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WHAP Chapter 28 Study Guide 1. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip igniting World War I. 2. In the early 20th century, changes were undermining apparent world stability because of tensions between Germany and France in Europe. 3. In the early 20th century, the Ottoman Empire was referred to as the "sick man of Europe". 4. An example of European meddling in Ottoman Empire affairs was the Russian interest in "protecting" the Slavs. 5. Nationalism in Europe led Europeans to view war as a justifiable way to avenge past injustices. 6. The early 20th century system of alliances pitted the British, French, and Russians against Germany, Italy, and Austro-Hungary. 7. The plan to mobilize millions of European troops was based on railroad timetables. 8. Most European nations thought the war that started in 1914 would be won by the fastest moving army and the boldest general. 9. A unique aspect of the Western Front was the three-hundred-mile-long line of armies from Switzerland to the North Sea. 10. A new and potent defensive weapon in World War I was the machine gun. 11. The war at sea in the years 1914-1918 pitted the British fleet against the German submarine. 12. Women during World War I joined the work force "for the duration". 13. The diet of the German population was limited to one thousand calories per day. 14. During World War I, Africa provided over a million Africans for armed services. 15. The country that benefited most from World War I was the United States. 16. During World War I, African-American in the United States migrated north in vast numbers from the south. 17. The Ottoman Turks signed a secret alliance with Germany, hoping to gain Russian territory. 18. The Zionist movement primarily desired to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 19. The Balfour Declaration offered British support for the Zionist cause. 20. The group that suffered most within the Ottoman Empire during World War I was the Armenians.

21. The British tried to defeat the Ottomans by using an Arab army against the Turks. 22. Theodore Herzl was the leader of the Zionist movement. 23. The Russian army during the war was very large but poorly supplied and led. 24. The Russian tsar abdicated during the February Revolution. 25. Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks. 26. Lenin's plan for Russia: a. immediate surrender to Germany b. transfer of land to the peasants c. transfer of all power to the soviets d. transfer of factories to the workers 27. At the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia lost territory from Turkey. 28. The United States finally entered the war because of German unrestricted submarine warfare. 29. Deaths in World War I numbered between 8 and 10 million. 30. The influenza epidemic of 1918-1919 killed 20 million. 31. Woodrow Wilson's idea of self-determination was for European nations to reflect shared ethnicity and language. 32. Elements in the Treaty of Versailles that angered Germany: a. infamous "guilt clause" b. amount of reparations it had to pay c. loss of territory it sustained d. elimination of German air force 33. Communists won the civil war in Russia after World War I because of the military leadership of Leon Trotsky and the Red Army. 34. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed by joining Russia and the Soviet Ukraine. 35. Lenin's New Economic Policy in 1921 allowed private ownership of land and all but the largest businesses. 36. The Communist Party planned to pay for industrialization by essentially making the peasants pay for it. 37. When Lenin died in 1924, the struggle for power of the Soviet Union resulted in the leadership of Josef Stalin.

38. The German crisis of 1923 was marked by Germany recklessly printing money, causing inflation. 39. In 1900, China's population was 400 million. 40. Japan had very few natural resources and little arable land. 41. The main beneficiaries of Japan's prosperity of this period were the zaibatsu, who were four giant corporations. 42. A result of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 was Western powers and Japan captured Beijing and demanded payments. 43. The Twenty-One Demands in 1915 would have turned China into a virtual Japanese protectorate. 44. The mandate system is when colonial rulers administered territories but were held accountable to the League of Nations. 45. In 1923, Mustapha Kemal (Ataturk) turned Turkey into a secular republic. 46. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following the First World War, the modern Turkish state instituted many progressive reforms. 47. Egypt in the 1920s had "phony" independence instead of official British colonialism. 48. When far more Jewish immigrants than anticipated arrived in Palestine: a. The British tried to limit Jewish immigration b. Jewish settlers were smuggled in by militant Zionists c. The country was torn by strikes and guerilla war d. Britain was hated by both sides and much of the Arab world 49. In the 1920s, women's lives changed more than in any previous decade. 50. Before the 20th century, New Zealand was the only nation in which women had the right to vote. 51. The new social sciences in the 1920s were unsettling because they challenged Victorian morality and middle-class values. 52. Emile Durkheim was the famous French sociologist who shocked the world by saying, "There are no religions that are false. All are true in their own fashion". 53. The automobile transformed the landscape of Western Europe and North America more than any other development.

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