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THE Impact Project Glossary of Railyard Terminology AAR: Association of American Railroads. Representing the North America's freight railroads and Amtrak, bringing rail related issues to the attention of congressional and government officials. BNSF: Burlington-Northern Santa Fe Railroad Bulk Freight: Loose freight, such as coal, sand and grain handled in its natural state, and not packaged or boxed in individual units or containers. Cal/EPA: California Environmental Protection Agency. A government agency created in 1991 by Governor's Executive Order, responsible for the protection of human health and the environment to ensure public health. CARB: California Air Resource Board. As a part of the California EPA, the CARB is responsible for controlling and reducing emissions from mobile sources such as cars, trains, trucks and other heavy-duty vehicles. Class I Railroad: Is a large freight railroad. In the US, the AAR defines a Class I Railroad as a railway carrier with minimum operating revenue over $319.3 million (USD). Classification Yard: Freight yards where trains are broken up and out together by a switcher locomotive or by a hump based on their common destination. Containers: A large weather proof box used for shipping freight by rail, truck or ship. Most containers are 20, 45, 48 or 53 feet in length. Departure Yard: The part of the main yard from where the cars are forwarded to their destination. Diesel: Is a fuel refined from oil, much like gasoline, though heavier and oilier than gasoline. It is used in engines that use diesel as fuel. Diesel Exhaust: Emission from burning diesel fuel that is used by vehicles such as buses, trucks, rail and other machinery that have a diesel engine. Diesel exhaust contains a large amount of particulate matter that is thought to be cancerous. Drayage: Transportation of intermodal freight over the road from either a port to a railyard or from a hub to another facility. EDI: Electronic Data Interchange. Process of sending and retrieving information electronically. Exposure Assessment: Method used to evaluate the potential exposures to humans and the environments from the production, distribution, use, disposal and recycle of a chemical substance.

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Environmental Justice: "the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies." (US Environmental Protection Agency) Flange: a rim projecting at right angles from the inside edge of a locomotive wheel to guide it along the track. FRA: Federal Railroad Administration. An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation responsible for enforcing rail safety regulations, conducting research and developing support of improved railroad safety and rail transportation policy. Freight: A method of transporting goods by water, land or air. A freight train is a railroad train make up of freight cars. Fuel Bunker: a compartment in a locomotive for storing fuel. Gondola: Freight car with sides but no roof. Goods Movement: The transfer of products from the place where they are made to destinations where they are sold. Gravity Yard: A type of classification yard where gravity is used to sort and classify cars. Also known as a Hump Yard. Health Risk Assessment (HRA): Uses mathematical models to determine the health impacts from exposure to certain chemical or toxic air contaminants emitted from facilities or found in the air. HRAs provide information on potential long term cancer and non-cancer health risks estimates. Hump Yard: A type of classification yard where the cars are pushed up a knoll by the engine so that they can roll down by their own momentum to certain tracks based on where they are headed. Once the cars are released from the locomotives, they are controlled by someone in the control tower to guide them to the right track. ICTF: Intermodal Container Transfer Facility located in Long Beach, California, about 4 miles north of the Port of Long Beach. It is a Union Pacific intermodal railyard facility which receives trains from the Port of Long Beach and Los Angeles, and other distribution facilities. Intermodal: A type of shipping that allows for the interchangeable movement of containers between different modes of transportation, mostly ship, truck and train. The shipping equipment is compatible with these methods of transportation. LATC: Los Angeles Transportation Center. It is a Union Pacific railyard located in the city of Los Angeles, California. Line Haul: Movement of freight over tracks of a railroad from one station to another, without the use of a switching service. Locomotive: Is a railway vehicle that provides the motor power for a train.

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Micron (m): a micro meter; one micron is about 60-100 times smaller than the width of a human hair. Near-dock Railyard: A cargo facility located inland close to a port waterfront, used primarily for sorting marine cargo containers and assembling into trains bound for a common destination. On-dock Railyard: A cargo facility located on a port waterfront, used primarily for the sorting of marine cargo containers and assembling them into trainloads bound for a common destination. Particulate Matter: Also known as PM, this particle pollution is a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. The size of the particles is directly related to their ability to cause health problems. The EPA is concerned about particles which are 10 micron or smaller in diameter because those particles can pass through the throat and nasal passages, entering the lungs or even the blood, causing serious health effects. Railyard: An assortment of railroad tracks used for assembling, storing, sorting, loading/unloading and maintenance/repairing railroad cars and/or locomotives. Railyards also serve as a place where goods can be transferred from trains to trucks and vice versa. Receiving Yard: Where arriving trains with cars come to be classified and sorted. Retarder: Braking method found usually in hump yards. Located on the inside of rails, forcing a brake pad against the inside of the wheel flange, thus reducing the speed of a car rolling down to the classification bowl. Risk Assessment/Characterization: A scientific process used to characterize the nature and magnitude of health risks to humans and wildlife caused by a substance, activity, lifestyle or natural phenomenon. Switch: A device to divert trains/cars to another track. Switching: The process of moving freight cars between tracks or trains. TEUs: "20-foot equivalents units," referring to goods containers that are 20 feet in length. A typical shipping container is 40ft in length, or 2 TEUs. Toxic Air Contaminants: Also known as hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act, are pollutants that may be expected to result in an increased potential hazard to human health or mortality. Health effects of TACs include cancer, birth defects, neurological damage or other disease that may lead to death. UP: Union Pacific Railroad

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