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Mathematics

MATHEMATICS 2003, N0. 4 Huntsville City Schools

ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY: MATHEMATICS Bulletin 2003, No. 4. The goal of Alabama's K-12 mathematics program is to empower all students to live and work in the twenty-first century with the mathematical skill, understandings, and attitudes they will need to be successful in their careers and daily lives. Mathematically empowered students are flexible and resourceful problem solvers who understand and value mathematics and communicate ideas effectively. Educators, using the Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics as a basis for curriculum development and instructional decision-making, provide opportunities that enable all students to use mathematics in everyday life and in the work place. This course of study specifies a MINIMUM foundation of mathematics to be learned by all students, including STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES. Content standards are included for each grade level and course. These standards are aligned to build upon each other across the grades without repetition. School systems are encouraged to expand the content standards when appropriate to address the needs of their students. The recommendations of the PRINCIPLES AND STANDARD FOR SCHOOL MATHEMATICS (PSSM) from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) are incorporated into the conceptual framework, position statements, and content standards of this course of study. The content in each grade level and course is organized using the five PSSM content standards, serving as strands in this document: Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, and Data Analysis and Probability. The PSSM process standards of Problem Solving, Reasoning and Proof, Communication, Connections, and Representation should be integrated into instruction as outlined in PSSM. STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST SERIES, TENTH EDITION The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has provided the educational community with a foundation of mathematical content and tightly interwoven processes from which to build optimal and appropriate curricular opportunities for all students. The Mathematics subtest is an assessment of student proficiency that builds on this comprehensive foundation and reflects the reality that

Kindergarten

Review

mathematics and problem solving are integral parts of everyday life. In the Mathematics subtest, each item is classified first by its mathematics content and then according to the mathematics process it assesses. The CONTENT clusters defined by the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition are NUMBER SENSE AND OPERATIONS; PATTERNS, RELATIONSHIPS, AND ALGEBRA; DATA, STATISTICS, AND PROBABILITY; and GEOMETRY AND MEASUREMENT. The PROCESS clusters include COMMUNICATION AND REPRESENTATION, ESTIMATION, MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS, and REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING. PATHWAYS FOR LEARNING: MATHEMATICS This document is designed to assist classroom teachers in preparing students to complete successfully the ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE). It should be noted that the task of preparing students for the graduation exam does not lie solely with the tenth- and eleventh-grade teachers. A major share of the responsibility rests with teachers in Grades 7-9. Elementary school teachers also have a responsibility to teach prerequisite skills. Teachers at all grade levels must work together and assume responsibility for teaching AHSGE competencies. All teachers are encouraged to work together so that continuity of the curriculum may be achieved. The learning environment of an early childhood classroom builds on K-2 students' natural interest in mathematical ideas and their connection to everyday living experiences. Students are given opportunities to construct mathematical understanding while encountering ideas in context, manipulating concrete objects, using appropriate tools, and communicating about mathematical ideas. Real-life situations requiring higher-order thinking skills are emphasized. Participation in small and large groups provides opportunities for students to share and compare strategies for solutions. In Grades K-2, the primary CONTENT emphasis is placed on number sense and geometry. Number sense involves understanding the relative sizes of numbers in the base ten system of numeration and knowing how to use them in problem solving, estimation, measurement, and

Content and Sequence © Copyright 2003 by Scantron Corp. and Huntsville City Schools. All rights reserved.

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Mathematics

MATHEMATICS 2003, N0. 4 Huntsville City Schools

classification. Foundations of algebra are established through the generalization of arithmetic in which letters represent numbers or specified sets of numbers. Data analysis and probability are introduced through the collection and analysis of data. Geometry in these grades begins by having students recognize shapes according to characteristics and is extended to making and representing spatial relationships. All five content areas are interconnected in these grades in order to build a strong foundation for future success in mathematics. In KINDERGARTEN, mathematical concepts include recognizing patterns an shapes, demonstrating one-to-one correspondence, making comparisons, using classification skills, and ordering sets of objects. By the END OF KINDERGARTEN, students are able to recognize numbers and basic shapes, replicate simple patterns, and communicate using mathematical terms. VOCABULARY development is emphasized. Number and Operations The NUMBER AND OPERATIONS unit provides the student opportunities for experiences with counting, adding, subtracting, and number concepts and systems. VOCABULARY development is emphasized. Number Senses: Demonstrate Concept #1 (Master) The learner will be able to demonstrate concepts of number sense by using one-to-one correspondence, counting in sequence by ones from 1 to 20, counting backward from 10, recognizing numerals 0-9, and comparing sets of objects up to 10 by using vocabulary terms including more than, less than, most, or least. Example: one-to-one correspondence-objects paired with objects, objects paired with numbers. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 10, #1. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Number Names & Notation (Master) The learner will be able to match number names and notation. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

Kindergarten

Review

Count: Forward or Backward (Master) The learner will be able to count forward or backward from an initial number. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Sets: Number of Elements (Master) The learner will be able to identify the number of elements in a set having up to 10 elements. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Numbers/Sets: Compare (Master) The learner will be able to compare numbers and sets up to 20. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Numerical Reasoning: Use (Master) The learner will be able to solve problems using numerical reasoning. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Ordinal Positions: Id. (Master) The learner will be able to identify ordinal positions. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Visual Reps./Sentences/Notations (Master) The learner will be able to translate between visual representations, sentences, and symbolic notation. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis

Content and Sequence © Copyright 2003 by Scantron Corp. and Huntsville City Schools. All rights reserved.

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Mathematics

MATHEMATICS 2003, N0. 4 Huntsville City Schools

Addition & Subtraction: Awareness P (Master) The learner will be able to develop an awareness of addition and subtraction. Examples: telling number stories, acting out number stories, joining and separating sets of objects, responding orally to problems presented in number stories. Pathways, Obj. 7, Pages 80, 82, 84. Source: AHSGE: Pathways for Learning, Kindergarten, Objective 7, Pages 80, 82, 84. Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Addition: Demonstrate #2 (Master) The learner will be able to demonstrate addition by using numbers totaling 5 or less. Example: using objects, number stories, or real-life situations. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 10, #2. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Addition Facts: Uses (Master) The learner will be able to compute using addition facts. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Subtraction: Demonstrate #2a (Master) The learner will be able to demonstrate subtraction by using numbers less than or equal to 5. Example: using objects, number stories, or real-life situations. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 10, #2. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Addition & Subtractions: Problems (Master) The learner will be able to solve problems using appropriate addition and subtraction strategies. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Whole Objects and Parts #3 (Master) The learner will be able to recognize that a whole object can be divided into parts. EMPHASIS: Dividing a whole object into equal parts. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 10, #3. Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension

Kindergarten

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Fraction Names/Notation: Models (Master) The learner will be able to match pictorial models to fraction names and notation. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Fraction Concepts: Problems (Master) The learner will be able to match pictorial models to fraction names and notation. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Algebra - E The ALGEBRA unit provides the student with opportunities to replicate patterns and sort objects by characteristics. Patterns, relations, functions, and graphs are emphasized throughout the grades as are mathematical modeling and properties of operations and numbers. VOCABULARY development is emphasized. Patterns: Replicate #5 (Master) The learner will be able to replicate patterns using concrete objects. EMPHASIS: Sorting objects by characteristics (color, size, shape); describing characteristics of patterns and/or objects. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 11, #5. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Visual Patterns: Extend (Master) The learner will be able to extend visual patterns. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Visual Patterns: Missing Elements (Master) The learner will be able to identify missing elements in a visual pattern. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

Content and Sequence © Copyright 2003 by Scantron Corp. and Huntsville City Schools. All rights reserved.

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Mathematics

MATHEMATICS 2003, N0. 4 Huntsville City Schools

Visual Patterns: Similar, Id. (Master) The learner will be able to identify similar visual patterns. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Numerical Pattern: Missing Elements (Master) The learner will be able to identify missing element in a numerical pattern. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Geometry - E The GEOMETRY unit provides the student with opportunities to recognize simple polygons. VOCABULARY development is emphasized. Rectangles-Squares-Circles-Triangles #6 (Master) The learner will be able to create combinations of rectangles, squares, circles, and triangles using shapes or drawings. FURTHER EMPHASIS: Describe location of objects using positional terms (beside, inside, outside, above, below, between, on, over, under, near, far). COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 11, #6. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Shapes: Identify #7/P (Master) The learner will be able to identify rectangles, squares, circles, and triangles. FURTHER EMPHASIS: Recognizing like shapes in the environment. Examples: clock-circle, door-rectangle. COS; Pathways, Obj. 11, Pages 86, 89, 92. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 11, #7; Pathways, Obj. 11, Pages 86, 89, 92 . Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Solid Figures: Compare (Master) The learner will be able to compare solid figures. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis

Kindergarten

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Plane Figures: Identify/Compare (Master) The learner will be able to identify and compare plane figures. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Geometric Figures: Attributes (Master) The learner will be able to identify and use the attributes of geometric figures. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Measurement - E The MEASUREMENT unit provides the student with opportunities to learn vocabulary associated with the measurement of time, length, height, volume, and weight. VOCABULARY development is emphasized. Vocabulary of Measurement #8 (Master) The learner will be able to use vocabulary associated with length, height, volume, and weight to compare objects. Examples: longer than, as long as, shorter than, as short as, taller than, as tall as, holds more, as heavy as. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 11, #8. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Weight: Estimates, Compare (Master) The learner will be able to compare estimates of weight. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Measurement : Tools & Units (Master) The learner will be able to identify appropriate tools or units of measurement. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

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Mathematics

MATHEMATICS 2003, N0. 4 Huntsville City Schools

Length: Non-Standard Units (Master) The learner will be able to estimate length using non-standard units. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Vocabulary of Time: Measurement #9 (Master) The learner will be able to use vocabulary associated with the measurement of time, including words related to clocks and calendars. Examples: before, after, first, last, hours, days, weeks, months. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 11, #9. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Time: Tell, Nearest Hour (Master) The learner will be able to tell time to the nearest hour. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Calendar Concepts: Problems (Master) The learner will be able to solve problems involving calendar concepts. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Coins: Penny, Nickel, Dime, Quarter #4 (Master) The learner will be able to identify a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 10, #4. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Coins: Value of Sets (Master) The learner will be able to calculate the value of sets of coins. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

Kindergarten

Review

Data Analysis and Probability The DATA ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY unit provides the student with opportunities to create simple data displays with concrete or pictorial representations. VOCABULARY development is emphasized. Data Displays: Complete #10 (Master) The learner will be able to complete data displays such as single-loop Venn diagrams and yes/no charts using real objects, concrete representations, or pictorial representations. Example: recording "yes" or "no" responses to the question "Do you have a yellow pencil?" by placing students' names in the appropriate area of the Venn diagram. SEE illustration in course of study, Page 12. FURTHER EMPHASIS: Responding to questions for the purpose of data collection. Examples: choosing favorite color, answering yes and no questions for data displays. COS. Source: Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics, Bulletin 2003, No. 4, Kindergarten, Page 12, #10. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Tables & Graphs: Interpret (Master) The learner will be able to read and interpret a variety of tables and graphs. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis Outcomes: Id. (Master) The learner will be able to identify possible outcomes. Source: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (SAT-10), SESAT2-Form A, Kindergarten, Page 26. Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis

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