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Measurement Examples: Plasma Diagnosis End-point Monitor


Polystrip SiO2

Dual damascene Structure: open area ~1-2%

0.3 µm

Resist SiO2 Nitride Cu

Starting point

Step: Polystrip

410 nm 50 nm Starting point Step 2: SiO2 etch Step 7: Si3N4 etch

Step 1: Polystrip etch (NF3, SF6) Nota: We want to detect when it remains no more poly Magnetic field : No

Step 1: Descum Step 2: SiO2 etch (C4F8, C2F6, Ar, 60 s) : step 2 is monitored Step 3 to 6: Strip (O2...) Step 7: Nitride etch (CHF3, O2, Ar, 38 s) : step 7 is monitored

EPD on nitride interface

EPD on copper interface

EPD available with many wavelengths combination

Dual damascene Step 1: SiO2 etch step

Dual damascene Nitride etch step

Measurement Examples: Real Time Interferometric Process Monitor

DIGILEM-CPM-Xe Al2O3/Altic etching

Al2O3 Altic


GaAs AlGaAs Example: 830 nm 830 nm

LEM-CT-670-G50 Nb/Au interface detection

Resist Nb Au

Holes: 75 to 150 µm

Target: example 995 nm

12 nm

12 nm Step 1: GaAs etching Starting point Step 1: Nb etching

Starting point

Step 1: Al2O3/AlTiC etching

Starting point

Semiconductor Manufacturing Process Monitor

Target: 995 nm on Al2O3/AlTiC coupon

Interferometric signal => Etch Rate varies during run from 360 to 220 nm/min Interface GaAs(830 nm) AlGaAs OES signal and 1st derivative drop at the interface Interface Nb(12 nm)/Au

Period of signal: 46 s => 75 nm etched/period

REFLECTOMETRY on metals Index change at the interface => EPD conditions on first derivative

Instrumentation: Interferometry UV tilt (253.7 nm)

Instrumentation: OES/INT with Digitwin 350 (AlCl line: 528.8 nm) and IR laser camera (905 nm)

Instrumentation: Reflectometry with laser camera (679.2 nm)

Plasma Diagnosis End-point Monitor


HORIBA continues contributing to the preservation of the global environment through analysis and measuring technology.

Please read the operation manual before using this product to assure safe and proper handling of the product.

The contents of this catalog are subject to change without prior notice, and without any subsequent liability to this company. The color of the actual products may differ from the color pictured in this catalog due to printing limitations. It is strictly forbidden to copy the content of this catalog in part or in full. All brand names, product names and service names in this catalog are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

HORIBA, Ltd. Head Office 2 Miyanohigashi, Kisshoin Minami-ku, Kyoto, Japan Phone: 81-75-313-8123 Fax: 81-75-321-5725

e-mail: [email protected]

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Phone: 10-8567-9966 Fax: 10-8567-9066

HORIBA INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED Irvine Facility 17671 Armstrong Avenue Irvine, CA 92614, U.S.A. Phone: 1-949-250-4811 Fax: 1-949-250-0924 HORIBA / STEC INCORPORATED Austin Office Santa Clara Head Office 9701 Dessau Road (Technology Center) Suite 605, Austin 3265 Scott Boulevard Texas 78754, U.S.A. Santa Clara, CA 95054, Phone: 1-512-836-9560 U.S.A. Fax: 1-512-836-8054 Phone: 1-408-730-4772 Fax: 1-408-730-8975 Portland Office 10240, SW Nimbus Ave. Suite L-5, Portland, OR 97223, U.S.A. Phone: 1-503-624-9767 Fax: 1-503-968-3236 HORIBA INSTRUMENTS LIMITED Grenoble Office Kyoto Close BURO club Gieres, Summerhouse Road Moulton Park, Northampton 2 Avenue de Vignate 38610 Gieres, France NN3 6FL, U.K. Phone: 33-4-76-63-4915 Phone: 44-1604-542600 Fax: 33-4-76-54-0399 Fax: 44-1604-542696 e-mail: [email protected] HORIBA GmbH Kaplanstrasse 5 A-3430 Tulln, Austria Phone: 43-2272-65225 Fax: 43-2272-65230 Netherlands Office Bijsterhuizen 11-58, 6546 AS Nijmegen, The Netherlands Phone: 31-24-366-0985 Fax: 31-24-366-0987

HORIBA EUROPE GmbH Head Office Hans-Mess-Str.6, D-61440 Oberursel/Ts. Germany Phone: 49-6172-1396-0 Fax: 49-6172-137385

Real Time Interferometric Process Monitor

HORIBA CZECHIA Organizachi slozka Praha Petrohradska 13 CZ-101 00 Praha 10, Czech Republic Phone: 420-2-717-464-80 Fax: 420-2-717-470-64

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HORIBA ITALY Europalace Corso Torino 43/45 10043 Orbassano,Torino,Italy Phone: 39-011-9040601 Fax: 39-011-9000448



Printed in Japan ZN-R(SK)23

Integrated management with an in-situ real time monitor for next-generation thin-film processes

Real time monitoring of film thickness, trench depth, and plasma is conducted to increase the yield rate with state-of-the-art etching and coating, with management and control now considered essential during this process. HORIBA Semiconductor Manufacturing Process Monitors make use of advanced measurement technologies created by HORIBA Jobin Yvon in France, the leading company in optics development.

Wafer position pattern recognition Monochrome laser or external light interference real time monitor

Plasma Diagnosis End-point Monitor

Multi-channel with a high resolution down to 2 nm. Advanced end-point detection.

Process supply gas

Modular Device


Various measurement of process gas


Flow control of process gas

Mass Flow Controller

SEC-Z500X Series

Real Time Interferometric Process Monitor

Plasma light source spectrometer

Highly precise detection of trench depth and variation in film thickness with the interference intensity monitor.

Efficient measurement of process gas in a compact size

FTIR Gas Analyzer

FG-100A Series

CCD Laser Interference Camera LEM-CT-670-G50/G120

Chamber cleaning end-point monitoring

In-line Gas Monitor

IR-200 Waste process gas


External Light Source Interference Camera


Gas monitoring of the chamber after the device has been cleaned

Residual Gas Analyzer




EV-140C Specifications

Plasma Diagnosis Endpoint Monitor

Modular device

Sensor unit

Optical unit Wavelength range Optical resolution 200 - 800 nm <2.0 nm @ =200 - 500 nm <2.5 nm @ =500 - 700 nm (FWHM theoretical resolution) Aberration corrected Flat field concave grating 140 mm Built-In Back thinned liner CCD image sensor 2048 × 64 16 bit 20 ms - 2.5 s (10 msec step) Optical fiber 137 (W) × 156 (H) × 257 (D) mm 5.4 (W) × 6.1 (H) × 10.1 (D) in 4.0 kg 1 Ch 24 V DC ± 10 % 12 VA (Max) 15 - 35 °C 0-50 °C (no condensation) <80%RH at 25 °C (no condensation) Run status indicator (Sensor err /Controller err) DC fan

Optical design Design Focal length 2nd order filter Detector CCD type Pixel number A/D resolution Integration time Specification Optical input Sensor unit dimensions Sensor unit mass Connecting chamber number Power supply Power consumption Operating temperature requirements Ambient temperature Operating moisture requirements Front LCD display


This is an emission analysis type end-point monitor intended for end-point detection or plasma condition control in the plasma-based semiconductor thin-film process. The newly-developed Rapture Intensity algorithm allows accurate end-point detection by capturing faint signal changes. The ability of capturing subtle changes in emission has significantly improved the sensitivity. The enhanced noise immunity ensures highly stable operation in hostile environments of round-the-clock manufacturing lines.

Bright grating with opening ratio of F/2

A bright optical system is achieved by the use of a large, aberration-correcting concave grating of 70 mm in diameter manufactured by HORIBA Jobin Yvon. The light-gathering ability of the concave grating itself enables the construction of a simple optical system that is brighter than Czerny-Turner spectroscopes and that can minimize the reflection loss caused by mirrors and other reflective surfaces.

Auto Pattern software for the analysis of time course patterns

It is a daunting challenge to find minute pattern changes from an enormous amount of spectrum data with noise. Auto Pattern automatically finds characteristic pattern changes to determine the optimum end-point wavelength.

Strong end-point algorithms

End-points can be accurately detected by using the user-specified wavelength-to-wavelength calculation waveform and filtering. The newly-developed Rapture Intensity algorithm allows constant monitoring of the changes in the intersecting angle between the two straight lines which approximate the two specified sections. This ensures that points of change are differentiated appropriately from noise without delay, and that extremely small signal changes such as end-points with small opening areas, are accurately detected.

Example of weak signal waveform reprocessing Etching monitoring over a small opening area (<0.2%). After a frequency filter processes noise from the original signal, the differential signal (pink line) of the ratio (black line) of (rise (A+B+C)/decrease (D+E+F) curve) leads to accurate detection of the end-point.

Back-illuminated CCD line sensor offering high sensitivity and high resolution of 2,048 channels

A back-illuminated CCD achieves high quantum efficiency, ensuring stable spectroscopy in the broad spectrum from UV to visible regions. The highly sensitive measurement possible in the UV region, in particular, enables end-point detection in the wavelength range which is less affected by interference.

Sigma-P software for advanced process control

This software executes a variety of steps required for process control, from the analysis of plasma behavior to the creation of databases of measured data and remote control of manufacturing equipment. The programmable structure of the measurement recipe enables setting of multiple detection conditions and sequential processing. This allows the monitor to be used not only for end-point applications but also for comprehensive plasma condition monitoring.

Cooling fan IN/OUT for Output signal with measurement curve link Output port number 2 ch 0 - 5 V DC Output range

for PIO remote protocol PIO / (DI = 8 bit/ DO = 8 bit) Digital output PIO remote protocol Dsub25S (PIO port, Analog output port) connector Controller interface Ethernet × 1 port

Recipe Designer, a recipe generation tool automatically synced with analysis results (optional software)


Sensor unit

Controller unit

Unit dimension OS CPU Main memory HDD Interface Power supply 197 (W) × 148 (H) × 250 (D) mm 7.8 (W) × 5.8 (H) × 9.8 (D) in WindowsXP embeded (English version) Celeron 1.3 GHz 1 GB 80 GB Ethernet × 2, RS232C × 2 90 - 264 V AC, 50/60 ± 3 Hz


Controller unit

Recipe Designer is an extended version of the Auto Pattern analysis tool. It allows the user to generate an optimum Rapture Intensity algorithm simply by following on-screen instructions for analysis and simulation. The algorithm can easily be built into the real recipe. This can greatly lighten the load of recipe generation for end-points of weak and complicated emission species or end-points which cannot be detected due to changes in process conditions, or similar cases.

Example of Recipe Designer setting

Remote protocol capability

Equipment configuration diagram

Optical fiber

EV-140C Sensor unit Recipe setting example This is an advanced setting which warns of abnormal plasma condition as well as conducting end-point measurement using the ratio between two wavelengths.

Range showing increasing change Range showing decreasing change Average of ten wavelengths for decreasing change ENDPOINT


PIO/RS232C serial

Designing capability for LAN communication


Standards CE/FCC


Optical fiber Specification Fiber grade Fiber length Qurtz fiber VIS or UV 2m


Full reprocessing function

LAN cable


EV-140C Controller unit

Remote cable

Once spectroscopy data is obtained, simulation for recipe optimization or end-point detection can be repeated as desired by applying new recipe conditions. A library used to identify the emission species in plasma is included as standard. Spectroscopy data can be converted into a time course graph, or can be displayed freely on the screen using screen layout, operation waveforms, and comparative calculation waveforms against reference data, and other information.

Repture Intensity

STEP 1 Automatic extraction of the pattern of wavelength changes

STEP 2 STEP 3 Identification of the point of The EDP simulation conducted change using the approximation by Rapture Intensity and of two straight lines the completed algorithm can be exported and built into Sigma-P.


DC power supply unit 90-264 V AC 50/60 ±3 Hz Power supply DC power supply spec 24 V DC, 2 A output Chamber adapter Condenser lens unit Adapter PC accessory LCD monitor/Key board / mouse PC accessory PC battery option UPS option for controller PC UPS

Advanced statistical processing: Feedback to recipes

The statistical process editor is able to analyze the log data from many different perspectives, helping to improve abnormality analysis and yield rates. The results of the analysis can be fed back to measurements.

To the chamber



Real Time Interferometric Process Monitor

CCD Laser Interference Camera CCD External Light Source Interference Camera

Software ready for built-in use in processing lines

This is a system for achieving high yield rates with semiconductors. Statistical processing from batch database compilation, remote control I/O common with the Semiconductor Manufacturing Process Monitor, and a remote control board for serial control from SECSII are included as standard features.


Real Time Interferometric Process Monitor provides high precision detection of film thickness and trench depth during the etching/coating process. Interference occurs when monochromatic light hits the sample surface, resulting in different optical path lengths due to film thickness and height variations in the film. The system calculates the etching and coating speed of the monitored area by using time monitoring of the interference intensity based on the cycle, leading to detection of the end-point from the prescribed film thickness and trench depth. Based on this relatively simple theory, the system is extremely stable and can be used with complex multi-layer films.

Two types of lasers are available and compatible with a broad range of films including SiN, SiO2, GaAs, InP, AlGaAs, and GaN.



Perfect for monitoring thin and highly transparent films such as GaN, AlGaN, SiO2, and SiN. The newly developed (patent pending) ultraviolet sensor head allows the device to be used for monitoring thin and highly transparent films. Variation in refractive index with this laser wavelength is small, which means films that could not be measured because of a lack of reflection can now be measured using the interference method, by selecting an arbitrary wavelength from the internal spectrometer.

Plasma spectrographic analysis is also possible

End-point detection algorithms with improved flexibility

With HORIBA JOBIN YVON's own alarm expansion settings feature, a large number of compatible algorithms for special signal detection and detection of signals with poor S/N ratios are included and can always be expanded.

The system consists of a compact interference measurement section that includes the laser source, light receiver, and optical components, as well as the illumination and CCD imaging camera, allowing monitoring of any area of the wafer surface using microscopic images. This system uses a visible laser (670 nm) which can be used for a broad range of films.

Advanced reprocessing features

Data obtained once can be simulated a number of times to achieve the optimum parameter configuration. This data can also be sent directly to HORIBA for analysis and optimization.

The DIGILEM-CPM type has an internal spectrometer which means emission spectral analysis and measurement of end-points is now possible in addition to interference measurements. A high performance spectrometer and waveform processing software means the system is compatible with weak optical signals with a poor S/N ratio. Camera with CCD imaging A large objective lens to wafer distance attachment range of 200 mm to 800 mm. The use of lasers enables a spot diameter as small as 20 mm to 100 mm. A compact, self-contained amplifier design that allows simple monitoring of 0 V to 10 V outputs with only a camera if connected to devices such as a data logger. UV light interference: TILT HEAD A shorter distance between the objective lens and wafer means the diameter of the spot can be decreased, so a long neck design has been used. This has been installed near the high cycle antenna, while the body of the main lens does not contain any metal parts.

LEM-CT-670-G50/G120 Specifications

Light source Light source wavelength Magnification Spot diameter Detector Camera dimensions Laser diode 670 nm 50x (G50), 120x (G120) 20 µm to 100 µm depending on camera to wafer distance Pin-photo diode 65 (W) × 160 (H) × 100 (D) mm 2.6 (W) × 6.3 (H) × 3.9 (D) in (camera only, excludes stage) 1.2 kg, 2.6 lb 451 (W) × 400 (H) × 133 (D) mm 17.8 (W) × 15.7 (H) × 5.2 (D) in 10 kg, 22 lb

Sensor head

Mass Controller dimensions Mass

HORIBA JOBIN YVON patented DIGILEM CCD camera Patent No. 2859159 (Japan)

DIGILEM-CPM-Xe/Halogen Specifications Traditional interference wave type The horizontal axes represents time. An interference cycle is generated with respect to the etching depth as the etching process progresses. The amount of etching during one cycle is displayed as Dp = (laser wavelength 670 nm) / 2n (refractive index of etching film).

Equipment configuration diagram

By using an arbitrary wavelength of 300 nm to 450 nm from the Xe lamp, a spot diameter with a diameter of 100 to 500 µm is used as the wafer interference light. Wafer microscope screen


Sensor head Illumination lamp

Xe-Hg lamp / Halogen lamp 100 to 500 µm depending on camera to wafer distance Light source Xe-Hg spectral line: 300 to 450 nm Halogen: 400 to 700 nm wavelength Magnification 63x at 15 monitor Resolution > 2.0 nm (with a 50 µm slit) Spectrometer Detector CPM: 2048 Ch CCD detector Optical fiber 2 branch fiber ultraviolet, visibility 5 m Controller dimensions 220 (W) × 130 (H) × 400 (D) mm 8.7 (W) × 5.1 (H) × 15.7 (D) in Mass 11 kg, 24.2 lb Light source Spot diameter


Equipment configuration diagram

Wafer (with an ICP type etcher attached) Xe lamp housing

LEM, DIGILEM common Specifications

Stage specifications

Manual X-Y stage Motor X-Y stage Stage Manual stage dimensions Motor stage Stroke ±8.0 mm Stroke ±12.5 mm 120 (W) × 120 (H) × 87 (D) mm 4.7 (W) x 4.7 (H) x 3.4 (D) in Mass 1.3 kg, 2.8 lb 185 (W) × 102 (H) × 185 (D) mm 7.3 (W) × 4 (H) × 7.3 (D) in Mass 3 kg, 6.6 lb

GaAs Manual or motor X-Y stage Wafer objective lens range 200 mm to 800 mm Plasma Laser spot: tracking of the measurement point with the optional pattern recognition device Examines wafers during etching. With an internal single wavelength filter, interfering elements can be examined with images. Layer B Layer A MQW


Motor X-Y stage, pattern recognition device


Memory 256 MB, CPU 600 Mhz or greater, RAM 64 MB or greater, HDD 30 GB or greater Laser device etching monitor screen


An example of a complete system using a pattern recognition device. (The photo is the combination with the DIGILEM-CPM-Xe).

(with a RIE type etcher attached)

Attachment conditions

A measurement view port of ø20 or greater will be required in a vertical direction across the wafer.




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