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Science Curriculum

For

Early Childhood, PreK-Gr. 2

Holyoke Public Schools

Vision Statement

"Education is not the filling ofa pail but, rather, the lighting ofa fire. " William B. Yeats

High quality science programs for young children reflect the following characteristics: · The prior experiences, backgrounds and early theories of children are included and built upon. · The natural curiosity of children is encouraged by guiding students to ask their own questions and develop their own ideas. · Children are engaged in an in depth investigation of a topic over time. · Children are encouraged to reflect on, represent, and document their own experiences and to share those experiences with others · Science is embedded in children's daily work and play. · All children have access to science experiences. (Worth and Grollman, 2003) The Science Curriculum of the Holyoke Public Schools recognizes the importance that science has in the development of higher order thinking skills and future academic success as well as the joy and wonder that the sciences bring into our lives. We recognize that the rich experiential environment of a good science program provides opportunities for all children to deepen their understanding of science ideas. It supports the goals of the National Science Standards that "all students .....should have the opportunity to attain high levels of scientific literacy." (National Research Council, 1996)

Science Curriculum

Holyoke Public Schools

Science Curriculum for Early Childhood, PreK - 2

Table of Contents

Earth and Space Strand Life Science Strand Physical Science Strand Technology/Engineering Strand

1

11

27

37

Earth and Space Science Learnine Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#1 Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will recognize that water, rocks, soil, and living organisms are found on the earth's surface. Activity Assessment

Pre-K Children will engage in independent exploration of sand and water using Sand and Water Tables. They will compare dry and wet sand and the properties of water using assorted manipulatives.

Class chart- "What We Learn in the Sand and Water Center"

Teacher and students will create a classroom garden in the Sand Table. Children's drawings of observations Children will observe and interact with the living things and have an opportunity to explore living organisms in a natural environment.

~-

K

Teacher will guide student as they create a classroom rock collection. Students will sort rocks by attribute-size, shape, weight, and texture. They will record their rock sorts on individual recording sheets. After reading I Went Walking by Sue Williams, students will then take a Discovery Walk. They will collect and/or take digital photos of items found on walk in small bag. They will then sort items into categories - water, rocks, soil, living organisms.

Individual recording sheet

Completed categories

1

Earth and Space Science Learnine; Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#1 Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will recognize that water, rocks, soil, and living organisms are found on the earth's surface. Assessment Activity

Gr. 1

Teacher will guide student as they create a classroom rock collection. Students will sort rocks by attribute-size, shape, weight, and texture. They will record their rock sorts on individual recording sheets. Dig up a section of soil outside school. Select dirt from an area where plants are growing so that roots will be seen. Children will examine dirt sample and record what they find in their sample.

Individual recording sheet

Attribute chart, "What We Found in Our Dirt Sample."

Gr. 2

Students will compare and contrast soil samples from different sources Class developed Venn diagram that such as sand, potting soil, and school yard. compares soil samples by attribute- ie. smell, texture, and presence of particles Science Journal entries After reading The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth by Joanna Cole, students will revisit sample journal entries in text and choose one to use as a prompt in their Science Journals. Possible topics include: Where Do Rocks Come From? What Are Rocks Made Of? What is Soil?

* Foss Kit- Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

2

Earth and Space Science Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#2 Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will understand that air is a mixture of gases that is all around us and that wind is moving air. Assessment Activity

Pre-K Students will blow bubbles into a mixture of soap bubbles and food Completed bubble prints coloring. As the bubbles expand over the top of the cup, they will place a piece of construction paper over the top of the cup to create "bubble prints."

Children will make wind socks in the Art Center and then dance freely to music while holding the wind socks. They will be able to observe how the streamers of the wind sock move in the air.

K

Class performance of wind dancing

After reading Gilberto and the Wind by Marie Hall Ets or The Wind Blew by Pat Hutchins, students will discuss and record on a class chart how wind can make things move. They will make pinwheels or paper kites to use outdoors as they experiment with wind and movement. Students will become "Wind Detectives" by spreading Vaseline on sheets of waxed paper. After placing sheets in different locations for several days, students will retrieve sheets and identify particles caught by the wind. They will record findings on observation sheet or in Science Journal.

Class chart on wind and movement

Observation sheets/Science Journal

3

Earth and Space Science Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#2 Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will understand that air is a mixture of gases that is all around us and that wind is moving air. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

In gym class, students will experiment with a variety of parachute movement activities. They will discover and share orally how the parachute can capture and release air and how they can move in relation to the parachute in different forms. Students will make and fly paper kites. In a link to ELA, they will create "Kite Poems" using descriptive vocabulary about flight and movement.

Oral sharing of parachute experiences

Completed kites and kite poems

Gr. 2

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Students will create windsocks in the Art Center. They will hang Student reflections and sharing completed windsocks is a designated location and observe movement daily over a period of time. They will reflect and share on how wind caused movement as moving air. Science Journal reflections Students will have races with paper frogs and straws. They will experiment with using air to move their frogs to the finish line. After race is completed, they will reflect in Science Journals about the ability of wind to create movement.

4

Earth and Space Science Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#3

Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will describe the weather changes from day to day and over the seasons. Activity

Assessment

Pre-K

Children will create daily "Weather Watcher Reports" using a clip board and velcro icons of weather symbols. They will share the daily weather report orally with classmates.

Clipboard weather reports Oral weather reports

Ongoing weather vocabulary list Student will learn and sing a variety of weather related songs such as "It's Raining, It's Pouring" and "Drip, Drip, Drip." They will create an ongoing list of weather vocabulary learned from songs.

K

Classmates will take turns with a daily job of "Weather Watcher." The Daily weather report Weather Watcher is responsible for daily observation and reporting of the weather to the whole group during Morning Meeting. Students will dress a classroom toy or doll appropriately for the given Toy dressed appropriately for the weather. This activity can be done with "Dress Froggy for the weather Weather" or with flannel board weather pieces.

5

Weather Songs

It's raining, it's pouring,

The old man is snoring.

He went to bed

And bumped his head

And couldn't get up in the morning!

Drip, drip, drip

And drop, drop, drop,

The pretty little raindrops fall.

Drip, drip drip

And drop, drop, drop.

Making music soft and low.

Earth and Space Science Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#3

Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will describe the weather changes from day to day and over the seasons. Activity

Assessment

Gr. 1

After reading Cloudy with a Chance ofMeatballs by Judy Barrett, Classroom weather reports students will create a class weather station in the Dramatic Play Center and practice giving weather reports. Students will read Weather Words by Gail Gibbons. After reading, they will create and use a weather word wall and use weather vocabulary to describe daily weather in Science Joumals. Weather word wall

Gr. 2

After reading The Seasons ofArnold's Apple Tree by Gail Gibbons, students will create a mobile that depicts weather changes over time in each season. Students will listen to How Does the Wind Walk? by Nancy Carlson Paige and discuss how the main character experiences the wind in different seasons. Students will form small groups for each of the four seasons and prepare a skit that dramatizes the wind in each season.

Seasons mobile

Seasonal skits

6

Earth and Space Science Learnine Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#4 Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will recognize that the sun supplies heat and light to the earth and is necessary for life. Assessment Activity

Pre-

K

After reading Bear Shadow by Frank Asch, children will experiment with making shadows with their bodies at different' times of the day. They will share back orally in whole group and describe how their shadows are the different at different times of the day. Paint outside with water and large paintbrushes in both sunny and shady places. Note where the water remains visible longer. Children will reflect orally on the effect the sun had on their water paintings.

Oral reporting of shadow differences

Oral reflections on water painting and the effect of the sun

K

After reading the traditional tale, Peter and the North Wind by Freya Littledale, students will act out the story emphasizing the power of both the sun and the wind. Students will observe prisms and how sunlight creates colors with the prism. They will reflect with drawing and writing in Science Journals on the effect of sunlight on prisms.

Retelling of story

Science Journal reflections

7

Earth and Space Science Learnin~ Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#4 Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will recognize that the sun supplies heat and light to the earth and is necessary for life. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1 Students will conduct classroom observations of puddles after a rainstorm. They will record their initial observations and then revisit puddles after a sunny day. They will then reflect in Science Journals how the sun has changed the puddles. Children will create sun art pictures by laying a variety of items on blue or purple paper and leaving it in the sun for several days. They will be able to describe the finished art project and how the sun has faded the colored areas that were exposed to light. Gr. 2 Students will travel to three places -in the classroom, outside in the shade, and outside in the sun. Using the attached Warmth Chart, they will circle how warm they felt in each location. Students will share back and discuss how sun supplies heat. * Prior to lesson, teacher will place two containers of water - one in a cool place in the classroom and, one outdoors in a sunny location. Students will record and then confirm predictions in Science Journals about the temperature of the water in both locations. Students will share back and discuss causes of temperature change. * *http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons

Science Journal observations

Completed sun art

Warmth chart recordings

Predictions recorded in Science Journals

8

Warmth Chart

Name:

Lesson Title: The Warmth of the Sun Page 1 of 1

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All rights reserved_ Science NetLinks Student Sheets may be reproduced for educational purposes_

Science NetLinks

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Earth and Space Science Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#5

Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will identify some events around us that have repeating patterns *, including the seasons of the year, day and night. Activity Assessment

-

Pre-K After reading The Kissing Hand by Audrey Penn, students will discuss Dramatic play vignettes of day and activities that happen during the day and during the night. Arrange night Dramatic Play Center into two areas - one for day and one for night. Children will play in each area and recreate appropriate activities and dress up for each time of day. Oral discussion of day/night differences After reading, Good Night Owl by Pat Hutchins, students will be able to describe orally the difference between daytime and nighttime activities.

Students will create day and night collages in the Art Center using a variety of art media. After reading a variety of stories that use day or night as setting, children will work together in small groups to identify things that stories tell us about day and night. Small groups will share back with whole group and record on class chart. Completed day/night collages Chart- "What Stories Tell Us About Day and Night"

K

·

Link to Math/ Patterning

9

Earth and Space Science Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#5

Strand 1: Earth and Space Science Students will identify some events around us that have repeating patterns, including the seasons of the year, day and night. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Students will divide a paper plate into four sections and create a paper plate spinner that depicts each of the four seasons. They will then spin

the spinner and pantomime an activity or event that would be

appropriate for the given season.

Children will create a mobile for a given season that demonstrates attributes of that season. The completed mobiles will represent the

repeating patterns of the seasons.

After listening to Fall is Not Easy by Marty Kelly, students will discuss how the changing seasons effect the life cycle of trees.

Students will complete the attached cycle diagram, citing seasonal

changes as part of a repeating pattern.

*http;llprimary-school-lesson plans.suite I0 l.com/article.cfm/fall is not easy subject lesson plans

Children will compose a letter explaining the repeating pattern of

seasonal changes modeled after the story Dear Rebecca, Winter is Here by Jean Craighead George.

Paper plate spinner

Seasonal pantomines

Season mobiles

Gr. 2

Cycle diagram

Letter explaining seasonal change

10

Cycle

11/14/200801:21 PM

Cycle

A depiction of a Cycle attempts to show how a series of events interacts to produce a set of results again and again, such as the life cycle or a cycle of poor decisions. Key frame questions: What are the main events in the cycle? How do they interact and return to the beginning again?

4

1

3

2

Return to main organizers page.

http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/SCORE/actbank/tcycle.htm

Page 1 c

Life Science Strand

Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#1 Strand 2: Life Science

Students will recognize that animals (including humans) and plants are living things that grow, reproduce,

and need food, air, and water.

Activity Assessment

PreK

K

Students will observe and take care of a classroom pet* or plant. They will create a list of things that are needed to care for a pet* or plant and

to keep it alive.

* Teacher needs to be alert to student allergies.

Families will be asked to send in photos of children as babies. Photos

will be compiled on classroom bulletin board along with current photos. Children will discuss and list on classroom chart how they

have changed and grown and what they need in order to grow.

After reading Red Leaf, Yellow Lea/by Lois Ehlert, students will label chart with parts of tree. They will identify how different parts of

the tree help it to live and grow. (FOSS Kit/Trees)

Use zip lock bags with bean or lima beans placed inside folded, wet

paper towels. Children will observe and record the stage of growth. Teacher will take photos of the beans in different stages of sprouting.

Children will arrange photos of sprouting in correct sequence.

Class list of pet needs

Class chart of needs for growing and staying healthy

Labeled chart

Correctly sequenced photos of stages of sprouting

11

Life Science Strand Learnin~ Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#1 Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize that animals (including humans) and plants are living things that grow, reproduce, and need food, air, and water. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Students will plant grass seed in individual cups. They will care for it over the course of several weeks, recording growth observations at regular intervals. After several weeks, they will "mow" their lawns with scissors. Students will plant garlic and onion bulbs in containers and record observations of growth. They will tend growing plants and record plant needs for air, water, and light. After reading The Little Red Hen by Paul Galdone, students will illustrate sequence cards to describe the growth of the wheat plant and the needs of the plant to grow to the point of harvest. Students will sort beans and seeds from a bag of 15 Bean Soup Mix.* Each student will plant an assortment of seeds and record observations of growth. As plants mature, students will try to determine which plants came from the same seeds.

15 Bean Soup Mix can usually befound in the Goya section ofthe supermarket.

Recording sheet #7, Foss KitlNew Plants

Recording sheet #11, Foss KitlNew Plants

Gr. 2

Illustrated sequence cards

Recorded observations of plant growth

·

12

Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#2 Strand 2: Life Science Students will differentiate between living and nonliving things Activity

accordin~

to the characteristics that they share. Assessment

PreK

Children will sort photos of living/non living things into large hula hoops to represent each group.

Correctly sorted photos

Class will learn song "Can You Find the Living Things?" to the tune of Song and related activities "Do You Know the Muffin Man?" As individual students take turns singing, they will "place them on the rug."

K

Teacher will plant a "garden" of living/non living things such as buttons, pebbles, and seeds in the sand table. Children will sort and record predictions as to which items actually grow. Students will participate in "CST Kinder"game. Each student will record findings of three living or nonliving things in their Science Journal and report their findings to the whole group.

Predictions recorded in Science Journals "CST Kinder" findings recorded in Science Journal

13

,

Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#2 Strand 2: Life Science Students will differentiate between living and nonliving things accordin! to the characteristics that they share. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Students will play the LivinglNonliving Things game. Students will circulate through the class and try to find a classmate with an item from the same category- Living or. Nonliving. Children will sing song" Can You Find the Living Thing?" sung to the tune of "Do You Know the Muffin Man?" as they conduct a classroom scavenger hunt for living things. They will return to the rug with the found items and explain to class why it is a living thing. Students will look through magazines and make a classroom collage of living and nonliving things. Children will brainstorm characteristics of living things (move/change, take in energy/food, react to environment, breathe, reproduce) and record them on attribute chart or in Science Journals. Students will identify objects as living or nonliving using the online interactive game/Living or Non Living. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages5 6/0urselves.shtml

Teacher observation

Scavenger hunt

Gr. 2

Classroom collage, characteristics recorded in Science Journals or on attribute chart

Self correcting game

14

Life Science Strand

Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#3

Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize that plants and animals have life cycles, and that life cycles vary for different living things. Activity Assessment

PreK

Students will explore butterfly life cycle manipulatives (available from Insect Lore/www.insectlore.com) and sort into groups that represent each life cycle. Class will observe frog eggs and tadpoles as they grow and change. Students will create a class book of the changes that they have

observed of frog life cycles.

Correctly sorted manipulatives

Class book

K

After reading Waitingfor Wings by Lois Elhert or Where Butterflies Grow by Joanne Ryder, students will create models of butterfly life

cycles using various types pasta to represent different stages(round

ball, rotini, shell, farfalle)

Students will create a dramatic retelling of The Very Hungry

Caterpillar by Eric Carle emphasizing the life cycle of the butterfly.

Pasta life cycle model

Classroom performance

15

Life Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#3

Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize that plants and animals have life cycles, and that life cycles vary for different living things. Activity Assessment

Gr.!

Ongoing observations Students will plant sunflower seeds in class and transplant them to an outside area if possible. As the sunflowers mature, students will be able to observe the formation of seeds in the seed head. Ongoing observations will be recorded in Science Journals. Students will brainstorm a class list of animals that are born from eggs. Class list of animals born from eggs After a read aloud of Chickens Aren't the Only Ones by Ruth Heller, students will confirm predictions from text. After reading Make Way for Ducklings by Robert McCluskey, students will set up a classroom incubator to hatch duck eggs. Eggs will be "candled" using the light from a filmstrip projector at various stages of development. Students will record stages observed in Science Journals. Students will gather seed pods from milkweed plants and maple "helicopters" and plant them in the classroom to observe how new plants grow from seeds produced by plants. Science Journal observations

Gr. 2

Plants grown from seed pods

16

Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#4

Strand 2: Life Science Students will describe ways in which many plants and animals closely resemble their parents in observed appearance. Activity Assessment

PreK

Students will play Baby Animal Lotto in which they will match photos of baby animals with their adult parents.

Teacher observation

After reading Are You My Mother? by Dr. Seuss, students will discuss how animals resemble their parents. Teacher will record observations in class chart, Animals and Their Parents.

Class chart, Animals and Their

Parents.

K

After reading Is Your Mama a Llama? by Steven Kellogg, pairs of students will work together to draw pictures of a given animal from the text and its parent. Drawing will be displayed in class mural of animal babies and their parents. Students will take cuttings of easy to root classroom plants such as coleus, ivy, and spider plants. They will observe the new root structures as they appear and then pot new plants grown from the original parent plant.

Class mural of animal babies and their parents

New plants grown from parent plants

17

Life Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#4

Strand 2: Life Science Students will describe ways in which many plants and animals closely resemble their parents in observed appearance. Activity Assessment

Gr.t

Students will arrange a collection of classroom plants into groups that resemble each other. Children will explain to a partner why they arranged plants into the given groups and how they resemble each other. After reading a version of The Ugly Duckling by Hans Christian Anderson, children will discuss how baby animals resemble their parents and how that caused a problem for the baby duckling. They will illustrate how the duckling grew up to become a swan. Students will read the interactive story, The Lost Cygnet, online. http://www.naturegrid.org.uk/infant/lost/bklost.htm. They will retell the story through dramatization, stressing the resemblance between animal parents and their babies. After a field trip to a fann or reading books about fann animals, students will play interactive computer games in which they match animal parents and babies. www.bglforg/wstom/resoufces ftp/client ftp/ey/science/young animals/index.htm

Oral presentations

Children's illustrations

Gr. 2

Class dramatization of story

Self checking game and recording sheet

18

Infant Explorer - Story time

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Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#5

Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize that fossils provide us with information about living things that inhabited the earth years ago. Activity Assessment

PreK Students will have a "Fossil Hunt" in the Sand Table. They will Find hidden objects and retrieve them with care like "paleontologists" or dinosaur hunters. They will draw representations of their findings in a Fossil Joumal. Students will create a dinosaur habitat in the Block Center. They will record their habitat with drawings and/or digital photos.

Fossil Journal entries

Dino habitat

K

After reading Fossils, Fossils, Fossils by Aliki and learning action poem by Nancy Klein, students will make fossil representations with clay, plaster of Paris, and chicken bones or other item. Students will look at pictures of fossils or samples of real fossils and discuss what can be learned from life long ago from studying fossils. They will record discussion on attribute chart, What We Can Learn From Fossils.

Fossil models

Attribute chart

19

Dinosaur Bones by Nancy Klein

Let's look for bones-dig, dig, dig,

Dinosaur bones-big, big, big.

Back to the lab-zip, zip, zip.

Clean the bones-chip, chip, chip.

Put them together-so, so, so

We've built a dinosaur- oh, oh, HO!

www.lib.sci.sc.edu/miller/Dinosaurs.htm

Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#5

Strand 2: Life Science

Students will recognize that fossils provide us with information about living things that inhabited the earth years ago.

Activity

Assessment

Gr.t

Teacher will set the stage for understanding fossil evidence by gathering items that belong to an identified source such as a dog or a baby in the classroom and ask students how they know who was in the classroom and what the evidence tells them about the visitor. Students will discuss what evidence tells us and record it on an attribute chart,

Attribute chart

What We Learn From Evidence. After reading If the Dinosaurs Came Back by Bernard Most, students

will describe characteristics of various dinosaurs and how that characteristic might be utilized in a different setting. Each student will illustrate a page for a class book, If the Dinosaurs Came Back. Students will visit the interactive dinosaur website where they will be able to hunt for dinosaurs, hatch eggs, and create dino models. They will record their activities in Science Journals www.nationalgeOllraohic. coldinoeggs/intro. html. After reading Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones by Bryon Barton, students will write a job description for a paleontologist describing what they learn from fossils and how they share that information.

Class book

Gr. 2

Science Journal recordings

Job description

20

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Life Science Strand

Learnine Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#6 Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize that people and other animals interact with the environment through their senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Activity Assessment

PreK

Children will investigate "Scent Jars" - containers with cotton balls Jar identification and matching saturated with a variety of different smells. They will try to identify the smells of the various jars and match ones that are similar. Students will use a "Feely Box" to identify various items by touch. They will describe the item and predict what it is without visual

inspection and then confirm their prediction visually.

Visual confirmation

K

Children will playa Listening Bingo game in which they will listen to various environmental sounds and mark respective icons on Bingo cards. Students will experiment with "Bug Eyes" available through Insect Lore. They will experience what it is like to see through an insect eye and compare that to seeing through the human eye. They will record different visual impressions in Science Journals.

Marked Bingo cards/teacher confirmation of accuracy Drawings in Science Journals

21

Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#6 Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize that people and other animals interact with the environment through their senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Activity Assessment

Gr.t

Gr. 2

Students will create color catchers using strips of double stick tape placed on heavy cardstock or cardboard. Students will conduct a Color

Hunt. They will stick small bits of assorted colored items on their color

catcher. They will share back orally about the various colors they saw

using the sense of sight. (Teacher will establish safety parameters.)

Students will stand together in a circle, close their eyes, concentrate

and count how many different sounds they can hear in a designated time (1 minute). Each child will indicate each time they hear a sound

by raising one finger. They will draw pictures of sounds heard in

Science Journals.

Students will explore a group of items preselected by teacher to represent various textures such as soft, prickly, rough, furry. Students will generate a list of texture words and list on attribute chart. Each child will find three items in the classroom with different textures, illustrate and describe items in Science Journals. Teacher will collect a variety of items with distinct smells.(food extracts, pine needles, perfume, baby powder, etc) Students will

explore items, try to identify the smell, and describe a time that a

particular smell makes them remember. They will write a journal entry

about remembering a time through the sense of smell.

Oral sharing

Sound counts, Science Journal recordings

Texture descriptions, attribute chart

Journal entries

22

Life Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#7

Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize changes in appearance that animals and plants go through as the seasons change. Activity Assessment

PreK

Class chart of seasonal changes Students will listen to story Winter Lullaby by Barbara Seuling. They will discuss with classmates how animals and plants change as they get ready for winter. Teacher will record observations on class chart. After a walk outside school, children will record with drawings and/or paintings the different colors that they saw on the fall trees. They will discuss how the tree colors are different during different seasons. Student drawings or paintings

K

After reading the Seasons ofArnold's Apple Tree by Gail Gibbons, students will draw and/or take photos of their adopted tree throughout the seasons and assemble into a class scrapbook. Students will work in four groups - one to represent each season. They will draw or paint pictures of activities that they enjoy during each season. The drawings/paintings will be assembled into Our Seasons Book.

Class photo album, Our Tree Through the Seasons.

Our Seasons Book

23

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Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#7 Strand 2: Life Science Students will recognize changes in appearance that animals and plants go through as the seasons change. Activity Assessment

Gr.t

Students will read story, A Bearfor All Seasons by Dianne Marcial Fuchs. Each student will select a season to describe as their favorite season and write/draw a journal entry describing what they love about their chosen season. Children will complete chart Seasonal Changes. They will record plant, animal, and people changes during the course of the seasons.

Journal entries

Seasonal Changes chart

Gr. 2

Students will read and complete book, The Apple Tree Community, from Utah State University that describes seasonal changes for plant and animal life surrounding an apple tree. After reading Animals in Winter by Henrietta Bancroft, students will select one animal to report on. Each student will complete a drawing and short report on their chosen animals change during the seasons.

Completed books

Animal report

24

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1t1 late fall, alt\1ost all of the apples are got1e. Squirrels collect apples frot\1 the grout1d to hide at1d eat durit1g the wit1ter. All of the at1it\1als that eat the apples will help to scatter the seeds through their droppit1gs. This helps other apple trees to grow. New apple trees will provide food at1d hot\1es for t\1ore at1it\1als.

Have you ever thought of at1 apple tree as a cot\1tMut1ity? Well, it is! l}1sects, birds, at1d other at1itMals tMake their hot\1es at1d fit1d food it1 the apple tree. The apple tree helps the at1itMals at1d the at1itMals help the tree. They help each other.

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Life Science Strand Learninf! Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#8

Strand 2: Life Science Students will identify the ways in which an organism's habitat provides for its basic needs (plants require air, water, nutrients, and light; animals require food, water, air, and shelter). Activity Assessment

PreK

Teacher will read My Very First Book ofAnimal Homes by Eric Carle. Children will list animals that they know and where they think they live. Teacher will record on class chart, Animal Homes.

Class chart, Animal Homes

K

Children will sort pictures of animals into two groups, animals that live Sorted photos on land and animals that live in the water. Teacher will assemble photos or magazine pictures of various animals ahead of time to assure a wide variety. Students will listen to two stories by Denise Fleming - In the Small, Habitat drawings Small Pond and In the Tall, Tall Grass. Each child will select one habitat and draw an illustration of it with the appropriate plant and animal life. Science journals Students will take turns caring for classroom plants making sure that they have adequate air, water, nutrients, and light. They will make ongoing observations of class plants in Science Journals.

25

Life Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#8

Strand 2: Life Science Students will identify the ways in which an organism's habitat provides for its basic needs (plants require air, water, nutrients, and light; animals require food, water, air, and shelter). Activity Assessment

Gr.t

Gr. 2

Students will listen to story, Where Once There Was a Wood by Denise Fleming. They will discuss how habitats can be changed and altered and the effects that change has on plant and animal live. They will complete a Science Journal entry on changes to habitats using both drawing and writing. Students will participate in a schoolyard Habitat Hunt. They will identify plants and animals that live in the vicinity of the school and record their observations on a recording sheet to be compiled into a class book on schoolyard habitats. Students will research a chosen animal or plant either in the library or on the internet. They will develop a short report on the animal or plant describing it and the habitat it needs to survive. Small groups of students will work on classroom mural of animal habitats. Groups will be assigned to explore woodland and ocean habitats and represent those habitats and the animals that inhabit them with a variety of visual art.

Journal entries

Class book on schoolyard habitat

Habitat report

Habitat mural

26

Physical Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#1

Strand 3: Physical Science Students will sort obiects by observable properties such as size, shape, color, weight, and texture. Activity Assessment

PreK

K

Children will sort preselected items and place them on attribute trays that guide them to place items by properties such as large/small, heavy/light, smooth/rough. Children will verbally identify the properties they used to sort items. Teacher and students will make a variety of ice blocks in different sized and shaped containers. Color may be added with food coloring for variety. Children will note observable properties such as size, shape, and color. Teacher will record observation on attribute chart. Students will explore the properties of various items by placing them in a Feely Box and identifying objects by touch, noting properties such as size, shape, weight, or texture. After an outdoor exploratory walk, students will sort natural items such as pine cones, rocks, and seed pods and place items in groups by property. They will record sorts in Science Journals.

Verbal identification of properties

Attribute chart

Visual confirmation

Science Journal entries

27

Physical Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#1 Strand 3: Physical Science Students will sort objects by observable properties such as size, shape, color, weight, and texture. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Gr. 2

Given a wide variety of natural items, students will determine three categories by which items may be sorted such as color, weight, or texture. Students will play "Guess My Rule" in small groups to determine how items were sorted. After reading Strega Nona by Tomie dePaola, children will sort varieties of pasta into different categories based on attributes. Alternative choices might be varieties of pretzels or 18 Bean Soup Mix. Students will sort found natural items such as pine cones, rocks, and seed pods and place items in bins labeled by property. In small groups, they will develop questions that a scientist might define observable properties. Questions will be used to develop a classroom Jeopardy game. After reading, Sylvester and the Magic Pebble by William Steig, children will contribute a found rock to create a classroom rock collection. Students will sort rocks into categories and create a class list of ways to sort rocks by attribute.

List of categories developed in "Guess My Rule."

Pasta sorted by attribute

Jeopardy game

Classroom list of attributes

28

Physical Science Strand Learnin~ Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#2

Strand 3: Physical Science Students will identify objects and materials as solid, liquid or gas. They will recognize that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container. Activity Assessment

PreK

K

Students will explore a variety of containers of different shapes and sizes in the Water Table. They will experiment with the way water takes the shape of the different containers. Students will share with drawings or verbal explanations how water took the shape of the various containers. Children will experiment with blowing up various sized paper bags and filling them with air. Teacher will need to assist in securing the closure of the bag with tape or twisty. Teacher will prompt and record discussion about how air took the shape of the containers/bags. On a snowy day, teacher will fill water table with new snow. Students will measure temperature and amount of water at regular intervals during the day as they play with the snow, recording how a solid can turn into liquid over time. They will record observations in Science Journals. Students will fill assorted containers, ice cube trays, or candy molds with water and observe how water takes the shape of the containers when frozen. They will record both before and after experiences in

Science Journals.

Drawings or verbal explanations

Recording of discussion

Science Journal entries

Recorded observations in Science Journals.

29

Physical Science Strand

Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#2

Strand 3: Physical Science Students will identify objects and materials as solid, liquid or gas. They will recognize that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container. Assessment Activity

Gr.t

Gr. 2

Students will investigate painting with ice cubes colored with tempera Science Journal entries paint or food coloring. As ice cubes melt and liquid forms, children will be able to use the liquid as paint. When finished, students will record the differences between the solid ice cubes, the liquid paint, and the dry/solid paint in Science Journals. After reading Barthomew and the Oobleck by Dr. Suess, students will Oral defense of solid or liquid experiment with making oobleck (1 1/2 cups of corn starch and 1 cup of water). Green food coloring may be added if desired. Students will have to defend orally why they feel their oobleck is a solid or liquid. Photos and recording sheets After reading Hot Air Henry by Mary Calhoun, students will experiment with making hot air balloon with hair dryer, tissue paper, glue and cardboard. They will document their experiences with photos and recording sheets, Students will collect rainwater for classroom use. They will measure a Chart recording observations given amount of water and record the amount. They will pour the same amount of water into containers of different sizes marking the fill line on each. Teacher will prompt discussion and record comments on chart of why the same amount of water looks like a different amount in other containers.

30

Physical Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#3 Strand 2: Physical Science Students will describe the various ways that objects can move, such as in a straight line, zigzag, back-and-forth, round and round, fast and slow. Activity Assessment

PreK

Children will experiment with painting with toy cars and trucks by dipping wheels in paint and then moving vehicles on blank paper. Painted pathways will indicate various ways that objects can move. Children will describe pathways created to a friend using directional vocabulary. After listening to "The Elephant" by Hap Palmer (Learning Basic Skill Through Music), students will move around the room in alternate slow and fast patterns based on the lyrics of the song. Children will experiment with moving their bodies through space based on the directions of the teacher. For example, how slowly can you move in your space? How fast can you move in your space? How can you move differently? Students will describe how they created various movements to a partner. Students will build ramps attached to structures in the Block Center. They will experiment with how the incline of the ramp effects speed and velocity of the car. They will record findings on recording sheets.

Painted pathways

Teacher observation

K

Student descriptions of movement

Recording sheets

31

Physical Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#3

Strand 2: Physical Science Students will describe the various ways that objects can move, such as in a straight line, zigzag, back-and-forth, round and round, fast and slow. Activity Assessment

Gr.!

Gr. 2

Students will experiment with Ping Pong balls, golf balls, and tennis balls and straws to create movement with air. They will predict and confirm which ball will move farther and why. Teacher will prompt students to generate ideas about how directionality can be effected by air and force. Children will participate in relay races in which they are directed to move in straight lines, zig zag lines, backwards and forwards. After races are completed, students will discuss which way of moving was easier and/or faster. Students will survey classmates or families and record five ways that objects can move. They will form a hypothesis on how they think objects move and the causes for different kinds of movement. They will then experiment with moving different objects, record results in Science Journals, and share results. Children will experiment with spinning tops and observe their movement patterns. They can dip tips of tops in paint to record movement patterns and write a reflection on circular movement.

Oral sharing of experiment results

Class discussion

Science Journal reports on movement

Reflection

32

Physical Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#4

Strand 3: Physical Science

Students will demonstrate that the way to change the motion of an object is to apply a force (give it a push or a pull). They will understand that the greater the force, the greater the change in the motion of the object.

Activity

Assessment

PreK

Students will conduct races with cotton balls and straws. They will attempt to move cotton balls to designated points and discuss how much force is needed to move the cotton balls to different places. Children will discuss different ways that they can move objects and decide if the object is moved with a push or a pull. Teacher will record possible movements on a chart with Push/Pull categories.

Teacher observation

-

Push/Pull Chart

K

Students will experiment with a variety of magnets - horseshoe, bar, and wand and test the magnets on items made of wood, paper, metal, and plastic to determine which items are attracted to magnets. Observations will be recorded in Science Journals. In the Block Center, students will create ramps with a variety of levels. They will experiment with toy cars and try to determine the relationship between the angle of the ramp, the speed at which the car travels, and the distance that the car travels. Results will be recorded on chart, What We Have Learned about Ramps.

Science Journal observations

Attribute chart, What We Have

Learned About Ramps

33

Physical Science Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#4

Strand 3: Physical Science Students will demonstrate that the way to change the motion of an object is to apply a force (give it a push or a pull). They will understand that the greater the force, the greater the change in the motion of the object. Activity Assessment

Gr.t

Gr. 2

After reading One Duck Stuck by Phyllis Root, children will try to move a toy in a water table or tray using different types of squeeze bottles or a hand held egg beater. They will record their results in Science Journals. After reading The Enormous Turnip, The Enormous Watermelon, or the The Enormous Carrot by Vladimir Vagin, students will act out the story and discuss how pulling was effective in harvesting the vegetables and how more people or more force was effected the result. Students will experiment with putting various objects in front of a fan and observing the force needed to move obj ects using different speeds of the fan. They will record observations in Science Journals. Students will experiment with bowling with the assistance of the gym teacher or with plastic bowling sets in the classroom setting. They will experiment with using different amounts of force and predict the effect force will have on knocking down pins. They will describe their results in Science Journals.

Science Journals

Story dramatization

Science Journal entries

Science Journal entries

34

Physical Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#5

Strand 2: Physical Science Students will recognize that under some conditions, objects can be balanced. Activity

Assessment

PreK

Children will experiment with the concept of balance in the Block Center as they build structures with an assortmentof blocks and varying heights. Teacher will record structures with photos and scribe students' comments about how to balance blocks while building. Students will experiment with balance scales and blocks and try to find ways to achieve balance. They will share strategies for balancing the scales in whole group. Teacher will record as a Shared Writing. After reading Mirette on the High Wire by Emily Arnold McCully, students will experiment with walking on lengths of yarn or wooden balance beams. They will record ways in which they maintained balance with drawing and writing and share with whole group. Students will participate in relay races in which they must balance items on outstretched hands or heads. After races are completed, they will discuss strategies for balancing in small groups and report back to whole group.

Documentation panels with photos and scribed comments

Shared writing on balance scale strategies

K

Observations of balancing

f----

Oral reporting of balancing strategies

35

Physical Science Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

#5

Strand 2: Physical Science Students will recognize that under some conditions, objects can be balanced. Activity

Assessment

Gr.!

Gr. 2

Students will participate in egg races in which they must balance eggs on spoons. After races are completed, they will record successful strategies for balancing eggs while moving in Science Journals. Teacher will prompt students to reflect on variables such as speed and position of egg and spoon in their reflection. After reading Caps for Sale, students will work in small groups to reinact the story emphasizing the way the caps can be balanced. Each group will present skits to whole group and describe how they planned and carried out balancing actions. Students will create a mobile with found objects from nature. They will experiment with different ways of positioning objects to achieve balance in mobiles. Children will experiment with different movement patterns using walking cones/balance stilts. They will create a written response that documents the process of balancing with props and how their typical movements were changed by using props.

Science Journal entries

Small group skits

Balanced mobiles

Written props

36

Technology/Engineering Strand Learnine Standards for Grades PreK- 2

1.1

Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Materials and Tools Students will identify and describe characteristics of natural and human made materials. Activity Assessment

PreK

Children will examine both real cut flowers/plants and artificial flowers and plants. They will sort flowers/plants into two groups, natural and human made. Sorting may be recorded with drawings and/or photos.

Recorded sorts

Using photos or computer generated images, students will sort pictures Habitat sort of homeslhabitats of people and animals into groups. They will identify which homes/habitats are natural and which are made by humans.

K

Students work in teams to conduct a classroom scavenger hunt. Each team will identify 3 natural and 3 human made items in the classroom. Groups will record findings with drawings and share back with the whole group. Students will create mosaics with the option of using crushed egg shells or seeds (natural materials) or tiles or foam shapes (human made materials. Mosaics will be displayed under headings - Natural or Human Made Materials.

Group recordings of scavenger hunt

Mosaic display

37

TechnologylEngineering Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

1.1 Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Materials and Tools Students will identify and describe characteristics of natural and human made materials. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Gr. 2

After reading a version of The Three Pigs, students will be given an assortment of building materials such as tiles, sticks, grass, playdough, leaves and twigs to create their own "pig house." Upon completion, they will share and discuss whether or not their house is durable. After taking an observation walk around school or neighborhood, students will discuss observations and determine if the artifacts they observed were naturally made or made by humans. Teacher may record observations with digital camera for future sorting. Students will record observations on clipboards or in scienceiournals. Students will read The Five Pilgrims, a story about using different materials to build houses. Students will sort and describe preselected materials into categories of natural and made by humans. Preselected materials bags should include paper clips, rubber bands, marbles, index cards, cotton balls, leaves, twigs, and screws. *http://www.wpi.edu/Images/CMS/PIEE/ldl.pdf Students will make houses out of oaktag or empty milk cartons and cover the outside with materials brought from home, found, or supplied by the teacher. They will create a response in their Science Journals describing the properties of those materials and why they chose them as good building materials.

Created houses

Recordings of student observations

Materials sort

Student made houses

38

The Five Pilgrims

by:

Katie Bush

PIEE Program

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

&

Worcester Public Schools

Jennifer Gray

Karen Kosinski

Megan Homes

Steven Toddes

Leena Razzaq

Hopefully I can tell the story as I remember;

it was a cold afternoon in early November.

2

Five pilgrims were by a fire when it began to snow.

These pilgrims, who just came from England,

had no where warm to go.

One pilgrim said, "We should build a house,

to get out of the cold weather."

Everyone agreed, but argued on what to use

and could not decide together.

3

The pilgrim nanled Sarah

decided to make her house warm and strong.

She did not know that her choice of hay

would be wrong.

4

Sarah went to the fields and gathered the hay,

but the wind came along and blew it away.

5

The pilgrim named Daniel

decided to make his house big and warm.

He did not know that a house of sticks

would fail in the upcoming storm.

6

Daniel made his house big

with three tall floors,

but after the storm,

all three floors came down and he again lived outdoors.

7

The pilgrim named Adam

decided to make his house warm and robust.

He did not know that his house of leaves

would be shaky until he saw the wind's gust.

8

Adam ran from the forest

to protect his house out of leaves,

but finally gave up when the storm took the eaves.

9

The pilgrim nan1ed William

decided to make his house warm and neat.

He did not know making it out of mud and sand

would be such a feat.

10

William tried building with the mud and the sand,

but when the storm came,

William's house did not stand.

11

The pilgrim named Mary

decided to make her house warm and nice.

She didn't know that steel was cold

when outside there was ice.

12

Mary sat in her house,

shivering, irritated, and mad,

wondering about the houses

her friends had built and now had.

13

The pilgrim's houses were each a very sad sight,

after the storm came through,

that very cold night.

They all came together to get warm by the fire,

now talking about what a house must require.

The materials they had used were not bad they thought,

but to make a house just out of one

left each pilgrim cold and distraught.

14

The pilgrims all talked about the materials they used

and why each did not work,

and then thought about how each of their choices had a

perk.

The steel was strong,

that was not what was wrong.

The sticks could be tough, if you gathered enough.

The hay and leaves could keep you warm

in the cold winter storm.

The mud and sand could hold everything together,

in this windy weather.

15

So the pilgrims put their heads together

and used each material the best way they could,

and lived happily together in a house made of

steel, hay, mud, sand, leaves, and wood.

16

The End

17

DRA W A PILGRIM HOUSE AND TELL WHAT

MA TERIALS YOU USED

The Pilgrims are cold!

~

Think: We need to build a house for thenl! DesigIt: What materials should we use? Which are "man rna (Ie?" Which are "natural?~' Draw a picture and label the materials!

· 'ldi·· , C reate: BUl· . ng time,I

Test:

w:mthe house be warm? Why'?

WIll the house be strong? Why?

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8

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education

Worcester Polytechnic Institute - Worcester Public Schools

Supported by: National Science Foundation

Date- - - - - - - - - - Dear Parents, As part of our Technology/Engineering curriculum, students are designing and constructing model houses. Students are working with materials to identify those most appropriate for

building a model house as well as characterizing the materials properties.

We ask that you please have your child bring in small amounts of materials that they could use to build a model house. Suggested materials are listed at the bottom of this note and can be

collected and put in a plastic baggie. If you could help your child gather some of these materials and then have your child bring them to school on would be greatly appreciated. it

Thank you for you support!

Sincerely,

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education

Suggested Items:

Aluminum Foil Cotton Balls Leaves Sticks Other outdoor findings (flowers/grass/etc) Other common house hold items (buttons/Kleenex/etc)

Template for Sides of House

Template for Roof of House

Name:

---------------Manmade and Natural

Directions: Use the Venn diagram below to sort the materials provided in the bag. If the material is manmade, write it in the section for manmade materials. If the material is natural, write it in the section for natural materials. If the material could be considered both manmade and natural, write it in the center where the circles overlap.

Manmade

Natural

Technology/Engineering Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

1.2

Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Materials and Tools Students will identify and explain some possible uses for natural and human made materials. Activity Assessment

PreK

~----

K

Teacher will collect a wide variety of different types of paper newspaper, wrapping paper, waxed paper, paper bags. Students will discuss the different uses of each type of paper. Teacher will record children's discussion on chart, Ways We Use Paper. After reading, Michael Recycle by Ellie Bethel and Alexander Columbo, children will create puppets with a variety of recycled materials. They will describe what materials they used and why the materials are useful in creating new items. 1-- Using the Foss KitlFabrics, students will use water droppers to drop water on different types of fabric to test how different fabrics react to water. Student will discuss and record with drawings possible uses for different types of fabric. After reading Old MacDonald Had a Woodshop by Lisa Shulman, children will match tool to item used with it such as screwdriver and screw, shovel and snow, hairbrush and hair. Students will draw a tool and the item used with it in their Science Journals.

Chart, Ways We Use Paper

Sharing of puppet creation

Drawings of fabric uses

Science Journal response

39

TechnologylEngineering Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

1.2

Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Materials and Tools Students will identify and explain some possible uses for natural and human made materials. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Students will identifY both natural and human made materials and explain their uses to a partner while using an interactive web site. Each student will record 3 items and their use in Science Journals. http:www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/6-7/grouping materials.shtml Students will design and decorate individual umbrellas. They will discuss in small groups what makes the umbrella work and how they can make it waterproof. Students will test both natural and human made materials and determine if they are flexible, waterproof, transparent, and/or strong while using an interactive web site. Students will share results in small groups and record results Science Journals. Note and highlight content vocabulary for ELL students. http:www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/agesl7-8/characteristics materials.shtml Students will investigate premade bags with natural and designed objects such as sand/marble, sea shell/shell button, clay/clay pot, and wheat/cereal. Investigation will be logged on recording sheet Natural/Designed. htto://bioedonline.orll/k-5/odfs/Resources Natural to Manmade.pdf

Science journal recordings

Small group sharing

Gr. 2

Science journal recordings

Recording sheet

40

3. Resources: Natural to NIan-made

Concepts Resources are anything that an organism gets from the environment. Resources can be nonliving or living. Some resources come from objects or materials that once were living, such as wood. People and other animals use some resources just as they occur in nature. Other resources are transformed into something else before they are used. Objects can be classified as natural or designed/changed. Overview Students will examine, compare, discuss and sort materials as natural or changed. Standards Organisms can survive only in environments where their needs can be met. All animals depend on plants. All organisms cause change in their environments. Some changes are detrimental, others are beneficial. Science, Math .and Language Arts Skills Observing Sorting!Classifying Comparing GeneraliZing Time

Setup: 30 minutes

Class: 30 minutes

Materials

Per student group:

Container or bag containing four sets of natural materials and their matching deSigned/changed materials. Place loose materials, such as sand, in small, sealed plastic bags. See set-up. Set of cards, one labeled "Natural" and one labeled "Changed." Per student: Hand magnifier EXAMPLES Natural sand tree twig cotton boll seashell wheat shaft clay limestone

DeSigned glass marble craft stick, pencil, clothes pin cotton fabric or cotton ball shell button breakfast cereal, wheat flour clay pot or clay brick chalk

Setup Prepare a bag with four sets of materials for each group of students to observe and sort (included in kit). Make sure that each set contains a natural item and a man-made companion. Have students work in teams of two. Prepare a set of label titled "Natural" and "Changed" for each group. Safety

1. Follow all district and school laboratory

safety procedures. 2. Be aware of any contact allergies children may have before allowing them to handle materials.

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3. It is good laboratory practice to have students wash hands before and after laboratory investigations.

Ask the children if they can figure out how they have been sorted. You may want to repeat this process with several different attributes. 2. Without further discussion, pass out the bags of materials for groups of four (or teams of two) to sort. 3. Encourage students in each group to work together to sort their materials in any way they like. Suggest that students use a magnifier to observe the materials. 4. Tell students they will sort the materials again in a special way. Explain that they will sort the materials into two groups: natural (in the form in materials occur in nature) or changed/designed/processed (materials transformed or combined with something else to make a product that does not occur naturally in nature). Pass out or have the students create "Natural" and "Changed" labels to use for sorting. Monitor students and ask them about their groupings, making sure that they understand their task. 5. After sorting, have each group share one set of items (natural or changed) and explain why it thinks each item is natural or changed (designed). Have students describe ,:"here the item might be found and if the item has been changed, how it might have been processed. Have each student draw a picture or write a paragraph about the item on his or her paper.

Background

Resources are the things people and other organisms obtain from the living and nonliving environment. Resources provide for the needs and wants of a population (group of the same kind of organism). All plants and animals depend on the resources in their environments to live, grow and reproduce. People use some resources without much modification. Examples of resourceS used in their natural states include air for breathing (although it often is filtered in buildings), fresh fruits and vegetables as food, and some spring water for drinking. People transform other reSources to solve uniquely human problems. For example, we USe cut timber and manufactured bricks for home building, process raw foods into a variety of cooked and manufactured foods, and process surface water to make it clean enough for drinking. "Processed" means that something has been prepared or converted by a special treatment. For additional activities in this series, see K-5 Teacher Resources at http://www.bioedonline.org/k.lo2D5/.

Procedure

1. Begin by explaining to the students that

they will be doing a sorting activity. As an example, tell students you will sort them according to one specific attribute (e.g. sex, shirt color, etc.). Ask a few students with a particular attribute to stand up. Without revealing the attribute, ask all students who have that attribute to stand on one side of the room, and all other students to stand on the opposite side.

Extensions

Encourage students to bring items from home to add to the class collection of materials. Store these items in a sorting center in the classroom.

2

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Teacher Resources from the Center for Educational Outreach at Baylor College of Medicine.

The marks "My World" and "My World and Me" are trademarks of Baylor College of Medicine.

The mark "BioEd" is a service mark of Baylor College of Medicine.

No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of an

audio recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use

without prior written permission of the publisher, except for the use in not-for-profit educational settings. Blackline

masters may be photocopied for classroom use.

The activities are intended for school-age children under direct supervision of adults. The authors, Baylor College of

Medicine and the publisher cannot be responsible for any accidents or injuries that may result from conduct of the

activities, from 110t specifically fol1owing directions, or from ignoring cautions contained in the text.

Development of My World and Me educational materials was supp0l1ed, in part, by the National Institutes of

Health, National Center for Research Resources, grant number RR15RR13454, and National Institute of

Environmental Health Sciences, grant number R25ES 10698. The opinions, findings and conclusions expressed in

this publication are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Baylor College of

Medicine, the sponsoring agencies or the publisher.

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Technology/Engineering Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

1.3 Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Materials and Tools Students will identify and describe the safe and proper use of tools and materials to construct simple structures. Activity Assessment

PreK

Teacher will demonstrate how to use scissors safely. Using the Water Table filled with a variety of paper and types of scissors, children will practice cutting and using scissors appropriately. After reading lAin 't Gonna Paint No More by Karen Beaumont, teacher will model the safe use of brushes. Children will experiment with a wide variety of types and sizes of paint brushes. Students will take turns demonstrating how they used brushes to paint. Children will explore a variety of school tools such as markers, tape, glue, staplers, scissors, and paper punches. They will discuss and share back the safe use of materials. Teacher will record discussion on chart, Tools We Use in School Students will set up a display of art products, Art Museum, made with school tools and sort products into areas by type of materials used to create them such as a staple corner or a glue area.

Cutting recording sheet

Student demonstrations

-

K

Chart, Tools We Use in School

Class Art Museum

41

TechnologylEngineering Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

1.3 Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Materials and Tools Students will identify and describe the safe and proper use of tools and materials to construct simple structures. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Gr. 2

Children will create a collage made by using variety of school tools safely. They will discuss and share back the safe use of materials. Teacher will display collages along with student writing about the safe use of materials. Teachers and students will work together to make applesauce using appropriate kitchen tools such as an apple corer and food mill. While

applesauce is cooking and cooling, students will record process in

writing journals.

After reading books from the Magic Tree House series by Mary Pope Osborn, students will create tree house models using a variety of

materials such as cardboard, tin foil, popsticks, string, and Styrofoam.

Students will create a journal entry illustrating and describing their tree

house models and use of materials.

Teachers and students will cook together and use cooking tools safely.

Options for cooking could include pancakes after reading Pancakes,

Pancakes by Eric Carle or potato pancakes (latkes) when studying

Multicultural Festivals of Light. Student will use a recording sheet to

document process.

Collage and student writing

Journal entries

Journal entries

Recording sheet

42

TechnologylEngineering Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

2.1

Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Engineering Design Students will identify tools and simple machines used for a specific purpose. Activity Assessment

PreK

K

Teacher will gather Styrofoam pieces, golf tees, safety glasses, work gloves, and small hammers. Students will hammer golf tees into styrofoam. Teacher will record discussion on the use of tools and how they made the job easier. Students will survey the building secretary, nurse, and custodian to find out what tools they use in their work. Teacher may record tools with digital camera or children may draw illustrations of "school tools." Students will complete one of three building tasks on the BQb the Builder interactive website. They may choose from building a playground, fixing a road, or building a fountain by following steps as directed. Students will draw a response to this activity drawing the project and the tools used. *http://www.bobthebuilder.com/usa/projects.asp Students will listen to My Little Red Toolbox by Steven Johnson. In small groups, students will select one tool listed in the text and discuss how and why it is used. Each group will explain their tool and its use to the whole group in an oral presentation.

Recorded discussion

School tools recordings

Student response to building task

Oral presentation on tools

43

TechnologylEngineering Strand Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

2.1 Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Engineering Design Students will identify tools and simple machines used for a specific purpose. Activity Assessment

Gr. 1

Gr. 2

Students will interview family members about tools used in their homes. They will bring in a tool to share or make a drawing of a household tool. Each child will complete a page for class book, Tools in Our Homes. Students will illustrate and describe classroom tools used in the Science Center such as magnifying glasses, eye droppers, thermometers, and balance scales. Vocabulary will be added to Science Journals and Science Word Walls. Students will experiment with ramps, balls, and small cars in the Block Center or using a collection of unit blocks. Students will identify uses of ramps in daily life and record in Science Journals. Using a variety of pulleys from hardware stores, students will explore and describe how pulleys are able to move objects. Students will record explorations with both oral and written language and sketches in Science Journals.

Class book, Tools in Our Homes.

Science Journals and Word Walls

Science Journals

Science Journals

44

http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/CITE/machinessimple.htm

02/25/200902:20 PM

Gander Academy

. Theme Page :

Simple Machines

General Resources II Levers II Pulleys

Gears II Teacher Resources

Lego Dacta

General Resources

Simple Machines This interactive site on simple machines was created with the help of teachers and tested by children. Choose a location- home or barn- choose a room and explore the machines. Animations, quizzes and plentiful of educational fun here!' How Things Work How Stuff Works is a great place to come to learn about how things work in the world around you. Have you ever wondered how the engine in your car works, or what gears do, or what makes the inside of your refrigerator cold? Then How Stuff Works is the place for you! A new article gets added every week, so visit often or sign up for the HSW Newsletter to get the latest news. Look, Learn and Do This site allows you to access the plans and directions to build six machines. The are compass, boat, windmill, bugnet, greenhouse and blimp. Bill Nye the Science Guy: Simple Machines Learning about science can be hard work, but simple machines can make it easier. Let Bill Nye push and pull you around ramps, levers, screws, and pulleys. Simple Machines Simple Machines make work easier. The lever is a simple machine, which helps us to lift

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things. A playground seesaw is a type of lever. History of Important Machines This site allows you to select links to the history of six machines: sailboat, greenhouse, compass, insects, blimps and windmills. Read A Book About an Adventure With a Machine Choose from six books about an adventure involving a machine. Suitable for grade two and three readers. Inventors YVorkshop Leonardo s fascination with machines probably began during his boyhood. Some of his earliest sketches clearly show how various machine parts worked. As an apprentice in the studio of the artist Verrocchio, Leonardo observed and used a variety of machines. By studying them he gained practical knowledge about their design and structlJre.

I

Glossary of Simple Machine Related Terms

Actual Size to Vanishing Point

The Elements of Simple Machines Simple Machines: These devices were all in common use for centuries before Leonardo's time. Each one makes work easier to do by providing some trade-off between the force applied and the distance over which the force is applied. Simple Machines A machine is a tool used to make work easier. Simple machines are simple tools used to make work easier. Compound machines have two or more simple machines working together to make work easier.

Top of Page

Inclined Plane

The Inclined Plane

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The inclined plane is a plane surface set at an angle, other than a right angle, against a horizontal surface. The inclined plane permits one to overcome a large resistance by applying a relatively small force through a longer distance than the load is to be raised. Wedge The wedge is the active twin of the inclined plane. It does useful work by moving. In contrast, the inclined plane always remains stationary.

Top of Page

Screw

Screw This simple machine is a modification of the wedge designed to yield a very large mechanical advantage in minimum space. The screw is essentially a transfer device of motion and/or force. Demonstration on the Action of a Screw This simple demonstration shows how a screw is actually an inclined plane. You may want to do this as a demonstration for your class or have every student make their own.

Top of Page

Levers

What Can Levers Do?

Question: How do levers make you stronger?

Answer:

Levers do not make you stronger. A lever helps you do more work with the strength

you al ready have.

Levers: A Student's Project

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Thank you for taking the time to look over my science fair project for 1996. Machines That use levers

Top of Page

Gears

How Gears Work You see gears in just about everything that has spinning parts. For example, car engines and transmissions contain lots of gears. If you ever open up a VCR and look inside you will see it is full of gears.

Teacher Resources

Lesson Plans and Web Site Lists: Simple Machines

Students participating in this project will investigate simple machines and their

usefulness in everyday life.

Simple Machines (2 Lessons) Prepared by: Christine McCrystal. UC Irvine Farm School,

Irvine. CA USA

Objective:

Students will be able to identify the six simple machines (lever, pulley, wheel and axle,

inclined plane, wedge, screw) and give examples how each can be used to lessen the

effort needed to do work.

Simple Machines: Classroom Activities

OVERVIEW: The study of simple machines and how they work have been a part of most

science curriculum for many years. Looking into how they have improved our world and

how these machines could be creatively directed can be exciting for both the student

and the teacher. These few activities help to direct the student beyond the "simple

machine vocabulary", extending the thinking process while showing simple machines real

usefulness. This also allows each student to become active and responsive to a product.

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Be Inventive! A Lesson Plcm

Main Idea:

Students combine their own ideas with the elements of machines to imagine and design

inventions to solve specific challenges. Using a variety of materials they can create

small working models of their inventions to test and improve them. Final diagrams and

images of their designs can be sent to this site for display in the Visitor's Invention

Gallery.

Index of Lessons on various Types of Simple Machines

This unit supports what the kids have already read or learned about simple machines

and gives them the opportunity to tryout different things for themselves. Just as

importantly, it introduces or reinforces experimental technique and scientific thought:

things like hypotheses, conclusions, deductions, predictions, applications, observations,

documentation and data analysis. It also makes heavy use of language arts and math

skills and provides an opportunity to reinforce teamwork skills.

Operating Simple Machines

Learning Outcome: The student will operate simple machines to demonstrate their

usefulness in everyday life.

Simple Machines

Unit overview:

After analyzing the relationship between force and energy, the conversion of force to

motion by simple machines is studied.

Work and Machines Machines

Third grade students start to develop a sense of how technology fits into their

everyday life and how the technology we have today came to be. As humans adapted

their environment to make life easier, they were able to discover several things that

made the necessary work for survival easier. They started to see how such things as

wheels simplified their work, that an axle added to wheels worked even better and so

began the advent of technology.

Moving Along With Simple Machines

Introduction & Overview:

The purpose of this unit is to porvide opportunity to explore simple machines. Emphasis

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is placed on the purpose of simple machines. Students will be able to apply what they learn to their every day life. Internet Lab: Simple Machines

Top of Page

@For Questions and Comments,

contact Jim Cornish,

Grade Five Teacher

Gander, Newfoundland, Canada.

This page was last updated January, 2003. You have made the visit to our Theme Pages!

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-

Teaching Engineering Through Stories

Katie A. Bush l ,!., Jen Gray\ Megan Holmes 1, Karen C. Kosinski 4

~G'~hlll;lt~ Sc/l()~11 (,rBimncdi.:al SCiCIlC{7';, Ulll\Cr:-;il\'

l13il'nlcdiCill Ellginl:~rillg D~'r:lrtn1L'IIL WOfl:':~ICI' 1~/Ily,cd1l\ic InSlillill', \\-'orcl·slcr. i\V\

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ABSTRACT

"K-6 Gets a Piece of the PIEE (Partnerships Implementing Engineering

Education)" is paJt of a program funded by the National Science Foundation to develop and implement a technology and engineering curriculum in grades kindergarten through six in the Worcester Public School System. Tn 2005-06, a team of graduate fellows and undergraduate students are creating, testing, and finalizing a series of children's stories as a way to pioneer the leaching of engineering and technology at the elementary school level. Young students often cannot be taught engineering via the same methods as high school and college-aged students, For example. students 111 grades kindergarten Clnd one cmmot read or write. Nevelthekss, concepts such as creative design. materials selection. and proper tool use cau be effectively taught. After studying a variety of pedagogical techniques, graduate fellows wrote ~nd illustrated a prototype book in the aforementioned series, Snarky's Engineer. The story introduces children in grades kindergalten through three to ~ variety of engineering professions. It was tested in twelve classrooms and its success was determined by assessing student knowledge and obtaining feedback frol11 profession~1 educators. Following collection of highly positive results, six additional stories and a corresponding set of lesson plans were created. n,e entire series of seven books is cUlTently in the final stage of testing. Curriculum pl~ns, representative lessons, and program successes are described below.

-

PROTOTYPE STORY: SPARKY's ENGINEER

Sampll' pllgC from ProtufJllc hook Sonl;:,"!> Enninecr: SparJ,;)' ('onsidcrs

SP:lTJ,;y :IS 1Il:)!'cot (or the ·'[n~incl'rinr.: De!ii~lI

I'ru('css".

l'l1gilll.'l'riIlM professions.

LITERATURE PIECES

MASSACHUSETTS FRAMEWORKS

SiorrTitle

pror~.~:>ions.

MA Frameworks

SIJark:r'~ Enl:,'inccr · Introduces tho:: Engineering DO::::-16'11 Proce~s and various engineering

The Satur~;J)'.

Morning Sup:crhcro

· Prm-ldes :1Il e:-:::unpllt of Il(l\\' Ih~ En!::in¢ering D,;::>ign Pmc~!':> can bt." used 10 solve problems. · Identifi¢s :md ¢",plail1::- som¢ pos;;iblt.". usc'!> lor n;Hurill malerial:: and hum<ln-made materials. · Ask questlons alxlul Objt."l~L org:misll1s, an~t t."'''~1l15 in Ihe envireJllmt."nl. · Tdl aboul why and what WllUld h.,ppen if? · Idel11iJy and describe characu'rislics of lmtural malenals and human· made mat~riab. · ld~llliry and e:-::pJain 50m~ po:,~iblt." US"~$ ror nalumlmale-riills and human Illade Illtllelials. · Idenliry and de::,rlbe lilt." :>are and proper u::e t,rlOol:; and mmerial:, itI conSln1ct simplt' Siruclllr~s. · Ask quesliul)s about objects, organisms, and C\'ems in the ell\·iwnmenL · Tell about wh)· lmd whal \\'ould happen ir~ · 1"1a),;~ predictions base-d on ob$~rv~d pauems. · Discus:'i oh!;.~rv:l1iOh:'i wilh olh~rs. · Describe Ih~ wcailier changes. rronl day to day and o\'er Ih~ St'a."on:>. · SOl1 objecb by obs~f\.:ablt." propeTlies ~uch as size, 5h(lp~, color. weight. .. nellexture. · Identily and describe dmractel"istics ofnflturaI materials and hUnlan mad~ lIl:neri.:\I5., · [demily and c.~plaill some pO:;5iblc: u.o;;e;; for nalUral material=' anel human· made materials. · Identity :md describe the -,ale: and proper u:;.e of wnl:'i and makrials h) ("(Instruct simple 5lruclurt.":', · Idenliry malerial:; u..:;ed to HCCClmplish <l ele::ign la"k bast'd 011 a spc:cilic properly, i.e.. \\'t:ighl. :,ITcngth, h:m!nt:ss, and n~",jbilil)o. · !ck:nti(y :ll1d e.xplain Ih~ ;tppropria1~ malel'ial~ and lools 10 construct a gi\"~n pr(lIOlypt: sart'ly. · Identily a plllblem th::lt rdlel'l$ th~ need 1(lr silt'lter. $t(\rng~. or

t:on\'eni~nl'e.

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Six em'er Pages of Technology/Engincering Literary Works for Grados

Kindergarten through Six

WORKSHEETS, GAMES, and HANDS ON ACTIVITE

Thc Five llilgrims

Third ;l:r-.ule ~tlllll'nl:S tllll~tnll:tinl!.: mudel '""Tn-... HOllsl!s".

Finr gl~de ~Cil'i1 ED~il\I."I~I1.>d·· low...u.

Killtlc~f1t1"n

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· D~~cribe din~rent \\"a}':<o in whie-It a probl~m C:l.I1 b!: rcpr~:,e-nled. -e.g.. skelch~s, diagrams. ~T::Iphic ('rg:lnizt."I"$, and fislS.. · Idt."nlify rt'lt:\·anl d~ig:1l f~:\ture$ lix building.;l prN(IIY~ (11':\ solulion 10 il gi\'l:n problem. · Idenlify and t."x,p\ain s<mle [10s....ible ll.,<;::'.$ 1(1r natumlrmllcrials (~.g_, \\'t)('lo,.l. ';('Illon. fUT. wool) :md human-made' rnatt:rial$ (~.g .· plastic, $tyrulC.1arnJ. · Id~llIil).. ttlol:, anli SImple machines us~ 10r:l :'Pt'c.if"tc purpo"e. e,g .. ramp. wh~el. pull~y_ It:'\'l:f. · Tell alxl\.ll why and whal w(lald happen 'iI',' · \.iak~ ptedic!iol1!'o based (JIl obsen. t."d jJ..1"lkms. · Name and us~ $impk equipm~1l1 and tU(1\s \e_£!.. rule-rs_ mdt'r Slicks. therm011l.el~rS, hand tefL"-""$.. and ha!;mces) to galher Jal;'! :lnd ~_,[t."lld th~ "el1$e.s. · Ask questillns abNlI ('Ibjecl~. organlsrns_ anti ~\'enls in: the t:H\'ironnlt;"nl. · Tt."11 aboul why and \"'hat would happc"o il'!

· Discuss obs~f"'ation5 with tIl her=>_

· Dt:~ribe h(I\\' human bc"ing!o" use p:~rL" or lhe body:t~ 101}ls and Cllnlp;tre IIJt'ir lL'it:' with Ihe ways in which animal::; \l~~ I}W$.l;: P;U1$ of 111e'ir b(Jdi~:"

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RESULTS

· \Vorcesler Public Schools Teach('rs: Enthusiastic response to SI)arkv's Em~ineer. Tree House, The Amazing Mine Storv, The Saturday Moming Suoerhero · Worc('ster Public Schools Students: Enjoyed illustrations, identilied with plots, learned engineering terms, c<1lnpLeted hands-on activities · Our Findings: Storybooks are an attractive option to teach engineering.: · Self-contained · Highly accessible to students and educators , Inexpensive storybooks and accompanying lessons

The Amaziog

I\'finc Story

Jasminc's

Explorer

Notebook

Technology/Engineering Strand Learnin2 Standards for Grades PreK- 2

2.2 Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Engineering Design Students will describe how human beings use parts of the body as tools and compare their use with the ways in which animals use those parts of their bodies. Assessment Activity

PreK

After reading Waiting for Wings by Lois Ehlert, children use drinking straws to pretend to be butterflies sipping nectar from flowers. They will discuss how they drink liquids and compare the ways humans and butterflies use part of their bodies to drink liquids. Students will participate in the Elephant Song by Hap Palmer. They will demonstrate how the elephant uses various body parts to move, eat, wash, and drink.

Student demonstration

Student demonstration

K

Class chart After viewing internet photos of birds and their assorted beaks, students will predict why different birds have different shaped beaks and how those beaks are like tools. Teacher will record discussion on chart, Bird Beaks are Tools. http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.stru.beakgallery/ Students will design and draw a superhero with special body parts such Illustrated superhero as xray eyes or elastic legs. They will share their superhero with the class and discuss how these body parts are the same or different from humans.

45

Technology/Engineering Strand

Learning Standards for Grades PreK- 2

2.2 Strand 4: Technology/Engineering, Engineering Design Students will describe how human beings use parts of the body as tools and compare their use with the ways in which animals use those parts of their bodies. Activity Assessment

Gr.t

Gr. 2

Children will explore using different tools such a tweezers, tongs, different spoons to pick up bird seed and compare the different tools to the beaks of different birds. Students will draw a bird with a specific beak and describe how the beak is used. Students will work together to create a skit that illustrates how we use body parts as tools in everyday life. Activities to include might be climbing a

tree, swimming, opening cabinets, tossing and throwing, grasping objects,

eating and cooking.

Students will examine illustrations of dinosaur teeth and determine which type of teeth were more effective for plant eaters and meat eaters. They will

illustrate a page for class book, Dino Teeth.

http://www.enchantedleaminll.com/subiects/dinosaurs/anatomv/Teeth. shtml

After reading Ducks Don't Get Wet, student will experiment will feathers,

water, and cooking oil to demonstrate how ducks spread oil on their feathers to waterproof them by preening. Students will discuss what they have learned with a partner and record in Science Journals.

Bird beak illustration

Student skits

Class book

Science Journal entries

46

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ZoomDinosaurs.com DINOSAUR ANATOMY AND BEHAVIOR Size Teeth Herds. Packs Offense Defense Reproduction, Nests &

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:Looking at an animal's teeth can give you a lot of: 9 Spinosaurus :information on how it lived. Dinosaur teeth can : ~J Tooth :tell you a lot about the animal, including the type : ~ \f-- Poinled tooth,

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. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Teeth are harder than bone and therefore fossilize' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - more readily than bones. Many fossilized dinosaur teeth have been found. Some species of dinosaurs (like Cardiodon, Deinodon, and Trachodon) are known only from fossilized teeth. fhe number of teeth that dinosaurs had varied widely. Some, like Gallimimus and

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Ornithomimus, had no teeth. T. rex had 50 to 60 thick, conical teeth. The dinosaurs with the

most teeth were the hadrosaurs (the duck-billed dinosaurs), which had up to 960 cheek teeth.

uinosaurs had replaceable teeth; when a tooth was lost or broken, another one grew in to take

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Parasaurolophus, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, etc.) had about 960 self-sharpening cheek

teeth. They had more teeth than any other dinosaurs.

-Iguanodontids: (like Iguanodon, Ouranosaurus, and Probactrosaurus) had teeth similar to those of modern-day iguanas. The rounded, notched crown of the teeth were curved.

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-Heterodontosaurus J'1J<.. , was a small Ornithischian dinosaur that had three different kinds of teeth (hence its name) and a beak. The sharp, cutting front, upper teeth were used for biting against the horny beak, the cheek teeth were for grinding food, and it also had two pairs of long, canine-like teeth that fit into sockets.

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Bibliography Early Childhood Science Curriculum Earth Science Strand

Asch, Frank. Bear Shadow. Scholastic, 1995. Barrett, Judy. Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs. Aladdin, 1992. Curtis, Carolyn. I Took the Moon for a Walk. Barefoot Books, NY, 2005. Ets, Marie Hall. Gilberto and the Wind. Puffin, NY, 1978. Gibbons, Gail. Weather Words and What They Mean. Scholastic, 1990. Hutchins, Pat. Good Night Owl. Aladdin, NY, 1993, Hutchins, Pat. The Wind Blew. Aladdin, 1993. Littledale, Freya. Peter and the North Wind. Scholastic, 1989. Otto, Carolyn. That Sky, That Rain. Harper Trophy, NY, 1990. Penn, Audrey.The Kissing Hand. Tanglewood Press, 2006. Peters, Lisa. Water's Way. McGraw Hill, 1993. Stevenson, Robert Louis. My Shadow. Creative Editions, NY, 2002. Williams, Rozanne. Round and Round the Seasons Go. Creative Teaching Press, 1994. Williams, Sue. I Went Walking. Red Wagon Books, 1996.

Life Science Strand

Aliki. Digging Up Dinosaurs. Harper Trophy, NY, 1998. Aliki. Dinosaurs are Different. Harper Trophy, NY, 1986. Aliki. Dinosaur Bones. Harper Trophy, NY, 1990. Aliki. Fossils Tell of Long Ago. Ty Crowell Co, NY, 1990. Amosky, Jim. Crinkleroot's Guide to Knowing Animal Habitats. Aladdin, 2000. Bancroft, Henrietta. Animals in Winter. Harper Trophy, NY, 1997. Barton, Byron. Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones. Harper Collins, 1990. Brett, Jan. The Mitten. Scholastic, 1990.

Carle, Eric. My Very First Book of Animal Homes. Penguin, NY, 2007.

Carle, Eric. The Very Hungry Caterpillar. Philomel, 1981.

Cotton, Cynthia. Some Babies Sleep. Penguin, 2007.

Elhert, Lois. Leaf Man. Harcourt, 2005.

Elhert, Lois. Red Leaf, Yellow Leaf. Harcourt, 1991.

Elhert, Lois. Waiting for Wings. Harcourt, 2001.

Emmet, Jonathan. No Place Like Home. Candlewick, NY, 2005.

Fitzsimons. Cecilia. Animal Habitats. Steck-Vaughn, 1996.

Fleming, Denise. In the Small, Small Pond. Henry Holt & Company, NY, 1998. Fleming, Denise. In the Tall, Tall Grass. Henry Holt & Company, NY, 1998. Fleming, Denise. Where Once There Was a Wood. Henry Holt & Company, NY, 2000. Friend, Catherine. Perfect Nest. Candlewick, NY, 2007. Fuchs, Dianne Marcial. A Bear for All Seasons. Henry Holt, NY, 1995. Heller, Ruth. Chickens Aren't the Only Ones. Putnam, 1999. Hewitt, Sally. All Kinds of Habitats. Children's Press, 1999. Kellogg, Steven. Is Your Mama a Llama? Scholastic, 2006. Lindeen, Carol. Living and Nonliving. Coughlan Publishing, 2008. McCloskey, Robert. Make Way for Ducklings.Live Oak Media, 2004. Most, Bernard. If the Dinosaurs Came Back. Red Wagon Books, 1995. Penn, Linda. Young Scientists Explore the Seasons. Good Apple, 1983. Ryder, Joanne. Where Butterflies Grow. Puffin, 1996. Seuling, Barbara. Winter Lullaby. Harcourt, NY, 1998. Van Laan, Nancy. When Winter Comes. Antheneum, NY, 2000.

Physical Science Strand Burton, Virginia Lee. Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel, Houghton Mifflin,1993. Calhoun, Mary. Hot Air Henry. William Morrow and Company, 1981. McCully, Emily Arnold. Mirette on the High Wire. Penguin, NY, 1997. Techology and Engineering Strand Beaumont, Karen. I Ain't Gonna Paint No More! Harcourt, 2005. Bethel, Ellie. Michael Recycle. Worthwhile Books, 2008. Burton, Virginia Lee. Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel, Houghton Mifflin, 1993. Green, Jen. Why Should I Recycle? Barron's, 2005. Miura, Taro. Tools. Chronicle Books, 2006. Shulman, Lisa. Old MacDonald Had a Woodshop. Putnam, 2002. Synder, Inez. Gardening Tools. Scholastic, 2001. Synder, Inez. School Tools. Scholastic, 2001.

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