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Surface Ship Technology

Military Applications Military Applications

Brian Fitzpatrick Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division Carderock Division 29 June, 2010

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Developmental Activities

Surface Ship Technology

AF & Navy

· Developmental activities important at all levels

Basic Research

Electric Armament

Cryocoolers

HTS conductor

Magnets

Compact Motors & Generators

Coil Windings

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

High Power Devices

Surface Ship Technology

5 MW MultiElectric Power System (MEPS)

Publications:

Sivusubramaniam, et al, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., 2009 Sivusubraminiam, et al, IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond., 2008 Gemin et al, Int. J. Aerospace, 2008

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Surface Ship Technology

Navy Superconducting Technology Developments Technology Developments

The success of HTS naval degaussing technology has proven the seaworthiness of this technology has proven the seaworthiness of this technology and will be leveraged in other naval applications.

Generators & Motors

5MW HTS

36.5MW HTS

Ongoing HTS technology advances spurred by ongoing Degaussing developments will also be leveraged in new technology areas (better cables, g gy ( , quick disconnects, etc)

Degaussing g g

HTS Technology Advances

· · · · · Quick Disconnects Wire Improvements Cryogenic Cooling System Advances Dielectrics Terminations

Power Cables

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Navy 36.5MW HTS Motor Program

Surface Ship Technology

· Objective: Demonstrate the value of HTS motors as the primary propulsion technology for future Navy allelectric ships and submarines · T Team: AMSC, Northrop Grumman, Office of Naval Research, Naval AMSC N th G Offi fN lR h N l Surface Warfare Center

· Benefits: Motor size and weight reduced by more than 50%, acoustic signature reduced, efficiency increased producing energy savings, reduced pollution per unit of energy d d ll f produced, and lowered lifecycle costs · Status: 49,000 horsepower motor was tested for a large U.S. Navy combatant ship, reduced ship weight by nearly 200 metric tons, and will save close to $1 million annually on fuel

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

36.5 MW Motor Testing at Philadelphia

Surface Ship Technology

Full load testing completed. completed

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Navy 2G HTS Generator Program

Surface Ship Technology

· Objective: Superconducting generators are being evaluated for on ·

board utility service Team: SuperPower, Baldor's Reliance Electric, General Dynamics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Naval Surface Warfare Center

HTS rotor windings, leads and integrated cooling

Cryocoolers and Heat Exchanger

· Benefits: Improved efficiency, smaller and

Drive Shaft

Cryocoolers

Brushless Exciter Stator End Winding

Rotor

·

Back-Iron Stator End Turn Support

Radiation shields and cryostat

Torque Tubes Transfer Coupling

Cryogenic plumbing and interfaces

lighter than conventional generators, eliminates heat and thermal cycling eliminates heat and thermal cycling Status: Currently finishing risk reduction technology development tasks, and a sub scale rotor test rig in the process of scale rotor test rig in the process of fabrication

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

HTS Degaussing Program

Surface Ship Technology

· Degaussing cables reduce the magnetic signature of the ship. · Advanced Degaussing is newest technology to meet requirements and is copper based in three axis coils. copper based in three axis coils · Prior legacy Degaussing Systems were two axis. · HTS Technology provides opportunity for form fit replacement of copper to significantly reduce weight and cost and give installation options in degaussing designs. d i d i

ADG OFF ADG ON

ADG Significantly reduces ships magnetic signature

(14) Copper DG Cable (1) HTS DG Cable

HTS is a form fit replacement with the less "cable"

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Surface Ship Technology

Advanced Degaussing System (ADS) Ship Installation p

· Copper Based System

­ 40+, 3 axis loops ­ Up to 15 cables per loop ­ 10004500 Ampere Turn requirements ­ Typical Cable weight, 50 LT

3" Conduit

· Large conduit required Large conduit required

­ Typical Conduit weight, 65 LT

· High installation cost g

(3) 8" Conduits

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

HTS DG Demonstration

Surface Ship Technology

USS Higgins DDG76

· Opportunity for first deployment of HTS Opportunity for first deployment of HTS component on an Active combatant

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Surface Ship Technology

HTS Degaussing USS Higgins g Demonstration Program

· USS Higgins DDG76 used as test platform for advanced degaussing in 1995 · D Demonstration target is replace 30 meter t ti t ti l 30 t copper "L" coil in stern of DDG76 with HTS Cable. Demonstration will be prove reliability and · Demonstration will be prove reliability and operation in a relevant environment. · Installation, Testing and Rip out are funded ­ ONR · Installed June 2008 · Magnetic Range Run April 1, 2010

Shipboard Operation HTS DG System hours HTS DG Continuous hours during deployment Seas Encountered Seas Encountered Miles traveled on deployment 8979 hours 5962 Hours 8 10 ft 810 ft 37,073 miles

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Surface Ship Technology

High Temperature Superconducting Power y pp Cables for Navy Applications

Representative HTS Power Cable 3 Phase, 4kA

30

66

Power Distribution Shore Power Cables

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Integrated Power System

Surface Ship Technology

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Integrated Power and Cryogenics

Surface Ship Technology

c

PDM

c

PDM

c

PDM

c

PDM

ZEDS

ZEDS PD DM

ZEDS

ZEDS

PGM PMM

PGM PDM PDM M

PGM PDM

PGM

ZEDS

PDM

c

PDM

PDM

PMM ZEDS

ZEDS

ZEDS

PDM

PDM

PDM

c

c

c

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

IPS Cryogenic Developments

Surface Ship Technology

STTR Terminations Quick Disconnects SBIR Cables

10.6MW Generator Cryogenic Power Electronics El t i

PDM

36.5MW Motor

PGM

PMM

Degaussing

PCM PCON

PLM ESM

SMES Cryocapacitor's

The feasibility of a cryogenic based Naval Integrated Power System will depend on developing the necessary technology to support distribution of power to the other modules as shown in the notional IPS diagram, making the PDM the keystone of the IPS.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Development Challenges

Surface Ship Technology

· Start with HTS Degaussing Equipment

­ Cables, cooling systems, quick disconnects

· Primary Issues for Navy implementation y y p

­ ­ ­ ­ Warm to Cold Termination Insulation System Insulation System "Cold" Switch Quick Disconnects Quick Disconnects

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

System Benefits

Surface Ship Technology

degaussing cable

power distribution cable

=

Copper (14) 1.75" OD

=

Copper (33) 0.6" OD HTS (1) 1.75" OD Copper (12) C 2.2" OD

=

HTS (1) ~2.75" OD

· Power Density

­ Ability to move significant amounts of power

· Lower Cost Lower Cost

­ Fewer cables to install to support modular shipbuilding

· Lower Weight g

­ Allows for additional mission payload

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Surface Ship Technology

Power Transmission Cables Airborne 5MW, 270V DC ,

For 30x2 m `to + return' cable

Cu Cable System Mass System Mass Mass Reduction Heat Loss Heat Reduction Heat Reduction Wireonly OD Wire Cross section Area Reduction

Assumptions:

Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components (COTS) No current leads needed for all-superconducting system Mass of cryo-circulator and insulation negligible cryo circulator Extrapolate 2/O Cu wire for high current comparisons Self-field losses can be minimized with proper design (Ballarino, et al, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 18(2), 1455 (2008)

YBCO Cable 250 kg 250 kg 95% 55 W 99.9% 99 9% 1.1 cm 98.7%

4800 kg 4800 kg 60,000 W 9.3 cm

Actual OD Volume (m3) Volume Reduction Purchase Cost

9.3 cm 20.0 m3

45 cm 2.0 m3 90%

$98K*

HTS Wire $162K* Cryogenics: $45K Cryogenics: $45K

T. Haugan et al, Int. J. Aerosp. 1(1), 1088-1094 (2008)

* Cu commercial 4/0 wire I = 360 A;

cost $87.64 / kA*m with Cu = $3.28 / lb HTS wire I/Ic = 0.8 @55K = 240 A; cost $350 / kA*m

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Surface Ship Technology

NASA Subsonic MoreElectric Airliner: N+3 ( ) Generation (~2030)

Superconductor Applications Needed Generators Motors Power Transmission Cables Power Inverters Class 3040 MW 36 MW 570 MW, DC ± 270V 130 MW 3040 MW

30 MW Superconductor Power Transmission Power Transmission

H. D. KIM

Power Electronics

30 MW Superconductor Electrical Generator

~ 6 MW Superconductor Electrical Motor TurboFans

Fuel Efficiency: +70% Potential WorldMarket Pull: $400B/yr savings

Recent NASA contract awards of $12.6M @ h // http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/nra_awardees_10_06_08.htm i / d 10 06 08 h C.A. Luongo, et al, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 1005 (2009)

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Florida State Center for Advanced Power Systems Cryogenics Test Bed

· Surface Ship Technology Cable Cryostat and Thermal Experiments · 30 m cable cryostat has been installed and validated for vacuum tests from room temperature to 10 K p · Comprehensive thermal tests were performed with a simulated cable installed in the cryostat · Helium liquid was used as source of cold Helium gas · Even for small flow rates of 1 g/s, the temperature rise across 30 m only 5 K. The t t i 30 l 5 K Th design flow rate of helium circulation system is 15 g/s · Spot and sectional heat loads up to 50 W/m were generated and temperatures gradients of < 0.2 K/m were maintained of < 0.2 K/m were maintained · Helium Circulation System · The system is being installed · Expected to be ready for final tests in July 2010 · High Pressure Experimental Cryostat High Pressure Experimental Cryostat · The cryostat has been delivered and tested for 250 psi experiments · Will be used for dielectric materials testing pertinent to DC cable · Dielectric measurement and properties of helium including comprehensive investigations for different materials, pressures and temperatures.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Applied Superconductivity SBIR's

Surface Ship Technology

·

ONR

­ ­ N06158 HTS Quick Disconnect · Develop cryogenic seals and quick disconnects for both cryogenic fluid and electrical power feed Develop cryogenic seals and quick disconnects for both cryogenic fluid and electrical power feed throughs to be used in a Navy shipboard environment N10AT022 Low Loss High Power Current Lead for Cryogenic Applications · Develop an ambienttocryogenic temperature current lead for a superconducting power cable while minimizing heat leakage and joule heating for use in a Navy shipboard environment NAVSEAN091054 Helium Circulation for Shipboard High Temperature Superconducting Systems (HTS) ­ PEO Ships · Develop a low cost means of helium circulation for high temperature superconducting system NAVSEAN091051 Low Maintenance and Low Cost Cryocooler ­ PEO Ships · D l Develop a low maintenance cryocooler to provide cost effective cryogenic cooling for distributed l i t l t id t ff ti i li f di t ib t d High Temperature Superconducting Degaussing Systems (HTSDG) onboard Navy ships NAVSEAN091048 Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Long Cryogenic Thermal Paths ­ PEO Ships · Develop distributed temperature sensors for use in cryogenically cooled thermal paths NAVSEA N092168 Lightweight Power Dense Distribution Cable ­ PEO SHIPS · Develop a lightweight power cable with a highpower density OSD08EP8 High Reliability Low Maintenance Cryocooler for HTS Motor/Generator OSD · Develop a high reliability cryocooler for an HTS Motor or Generator

·

NAVSEA

­ ­ ­ ­

·

OSD

­

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Research Focus

Surface Ship Technology

Motors/Generators Point Systems Point Systems

HTS Degaussing, Point Load Power Cables SemiDistributed Systems

36.5MW HTS

Integrated Cryogenic Engineering Plant Fully Distributed System Fully Distributed System Challenges Redundancy, Reliability, Survivability y g p p Cryogenics needs power but power needs cryogenics

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

ITAR / MCTL

Surface Ship Technology

· ITAR ­ International Traffic in Arms Regulation

­ MCTL ­ Military Critical Technologies List ­ There are 20 Sections to MCTL from Materials and Process Technology, Nuclear Systems Technology, Energy System Technology, Marine Systems Technology, Directed Energy Systems Technology, etc. ­ The word "superconductor" appears 45 times in MCTL The word superconductor appears times in MCTL ­ Cited applications include:

· Magnatrons; airbourne electric power; superconducting magnets; gyrotrons; propulsion systems; superconducting motors; degaussing; electrical energy g generation, storage and control; sensor and electronic materials; power and , g ; ;p weapon systems; linear induction accelerator; magnetic sensor systems; superconducting quantum interference devices; mangetometers; superconducting intrinsic gradiomoters; radio frequency superconducting devices; composite conductors (YBCO);

­ Section 14 1 3 YBCO conductor parameters: "Total length greater than 1 000 Section 14.13 YBCO conductor parameters: Total length greater than 1,000 meters in piece lengths greater than 500 meters. Engineering critical current density of the conductor exceeds 20,000 A/cm2 at 65K in magnetic fields up to 2T or less" ­ http://www dtic mil/mctl/ http://www.dtic.mil/mctl/

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Conclusion

Surface Ship Technology

· The DOD has invested in superconducting science and technology for future naval and air force platforms. · The advantages of superconducting technology for naval pp g y applications are being successfully demonstrated. · Superconducting technology will aid in the realization of the all electric naval force and help in realization of US Air Force all electric naval force and help in realization of US Air Force objectives

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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