Read 6570 Houghton Line Covers.GHB text version

Summer, 2006 VOL. 70, NO. 2

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HEART TO HEART TALKS WITH LINE READERS

Shop Improvements Meet Challenges of Heat Treating Very Large Parts (Part II)

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HE FOLLOWING IS PART II of Houghton's QUENCHCARE project with FRISA Forjados S.A. de C.V. in Monterrey, Mexico that appeared in an issue of Industrial Heating Magazine. Part II primarily reviews design and installation of the new treatment line. FRISA was able to maximize production results using its existing equipment, but in 2003 the company experienced a sudden surge in production demand, which required an expansion of its heat treating operation to handle the increased capacity. The company decided to invest in a custom solution and began evaluating options for a new, custom heat treating line in October 2003. FRISA contacted Houghton to design and install the quench tank portion of the new line. Houghton also recommended using its furnace partner, Hi Tech Engineering (Torino, Italy), a company that designs and manufactures advanced furnace and material handling systems. Hi Tech had already developed and

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Computer concept turnkey heat treatment line.

implemented similar technology for forging companies in Europe with excellent results. FRISA looked at Hi Tech's technology in action at several customer locations in Europe that were using the concept and was impressed with the speed of the manipulator and the excellent condition of the furnaces after more than eight years of operation without any significant maintenance on them; the fiber was intact and the floor was like new. Based on the positive visit, FRISA was interested in installing a custom line that would include a furnace, quench tank, racking and quenchant expertise. Houghton reviewed all specifications of the

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Actual turnkey heat treatment line.

various products and required properties to be achieved via heat treating, as well as the plant's production demands and the available plant space to achieve that production. FRISA's goal was to move the charge from the furnace to quench tank in less than 60 seconds. Based on the results of the previous heat treatment line installation, Houghton determined that the various steel grades needed to be heated to a temperature of 1920 oF (1050oC) and cooled to 120 oF (50oC) to achieve the optimum CCT curve. A turnkey, three-stage system was recommended to achieve the objectives. Furnace charges would be transported on custom designed manipulators mounted on floor rails from the austenitizing furnace to the quench tank to

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the tempering furnace. The system had to be able to heat treat pieces ranging from 60 to 240 inch O.D. (1,524 to 6,096 mm) with and without racking, at charge weights up to 66,000 lbs. (30 metric tons). Because the proposal included only one quench tank, transfer from the pit to the quench tank needed to be as short as possible. The 65,000-gallon (246,000 liter) volume transfers from pit to tank in 40 minutes. The quench tank was required to quench a variety of materials; so two quenching zones were designed with variable speed for intensive agitation for low alloy steels and slower agitation for higher alloy steels. The furnaces should have a homogeneity of +14 oF (+8oC) at tempering temperatures and +25 oF (+14oC) within the set point on a survey on tempering temperature range and be as efficient as possible for fuel savings. The new austenitizing furnace incorporates nickel piers instead of cement piers, so heating and cooling rates are faster and it consumes less gas. The furnace also uses modulated flame instead of pulse firing. The furnaces were designed at the Hi Tech plant in Italy beginning in March 2004, and the furnace, quench tank and auxiliary equipment were constructed and assembled on-site by Houghton's technology partner DEPPSA. The quench tank was equipped with agitation technology, filtration and heat exchangers. The manipulator floor rails were installed and the manipulator was put into place. The same high

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molecular weight PAG quenchant technology as the existing heat treatment line was implemented at an 11-12% range. FRISA's new heat treating line became fully operational in March 2005 and can heat treat 120 tons/day, and is claimed to be one of the most advanced turnkey heat treating lines in the world. The speed from the furnace to full submersion in the tank is 53 seconds versus 90 seconds with the existing line. The maximum weight per load increased from 3,200 to 6,096 mm (126 to 240 in.) in diameter. Monthly production capacity increased from 3,000 to 6,000 metric tons. For more information, contact Houghton's Heat Treating Dept. in our Valley Forge, PA headquarters at 610-666-4000 or visit Houghton's web site at www.houghtonintl.com.

American Axle Contracts with Houghton for Fluid Management

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OUGHTON FLUIDCARE, a division of Houghton International, was selected by American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings, Inc. to provide a comprehensive chemical manage-

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ment program to reduce industrial fluids usage and associated costs. According to the three-year agreement, Houghton FLUIDCARE will manage all chemicals used at American Axle facilities in Three Rivers, Michigan and Guanajuanto, Mexico. Houghton's specialists will manage the procurement, inventory, delivery, and use of chemicals and commodity raw materials at both facilities. As part of the FLUIDCARE program, American Axle will have access to Houghto-Trend, Houghton's proprietary web-based tracking system for monitoring and trending fluid usage and performance. Houghto-Trend provides up-to- theminute statistics for all fluids used in the plant, enabling faster, more informed decision making, better inventory management, simpler waste management, and other operational benefits. American Axle & Manufacturing is a world leader in the manufacture, engineering, design and validation of driveline and drivetrain systems and related components and modules, chassis systems and metal-formed products for light trucks, sport utility vehicles and passenger cars. In addition to locations in the U.S. (Michigan, New York and Ohio), they also have offices or facilities in Brazil, China, England, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Scotland and South Korea. Houghton FLUIDCARE is a comprehensive chemical management program for manufactur-

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ers who want to reduce - and avoid - costs, improve process control, and enhance finishedproduct quality. The secret to its success is that it rewards process control rather than chemical usage. Houghton employs true chemical management experts who start by baselining the client's cost per production unit and then systematically takes steps to reduce that cost. By improving quality and increasing efficiency, FLUIDCARE enables clients to provide their customers with a better end product at a more competitive price. To learn more about Houghton FLUIDCARE, visit our web site at www.houghtonfluidcare.com.

Pratt & Whitney Approves Houghton's Hocut 795-B

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OUGHTON'S HOCUT 795-B biostable coolant has received approval for use in Pratt & Whitney manufacturing processes on any metal or alloy including aerospace aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel - approval number PMC 9386-1. This approval allows the use of Hocut 795-B in all Pratt & Whitney facilities and in those of its Tier II suppliers and subcontractors.

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Pratt & Whitney, a United Technologies Company, is a world leader in the design, manufacture and service of aircraft engines, space propulsion systems and industrial gas turbines. Pratt & Whitney becomes the fifth major aerospace manufacturer to allow coolant for use on aerospace aluminum, titanium and stainless steel. This approval is the latest to come from a major manufacturer in the world aerospace industry. Houghton's Hocut 795-B has previously received approval for use by Boeing (BAC5008), Goodrich (MMC233), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA specification MF0004-018), and Airbus (ABR90204). It's the most widely used coolant in the aerospace and automotive industries. Hocut 795-B incorporates additives to protect aircraft aluminum and also machine stainless steel, titanium and inconel. All of the Hocut 795 product line are heavy-duty, non-foaming, biostable machining and grinding fluids that do not sour from biological growth. Customers using Hocut 795 enjoy dramatically longer sump life and near-zero counts of bacteria and fungus without the use of sump side additives. Since Houghton introduced the Hocut 795 series in 1998, these products have been selected as coolant of choice in more than 1,000 major customer locations in the U.S. The Hocut 795

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customer base also includes Champion Aerospace, Ford Motor Company, DaimlerChrysler, General Motors Corp., Rolls-Royce, Timken/ Torrington, Caterpillar Inc., John Deere, Briggs & Stratton and Tecumseh Products Company. To learn more about Houghton's Hocut 795 product line contact us at our Valley Forge, PA headquarters at 610-666-4000 or visit our web site www.hocut795.com.

Organic Hydraulic Fluid Helps Harness Ocean Power

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OUGHTON'S COSMOLUBRIC TR-2000 vegetable oil-based hydraulic fluid has been selected for Ocean Power Technologies, Inc.'s PowerBuoy TM wave generation system. PowerBuoy is an alternative power generation technology that converts the mechanical energy of ocean waves into electrical power. PowerBuoy offshore wave energy converters, submerged below the water's surface, drive a generator on the ocean floor, producing high voltage DC, which is transmitted ashore via an underwater power cable. Ocean Power Technologies developed the PowerBuoy system based

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on a patented technology that integrates hydrodynamics, electronics, conversion mechanics, and computer control systems. Cosmolubric TR-2000 hydraulic fluid, used to cool and lubricate the PowerBuoy, is an environmentally friendly product made from vegetable oil, a renewable resource, and is environmentally safe. In the case of a hydraulic cylinder leak, Cosmolubric TR-2000 would disperse in the ocean water, would not cause a slick, and would have no adverse effect on the surrounding ecosystem. In addition, PowerBuoys are exposed to extreme temperatures, moisture, pressure and corrosive elements. Cosmolubric TR-2000 is formulated with additives that help protect the hydraulic system against corrosion and provide the required lubricity in these harsh, demanding environments. In today's world, we are still too dependent on energy sources that are being depleted, becoming expensive and are damaging to the environment. Ocean Power Technologies and Houghton International, both environmentally-conscious companies, are developing products that are safe, environmentally friendly and that are based on renewable resources. Houghton has been manufacturing and supplying fire resistant hydraulic fluids since the 1950's and currently offers the world's most

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extensive line of fire resistant hydraulic fluids along with extensive, ongoing technology and lab support services. Houghton is the only supplier of all types of water and anhydrous fire resistant hydraulic fluids, including water glycols, high water content fluids (HWCF), invert emulsions, polyol esters, phosphate esters and vegetable oil-based fluids.

Houghton Announces Joint Marketing Agreement With Rock Valley Oil & Chemical

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OUGHTON HAS SIGNED a joint marketing agreement with Rock Valley Oil & Chemical Company to distribute Rock Valley's line of automotive approved forming fluids for Class "A" body panels and structural members. These fluids include oil and water-based blank washes, stamping fluids, heavy-duty drawing, stamping, forming, and hydroforming compounds that are used in the manufacture of critical exterior body components, as well as structural and interior automotive parts. This marketing agreement broadens distribution of high-performance fluids for the automotive manufacturing industry through

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Houghton's extensive, global network of sales and technical support personnel. The combination of Rock Valley process fluids and Houghton metallurgic and metalworking fluids experts can help automotive Class "A" body panel formers improve production quality and reduce manufacturing costs. The metals industry is a mature industry with a deeply interconnected value chain facing heightened competitive pressure. Metals processing facilities, particularly those serving the automotive sector, increase profits by finding product or process improvements that increase quality and yields while reducing scrap and defects. This agreement helps them do just that. This agreement pertains solely to U.S. and Canadian markets. However, Houghton and Rock Valley anticipate future expansion of the agreement into global markets, including Europe and Asia.

WILLIAM F. MacDONALD, JR., President

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The

HOUGHTON LINE

Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.

Summer 2006

Volume LXX Number 2

Line Logic

After reading a manuscript full of spelling errors, playwright George S. Kaufman said, "I'm not very good at it myself but the first rule of spelling is that there's only one z in is." Today is the tomorrow you worried about yesterday - but not nearly enough. Humorist Fran Lebowitz declared, "Vegetables are interesting but have a lack of purpose when unaccompanied by a good cut of meat." Words of wit and wisdom from Oscar Wilde: "Always forgive your enemies - nothing annoys them so much." Only in America could "fat chance" and "slim chance" have the same meaning. Success is relative - the more success, the more relatives.

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It's Not Easy Being Amish

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E GAWK AT THEM. We marvel at their continued existence in the 21st century. We find it amazing that they can live without electricity, cars, radio, television, telephones, computers, cameras, insurance, higher education or Social Security checks. And, perhaps, we are a bit envious of the Amish. They seem so contented with their simple lifestyle. It appears to be a life without envy, stress or petty conflicts. They appear to have what we seek, but so often fail to find - a real sense of community and family. Those who have examined the Amish lifestyle closely do find basic satisfaction and happiness. However, separating themselves from the outside world is not easy nor does it come without a price. Most Americans are shocked when they read of Amish drug users and drug dealers. They are a small, inbred population plagued by genetic diseases. The outside world intrudes on their peaceful, farming lifestyle in a thousand ways. The Amish world has its own internal conflicts and controversies. They have split many times over matters of religious doctrine and just how much technology to adopt.

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Movie-goers got an inside look into a littleknown practice of allowing Amish teenagers to run wild for a year or two in the 2002 documentary film "Devil's Playground." The practice is rooted in the fact that Amish are Anabaptist, who rejected infant baptism, believing that only consenting adults can be baptized into the church. So, unbaptized teens are not yet church members bound by the strict laws of Amish doctrine. At age 16, most Amish teens plunge into a period called rumspringa, which roughly translates as "running around." The film recorded wild beer parties involving scores of youth. It documented a period of riding in cars, smoking, drinking, television viewing, pop-music, sex and often hard drugs. A handful become hooked on booze, drugs and the secular lifestyle. However, an amazing 90% choose baptism after a period of rumspringa. Joining the church means full adherence to all the restrictions of dress and lifestyle. Rumspringa, for most, serves a useful purpose of allowing youth to let off steam and to satisfy curiosity about the pleasures and vices of the outside world. In the end, most choose the tight-knit, sheltering community and familiar lifestyle in which they were raised There are only about 200,000 Amish in America and Canada. They've established communities in a dozen states but the most wellknown are the Amish of the Lancaster region of

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The Amish cling to old-fashioned ways and old-fashioned fun like sledding. Amish adults will not allow themselves to be photographed. They take the Biblical injunction against "graven images" to include photography, but children are not yet members of the church and can pose for pictures.

Pennsylvania. This was the group's first American settlement in the 1750's.

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These days, some seven million tourists a year come to gape at about 22,000 Amish residents of the Lancaster region. A tourist attraction is generally a place - the Grand Canyon, the Gettysburg Battlefield, or the bustling streets and skyscrapers of Manhattan. Here, the attraction is oddly dressed humans - seen mostly working in the fields or driving horse-drawn buggies down country roads. The Amish, obviously, do not enjoy their role as subjects in a "human zoo." They refuse to be photographed, although tourists never cease trying to snap the plain people. The entire regional economy seems to be based on exploiting the presence of the Amish. Many Amish have moved from the Lancaster region because land has become expensive, but they also cite the hoards of intrusive tourists as a factor in leaving "Pennsylvania Dutch Country." Another problem that seems to have no solution is the prevalence of genetic diseases in such a small inbred group. Researchers have found 39 genetic diseases among the Amish. Inherited problems include dwarfism, retardation and several metabolic diseases. Because they rarely involve themselves in politics, the Amish have minimal political clout. They often find themselves misunderstood and in conflict with the government regarding military service, schooling for their children and their use of horse carriages on auto roads. They take care of their own in old age so they refuse to

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pay into the Social Security system. This has led to arrests in the past. Despite the challenges of remaining unique and apart in the midst of raucous, high-tech society, the Amish have been remarkably successful in their quest to live apart and differently.

It's Not Too Late to Save the Lemurs: Primitive Ancestors of Mankind

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HEY ARE SO UNIQUE, so cute and cuddly in appearance that the endangered lemurs of far-off Madagascar have loads of friends fighting for their survival. Another reason to rally round the lemurs is because they are OUR ancestors. Scientists say the lemur are primates - a very primitive member of the family tree that includes apes, monkeys and man. They survived because the Texas-sized island of Madagascar broke away from the continent of Africa about 100 million years ago and moved 250 miles into the Indian Ocean. The plants and animals on the island evolved in isolation. The lemurs may have "rafted" on

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A baby ringtailed lemur rides on its mother's back high in the rainforests of Madagascar.

floating vegetation about 30 million years ago from Africa to Madagascar. There they evolved and flourished without competition from other primates. Madagascar is the only place on earth where lemurs exist. The odd-looking, saucer-eyed creatures are living proof of evolution and the adaptability of creatures to their environment. So far, experts have identified 50 species of lemurs and expect to identify even more.

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Wide-eyed and furry, and weighing less than 10 pounds, the lemur is a primitive ancestor of homo sapiens.

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Lemur experts are working against the clock. Some species may soon become extinct. They are rapidly losing habitat because the povertystricken Malagasy people have already cleared 85% of the forests to create small, subsistence farms. Various groups and institutions are working to save the lemur and the island's remaining forests. It's too late for some very large ape-sized lemurs who were exterminated by humans after they arrived in Madagascar about 2,000 years ago. One of the most active groups working to save lemurs and wild habitat is a consortium of 39 zoos from America, Europe and Australia known as the Madagascar Fauna Group. It has a celebrity champion in the person of British comic actor John Cleese. In 2005, a newly discovered lemur was named Avahi Cleesei in honor of the actor. There have been several successful examples of lemurs raised in zoos and reintroduced to the wild. The organization also has educational programs for Malagasy adults and children on the importance of saving habitat. The weird variety of lemurs include the mouse lemur, which weighs only an ounce or two - the size of a mouse. Some lemurs have adapted to the dry, desert sections of the island but most live in the trees of the rainforests.

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Most sleep at night, while other species are active in the dark. There's a variety of coloring, tail sizes and overall appearance. Lemurs tend to live in large social groups with a dominant female leader. Groups of ringtailed lemurs mark their territory with a musky smell. When one group intrudes on another's turf, it can spark a very violent battle of tooth and claw. While monkeys, apes, and humans get most of their information visually, the lemurs survive mostly on smell. Experts believe they communicate through smells centered in glands on various parts of their body. Odors can indicate territorial boundaries, a willingness to breed and family membership. They may smell bad, but lemurs spend long hours grooming themselves and each other - mainly with their teeth. Perhaps, the most impressive aspect of lemurs is their jumping ability. The long-legged Sifaka lemur is considered the best jumper in the animal world. Not even a kangaroo can match this primate. The Sifaka can spring up and sit on a 10-foot high basketball hoop. They can cover more than 30 feet in one long leap from tree-totree. Despite their endangered status, there's a lot of hope for saving the lemurs. Madagascar doesn't get loads of tourists, but those who make the journey are mostly interested in visiting the

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rainforests and viewing its wildlife. Live lemurs are vital to a healthy tourist industry and the Malagasy people have stopped eating and catching lemurs to sell. There are strict laws against trapping or trading in lemurs. Several areas have been set aside as wildlife preserves and the Walt Disney film "Madagascar" has brought attention to the place and its weird flora and fauna.

Ralph Bunche: African-American Trailblazer

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OST AMERICANS ARE PROUD - and a bit surprised - that the last two people to hold the powerful office of Secretary of State have been African-Americans. However, both Colin Powell and Condoleeza Rice have acknowledged that they are standing on the shoulders of one of the greatest diplomats of the 20th century, Ralph Bunche. "I remember when he got the Nobel Prize. I was 13 years old," Powell recalled in a speech. "We had Jackie Robinson and Joe Lewis. Great athletes, and there was General Benjamin O.

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Davis who had served with black troops in World War II. But we had never seen anything like Ralph Bunche. He transcended it all. He showed what the possibilities might be, and he was an inspiration to all of us." Probably, no other African-American received more honors and awards. More than 50 colleges and universities bestowed honorary degrees on Bunche. He won scores of awards and honors from cities, foreign nations, youth, religious and civil rights groups. Bunche beat out Winston Churchill and General George C. Marshall to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950 for his tireless efforts to negotiate an armistice that ended the fighting between the new nation of Israel and the surrounding Arab nations. Bunche was born in 1903 in Detroit. His father was a barber. His mother, an amateur pianist, was in ill health. It was felt that she would benefit from a warm, dry climate so the family moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico when Ralph was 10 years old. Tragically, both parents died in New Mexico, and young Ralph's maternal grandmother, Lucy Johnson, became the strong parental figure in the life of Bunche and his younger sister. "She was the strongest woman I even knew, although she stood less than five feet high," Bunche recalled.

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Ralph Bunche was the African-American diplomat and intellectual who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.

Lucy Johnson moved the family to Los Angeles. During his high school and college

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years in Los Angeles, Bunche displayed the character traits that led to greatness. He was a workaholic who wasn't afraid to get his hands dirty. He was a brilliant intellectual. To top it off, he was an outstanding athlete. The budding diplomat graduated at the top of his high school class and went on to UCLA where he was an outstanding basketball player on a championship team. He was also on the varsity baseball and football teams. He worked as a gymnasium janitor at the university and had his own part-time janitorial service, cleaning stores and shops in the city after class. The political science major was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and graduated with highest honors. Bunche won a scholarship for graduate studies at Harvard University. A black women's club in Los Angeles was so proud of the young man's accomplishment that it raised $1,000 to pay for his living expenses at Harvard. He got his masters degree at Harvard and after teaching a couple of years at Howard University in Washington, D.C., was awarded a fellowship to return to Harvard for his doctorate. It's hard to list all his early activities. Besides his Howard University position, he had a teaching relationship with Swarthmore College. He worked with famed sociologist, Gunnar Myrdal,

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in a groundbreaking study and survey of African-Americans. He traveled the world for the Social Science Research Council studying race, local customs and government. During World War II, he worked in the Office of Strategic Services, as chief researcher in the African Department. In 1944, he went to work for the State Department. In 1946, the government "loaned" his services to the United Nations. President Truman offered Bunche a groundbreaking appointment as an Assistant Secretary of State, but he declined the honor. He explained, "There is just too much Jim Crow in Washington for me. I wouldn't take my kids back there." The government's loss was the United Nations gain. He was the number two man at the U.N. for most of his 21 years with that organization. Overworked and ill, he wanted to retire at age 58. President Johnson and U.N. Secretary General U. Thant pressured him to continue his United Nation's duties. He stayed until two months before his death at age 67. An old Harvard buddy recalled, "What impressed me most about Ralph in those days was his optimism. I soon realized it was not wishful thinking, as was often the case, but rather based on a long history of overcoming obstacles and an uncanny ability to produce a stupendous amount of work over long sustained periods."

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Urban Stormwater: A Hidden Problem

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CIENCE IS LEARNING THAT a raindrop, passing through the atmosphere, across the landscape and into open water, is by no means "pure." It may be surprising that rain is a major source of water pollution. However, research indicates that U.S. urban stormwater runoff may be responsible for up to 15% of river and lake water impairment and over 25% of estuaries problems. In settings with minimal development forests or meadows for example - rainwater is absorbed by the soil and ultimately enters the surface water (lakes and streams) or percolates into deeper soils to become part of the groundwater. When no more water can be absorbed, additional rainfall pools on the surface and follows the local contours of the land, usually ending up in a natural stream channel. This process is part of a cycle by which natural systems manage the planet's water supply. The process changes when humans enter the picture, covering pieces of land with "impervious surfaces" that block rain flow. These can range from driveways to superhighways, from the roof of a tool shed to the roof of a sports complex. Even urban soils - natural surfaces compacted by human activity - can act as impervious surfaces.

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All of these have one thing in common almost every location now covered by an impervious surface was once a site where rainwater could reach the soil. Unlike most natural surfaces, where about 90% of rainfall is absorbed, rain that falls on pavements or buildings generally ends up as runoff. An inch of rain falling, for example, on a fifty-acre parking lot can translate into a million gallons of water that has to end up somewhere. In many cases that "somewhere" is into a storm drain, emptying in a high volume "pulse" to a stream or waterway. Flooding, habitat destruction, stream erosion, changes in stream temperature, and increases in sediments and contaminants are all potential results of this practice. A strong storm pulse, for example, can "scour" a stream bed, removing sediment and destroying wildlife habitat. Conversely, an increase in impervious surfaces can decrease groundwater levels, making less water available for rivers and streams during dry periods. Urban flooding, when storm drains are overwhelmed, is the most costly form of natural disaster in the U.S. Between 1989 and 1999 just over 45 billion dollars in losses were sustained during floods and almost 1,000 people lost their lives. Even without flooding, stormwater carries an array of hazards. Urban runoff is not moving across pristine surfaces. It travels over parking

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lots, backyards, roadways, construction sites, junkyards, garbage dumps, and abandoned buildings, each with its own complement of contaminants. In 1984, the National Urban Runoff Program examined 2,300 samples of stormwater from 28 major cities and found contaminants ranging from phosphorous and nitrogen to copper and lead. Studies have found that exposure to urban runoff concentrations as low as 10% can damage fish larvae, and fish in stormwater retention ponds have been found to have highly elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Moreover, the higher level of urban development in a watershed, the more toxic the runoff. Recent studies by NASA show that when impervious surfaces cover 10% to 15% of an area there are "measurable effects" on water quality. Between 15% and 25% coverage results in reduced levels of oxygen available to stream life, and covering greater than 25% of an area can cause direct mortality for aquatic organisms. There are many ways that pollutants reach storm water. Gasoline spills - even the few drops that land on the parking lot when fueling a car can total up to thousands of gallons a year in urban areas. Home construction disrupts soil and adds dust, sediment and other particulate matter to the watershed. Domestic practices include lawn fertilizing, automobile oil changes, car washing, and leached contami-

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nants from grass clippings. In fact, residential neighborhoods can be more damaging to aquatic life than industrial and commercial settings. In 1987, the U.S. Congress amended the Clean Water Act to require municipalities and other stormwater sources to take responsibility for the pollutants generated by their runoff. Under these amendments, municipal stormwater dischargers are required to have a permit from the EPA. To obtain these permits, municipalities have to take specific steps, including passing and enforcing local ordinances, that would reduce stormwater pollution. Many municipalities, however, have balked at the costs, which regulations compliance requires, and over the years implementation has moved in parallel with a variety of lawsuits. The National Association of Flood and Stormwater Management Agencies maintains that stormwater discharges cannot be regulated in the same manner as so-called "point source" discharges (such as factories and sewage plants). They have been joined in this opposition by construction groups and municipal government associations. Despite this, a number of cities have begun to take steps to comply with permit requirements, reducing pollutants to the Maximum

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Extent Possible - known as MEPs - called for by the regulations. Given that stormwater is ubiquitous, however, and given that stormwater contamination sources are too varied to effectively regulate individual polluters, what are the alternatives available to municipalities to deal with this problem? Regulations can't stop the rain, and they can't stop the runoff; what then can they do to stop the flow of pollutants? Actually, there are a variety of steps communities and individuals can take to decrease stormwater runoff contaminants. The selection and implementation of "best management practices" (BMPs) is the key to how municipalities manage their runoff. The "toolbox" of BMPs includes a mix of both structural practices like stormwater basins or retention tanks, and simpler, less expensive "nonstructural practices," like recycling waste oil. Generally, a stormwater management program includes five minimum control measures:

· · · · ·

Public education and outreach. Public participation and involvement. Detection of illicit discharge. Controlling runoff from construction sites and from developed areas following construction. Pollution prevention and good housekeeping.

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Some of these steps, like controlling runoff from development, are self-evident. Others may be less apparent. For example, few people think of street sweeping as a way of lessening water pollution. Ultimately, though, everything on the streets ends up in the gutter, and just as inevitably, everything in the gutter gets washed into storm drains. Practices as simple as proper disposal of leaves and grass clippings can have a limited but tangible effect on stormwater runoff. Public education is also important and includes activities that range from stenciling storm drains to producing fact sheets that instruct homeowners in techniques that lessen dumping contaminants. "Illicit" discharges are a major part of the stormwater problem. An EPA study in Sacramento, CA found almost half of the water in the storm drains was not directly attributable to rainfall, meaning other discharges are being directed into the drains. The EPA requires each municipality have an ordinance to prohibit illicit discharges and that it map storm sewers to identify unauthorized hook-ups. They are then directed to have a plan for enforcement and public education. Illicit does not necessarily mean illegal. In many cases the discharge is due to lack of information. Private activities like car washing and radiator flushing are not commonly thought of as criminal behaviors. In other

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cases, however, the illicit use of storm sewers may represent efforts to avoid environmental laws. In such cases, law enforcement becomes a tool for preventing stormwater contamination. Effectively carrying out such enforcement, however, remains a significant challenge. While there are quick and low-cost steps that can be taken to address stormwater pollution, larger scale actions will be required for municipalities to fully comply with EPA requirements. These include capture and storage of stormwater and creating or conserving open space and woodlands. These costlier, "structural" BMPs can involve significant capital investment, often requiring public funds that may not be available. A common practice for decreasing flood pulses and minimizing contaminants is using one or more permanent storage ponds to detain the water, allow time for sediment and pollutants to settle out, and then release it to a natural waterway or wetlands. This has proven very effective in flood control and the removal of toxins. The use of ponds, however, is not without controversy. Because these are utilitarian structures, they are often seen as marring the landscape while displacing natural ecosystems. Since they are placed in highly populated areas, there are safety concerns as well as recurrent

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nuisance issues like mosquitoes and algal blooms. There are also concerns that sediment collected in the ponds, sometimes containing heavy metals and other pollutants, may be hazardous to the wildlife and people in their immediate proximity. Because of the strong public works orientation of stormwater management, there is a tendency to seek engineering solutions to stormwater problems. More recent thinking suggests the control of stormwater runoff lies in the patterns of land use and development of an urbanizing nation. In this view, land use planning, watershed planning, and political entities may play a more crucial role than structures and machinery. For many cities, however, limiting impervious surfaces is often seen as limiting economic growth. Moreover, planning for preventative steps is difficult in areas that are already developed and for small municipalities the costs may be quite daunting. Scientific evidence, though, strongly indicates urban runoff is having a decidedly detrimental effect on water quality. Environmental groups, faced with understandable concerns over delays and possible effects on water quality, stand ready to again pursue litigation that would compel the EPA to more forcefully regulate dischargers. Unlike many environmental issues, the stormwater controversy is happening squarely

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within the public sector, with local government being induced to take actions that may strain financial resources. Perhaps the most intractable aspect of urban runoff contamination is that the "blame" can only be placed on society as a whole. Addressing this will be no small task, regardless of the Best Management Practices employed and regardless of the regulations ultimately issued. Lacking the "point" of a point source polluter to curtail, the answer to the urban runoff problem must come from wide-scale adjustments in the habits of millions of individuals and communities. The preceding article was provided by The Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, PA who produces a series of important environmental topics entitled "Know Your Environment." "Know Your Environment" is sponsored by the Environmental Associates of the Academy, a group of leading businesses that contribute to specific Academy projects. A key goal of the group is to expand dialogue between industry and the environmental advocates. Houghton thanks The Academy of Natural Sciences for providing this article for the readers of The Houghton Line.

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George F. Train: Genius or Crackpot?

I

F EVER A MAN DESERVED a chapter in a book entitled "The World's Greatest Cranks and Crackpots," it's George Francis Train. Perhaps crank and crackpot are too harsh. One writer got it right when he referred to Train as "the ultimate eccentric." Running for President of the United States in 1872, Train described himself this way, "I am that wonderful, eccentric, independent, extraordinary genius and political reformer of America, who is sweeping off all the politicians before him like a hurricane, your modest, diffident, unassuming friend, the future president of America - George Francis Train." Train was indeed eccentric and extraordinary but a total flop as a presidential candidate. Still, he accomplished some amazing feats and deserves to be remembered for several reasons. He was a visionary who helped build America's transcontinental railroad. He was also responsible for launching one of the 19th century's biggest political scandals. And when he bragged that he had just completed a trip around the world in just 80 days, it inspired French writer Jules Verne to write a book. Experts agree that Verne's Phileas Fogg is based on the globetrotting Train. Train, an inveterate traveler, actually circled the world three times. His 80-day journey was

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made in 1870 with a starting and ending point of Tacoma, Washington where a marker still commemorates the trip. Then in 1892, Train bragged that he "eclipsed all previous records," by circling the world in a flat 60 days. To say that Train sprang from humble origins is an understatement. Born in New Orleans in 1824, he was an orphan by age four. Both parents and three sisters died during a yellow fever epidemic, but little George was placed onboard a ship in the care of strangers bound for Massachusetts, where he was raised by a grandmother. He worked as a grocery clerk until age 16 when he brashly bluffed his way into a job with a distant relative who had a worldwide shipping business. Soon he was a partner. In the early 1920's, Train quit and was off to Australia where there was a gold rush. He didn't dig for gold but made money a dozen different ways in Australia. When gold miners revolted and attempted to break away and set up their own republic, Train was offered the presidency but wisely declined. During the American Civil War, Train was in Great Britain involved in all sorts of enterprises including establishing England's first horse-drawn streetcars. But he also published a newspaper and wrote pamphlets with the aim of keeping England from supporting the rebellious South.

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George Francis Train was a ball of energy and brashness. His eccentric impulses led him to circle the globe three times and run for United States President.

Back in America, the dynamic businessman secured a charter from Congress to build the Union Pacific Railroad to link the West with the rest of the nation. He tried to get financing from

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Cornelius Vanderbilt, who thought the project was unrealistic and doomed to failure. Train set up a corporation for financing the railroad called Credit Mobilier. But Train, who never stuck with anything very long, had fortunately left the corporation when a national scandal broke. The officers of Credit Mobilier had illegally diverted profits to themselves and had bribed many congressmen and government officials with large blocks of stock. Train truly lived in the fast-lane. For instance, only 48 hours after he laid eyes on his wife-to-be, he was engaged to be married. "I have ever been an advocate of speed," he once declared. "I was born into a slow world and I wished to oil the wheels and gears, so that the machine would spin faster and to better purpose." The year before he died he dictated his autobiography in 35 hours. He was jailed several times in several countries. Some, including Mark Twain, considered Train a ridiculous publicity-hound. But the leading feminists of the era, such as Susan B. Anthony, were more than pleased to have him as an energetic spokesman for women's rights. One critic characterized Train as "excitable and visionary to the point of insanity." But women's rights leader, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, considered him "a gentleman in dress and manners and one of the most effective public speakers of the era."

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New Biostable Polymer Quenchant for Steel Alloys

H

OUGHTON INTRODUCES Aqua-Quench 245, the newest product in the Aqua-Quench biostable polymer quenchant line. Aqua-Quench 245 is specially formulated for induction hardening and immersion quenching of highhardenability steel alloys and other applications that require a slower heat extraction rate. Houghton's Aqua-Quench 245 is a polyalkylene glycol-based polymer quenchant formulated with a combination of ingredients that make it more resistant to microbial degradation - degradation that occurs when contaminated pre-heat treatment processing fluids are carried on parts into the quench tank. The quenchant's biostable technology resists microbial contamination, extending the life of the fluid. Aqua-Quench 245 does not leave a deposit on quenched parts or cause a sticky buildup on equipment, and it contains a nitritefree corrosion inhibitor that protects inductors, limit switches, quench tanks, pipes, and fittings. Aqua-Quench 245 is ideal for the induction hardening of high hardenability steel alloy parts such as gears, shafts, crankshafts, camshafts, transmission components, ring gears, and bearings, as well as typical immersion-quenching applications.

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Heat treaters can vary the concentration of Aqua-Quench 245 to achieve the desired hardenability and metallurgical characteristics. Key Features of Aqua-Quench 245

·

Biostable - helps prevent contamination of the quench tank from bacteria-ridden process fluids used prior to heat treatment. Prevents blockage of spray nozzles and filters.

·

· Extends system life. · Protects systems from corrosion with a

nitrite-free inhibitor.

· Improves wetability on part surface. · Eliminates steam pockets and the formation of soft spots normally associated with water quenching.

· Provides flexibility of quenching speed.

For more information on Aqua-Quench 245 or our complete line of heat treating products, contact Houghton's Heat Treating Dept. at our Valley Forge, PA headquarters at 610-666-4000 or visit our web site at www.houghtonintl.com.

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Quench-Kleen 5343 Spray Cleaner For Heat Treating Applications

H

OUGHTON'S CLEANING TECHNOLOGIES GROUP introduces Quench-Kleen 5343, a non-MEA, non-nitrited, low-residue, alkaline spray cleaner specifically formulated for heat treating applications. It is particularly effective in removing quench oils, splitting them out of solution, whether used in single-stage or multistage washing equipment. Quench-Kleen 5343 is strong enough to clean virtually all ferrous alloys, yet far less volatile than other cleaners. It's more stable than solvent emulsions and silicated cleaners that contain monoethanol amines, so users can clean surfaces as warm as 170 oF with no harmful effects to work staff or the environment. The non-foaming action of Quench-Kleen 5343 presents no barrier to subsequent coating or welding, and provides short-term, in-plant protection against rust and corrosion. Because it's more pH stable, Quench-Kleen 5343 offers the dual cost savings of longer bath life and reduced need for sumpside additives. In addition to use in single-stage washers, it may be used in all stages of multi-stage washers, and produces excellent results in spray washers operating at pressures ranging from 40 to 250 psi.

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Quench-Kleen 5343 is water-soluble, so it is easy to recycle. It's compatible with all industryaccepted recycling methods, which reduces costs associated with waste disposal and fluid replacement. It's also compatible with Houghton's biostable coolants, so both fluids can be used and recycled simultaneously without risk of contamination. Houghton's Cleaning Technologies Group draws on its unique expertise in metalworking, heat treating and metal finishing, assisting manufacturers in all areas of the cleaning operation. Houghton analyzes each stage of the metalworking and metal finishing process in order to recommend the most suitable products and processes.

New Corrosion Inhibitor Resists Corrosion in Pipes and Tubing

H

OUGHTON INTRODUCES Cosmoline PTC (for pipe, tubing and concrete), a new water-based coating that inhibits rust and corrosion on pipes and tubing. When applied during the manufacturing process, Cosmoline PTC improves the ability of pipes and tubing to resist

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general or uniform corrosion (rust) and localized pitting corrosion. Customers utilizing Cosmoline PTC technology in the field report neither general nor pitting type corrosion after two years. General corrosion is caused by water and gases in the air, while pitting corrosion can occur from acids produced by bacterial action on organic materials on the surface of the pipe. Cosmoline PTC is formulated with organic materials that show resistance to this type of bacterial action. Pitting corrosion from bacterial activity is also referred to as microbially induced corrosion (MIC), which is a growing concern for many product design engineers. MIC takes a heavy toll on a number of industries, with some estimates placing the annual cost of repair and replacement for MIC damage as high as $300 billion. Cosmoline PTC is the newest member of Houghton's expanding "sustainable development and green products" array, and is formulated with the operators and environment in mind. It contains no nitrites, and is water-based for easy recycling and disposal.

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HOUGHTON REPRESENTATIVES

ALABAMA, MOODY 35004, 4045 Wellington Way ................................................ 205-640-1774 ALASKA , To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 ARIZONA , To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 ARKANSAS , Contact Carrollton, GA office .............................................................. 770-832-3507 CALIFORNIA , To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 COLORADO , To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 CONNECTICUT, Contact Allentown, PA FLORIDA, JACKSONVILLE 32205, 2836 Forbes Street ........................................ 904-384-4832 GEORGIA, ·CARROLLTON 30117, 421 Garrett St., P.O. Box 860 ....................... 770-832-3507 HAWAII , To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 IDAHO, To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 ILLINOIS ·CHICAGO 60638, 6600 S. Nashville Ave. .............................................. 773-767-6760 LIBERTYVILLE 60048, 15391 West Clover Lane ............................................ 847-918-8712 PEORIA 61614, 816 W. Country Meadows ..................................................... 309-691-4953 INDIANA, FISHERS 46038, 6105 Bristlecone Drive ............................................... 317-577-9090 INDIANAPOLIS ................................................................................................... 317-577-9090 ·LAFAYETTE 47905, 3150 South County Road 460 East ............................... 765-471-9789 IOWA, BETTENDORF 52722, 3982 Valley View Drive ............................................ 563-332-6984 ANKENY 50021, 814 S.E. Richland Circle ........................................................ 515-965-8194 KANSAS , Contact Blue Springs, Missouri office ....................................................... 816-229-8572 KENTUCKY, Contact Carrollton, GA ........................................................................ 770-832-3507 LOUISIANA , OFFSHORE PRODUCTS .................................................................... 713-532-5300 MAINE, Contact Allentown, PA ................................................................................. 610-395-8440 MASSACHUSETTS , WILBRAHAM 01095, 5 Stirrup Lane ...................................... 413-531-1212 MICHIGAN, ADA 49301, 7654 Leyton Drive ........................................................... 616-676-8865 TROY 48098, 5750 New King Street, Suite 350 (Sales Office) ....................... 248-265-7745 MINNESOTA, BLOOMINGTON 55438, 8350 West 109th St. ................................ 952-942-0169 MISSISSIPPI, Contact Carrollton, GA office .............................................................. 770-832-3507 MISSOURI, KANSAS CITY 64015, 1704 1st St., Blue Springs ................................ 816-229-8572 MONTANA , To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 NEW HAMPSHIRE, Contact Allentown, PA NEVADA , To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 NEW JERSEY, NEWARK, Contact Allentown, PA .................................................... 610-395-8440 NEW MEXICO, To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 NEW YORK, ALBANY, Contact Allentown, PA ......................................................... 610-395-8440 GRAND ISLAND 14072, 1384 Glen Avon Road ............................................. 716-773-2825 JOHNSON CITY 13790, 161 Jay Street ........................................................... 607-760-3132 NEW YORK CITY, Contact Allentown, PA ......................................................... 610-395-8440 NORTH CAROLINA , WAKE FOREST 27587, 5125 Ten Point Trail ....................... 919-570-9726 NORTH DAKOTA , Contact Chicago, IL office OHIO, ANTWERP 45813, 13198 CR 27A ............................................................... 419-506-0572 MEDINA 44256, 245 Montview Drive ................................................................. 330-722-7809 PEMBERVILLE 43450, 314 Bond Street .......................................................... 248-265-7745 OKLAHOMA , Contact Blue Springs, MO office ........................................................ 816-229-8572 OREGON, To place orders, call: 888-459-9844

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PENNSYLVANIA , ·ALLENTOWN 18106, 6681 Snowdrift Rd ................................ 610-395-8440 HARRISBURG-LANCASTER, YORK, Call Allentown plant ............................... 610-395-8440 PHILADELPHIA, see Valley Forge, PA 5 VALLEY FORGE 19482, Madison & Van Buren Aves., P.O. Box 930 ...................................................................................................... 610-666-4000 PUERTO RICO, Ochoa Industrial Sales Corp., Box 363968, SAN JUAN 00936-3968 ................................................................................... 787-788-8000 RHODE ISLAND , Contact Allentown, PA SOUTH CAROLINA CHARLESTON 29492, 1079 Barfield St.. .............................. 843-343-2483 SUMTER 29150, 945 Oak Brook Blvd. .............................................................. 803-469-4368 SOUTH DAKOTA , Contact Chicago, IL office TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE 37922, 9719 Valley Woods Lane ................................. 865-560-9060 COLLIERVILLE 38017, 622 West Poplar - PMB 304 ....................................... 901-521-1143 HENDERSONVILLE 37075, 130 Coarsey Blvd. ............................................... 615-822-7658 TEXAS, DALLAS 75235, P.O. Box 35088 ............................................................... 888-459-9844 COLLEYVILLE 76034, 123 Cheek Sparger Road ........................................... 817-498-2707 EL PASO, To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 ·FORT WORTH 76116, 4734 Highway 377 South, Suite 20 .............................. 877-313-4157 ¦HOUSTON 77251-1816, 1918 Collingsworth Street .......................................... 800-888-3507 ·HOUSTON 77042, 10375 Richmond Ave., Suite 1105 (Offshore Products) ...... 713-532-5300 UTAH, To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 VERMONT, Contact Allentown, PA (Metalworking) WASHINGTON, To place orders, call: 888-459-9844 BONNEY LAKE 98390, P.O. Box 7976 ............................................................. 253-891-1910 WEST VIRGINIA, PARKERSBURG 26102, P.O. Box 103 ...................................... 304-428-1331 WISCONSIN, MILWAUKEE ........................................................................................ 414-507-9499 WYOMING: To place orders, call: 888-459-9844

FOR STATES NOT LISTED : Call nearest office for information

TAKE A LOOK AT THE HOUGHTON LINE: Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids/hydraulic oils/machining coolants/metal cleaners/rust preventives/metal forming products/converstion coating and prepaint/ cost-saving technical service.

·Plants/Offices located in these cities

¦Warehouse office

5 Headquarters location

ALSO: Check us out at www.houghtonintl.com

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Do the machines in your workplace have "bad breath?" Why do people put up with "Monday Morning odor?" Isn't it time you tried a coolant that won't make your factory smell...well, like a factory? www.hocut795.com

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WILLIAM F. MacDONALD, Jr., Editor Published by

HOUGHTON INTERNATIONAL INC. Oils and chemicals for industry Madison & Van Buren Aves. P.O. Box 930 Valley Forge, PA 19482-0930

OFFICERS

William F. MacDonald, Jr., Chief Executive Officer Thad L. Piatkowski, President - Houghton Metal Finishing Wesley D. Warner, Vice President - Human Resources Joseph G. Wintsch, Vice President - Sales Rosauro V. Holgado, Vice President - Technical Service Joseph F. Warchol, Ph.D., Vice President - Technical Jay C. Rohr, Treasurer David H. Hays, Controller

CONTENTS

Shop Improvements Meet Challenges of Heat Treating Very Large Parts (Part II) ....................... 1 American Axle Contracts with Houghton .......................... 5 Pratt & Whitney Approves Hocut 795-B ............................. 7 Organic Hydraulic Fluid Helps Harness Ocean Power ...... 9 Houghton Announces Joint Marketing Agreement with Rock Valley Oil & Chemical ................. 11 Line Logic ................................................................................ 13 It's Not Easy Being Amish .................................................. 14 It's Not Too Late to Save the Lemurs .................................. 18 Ralph Bunche - African-American Trailblazer .................. 23 Urban Stormwater - A Hidden Problem ............................. 28 George F. Train - Genius or Crackpot? ............................... 37 New Biostable Polymer Quenchant ...................................... 41 Quench-Kleen 5343 Spray Cleaner ................................... 43 New Corrosion Inhibitor Cosmoline PTC .......................... 44 Questions to Ponder ............,............................................. 48

Cover: The lemur species is on the list of the most endangered primates. See article beginning on page 18.

The HOUGHTON LINE will be mailed free to executives of industrial corporations where our products can be of service, in the United States and around the world.

HOUGHTON INTERNATIONAL INC.

50

TO. Box HOUGHTON LINE P. HE 930/Valley Forge, PA 19482-9300

Subsidiary Companies, Affiliated Companies and Distributors

ARGENTINA Quimica True Sacif., Avda Pedro Dreyer 2678, (B1841FNN) Monte Grande, Buenos Aires .............................................................................. 54-11-4235-1111 AUSTRALIA , Houghton Australia Pty. Ltd., 287 Wickham Rd. (Head Office) Moorabbin Vic. 3189 ..................................................................................................................... 61-3-9555-0344 AUSTRIA, Houghton Deutschland GmbH, Niederlassung Osterreich Hauptstrasse 51, A-7222 Rohrbach ............................................................................................. 43-2626-65035 BRAZIL, Houghton Brasil Ltda., Rua Alpont, 170 Capuava, 09380-908 Maua-Sao Paulo ....................................................................................................... 55-11-4512-8200 CANADA, Houghton Canada Inc., 100 Symes Rd., P.O. Box 113, Sta. D. Toronto, Ont. M6P 3J5 ................................................................................................................... 416-763-4691 CHILE, Pacific Resources LTDA., Coronel Pereira 72 Of. 201 Las Condes, Santiago .................... 56-2-207-7756 CHINA, Houghton (China) Co., Ltd., 5th Subarea, Chegongmiao Industrial Area, Shenzhen, 518040, People's Republic of China ..................................................................... 86-755-8330-7001 DENMARK, Houghton Danmark A/S, Centervej 26, 4180 Soro ....................................................... 45-45-85-23-00 FINLAND, Teknoma Oy, P.O. Box 75, FIN-02231, Espoo ................................................................. 358-0-681021 FRANCE, Houghton S.A.S., 259 Rue Benoit-Mulsant, ZAC Nord Est. B.P. 41, 69652 Villefranche-Cedex ................................................................ 33-4-74-65-6500 GERMANY, Houghton Deutschland GmbH, Robert-Koch-Str. 6, 65479 Raunheim .......................... 49-6142-943-0 GREECE, Dynateco Ltd., 20 Irinis Ave., Pefki, 15121, Athens ........................................... 30-210-6141-1201 HONG KONG, Houghton Asia Pacific Co. Ltd., Rm. 817, Landmark North 39, Lung Sum Avenue, Sheung Shui, N.T. ................................................................................ 852-2770-8211 IRELAND, Houghton Oils & Chemicals (Ireland) Ltd., Dunboyne Industrial Park, Dunboyne, County Meath, Republic of Ireland ............................................................................ 353-1-8255755 ITALY, Houghton Italia S.p.A., Casella Postale 6069, 16162 Genova Bolzaneto ............................ 39-010-726411 Houghton Levenit Srl, Strada del Fornacino 85/D, 10040 Leini, Torino .............................. 39-011-9917611 JAPAN , Houghton Japan Co. Ltd., Takanawa Nakayama Bldg. 3F 2-16-45 Takanawa, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0074 ......................................................................... 81-3-5449-6550 KOREA, Korea Houghton Corp., 19th Floor, KSCFC Building, 395 70 Shin Dae Bang-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-714 .......................................................................................................... 82-2-3284-3301 MALAYSIA Houghton Oil (Malaysia) SDN. BHD., 313 Block E, Kelana Parkview No. l, Jalan SS 6/2 Kelena Jaya, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan ................................. 60-3-7805-4633 MEXICO, Especialidades Quimicas Monterrey, S A. De C. V., Apdo Postal 1230, Monterrey, N. L. Mexico 64000 .............................................................. 52-81-8335-76-11 THE NETHERLANDS, Houghton Benelux BV, Energieweg 26, 4906 CG Oosterhout .................... 31-162-458400 NEW ZEALAND , Paykel Engineering Ltd., P.O. Box 5046, Wellesley Street, Auckland 6 .............. 64-9-268-3600 NORWAY, Houghton Norge A.S, Strandveien 50, 1366 Lysaker ...................................................... 47-67-12-99-80 POLAND, Houghton Polska Sp.z.o.o, Ul. Kapelanka 17, 30-347, Krakow ...................................... 48-12-266-5240 ROMANIA, Houghton Romania S.R.L., Soseaua Cristianului nr. 12, Pav. Projectare, et 2, RO-500053 Brasov .................................................................................. 40-268-406360 SINGAPORE, Houghton Singapore, 20 Bideford Road, #09-01 Wellington Building Singapore 229921 ............................................................................................................................. 65-6235-1544 SOUTH AFRICA, Chemserve Systems, 200 Bergrivier Drive, Chloorkop 1624 ...................... 27-11-922-1600 SPAIN, Houghton Iberica, Avda. Arraona, 73-79 Pol. Ind. Can Salvatella-Torre Mateu, 08210 Barbera del Valles, Barcelona .............................................................................. 3493-718-8500 SWEDEN, Houghton Sverige AB, Kapplopningsgatan 6, 25230 Helsingborg ...................................... 46-42-29-5510 SWITZERLAND, Houghton (Schweiz) AG, Hubstrasse 33, Postfach 646, 9501 Wil ................. 41-71-911-4747 TAIWAN, Houghton Taiwan Co. Ltd., 8/F-2, No. 115 Keelung Rd., Sec. 2, Taipei, R.O.C. ............................................................................................................... 886-2-2739-3707 THAILAND, Thai Houghton 1993 Co., Ltd., 77/105-106, 25th Floor, Sinn Sathorn Tower, Krungdhonburi Rd., Klongsarn, Bangkok 10600 ..................................... 662-440-1262-6 TURKEY, Houghton Kimya Sanayi A.S., Meclisi Mebusan, Caddesi 167/2, Tutun Han 80040, Kabatas, Istanbul ...................................................................................... 90-212-334-49-60 UNITED KINGDOM, Houghton plc., Beacon Road, Trafford Park, Manchester M17 1AF ......... 44-161-874-5000

Address Correction Requested HOUGHTON INTERNATIONAL INC. P. O. Box 930 Valley Forge, PA 19482-0930 PRSRT STD U. S. Postage Paid Permit No. 456 Philadelphia, Pa.

language.

smile is the same in any

Dear Reader: Please return mailing label when making address corrections.

HOUGHTON in Australia . . . Houghton Australia Pty. Ltd. Victoria:

287 Wickham Road, P.O. Box 1202 Moorabbin 3189 Phone (03) 9555-0344 Fax (03) 9555-0748

New South Wales:

Unit 1, 14 Stennett Road Ingleburn 2565 Phone (02) 9829-3311 Fax (02) 9829-5400

South Australia:

19 North Terrace Hackney 5069 Mail to: P.O. Box 2214 Kent Town 5071 Phone (08) 8362-7424 Fax (08) 8362-2762

smile is the same in any language.

Dear Reader: Please return mailing label when making address corrections.

Address Correction Requested HOUGHTON INTERNATIONAL INC. P. O. Box 930 Valley Forge, PA 19482-0930 PRSRT STD U. S. Postage Paid Permit No. 456 Philadelphia, Pa.

language.

smile is the same in any

Dear Reader: Please return postcard inside as soon as possible.

smile is the same in any language.

Dear Reader: Please return mailing label when making address corrections.

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