Howard Schultz, the CEO of Starbucks, will be visiting class. As preparation for our discussion--together and with him--I have assigned several different readings on the history of Starbucks. I suggest you read the pages from Brand New first, followed by the six pages (and exhibits) in the case, "Starbucks Coffee Company in the 21st Century." These readings offer some background on Schultz, the early years of the company, and the run-up to the crisis confronting the business in early 2008. The 2010 interview with Schultz from the Harvard Business Review offers his broad perspective on the challenges he and his colleagues faced as they tried to transform the company. The excerpts from Onward, Schultz's own account of the change journey, explain specifics aspects of this two-year process. The final reading from Fortune looks at Schultz's evolving social agenda.

READINGS: Bono and U2 Starbucks Coffee Company in the 21st Century Read ONLY pp. 1-6. See also Exhibits 1-7.

809-148 808-019

Nancy F. Koehn, Brand New: How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers' Trust from Wedgwood to Dell. (Harvard Business School Press: Boston, 2001, pp. 217-229. "Howard Schultz: We Had to Own the Mistakes," The HBR Interview, Harvard Business Review (July 2010). Accessed at: http://hbr.org/2010/07/the-hbr-interviewwe-had-to-own-the-mistakes/ar/1 Howard Schultz with Joanne Gordon, Onward: How Starbucks Fought for Its Life without Losing Its Soul (New York: Rodale, 2011), pp. read 8-25, 97-110, and 314-328; skim pp. 170-180, 192-207

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David A. Kaplan, "Howard Schultz Brews Strong Coffee at Starbucks," Fortune (November 17, 2011). Accessed at: http://management.fortune.cnn.com/2011/11/17/starbucks-howard-schultzbusiness-person-year/

Discussion Questions:

1.

In 2005, the members of U2 and their manager earned $250 million without touring or releasing a new album or creating a new offering. What is the business strategy behind such wealth creation? How has this evolved since the band's early days? What are the band's key assets in pursuing financial and other objectives? What are their most important liabilities? How did Starbucks lose its way in 2006 through early 2008?

2.

3.

What were the most important decisions Schultz and his team made beginning in 2008 to try to turn Starbucks around? What do you learn about Schultz's leadership by studying the mistakes he tried to correct? Do you learn more about leadership by studying its impact in moments of failure than in moments of success? If so, why? Bono and Schultz are 21st century leaders with massive social agendas. How is the impact--actual and potential--of each related to their respective enterprises? How is the success of their respective organizations related to each of their social agendas?

4.

5.

X. Monday, April 9 LEADERS: William Tyndale Robert P. Moses

Unleashing the Power of Knowledge

Professor's note on the readings: This week we take up two leaders who lived and worked more than 400 years apart. At first glance, there seems little connection between the 16th-century biblical translator William Tynsdale and the 20th-century activist Robert P. Moses. As you unpack each of these men's stories, however, several important similarities emerge. Consider these carefully as you read (and in some instances, write) about these individuals. Think as well about the role of knowledge and education in comes of the pressing issues confronting us today--from income inequality to national competitiveness to unemployment to social and political stability. With Tyndale's (unmediated)

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translation of the Old Testament, you will need the glossary he provides. It will also be very helpful to compare these excerpts of Tyndale's translations of both the New and Old Testament with the same sections in your own favorite version of the Bible. READINGS: George Timothy, "The Translator's Tale: Celebrating the five-hundredth birthday of William Tyndale, the father of the English Bible," Christianity Today (October 24, 1994), pp. 36-38. "Christmas Specials--William Tyndale: Economist, (December 20, 2008). A hero for the information age." The

William Tyndale, Tyndale's New Testament, Translated by William Tyndale and edited by David Daniell (New Haven: Yale, 1989). Read: "The Introduction," pp. vii--xxxiii; "W. T., Unto the Reader" and "William Tyndale, yet once more to the Christian Reader," pp. 3-16 inclusive; "The Glossary," pp. 23-26; Chapters 1-14 of "The Gospel of St. Matthew," pp. 21-40. William Tyndale's First Five Books of Moses, Called the Pentateuch. Translated in part by William Tyndale and compiled by J.I. Mombert (New York: Anson D.F. Randolph and Co., 1884). Read: "W.T. To The Reader," pp. 2-6; Chapters 1-4 of Genesis, pp. 15-25. As a reference, use the "Glossary of obsolete words and phrases," on pp. cxxxiv-xcliii. Bruce Watson, "A Freedom Summer Activist Becomes a Math Revolutionary (Robert Moses)," Smithsonian 26, No. 11 (February 1, 1996), pp. 114-117. Robert P. Moses, Quality Education as a Constitutional Right, edited by Theresa Perry, Robert P. Moses, Joan T. Wynne, Ernesto Cortes, Jr., and Lisa Delpit (Boston: Beacon, 2010). Read: "Constitutional Property vs. Constitutional People," pp. 70-92. Robert P. Moses, Radical Equations: Math Literacy and Civil Rights (Boston: Beacon, 2001). Read: Chapter 1, "Algebra and Civil Rights?" pp. 3-22; Chapter 3, "Standin' at the Crossroads," pp. 58-87; Chapter 5, "Pedagogy," pp. 114-133. Also, skim the appendix.

Discussion Questions:

1.

On what kind of stage did William Tyndale operate? How did he come to affect that stage from the periphery? Compare and contrast how Tyndale and Moses harnessed the power of information towards enlightened ends.

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2.

How did these two leaders come to understand the imperative of widespread access to specific kinds of knowledge? What social, political and economic impact did they anticipate their work would have? What drove them to pursue their (often thankless) work? What pressures did they each come up against? Why does it take a committed, resilient and savvy leader to help communities and societies embrace what seem, intuitively, to be universal rights ­ rights to information, to education, to knowledge? What type of leader is needed to effect this change? Why doesn't this type of access--founded on basic rights--come more easily (and widely) through established institutions? What larger lessons, if any do you draw about power and the Information Revolution from these two individuals?

3.

4.

5.

XI. Monday, April 16 LEADERS:

"My Life is My Message"

Katherine Graham Oprah Winfrey

CASE:

Oprah Winfrey

809-068

READINGS: Nancy Franklin, "Oprah Winfrey's New Cable Channel," New Yorker 84, no. 5 (January 24, 2011), pp.72-74. Accessed at: http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/television/2011/01/24/110124crte_televis ion_franklin?currentPage=all Meg James and Joe Flint, "Oprah's Success Hasn't Followed Her to OWN," Los Angeles Times (March 31, 2012). Home Edition. Article accessed at: http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-ct-oprah20120331,0,5382925.story?page=2&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=MHC_T oday%3A_4.5.12_4_4_112&utm_source=Fire%20Engine%20RED Katharine Graham, "A Vigilant Press: Its Job To Inform," Speech Delivered at Colby College (March 20, 1974), printed in Vital Speeches of the Day 40:15, pp. 460462. Katharine Graham, Personal History (New York: Random House, 1997), pp. 432508.

22

Nora Ephron, "Paper Route," New York Times (February 9, 1997). Katherine Graham. Interview with Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose (February 5, 1997). Accessed at: http://www.charlierose.com/view/interview/5721 Watch the first 13

minutes on her life up to her husband's illness.

Evan Thomas, "An American Original: Katharine Graham, 19172001," Newsweek 138, no. 5 (July 30, 2001). Accessed at: http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2001/07/29/an-american-original.html "Katharine Graham, 1917-2001," Washington Post (July 18, 2001). Accessed at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/03/20/AR2006032000789.html

Discussion Questions: 1. How do you assess Nancy Franklin's assertion that "Winfrey is all about truth"? How is Winfrey's truth different from Katharine Graham's conception of the truth? 2. Compare and contrast how Winfrey and Graham used their respective media platforms. Which was more effective in relation to her particular goals? How do you assess both women as businesswomen? 3. Consider each of these individuals' journeys up to the point when they each assumed real authority. What insights do you draw about the "making of a leader" from these very distinct paths? 4. Both Winfrey and Graham have exercised great control over the distribution of information. Toward which ends has each of these leaders used such control? 5. How do we learn from effective leaders - both those with whom we have direct experience and those whom we know indirectly - through reputation or impact? 6. Related Core Question: How important is that leaders be intensely attuned to the emotional needs of people (pathos)?

XII.

Monday, April 23

Power and Responsibility in Turbulent Times

LEADERS:

Mark Zuckerberg Steve Jobs

READINGS:

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Discussion Questions:

1.

What responsibilities do today's leaders of unprecedented power ­ particularly over the distribution of information and how people access media and ideas ­ have? How do these leaders negotiate their new powers? How do they make sure they maintain the right values? Related Core Question: What qualities are most important for effective leaders, here and now? How do we learn from effective leaders - both those with whom we have direct experience and those whom we know indirectly - through reputation or impact?

2.

XIII. Thursday, April 19 LEADERS: CASES: Ernest Shackleton

The Quest for Fame­ OPTIONAL CLASS

Leadership in Crisis: Ernest Shackleton and the Epic Voyage of the Endurance 803-127

Discussion Questions:

1.

In what context should the Endurance expedition be analyzed? a. As a scientific endeavor? b. As an entrepreneurial venture? c. As an exercise in imperial opportunity? d. In an altogether different context? Given your answer to the preceding question, was it a success or a failure? How would you assess Shackleton's actions on the ice, once the game had changed so suddenly and completely for the expedition? What were his key strengths and weaknesses throughout the 20-month ordeal? What are the most important lessons of the Shackleton story for leaders today working in the midst of great turbulence?

2. 3.

4.

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