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ISSN 0974-9837

Regd. No. 810/2007-2008

Indian Journal of Social Science Researches

Editorial

Four decades of sophrology and its scientific status Rakesh Pandey 1-3

Volume 6 Number 1 March, 2009

Review and theoretical articles

Defensive pessimism as a cognitive strategy : An overview Amrita Deb and Meenakshi Arora Hemispheric asymmetry in depression: An overview Rakesh Pandey and Garima Gupta Changing Role of Teachers in Contemporary Educational Institutions Peter Odera Personality : A yogic conception Mukesh Jha Religion and AIDS : An Overview Shobhna Joshi and Shilpa Kumari 4-15 16-28 29-38

39-45 46-55

Original Articles

Job status, gender and level of education as determinants of job satisfaction of senior secondary school teachers Nasir Ali and Zaki Akhtar Leader- member exchange and mental health : A study of middle level managers Meena Singh and Urmila R. Srivastava Influence of parents' education on achievement motivation of adolescents Neha Acharya and Shobhna Joshi Relapse precipitants in alcohol addiction Divya Agrawal, Anil Lal and R. Chandra Subjective experiences of abuse and neglect among eastern U.P. elderly : A qualitative approach Sunil Kr. Verma Qualitative exploration into the phenomenon of work-family facilitation in Indian context S. Srivastava, U. R. Srivastava and A.K. Srivastava Psychosocial problems and needs of parents in caring mentally retarded children : The impact of level of mental retardation of children S. Upadhya and A. Singh Women's rights awareness of urban and rural adolescent girls of Uttar Pradesh : A comparative study Mukta Garg and Srilata Behavioural adjustment of pre-adolescent children of working and non-working mothers Roopali Sharma and Monika Dharmawat

Role of emotional intelligence in stress and health Anil Kumar Choubey, Santosh Kumar Singh and Rakesh Pandey

56-59

60-71

72-79

80-84 85-92

93-103

104-113

114-118

Editor-in-Chief

119-122

Rakesh Pandey

Deptt. of Psychology B.H.U., Varanasi

123-135

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, ISSN 0974-9837

Volume 6

Number 1

March 2009

Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Rakesh Pandey

Department of Psychology BHU, Varanasi (U.P.) India

Patron

Prof. G. P. Thakur, New Delhi

Editorial Consultants

Prof. O. P. Mishra, Haridwar Prof. N. K. Saxena, Kanpur Prof. A. K. Srivastava, BHU, Varanasi Prof. P. C. Mishra, Lucknow Prof. Tara Singh, Bhopal Dr. Saroj Verma, BHU, Varanasi Prof. B. P. Mishra, Ludhiana Dr. T.P. Singh, BHU, Varanasi Dr. N. K. Mishra, BHU, Varanasi Dr. Shobhna Joshi, BHU, Varanasi Dr. Urmila R. Srivastava, BHU, Varanasi Dr. Poornima S. Awasthi, BHU, Varanasi Dr. A. K. Vaidya, Varanasi Dr. Shah Alam, Aligarh Dr. Basheer Ahmed, Raipur Dr. R. N. Rai, Shillong Dr. Anubhuti Dubey, Gorakhpur Dr. S. N. Tripathi, Gorakhpur Dr. Dhananjay Kumar, Gorakhpur

Convener

Dr. Shambhu Upadhyay Department of Psychology MGKVP, Varanasi (U.P.) India

Executive Editors

Prof. L. N. Singh Department of Psychology M.G. Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi Dr. Y. K. Arya Department of Psychology BHU, Varanasi (U.P.) India Dr. Sandeep Kumar Department of Psychology BHU, Varanasi (U.P.) India

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Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 1-3 ISSN 0974-9837

Editorial

Four Decades of Sophrology and its Scientific Status Rakesh Pandey

Editor-in-Chief

The problem of neologism in the psychology is neither new nor surprising, as it has been observed from time to time in the existing scientific as well as popular psychological literature. Among a number of new terms that have found a place in the field of psychology, sophorology is one that probably does not adequately satisfy the criteria required for its inclusion in the field of scientific inquiry. The introduction of the term sophorology can be traced back to 1960s when a Spanish neuropsychiatrist Dr. Alfonso Caycedo coined it by synthesizing three Greek words SOS (harmony, serenity), PHREN (consciousness) and LOGOS (science, study) which literally means science or study of the harmony of the consciousness. Since then, it has occupied sufficient space and attention on the internet literature as a mean to address a wide variety of problems including problems of stress, insomnia, emotion management, interpersonal relationship etc. Such information are available on several web sites including the following: y.http://www.bodylogic.co.uk/sophrology.html and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophrolog Despite its popularity on the internet literature, it is less represented in the scientific literature such as standard journals, textbooks or reference books even after more than 40 years of its introduction. Moreover, the literature available on the internet has also not been authenticated by providing proper references. Probably this may be a reason behind the reluctance of the researchers to include it in the mainstream literature. The problem of scientific validation of this construct becomes further complicated as some researchers have included this term in scientific literature based on less authenticated definitions available on internet. For example, Doung and Zulian, (2007) have cited a definition of sophrology based on information available at http://gb.sophrologie-info.com. The cited definition is quoted here "Sophrology is the science which studies the human conscience, its modifications and the means of varying it, with a therapeutic, prophylactic, and teaching aim, to make it possible to be in harmony with itself and its environment" ( p. 141). Such attempt may encourage the acceptance of the term with the assumption that the term has some validity. In fact this is reflected in the application of sophrology as a technique to deal with a variety of psychological problems. It has become a recognized medical therapy in Western Europe (Doung & Zulian, 2007) and has been successfully used to decrease stress among health professionals and anxiety in patients (Cycedo, Carsi, & Van Rangelrooy, 2005). Besides the issue of authentication, defining the boundary of the construct of sophrology is

Reader Department of psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

2 Pandey

another problem. It has been defined as both a science as well as a technique. As a science, it refers to the systematic study of the various states and levels of consciousness irrespective of the mode or agent of its induction (Godefroy, 2001). However, as a set of mind controlling or regulating technique it is defined as "a series of easy physical and mental exercises, created specifically to provide a holistic method to manage the speed and stress of modern life." (International s o p h r o l o g y F e d e r a t i o n : http://www.sophrologycentre.com/page/page /4204826.htm). The Body Logic Health web site defines it as a technique based on relaxation and concentration to help an individual to become more aware of one's body and mind and the way they both function. http://www.bodylogic.co.uk/sophrology.html). Similarly, as a technique, Cycedo (1964) defined sophrology as the combination of relaxation, yoga, and meditation to increase health awareness and harmonious living. An overview of these definitions clearly demonstrates that the term has been very loosely defined and includes so many techniques from both Eastern and Western perspectives that it becomes difficult to define the boundaries of this construct. This becomes evident in such statements given in the literature as ­ "......sophrology is a science, concerned not only with hypnosis, but with all related phenomena- relaxation, yoga, Zen meditation-in fact, all techniques aim to induce changes in our ordinary states of consciousness. So as you can see, sophrology covers a much broader range of phenomenon than hypnosis alone" (p.44). To gain the status of a scientific construct, the sophrology must have a clearly defined

boundary along with its goals, assumptions and its own methodology. However, the survey of scientific literature suggest that without making such efforts researchers have started evaluating its application for dealing with various types of mental health problems. For example, the search of the term sophrology (in the title of various articles abstracted) on PubMed yielded 82 published research papers of which almost all dealt with the application of sophrology for various types of medical and psychosomatic ailments. Attempt to search this term in various journals published by Sage yielded 5 results (research articles) in which the sophrology appeared in text but not in title. The review of the content of these articles (published by Sage) revealed that all the authors have either used sophrology as a tool of healing or therapy or have reviewed and compared the therapeutic value of sophrology with other techniques. The preceding discussion, thus, brings to fore the fact that despite the increasing popularity of sophrology as a technique of healing various types of psychological and health problems, it has not captured the attention of researchers of the mainstream psychology. Further, it is also evident that without making any serious effort to clearly define and develop the field itself, researchers have made premature attempt to apply it. Moreover, as the available literature defines sophrology as an amalgam of several Eastern and Western techniques; it is difficult to evaluate which particular technique brought the reported changes in the clients. Is it the sophrology or the constituent techniques such as relaxation, concentration, meditation etc. that brought the change? Is it a new science or a new label to the amalgam of the various techniques collected from well-established Indian yogic tradition and Western

The Scientific Status of Sophrology 3

psychological tradition? Such questions are difficult to answer until the clear boundaries and subject matter of the science of sophrology are established. The sophrology is here being used just as an example to highlight the increasing trend of neologism in the field of social science in general and psychology in particular. Owing our responsibility as researchers, rather than being trapped into neologism we have to be very careful while including such new terms in the field of mainstream psychology. Such watchfulness becomes necessary in the light of the increasing trend of hiring or importing psychological constructs from popular literature including unauthenticated information from internet. Such literature often presents constructs and facts that lack adequate empirical support or database backing. Introduction of new constructs, just to make an impression of introducing something new or merely to catch the attraction of the readers, without caring about the contemporary standards of the construct explication appears to be a dangerous trend in the contemporary social science and psychological literature. Such attempt will do

less good and more harm to the field of psychology unless the researchers would care for the scientific rigor for introducing new constructs, techniques or theories. Further, rather than being fascinated by the wide claims made about such new constructs and going into its mindless application, it is our prime responsibility as social scientists to verify the validity of such construct and their claims before including them into the mainstream. Refrences

B o d y - L o g i c : h t t p : / / w w w . b o d y logic.co.uk/sophrology.html Caycedo, A. (1964). Sophrology and psychosomatic medicine. Americal Journal of Clinical Hypnsis. 14:103-106. Caycedo, N., Carsi Costas, N., Van Rangelrooy K. (2005). Sofrology. Rev Enferm.28, 30-38. Doung, P. H., & Zulian, G. B. (2007). Disappearance of a Stutter Shortly Before Death. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 24, 141-143. Godefroy, C. H. (2001). How to use and control your unlimited potential. France: Mind Powers. IInternational sophrology Federation http://www.sophrologycentre.com/page/page/4204 826.htm PubMed:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ Wikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophrology

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 4-15 ISSN 0974-9837

Defensive Pessimism as a Cognitive Strategy: An Overview

Amrita Deb* and Meenakshi Arora**

The aim of this paper is to review relevant investigations in the area of defensive pessimism (DP) and to present an overview of the findings achieved so far. DP has been described as a cognitive strategy that involves setting defensively low expectations prior to entering a situation, so as to guard against loss of self esteem in case of failure. Investigators have weighed DP against other strategies and personality dispositions in order to analyze its merits and demerits. Yet there is still no universal agreement on whether DP as a cognitive strategy is effective in dissipating anxiety and optimizing performance across domains or does it tend to lower motivational levels and cause health hazards. For now, it seems judicious to consider strategy choice in domain specific terms. Strategy choice is understood to vary not only from individual to individual but also in the same individual with respect to different domains in life such as social or academic.

There has been ample evidence in favour of optimism in the scientific literature. Also, within most cultural contexts, optimism is more valued, preferred and encouraged than is pessimism. Positive thinking has been related to positive outcomes in different areas in life since they are believed to favor continued striving and eventually actual success (Gordon, 2008; Merz & Swim, 2008; Miceli & Castelfranchi, 2002). Such evidence may persuade one to conclude that optimism is always better than pessimism; however, in the last two decades, some investigators have cast significant doubts on the overemphasis of the merits of optimism and under-emphasis of its potential costs (Norem & Chang, 2002). While Peterson (2000) questions the relationship between optimism and reality, Eichelberger (2007) is of the view that literature has enough evidence to support both - the notion that optimism is beneficial, and the idea that it is detrimental. Positive Psychology, named by Martin Seligman in 1998 (Lewis, 2007), is an

approach that has been propagated by some and scorned at by others. Sugarman (2007) believes that the promise of positive psychology is questionable while Held (2002) affirms that the positive psychology movement has failed to acknowledge its own negativity. Taylor (2001) strongly criticizes positive psychologist's use of the term 'positive' to only encompass "somewhat naively" (p. 16), the dualistic opposite of anything negative. Norem (2001) suggests that this "oversimplified picture" (p. 13) must be reframed. While concepts like pessimism, that have been cast in a negative light might contain something positive (Held & Bohart, 2002), optimism can eventually upset us, if it leads us to ignore important warnings (Norem & Chang, 2002). Jung's (1954) statement - "one does not become enlightened by imagining figures of light, but by making the darkness conscious (p. 265) is reflected in Aspinwall and Staudinger (2003) suggestion that a psychology of human strengths should not be the study of how negative experiences maybe ignored, but

* Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. ** Professor, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

Defensive Pessimism as a Cognitive Strategy 5

rather how positive and negative experiences maybe interrelated. Norem and Chang (2002) accentuate that positive psychology is not synonymous with positive thinking and the costs and benefits of optimism and pessimism may vary across individuals, situations, and cultural contexts. Hence they warn that the complexity of individual personality must not get lost in a "one-size-fits-all approach" (p. 993). In the backdrop of such criticism toward positive psychology 'defensive pessimism' came to be introduced as a cognitive strategy (Norem & Cantor, 1986). Defensive Pessimism as a Cognitive Strategy Cognitive strategies have been defined as coherent patterns of appraisal, planning, affect management, retrospection, and effort that characterize an individual's striving in a particular domain of life (Elliot & Church, 2003). The same strategies that work well for non-anxious individuals in a given situation may fail miserably for those who are temperamentally anxious (Norem, 2008). Held (2001) challenges the assumption that the best way to deal with pain and suffering is to hide it and pretend that everything is fine. Through her book, she expresses concern over "the tyranny of the positive attitude" in America (Held, 2002, p. 11) and encourages 'kvetching' (Jewish, for complaining) in order to develop a curmudgeonly approach. Defensive pessimism has been defined as a motivated cognitive strategy that helps people manage their anxiety and pursue their goals when encountered with a potential threat. Defensive pessimists set low expectations, and play through extensive mental simulations of possible outcomes as they prepare for an event (Norem, 2008). They are not only able to conceive the possibility of failure but they also indulge in depicting it (Miceli & Castelfranchi,

2002) thereby cushioning themselves against threats to self-esteem in risky situations (Norem & Cantor, 1986). Their pessimism is strategic because it serves a two-fold purpose: a selfprotective goal in case of failure as well as motivating oneself to prepare to face the situation better in order to avoid that failure (Elliot & Church, 2003; Norem & Cantor, 1986; Sanna, Chang, Carter, & Small, 2006). Self Protective Goal: Preparing for Failure The self-protective component of defensive pessimism stems from lowered expectations (Showers & Ruben, 1990). Defensive pessimists do acknowledge prior success in achievement contexts, yet they typically enter new achievement situations "expecting the worst" (Showers, 1992, p. 474) with unrealistically low expectations; and ruminate about possible outcomes (Thompson & Fevre, 1999). The tactic here is to prepare oneself such that the impact of failure on self-esteem should be cushioned and the individual need not engage in protective restructuring after the event (Norem & Cantor, 1986). Imagining the worst-case scenarios, may actual result in the defensive pessimists' discovery that the actual performance is, by comparison, not as onerous (Seery, West, Weisbuch, & Blascovich, 2008). Price (2007) quotes that the popular adage: 'hope for the best; but expect the worst' advocates that one should try to be positive about things, but use negativity to cope. Motivational Goal: Preparing to Avoid Failure Rumination about negative events may increase negative affect but motivates one to work hard to avoid the failure (Norem & Illingworth, 2004; Zullow, 1991). Although failure is seen as possible, the belief about its likelihood is conditional (Miceli & Castelfranchi, 2002). Norem and Cantor (1986) agree that, by dwelling on the

6 Deb and Arora

possibility of failure, one realizes that he cannot afford to jeopardize his chances of success by withdrawing effort. Norem and Illingworth (2004) cite that by mentally playing through "worst-case scenarios" Defensive pessimists use anxiety as a motivation to help them visualize how they might prevent those outcomes. This process also takes the focus away from their emotions so that they can plan and act effectively. Thus defensive pessimism appears to have both appetitive and aversive foci, in that the individual is anxious about the possibility of failure and yet puts forth rigorous effort into the task in an attempt to do well (Elliot & Church, 2003). Two competing hypotheses explaining the mechanism involved in defensive pessimism have been put forward. According to the dissipation hypothesis, anxiety and negative affect dissipate once the performance begins. This facilitates high quality of performance as negative affect during performance is understood to be disruptive (Brown & Marshall, 2001). The harnessing hypothesis, on the other hand, suggests that defensive pessimists' rumination results in high levels of negative affect, which facilitates preparatory effort and helps defensive pessimists to focus on optimal strategies and behavioral choices during performance (Seery, West, Weisbuch, & Blascovich, 2008). In their endeavour to test whether defensive pessimist's rumination of possible outcomes results in dissipation or harnessing of the negative states, Seery, West, Weisbuch, and Blascovich (2008) assessed cardiovascular markers of threat and motivational states while defensive pessimists completed a test. Before the test, participants were randomly assigned to positive, negative, or relaxation imagery condition. Unlike control participants, defensive pessimists exhibited the greatest threat in the negative

imagery condition and utilized a more conservative test-taking strategy, thus supporting the harnessing hypothesis. After imagining possible negative outcomes, they exhibited cardiovascular responses consistent with greater threat which suggests that their anxiety increased rather than decreased as a result of the negative imagery. Also, this was found to be more consistent with an effect on task strategy than on ability to perform the task. In order to understand the costs and benefits associated with this strategy, investigators have compared it with other dispositions and strategies. Defensive Pessimism versus Dispositional Pessimism Taking disappointment into account as a possible outcome maybe considered functional as it results in a less intense negative experience (Van Dijk, Zeelenberg, & Van der Pligt, 2003). But experiencing complete loss of hope or attributing failure to lack of ability as opposed to lack of effort is likely to be maladaptive (Gordon, 2008). Although defensive pessimists and dispositional pessimists do not differ in their level of pessimism, the former's low expectations, appear less justified or less realistic, given their actual and perceived past performances than those of the "real pessimists or depressives" (p. 355) (Spencer & Norem, 1996). Moreover, dispositional pessimists show less perceived control; and consequently do not engage in the behaviour required for achieving their goals (Del Valle & Mateos, 2008; Norem & Illingworth, 2004; Showers & Ruben, 1990). Besides the dispositional pessimist's avoidant coping style which makes them focus more on their limitations and less on performing the tasks are not shared by defensive pessimists (Showers & Ruben, 1990). Spencer and Norem

Defensive Pessimism as a Cognitive Strategy 7

(1996) add that lower fear of negative evaluation and neuroticism is what distinguishes defensive pessimists from depressives, both conceptually as well as empirically. Though the strategy of defensive pessimism is supposed to prepare one for failure, Norem and Cantor (1986) do not expect the defensive pessimist to be pleased with failure. This is what differentiates a defensive pessimist from a dispositional pessimist (Del Valle & Mateos, 2008). Hence it maybe said that defensive pessimism, unlike dispositional pessimism is a confrontational strategy as it involves acknowledging the possibility of difficult outcomes, but it also involves working hard to prevent or mitigate them (Showers & Ruben, 1990). Defensive Pessimism and Self-Handicapping According to some researchers, defensive pessimism may result in self handicapping even before the event has occurred. Selfhandicappers deflect the cause of failure away from their competence and on to their chosen obstacles or impediments so that in the event of failure, the individual has a ready excuse (Martin, Marsh, & Debus, 2003). Berglas and Jones (1978) explain that this is done out of a desire to protect one's self-esteem; such that in the event of poor performance, the link between performance and evaluation maybe obscured. Examples of self-handicapping include the strategic reduction of effort, or ingestion of drugs or alcohol (Martin, Marsh, Williamson & Debus, 2003). Also, procrastination can be self-handicapping in that, while it is unlikely to lead to good performance, it provides an explanation for poor performance which is more desirable than the alternative conclusion that one is not intelligent (Norem, 2008). Failure, attributed to lack of effort, is after all less incriminating

than lack of ability (Norem & Cantor, 1986). Since anxiety about failure often lead individuals to adopt self-handicapping strategies, it has often been questioned if defensive pessimism results in selfhandicapping behaviour or not. Investigators have sought to find an answer to this by comparing the outcomes of the strategies in question. In a study by Eronen, Nurmi, and Salmela-Aro (1998) where individuals were faced with an academic challenge, defensive pessimists as expected showed only very few positive affects but more rational planning of the task than the users of any other strategy; whereas selfhandicappers showed high levels of negative affects and task-irrelevant behaviour, and low levels of positive affects, planning and spontaneous task-initiation. This maybe explained by the fact that investigators mention that this is consistent with earlier descriptions of self handicapping where individuals turn to task-irrelevant behaviour in order to create an excuse for their potential failure, rather than formulate task-related plans. Defensive pessimists despite experiencing negative affect, still exert a lot of energy to maintain their performance levels, but self-handicappers' learning is affected by their own decrease in effort (Merz & Swim, 2008). Martin, Marsh, Debus (2001) found uncertain personal control to positively predict defensive expectations, and to a lesser extent, selfhandicapping. In a qualitative study by the same group of investigators (Martin, Marsh, Williamson & Debus, 2003), an individual using the self-handicapping strategy claimed that it was always important to have an "alibi" in the form of an excuse and how "any excuse is better than -you're just not smart enough to

8 Deb and Arora

do it" in comparison to a defensive pessimist who preferred to "start from scratch" (p. 621) in her expectations about how she will perform. Eronen, Nurmi, and Salmela-Aro (1998) found that self-handicapping strategy was associated with academic dissatisfaction and low wellbeing whereas defensive pessimism was related to academic achievement, in University students. Also, academic achievement and satisfaction were also found to predict changes in the use of defensivepessimistic and self-handicapping strategies. Similar results were reported by Eronen (2000) who discovered that satisfaction with studies made students give up the self-handicapping strategy, and positive events made them adopt a planning-oriented social strategy. Pullmann and Allik (2008) found that children as young as 12-14 start using defensive pessimism to protect themselves from the consequences of failure; and that this strategy does not lead to low academic performance and the GPA remains generally higher than in those who have medium or low academic performance and self-esteem. In their evaluation of the two strategies, Elliot and Church (2003) posited that self handicapping is a highly avoidance-based strategy which occurs when guarding against the implications of failure becomes more important than attaining success. They added that while fear of failure is a positive predictor of both, defensive pessimism involves the desire to achieve success as well as avoid failure, whereas self-handicapping is concerned more with failure avoidance and less with success per se. Comparing both strategies in students, Martin, Marsh, Williamson and Debus (2003) found that selfhandicappers were not mastery oriented whereas the defensive pessimists recognized

that there is value in mastery orientation but that this value is connected to performance issues. Merz and Swim (2008) point out that defensive pessimists are not defined solely by their negative thoughts, as opposed to the avoidance behaviours of self handicappers or depressives, whose self-defeating behaviours often lead them to failure. Maatta¨ and Nurmi (2007) finally sum up that while defensive pessimism would be characterized by a medium level of success expectations, low avoidance, and infrequent use of selfprotecting bias, self-handicapping would be typified by low success expectations, a high level of active avoidance, and frequent use of self-protecting bias. In view of the above evidence, it may thus be concluded that "defensive pessimism clearly wins against selfhandicapping" (Norem, 2008, p. 129). Unlike catastrophizing or becoming trapped in thought, the defensive pessimist is able to shift emphasis from anxious feelings to thoughts about possible specific problems, and then to actions to prevent those problems from derailing progress (Norem, 2008). Defensive Pessimism versus Optimism Studies comparing the performances of defensive pessimists and optimists have repeatedly confirmed that the former experience a greater degree of negative affect and the latter do not make stressful assessments of the situation, thereby showing moderate control over it (Del Valle & Mateos, 2008). It is expected that pessimists will have lower expectations than optimists about an upcoming performance, even if past success rates have been similar (Eichelberger, 2007, Norem, 2008; Norem & Cantor, 1986; Norem & Illingworth, 2004).Some researchers have claimed that both groups tend to perform equally well in most situations. In one of the

Defensive Pessimism as a Cognitive Strategy 9

earliest investigations in this area, Norem and Cantor (1986) found that although defensive pessimists expected to perform significantly worse than optimists, no difference was reported in the actual performance. Seery, West, Weisbuch, and Blascovich (2008) explain that defensive pessimists thrive on anxiety. Sanna, Chang, Carter and Small's (2006) found that when defensive pessimists found themselves face to face with a manipulated negative future, they reported negative affect and good performance, which led the investigators to conclude that viewing future failures as close (as opposed to future successes) may be part of their natural strategy. Recently, Gordon (2008) reported that optimistic soccer players demonstrated better performance following a loss than did pessimists, whereas no significant performance differences were found between these two groups during a subsequent win. On the basis of investigations conducted so far, Eronen (2000) concludes that in situations which make most people nervous and prone to anxiety, such as the transition to a novel environment, defensive pessimism may be a more efficient strategy than optimism. The reason behind this, he believes is that the overconfidence showed by the optimists may have deleterious effects if the new environment requires higher effort than the previous one (as might be expected when secondary school and university are compared), whereas the extensive amount of planning showed by defensive pessimists may facilitate their performance in a similar situation. Besides, optimism may lead to disastrous consequences when it is naive or passive, that is when the individual hopes for everything to be fine without taking any reasonable course of action (Epstein & Katz, 1992).

Defensive Pessimism versus Strategic Optimism Most investigations, studying defensive pessimism have weighed it against a strategy called strategic optimism (Norem & Illingworth, 2004). Strategic optimists are those who, in performance situations set high expectations, and avoid too much rumination on what might happen. Unlike defensive pessimists, they keep away from the effort of mentally simulating various possible outcomes (Norem, 2008). Anxiety is kept at bay by thinking about things other than their immediate objectives (Norem & Illingworth, 2004). Seery, West, Weisbuch, and Blascovich (2008) believe that self reflection may sometimes play a paradoxical role in task performance. They cite the example of worrying about an upcoming examination which maybe effective for some, but ineffective for others. Even though dispositional optimists and pessimists are not expected to perform equally well in most situations, defensive pessimists and optimists typically perform equally well (Spencer & Norem, 1996). Also, defensive pessimists have been found to perform as well as strategic optimists (Norem & Cantor, 1986). Norem and Cantor (1986) argue that the main problem for the optimist is trying to achieve success from the outset; he deals with failure when it happens. Their propensity to focus on past success, sometimes leads to illusory glow optimism (Cantor, 1990) about the future; whereas the defensive pessimists' tendency to consider the possibility of failure not only makes them better prepared toward the situation but also cushions the impact of failure if it occurs. In a study comparing both strategies, Thompson and Fevre's (1999) found that defensive pessimists generally reported

10 Deb and Arora

high levels of anxiety, lower levels of control and lower global self-esteem as compared to strategic optimists in achievement situations. However, both strategies were found to be activated in situations where failure is likely to be indicative of low ability, but not so in situations where a face-saving excuse is available to explain poor performance. Since most cultures highly value optimism, the idea that a pessimistic approach might be useful may seem counterintuitive from the outset, and the conclusion that defensive pessimists need to be 'cured' with optimism may be almost automatic (Norem, 2008). Researchers have found evidence to conclude that such a plan may not be worthwhile after all. Eichelberger (2007) agrees that the effects of optimism on defensive pessimism can be potential damaging. Imposing strategies on people that are against their natural choice may actually result in decline in performance. Norem (2008) found substantial evidence to conclude that defensive pessimism might prove to be beneficial for those who are temperamentally anxious and that defensive pessimists may do significantly worse when they try to be more like strategic optimists. This suggests that one cannot simply use a positivethinking strategy and expect better performance. In an experiment seeking to test this, Sanna (1998) induced positive and negative mood in defensive pessimists and strategic optimists respectively. It was found that induced positive mood resulted in decreased performance for defensive pessimists, while induced negative mood decreased performance for strategic optimists. Similar results were reported by others (Norem & Illingworth, 1993; Norem & Illingworth, 2004). Norem and Illingworth (2004) explain that for

defensive pessimists, positive mood could be a signal that the upcoming performance no longer needs as much attention; thus leading to decreased effort. In contrast, negative mood is interpreted as evidence that they need to keep trying because the task is not yet over. Spencer and Norem (1996) randomly assigned defensive pessimists and strategic optimists to three conditions- a coping imagery condition (imaging correcting mistakes), a mastery condition (imagining a flawless performance) or a relaxation condition (relaxation imagery). Defensive pessimists performed better in the first condition which was similar to their typical strategy than in the relaxation condition, which was believed to have interfered with their performance. The opposite was true for the strategic optimists. Both groups performed worst in the mastery imagery condition. The investigators explained that defensive pessimist's positive thinking interfered with their preferred natural strategy of pondering over possible failure. Hence it maybe referred that pessimism and negative thinking are not symptoms to be cured, but effective ways of managing a situation, which includes the reality of the individual's experience of anxiety (Norem & Illingworth, 2004). Cognitive Strategy and Well-being The long-term effects of the defensive pessimism strategy has been a topic of interest among researchers working in the area. Some have suggested that defensive pessimists have lower well-being than optimists, but it is not clear whether their level of well-being is as low as to be considered maladaptive (Hosogoshi & Kodama, 2006). Showers and Ruben (1990) assessed the anticipatory thoughts and feelings of defensively pessimistic and moderately depressed college students. Unlike depressed

Defensive Pessimism as a Cognitive Strategy 11

subjects, defensive pessimists' did not report residual anxiety after the event or increase in anxiety overtime. This led the investigators to consider them similar to optimists in their ways of coping and feelings after their situation had passed. Eronen, Nurmi, and Salmela-Aro (1998) reported no long term costs related to the use of this strategy in a comparative study of optimists, depressives and defensive pessimists. Eronen's (2000) findings are also congruous with the above-mentioned results. He mentioned that the long-term costs of defensive pessimism as indicated in previous studies were not evident among his subjects; and that self-handicapping strategies had the most negative consequences for students' well-being in the long run. Hosogoshi and Kodama (2006) studied psychological wellbeing in defensive pessimists, strategic optimists and depressed persons (N=303) found no significant difference in the level of psychological well-being and life satisfaction and among defensive pessimists and strategic optimists. Both groups scored higher than depressed persons. Besides, defensive pessimists scored higher than depressed individuals in subjective well-being. Hence, it was concluded that the defensive pessimism strategy was not maladaptive. Another investigation by the same team of investigators examined the coping skills that defensive pessimists tend to use in uncontrollable situations. Although many of the studies mentioned above do not agree with the view that defensive pessimism could have ill effects on well-being, there is also some evidence that goes against it. Yamawaki, Tschanz and Feick's (2004) investigation has led to some potentially harmful correlates of this strategy. They found evidence to conclude that defensive pessimists would have a relatively

high ratio of negative-to-positive relevant selfthoughts, and these were related to high selfesteem instability. Recently, Seery, West, Weisbuch, and Blascovich (2008) have expressed concern that imagining worst case scenarios and low probability negative outcomes may entail unanticipated long-term costs in the form of mental and physical health problems that could develop over time. Threat is marked by an increase in HPA (Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis) activation, which can have deleterious health consequences (Blascovich, 2008). In the light of the above discussion, it maybe derived that there is need to focus on the effects of defensive pessimism on well-being. Although a lot of disagreements exist on this topic today, perhaps all investigators will agree with Eronen (2000) who states that although he found defensive pessimism to be the most productive strategy in the short term, but it is also the most emotionally stressful strategy. Effectiveness of the Defensive Pessimism Strategy Although Norem (2008) claims that assessing the effectiveness of a strategy turns out to be more complicated than it might initially appear, there is substantial evidence to vouch for its success. Theoretically, it is among the more malleable types of pessimism (Norem, 2001). According to Norem and Cantor (1986), this strategy acts as a form of "natural" cognitive therapy for those using it by helping the individual systematically restructuring the situation in order to better utilize available resources, thus overcoming anxiety and focusing on the task at the same time. Investigators have evidence to conclude that cognitive strategies are domain specific (Norem & Cantor, 1986; Norem & Illingworth, 2004; Seginer, 2000; Thompson & Fevre,

12 Deb and Arora

1999).In circumstances that are beyond control, the defensive pessimism strategy is more likely to be used than not (Norem & Illingworth, 1993). Norem and Cantor (1986) in studying the domain-specificity of defensive pessimism indicate that subjects using defensive pessimism in social contexts do not necessarily use it in academic domains; however the strategy might sometimes become so habitual that it extends into all the relevant domains of an individual's life, at which time the sheer weight of all that negativism might prove overwhelming. Eichelberger (2007) found that anxious individuals demonstrated increase in selfesteem and satisfaction, better academic performance, greater social support networks, and more progress toward goals than those anxious individuals who did not use defensive pessimism. Langens and Schmalt (2002) assert that defensive pessimism may help individuals high in fear of failure to maintain motivation in their pursuit of long-term goals. For example, when pursuing a goal like a college degree, setting low expectations (such as expecting to take longer to complete the course or expecting to fail an examination) may actually help individuals to sustain commitment to their goals. However Merz and Swim (2008) point out that many teachers are not likely to know about defensive pessimism because it is not part of the regular educational psychology or child development literature; unaware of the self-protective nature of the strategy, they may become concerned by their students setting goals below their capability. Thus the investigators suggest that the teachers can become more cognizant of the behaviours that may accompany the negative self-talk among students so that they may attend to the positive behaviours being displayed, without responding to the negative self-talk.

Implications for the Future Norem and Cantor (1986) provide a number of directions for future research. They suggest that continued investigation of the use of cognitive strategies such as defensive pessimism could have potential therapeutic applications. They question if the possibility of losing belief in exaggerated threatfulness of the situation exists or if there is any chance of the defensive pessimist turning into a real pessimist and responding like a depressive. They recommend that continued study of the conditions under which "normals" stop using these strategies flexibly may provide more substantial information. Norem and Illingworth (1993) stress upon the usefulness of a strategy-oriented approach to the study of individual differences and self-regulation. There are multiple pathways to successful adaptation that reflect the varied intrapsychic, interpersonal, social, and cultural circumstances to which people adapt (Norem, 2008). Spencer and Norem (1996) propose that concepts such as defensive pessimism and strategic optimism require comprehensive analysis because they "are more than the sum of their parts" (p.355). A large number of studies in the area of defensive pessimism have focused on academics (Eronen, 2000; Eronen, Nurmi, & Salmela-Aro, 1998). There is a need to focus on other areas as well so that domain-specific use of strategies. Martin, Marsh, Williamson and Debus (2003) propose that individual respondents maybe interviewed to understand the role of defensive pessimism in different domains and also the consequences of defensive maneuvering in one area on another. Eronen (2000) found that defensive pessimism was the most widely-used strategy (40%) among young adults in Finland. He cites

Defensive Pessimism as a Cognitive Strategy 13

Nurmi, Berzonsky, Tammi and Kinney (1997) who pointed out that positive thinking is not as common in Finnish people as it is in Americans. Since most studies of defensive pessimism have been conducted in American settings, Eronen (2000) suggests the need to replicate the study in other cultural contexts. Martin, Marsh, Williamson and Debus (2003) who found that in some cases the strategy of defensive pessimism was learned at home, agree that the precise nature and extent of cultural and family factors influencing the defensive pessimism strategy need to be probed further. Even though the intriguing concept of defensive pessimism has been successful in securing the attention of several researchers committed to the field of cognitive psychology and investigations have generated substantial information on the subject, various questions pertaining to cultural and familial influences, the effects of health and domain-specific outcome of defensive pessimism, still remain to be answered. Further inquiry in this area could open up new avenues for application of the strategy for successful performance for anxious individuals as also for situations where controllability is low. References

Aspinwall, L. G., & Staudinger, U. M. (2003). A psychology of human strengths: Some central issues of an emerging field. In L. G. Aspinwall and U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology (pp. 9-22). Washington, DC: APA. Berglas, S., & Jones, E. E. (1978). Drug choice as a selfhandicapping strategy in response to noncontingent success, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 405 - 417. Blascovich, J. (2008). Challenge, threat, and health. In J. Y. Shah and W. L. Gardner, (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 481­493). New York:

Guilford. Brown, J. D., & Marshall, M. A. (2001). Great expectations: Optimism and pessimism in achievement settings. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 239-255). Washington, DC: APA. Cantor, N. (1990). From thought to behavior: "Having" and "doing" in the study of personality and cognition. American Psychologist, 45, 735­750. Del Valle, C. H., & Mateos, P. M. (2008). Dispositional pessimism, defensive pessimism and optimism: The effect of induced mood on prefactual and counterfactual thinking and performance. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 1600-1612. Eichelberger, A. H. (2007). Measuring wishful thinking: The development and validation of a new scale. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, 2007). Retrieved September 15, 2008 from http://www.lib.umd.edu/drum/bitstream/1903/719 1/1/umi-umd-4576.pdf Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (2003). A motivational analysis of defensive pessimism and selfhandicapping. Journal of Personality, 71, 369­396. Epstein, S., & Katz, L. (1992). Coping ability, stress, productive load, and symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 813-825. Eronen, S. (2000). Achievement and social strategies and the cumulation of positive and negative experiences during young adulthood. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Helsinki, 2000). Retrieved J a n u a r y 1 7 , 2 0 0 8 f r o m http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/hum/psyko/vk/ero nen/achievem.pdf Eronen, S., Nurmi, J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (1998). Optimistic, defensive-pessimistic, impulsive and self-handicapping strategies in university environments. Learning and Instruction, 8, 159-177. Gordon, R. A. (2008). Attributional style and athletic performance: Strategic optimism and defensive pessimism. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 336350 Held, B. S. (2002). The tyranny of the positive attitude in America: Observation and speculation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 965-992. Held, B. S., & Bohart, A. C. (2002). Introduction: The (overlooked) virtues of "unvirtuous" attitudes and behavior. Reconsidering negativity, complaining,

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pessimism and "false" hope. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 961-964. Hosogoshi, H., & Kodama, M. (2006). Examination of psychological well-being and subjective well-being in defensive pessimists. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 77,141-148. Jung, C. G. (1954). Alchemical Studies. In William McGuire et al., (Eds.), Trans. R. F. C. Hull, The Collected Works of C. G. Jung 1954-79, Bollingen Series Vol 13. N.J: Princeton University Press. Langens, T. A., & Schmalt, H. D. (2002). Emotional consequences of positive daydreaming: The moderating role of fear of failure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1725­1735. Lewis, S. C. (2007). Enhancing the wellbeing of incarcerated females: A pilot study. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2007). Retrieved May 17, 2008 from http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?arti cle=1005&context=mapp_capstone Maatta, S., & Nurmi, J. (2007). Achievement orientations, school adjustment, and well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 789­812. Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., & Debus, R. L. (2001). Selfhandicapping and defensive pessimism: Exploring a model of predictors and outcomes from a selfprotection perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 87­102. Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., & Debus, R. L. (2003). Selfhandicapping and defensive pessimism: A model of self-protection from a longitudinal perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 1-36. Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., Williamson, A., & Debus, R. L. (2003). Self-handicapping, defensive pessimism, and goal orientation: A qualitative study of university students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 617­628. Merz, A. H., & Swim, T. J. (2008). Pre-service teachers' defensive pessimism in situ: Two case studies within a mathematics classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 451­461. Miceli, M., & Castelfranchi, C. (2002). The mind and the future: The (negative) power of expectations. Theory Psychology, 12, 335-366. Norem, J. K. (2001). Defensive pessimism, optimism, and pessimism. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 77-100). Washington DC: APA. Norem, J. K. (2008). Defensive pessimism, anxiety, and the complexity of evaluating self-regulation..Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 121­134. Norem, J. K., & Cantor, N. (1986). Anticipatory and post hoc cushioning strategies: Optimism and defensive pessimism in 'risky' situations. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 347­362. Norem, J. K., & Chang, E. C. (2002). The positive psychology of negative thinking. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 993-1001. Norem, J. K., & Illingworth, K. S. S. (1993). Strategydependent effects of reflecting on self and tasks: Some implications for optimism and defensive pessimism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 822­835. Norem, J. K., & Illingworth, K.S.S. (2004). Mood and performance among defensive pessimists and strategic optimists. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 351-366. Nurmi, J., Berzonsky, M. D., Tammi, K., & Kinney, A. (1997). Identity processing orientation, cognitive and behavioural strategies and well-being. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 21, 555-570. Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 1, 44-55. Price, Catherine (Summer, 2007). Stumbling toward gratitude. Greater Good Magazine. Retrieved J a n u a r y 1 7 , 2 0 0 8 f r o m http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/mmccullough/M edia%20Coverage/Stumbling%20Toward%20Grati tude.pdf Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2008). Relations of academic and general self-esteem to school achievement. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 559­564. Sanna, L. J. (1998). Defensive pessimism and optimism: The bitter-sweet influence of mood on performance and prefactual and counterfactual thinking. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 635- 665. Sanna, L. J., Chang, E. C., Carter, S. E., & Small, E. M. (2006). The future is now: Prospective temporal selfappraisals among defensive pessimists and optimists. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 727­739.

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Seery, M. D., West, T. V., Weisbuch, M., & Blascovich, J. (2008). The effects of negative reflection for defensive pessimists: Dissipation or harnessing of threat? Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 515-520. Seginer, R. (2000). Defensive pessimism and optimism correlates of adolescent future orientation: A domain-specific analysis. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 307-326. Showers, C. (1992). The motivational and emotional consequences of considering positive or negative possibilities for an upcoming event. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 474­483. Showers, C., & Ruben, C. (1990). Distinguishing defensive pessimism from depression: Negative expectations and positive coping mechanisms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 385­399. Spencer, S. M., & Norem, J. (1996). Reflection and distraction: Defensive pessimism, strategic optimism, and performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 354-365. Sugarman, J. (2007). Practical rationality and the questionable promise of positive psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 47, 175-197. Taylor, E. (2001). Positive psychology and humanistic psychology: A reply to Seligman. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41, 13-29. Thompson, T., & Fevre, C. (1999). Implications of manipulating anticipatory attributions on the strategy use of defensive pessimists and strategic optimists, Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 887­904. Van Dijk, W. W., Zeelenberg, M., & Van der Pligt, J. (2003). Blessed are those who expect nothing: Lowering expectations as a way of avoiding disappointment. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 505­516. Yamawaki, N., Tschanz, T. B., & Feick, D. L. (2004). Defensive pessimism, self-esteem instability, and goal strivings. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 233-249 Zullow, H. M. (1991). Explanations and expectations: Understanding the "doing" side of optimism. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 45-49.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 16-28 ISSN 0974-9837

Hemispheric Asymmetry in Depression: An Overview

Rakesh Pandey* and Garima Gupta**

The present paper attempts to review empirical evidences dealing with the nature of hemispheric asymmetry in depression. The early empirical evidences obtained from the study of unilateral focal brain damaged patients suggested that left hemisphere damage is associated with depression whereas the right hemisphere damage with manic like features. These observations extended the right hemispheric hypothesis of depression. However, the review suggests that this hypothesis is not unanimously agreed upon, researchers have extended alternative interpretations, and hypotheses (e.g., left hemisphere hypoactivation). Furthermore, the clinical studies suffered from several methodological problems that limit the generalization of the conclusion for intact brain individuals suffering from depression. Taking the limitations of the clinical studies into account, hemispheric asymmetry studies conducted on intact brain depressive patients were also reviewed. However, these studies also yielded inconsistent findings. Most of the studies reported either a left hemisphere hypoactivation or a right hemisphere hyperactivation in depression and a few observed right hemisphere hypoactivation. However, subsequent studies suggested that depression might be characterized by a reciprocal hypoactivation of the left hemisphere and hyperactivation of the right. Overall, a critical look on the available empirical evidences reveals the possibility that left hemisphere hypoactivation and right hemisphere hyperactivation hypotheses might be complementary in nature and the former might be a trait whereas the latter being a state dependent phenomenon. However, still there are a number of methodological and theoretical issues that need to be addressed in future research before accepting and generalizing the aforesaid conclusions.

Understanding psychopathological conditions on the basis of the structure and function of the Central nervous System (CNS) has a long history rooted in the biological approach for explaining abnormal behavior. The advancement in neurophysiology and neuropsychology has encouraged researchers to take a new look at the mind-body relationship and to explore the biopsychological mechanism underlying psychopathological states. Such researches have, though, focused on the role of various cortical as well as sub-cortical structures in psychopathology, the present paper attempts to review the role of cortical functioning

*

particularly the nature of hemispheric asymmetry in specific psychopathology, namely, depression. The hemispheric asymmetry refers to the notion that certain higher functions are differently represented in two hemispheres and are strongly affected by damage to one hemisphere. It has long been recognized that the two cerebral hemispheres, though, structurally appears to be symmetrical, they are not functionally symmetrical. The left and the right cerebral hemispheres differ in processing various types of information including the information processing strategies (Bryden, 1982).

Address correspondence to Dr. Rakesh Pandey, Reader, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi -221 005. Email: [email protected] ** Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi -221 005

Hemispheric asymmetry in Depression 17

Researchers have noted that the pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in patients with depression differ significantly from that of normal right-handed individuals. Ample research evidences (Cechetto & Saper, 1990; Wittling, 1995 for reviews) support the notion that the cortex is the centre that regulates the responses of the sub-cortical structures and peripheral systems (such as ANS) associated with affect and affective disorders. The wellestablished role of cortical structures in regulation of emotion (Borod, 1992) has perhaps attracted researchers to examine the role of cortical/hemispheric differences (i.e., hemispheric asymmetry) in depression. Researches dealing with the hemispheric substrate of emotion suggest that the right hemisphere is associated with regulation of negative affective states whereas the left hemisphere is related with experience of positive affect (Davidson, Mednick, Moss, Saron, & Schaffer, 1987; Reuter-Lorenz, Givis, & Moscovitch, 1983). Since depression has been found to be associated with high negative affect and low positive affect (see Clark & Watson, 1991), it is very likely that hyperactivation of right hemisphere or hypoactivation of the left hemisphere or both may be associated with depression. In the following passages, we have reviewed and critically analyzed the available empirical evidences collected from different sources and study designs in order to explore the nature of hemispheric asymmetry in depression. Hemispheric asymmetry in depression: Evidence from clinical studies Some early evidences for anomalous asymmetry in depression comes from clinical studies in which researchers have noted a high incidence of a "catastrophic reaction" and depressed state in patients with left

hemispheric (LH) lesions (Gainotti, 1972, 1983; Goldstein, 1939). The "depressive catastrophic reaction" followed by LH lesions has been characterized by negative affect, pessimism, fear and crying (Davidson, 1984). Others (Robinson, Kubos, Rao, & Price, 1984; Robinson & Price, 1982) have also presented similar report of depressed states in patients with left frontal brain damage. Robinson and Downhill (1995) reported that left sided lesions in the basal ganglia and prefrontal regions are most commonly linked with depression and secondary mania was more frequently follows right sided lesions than similar left sided lesions. Starkstein, Robinson, Honig, Parikh, Joselyn, and Price (1989) found major depression to be linked with right hemisphere that is associated with different etiology and mechanism than major depression following left frontal or basal ganglia lesions. Patients with right-hemisphere dysfunction may appear indifferent or even euphoric (Denny-Brown, Meyer, & Horenstein, 1952; Heilman, Bowers, & Valenstein, 1993). The observed mood state after brain damage was believed to be the effect of the nondamaged hemisphere and not of the damaged hemisphere. Consequently, based on such observations it was proposed that the right hemisphere (RH) is superior for regulation of negative emotions and the LH for positive emotions and depression observed in the LH damaged patients is the result of right hemisphere hyper-activation that increases the prevalence of negative emotional experiences (See Borod, 1992 for a review). However, this interpretation is not unanimously agreed upon (Gruzelier, 1981). The observation that left hemisphere sedation or damage results in excessive worry, pessimism, and crying whereas right hemisphere sedation or damage

18 Pandey and Gupta

results in appropriate euphoric, indifference, or laughing (see reviews Gainotti, 1972; Tucker, 1981; Sackeim, Greenberg, Weiman, Gur, Hungerbuhler, & Geschwind 1982) has also been considered as an evidence of left hemispheric hypoactivation which in turn may lead to depression. Robinson, Starr, Lipsy, Rao, and Price (1985) found in their study that two third of left frontal lesion group experienced more symptoms of depression and a strong positive correlation was also found between severity of depression and symptomatology and proximity of lesion to the left frontal pole. Apart from the aforesaid hypotheses of right hemisphere hyper-activation or left hemisphere hypoactivation, some researchers have interpreted the clinical findings as an evidence of RH dysfunction or deficit in depression and presented some empirical evidences in support of it. For example, Rabe, Debenes, Brocke, and Beauducel (2005) using EEG measure observed that individual differences in depression were associated with a relative right hypoactivation during spatial task performance. Few studies using neurobehavioural measures have reported similar decrement in the right hemispheric functioning. For example, Jager, Borod, and Peselow (1987) found that clinical depressed showed reduced right hemispheric bias in processing of happy chimeric faces. Similarly, Davidson, Schaffer, and Saron (1985) found reduced right hemispheric bias in their study on depressed and nondepressed college subjects. Flynn and Rudolph (2007) have also reported a reduced posterior right hemisphere activity linked with vulnerability to depressive symptoms. It is evident from the preceding review that clinical studies of unilateral brain damaged patients have presented an inconsistency in interpretation of findings and extend three

hypothesis (LH hypo-activation, RH hyperactivation and RH hypo-activation) among which two (RH hyper-activation and RH hypoactivation) appears to be theoretically incompatible. Besides, contradiction in interpreting the findings, the clinical studies also suffer from other methodological problems. For example, researches indicate that an intact hemisphere in a damaged brain may not process information in the same way as an intact hemisphere does in an intact brain (Sergent, 1988) and therefore it is difficult to generalize the hemispheric model of depression based on the study of brain damaged patients to intact brain individuals suffering from depression. Hemispheric asymmetry in depression: Evidence from EEG studies Taking these limitations of clinical studies into account subsequent studies were conducted on intact brain depressive patients and the nature of asymmetry in hemispheric functioning was measured in terms of asymmetry in the electrical activity of the RH and the LH using EEG. Most of the EEG studies have reported either an over activation of the right hemisphere and/or under-activation of the left hemisphere in depression (See Davidson & Henriques, 2000 for a review). However, studies supporting the hypoactivation of the RH are very rare. Only few EEG studies supported the RH hypoactivation hypothesis (e.g., Jager, Borod, & Peselow, 1987; Flynn & Rudolph, 2006) of depression. Majority of the studies demonstrating asymmetric hemispheric functioning in depression have exhibited a hypoactivation of the left hemisphere using EEG measures. For example, in several studies noticeable reduction in the activity of the left as compared to the right prefrontal cortex in patients with

Hemispheric asymmetry in Depression 19

major depression has been reported (e.g., Davidson, 1992, 1998, 2003; Davidson, Mednick, Moss, Saron, & Schaffer, 1987). Davidson (1993) has proposed that asymmetry is a stable trait, and that left frontal hypoactivation is a stable marker of vulnerability to depression. Several other researchers provide empirical support of LH hypo-activation in depression. For example, Henriques and Davidson (1991) assessed anterior EEG asymmetry in currently depressed and never depressed subjects and found elevated left midfrontal alpha power (an indicator of hypoactivation) in the currently depressed subjects. Similarly, Demaree, Crews, and Harrison (1995) have demonstrated decreased beta activation and heightened alpha activation over the left frontal region compared to the right frontal region. Brain imaging, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow studies have also consistently provided support to the LH hypoactivation hypothesis of depression. Several studies that have assessed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using PET have shown that clinically depressed subjects demonstrate relative decreased left frontal activation when compared to nondepressed control subjects (e.g., Baxter et al., 1985; Baxter et al., 1989; Bench et al., 1992; Ebert, Feistel, & Barocka, 1991; Martinot, Hardy, Feline, Huret, Mazoyer, Attar-Levy, Pappata & Syrota 1990). Similarly, Delvenne, Delecluse, Hubain, Schoutens, DeMaertelaer, and Mendlewicz (1990) and Mathew, Meyer, Francis, Semchuk, Mortel, and Claghorm (1980) have also found that depressed individual exhibited lower cerebral blood flow in left hemisphere relative to nondepressed individuals. In PET studies cerebral glucose metabolism was found lower in left prefrontal cortex in depressed people relative to

nondepressed individuals (Schwartz, Baxter, Mazziotta, Gerner, & Phelps, 1987). The foregoing empirical evidences, though, lead to the hypothesis that depression is associated with LH hypoactivation, the studies reporting a right hemisphere hyperactivation in depression present caveat against this conclusion. A number of EEG studies have demonstrated greater activation of right than left hemisphere in clinical depression (FlorHenry, 1976; Flor-Henry, & Koles, 1980; Henriques & Davidson, 1991; Myslobodosky & Hoesh, 1978; Schaffer, Davidson, & Saron, 1983) and extend the alternative RH hyperactivation hypotheses of depression. Existence of equally convincing empirical evidences in favor of LH hypoactivation and RH hyper-activation in depression suggest that depression may be linked with differential hemispheric activation through either increased right hemisphere activation or decreased left hemisphere activation. However, the observation of the right hemisphere hypoactivation in depression by some researches (Jaeger, et al., 1987; Rabe et al., 2005) not only complicate the picture but also make it difficult to draw firm conclusion regarding the state of hemispheric function/dysfunction in depression. There may be several reasons for the observed inconsistency in findings regarding the nature of hemispheric functioning in depression. We have identified some probable reasons on the basis of the critical review of the methodological aspects of studies dealing with hemispheric asymmetry in depression. One possible reason for the observed inconsistency in the observed pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in depression may be because of the wide heterogeneity of the clinical state of depression. The clinical depression is a very heterogeneous psychopathological state

20 Pandey and Gupta

differing widely in terms of symptomatic manifestations as well as underlying psychobiological mechanism. Depression may involve wide variety of disorders such as dysthymic condition, major depression with a variety of additional clinical features such as atypical, melancholia etc. Thus, it is likely that the observed variation in the pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in depression may be because of variations in the clinical features. The available empirical evidences support this possibility. For example, it has been noted in several researches that unipolar depressed patients and patients having major depression with melancholia showed a reduced right hemisphere advantage as compared to healthy subjects, whereas patients with atypical depression showed an abnormally large right hemisphere advantage (Bruder, Stewart, McGrath, Ma, Wexler, & Quitkin, 2002; Kucharska-Pietura & David, 2003). Another possible reason for variations in the findings may be because of the comorbidity in depression. Very often the clinical depression has been found to be associated with comorbid presence of anxiety disorders. The pattern of hemispheric asymmetry may differ in anxiety disorders and depression. Several studies provide support to the possibility that the pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in depression is likely to vary depending upon the presence or absence of comorbid anxiety disorder. For example, in several studies depression has been found to be linked with relative decrease and anxiety with relative increase in right posterior activity (Keller, Nitschke, Bhargava, Deldin, Gergen, & Miller, 2000). Similarly, Kengten, Tenke, Pine, Fong, Klein, and Bruder (2000) examined the effect of comorbid anxiety on EEG asymmetry of depressive patients and observed that depressives with no anxiety disorders showed

alpha asymmetry indicative of less activation over right than over left posterior sites as compared to non-ill controls. However, this right alpha asymmetry was reduced in depressive patients with comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, Bruder, Fong, Tenke, Leite, Towey, and Stewart (1997) have reported a differential pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in depressive patients with and without anxiety disorder. They observed that non-anxious depressed patients demonstrated an alpha asymmetry, which is an indication of less activation over right than left posterior sites, whereas anxious depressed showed greater activation over right than left anterior and posterior both sites. Such observations extend the hypothesis that the observed inconsistency in earlier researches (in terms of the pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in depression) may be because of lack of or poor control of the comorbid anxiety. The foregoing empirical evidences, thus, suggest the possibility that wide heterogeneity of clinical depression and comorbid presence of anxiety disorders may be the potential factors responsible for the observed variations in the findings. To address the problems of clinical heterogeneity of depressive state and comorbidity of anxiety disorder, a better strategy would be to examine the hemispheric asymmetry in individuals with subclinical depression while statistically controlling the effect of anxiety. However, very few studies have been done to examine the nature of hemispheric asymmetry in samples of subclinical depression and attempt to statistically control the effect of coexisting anxiety is very rare. Studies till date conducted on subclinical depression suggest the possibility of left hemispheric hypoactivation in depression. For example, researchers have noted that individuals characterized by

Hemispheric asymmetry in Depression 21

elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck & Steer, 1987) demonstrated relative left frontal hypo-activity when compared to symptom free controls (Schaffer et al., 1983). Besides inconsistency in findings, the aforesaid EEG studies also suffer from other methodological problems for demonstrating hemispheric asymmetry in affect and affective disorders. For example, researchers have often noted that the preparation procedure of EEG studies are perceived as emotionally arousing and aversive by the participants (e.g., Blackhart, Kline, Donohue, LaRowe, & Joiner, 2002) and thus the so called baseline recording condition in such studies may in fact represent recordings of stressful condition. Keeping these limitations in mind, researchers in this field have suggested to use the traditional and well established behavioral or performance measure of cerebral laterality for demonstrating hemispheric asymmetry in depression or other affective states (Papousek & Schulter, 2006). Hemispheric asymmetry in depression: Evidence from experimental behavioural approach The experimental behavioral measures of hemispheric asymmetry are based on the wellestablished brain- behavior relationship. In this approach, using some experimental procedures certain types of stimuli are unilaterally projected to the two cerebral hemispheres and the difference in perceptual accuracy or speed is recorded. The cerebral hemisphere showing greater perceptual accuracy or speed is considered specialized for the given type of function. Such behavioral measures of hemispheric asymmetry are also sometimes referred to perceptual asymmetry. The perceptual asymmetry studies dealing

with depression have used mainly the dichotic listening and visual split-field techniques and have been conducted largely on psychiatric conditions associated with depression. The perceptual asymmetry studies on clinical depression have generally reported a right hemisphere advantage in processing various types of stimuli. However, the comorbid anxiety has been found to alter the pattern of asymmetry. For example, Pine, Kengten, Bruder, Leite, Bearman, May and colleagues (2000) observed that adults with major depression demonstrated an increased right ear (LH) advantage for fused words whereas adults with comorbid major depressive and anxiety disorders showed a reduced right ear (LH) advantage for fused words. Similarly, Bruder, Wexler, Stewart, Price, and Quitkin (1999) using dichotic listening task demonstrated that the anxious groups exhibited larger left ear (RH) advantage for words when compared with the non-anxious group. They also observed that patients having an anxious depression appear to have a greater propensity to activate right than left hemisphere (RE) regions during auditory tasks, whereas those having a non-anxious depression have the opposite hemispheric asymmetry. Similarly, Gupta and Pandey (2008) have found enhanced right hemispheric asymmetry in processing emotional visuo-spatial configuration. Bruder, Otto, Stewart, McGrath, Fava, Rosenbaum and Quitkin (1996) found fluoxetine responders showed greater right ear (LH) advantage for dichotic words and less left ear (RH) advantage for complex tones. This indicates the LH advantage in dichotic listening in responders. Crews and Harrison (1994) found that women with depressed mood displayed significantly faster reaction time to sad faces presented in the right visual field and happy faces presented

22 Pandey and Gupta

in the left visual field. Another study by Moretti, Charlton and Taylor (1996) showed that the nondepressed demonstrated a RH advantage for processing open and closed mouth in sad expression whereas depressed showed RH advantage for processing open mouth sad expression. No visual field differences were found in processing happy faces. Jaeger, Borod, and Peselow (1987) compared unipolar and normal adults. They found both groups showed left hemiface bias but depressed were less lateralized than controls. It is evident from the preceding review of behavioural measures of hemispheric asymmetry in depression that like EEG studies findings are not consistent. Some studies have indicated enhanced right hemispheric performance in depression while others observed a reduction in the left hemispheric performance. Moreover, very similar to the EEG studies the variation in the observed hemispheric asymmetry was also found to be influenced by the variation in the clinical state as well as the comorbid presence of anxiety disorder in behavioral studies. One thing which is clearly visible from the various types of empirical evidences (empirical evidences from clinical studies, EEG, and behavioural measures) is that there is ample research evidences to support both the right hemispheric hyper-activation and the left hemispheric hypoactivation hypotheses of depression. This consistency in the nature of the observed inconsistency in findings (i.e., observation of LH hypoactivation by some and RH hyperactivation by others) lead us to view this issue of inconsistency from a different perspective. Thus, we thought that rather than considering both hemispheric hypotheses of depression as contradictory or inconsistent it

would be better to search some elements that can link both of them. It is very likely that both types of hemispheric asymmetry (RH hyperactivation and LH hypoactivation) may be complementary and not contradictory to each other. In the following passages, some empirical evidences have been reviewed that substantiate such speculation to some extent. Hemispheric asymmetry in depression: Is it state dependent? The equally compelling and empirically supported right hemispheric hyperactivation and left hemisphere hypoactivation hypotheses of depression, though, appears to be contradictory, the subsequent studies examining the state versus trait nature of the anomalous hemispheric asymmetry present evidences which suggest that rather than contradictory these two hypotheses may be considered complementary to each other. The studies examining the state-independent (or dependent) nature of hemispheric asymmetry in general suggest that LH hypoactivation is a state-independent (trait) marker of depression whereas the RH hyperactivation appears to be state dependent. Recently, abundant evidences have been accumulated which suggest that depressive state is characterized by a decrease in LH activation along with the reciprocal increase in RH activation (see Sorokina, Selitskii, & Kositsyn for a review). For example, Otto, Yeo, and Dougher (1987) found depression to be linked with differential hemispheric activation through either increased right hemisphere activation or decreased left hemispheric activation. The hypothesis that LH hypoactivation is a state-independent trait marker of depression is supported by those findings that have demonstrated the LH hypoactivation is consistently present in depressives both before

Hemispheric asymmetry in Depression 23

and after treatment. For example, Allen, Icaona, Depue, and Arbisi (1993) observed increased left frontal alpha power (indicator of hypoactivation) in dysphoric patients with bipolar seasonal affective disorder relative to non-depressed controls, both before and after successful phototherapy. Similarly, Gotlib (1998) demonstrated the trait marker status of LH hypoactivation by comparing presently depressed, previously depressed, and never depressed individuals on the resting EEG measures. They found that currently and previously depressed subjects showed left frontal hypoactivation relative to never depressed controls, but did not differ significantly from each other. The support for LH hypoactivation as state-independent marker and RH hyperactivation as statedependent marker comes from those studies which have examined the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on the hemispheric asymmetry of depressive patients. For example, Bruder, Sedoruk, Stewart, McGrath, Quitkin and Tenke (2008) studied SSRI responders and non-responders showed greater RH functioning can serve as a marker of the presence of depressive illness. For example, Staton, Wilson, and Brumback (1981), and Wilson and Staton (1984) reported improved performance on neuropsychological measures of right cerebrum and frontal lobe functioning following tricyclic antidepressant treatment with depressed children. Bruder and associates (1996) found fluoxetine responders showed greater right ear (LH) advantage for dichotic words and less left ear (RH) advantage for complex tones. No change was found during perceptual asymmetry task between treatment and non-treatment responders and non-responders exhibited stable features. The preceding review extends the hypotheses that LH hypoactivation is a trait marker of

depression whereas the RH hyperactivation is a depressive state dependent marker. The trait like presence of LH hypoactivation in individuals having history of depression also extends the hypotheses that LH hypoactivation can serve as a risk marker of depression. Support to this hypothesis comes from those studies who have examined the LH functioning of children of depressed mothers. Consistent with this expectation, several investigators have observed left frontal hypoactivation in children of depressed mothers (Dawson, Frey, Hessl, Panagiotides, & Self, 1995; Dawson, Klinger, Panagiotides, Spieker, & Frey, 1992; Tomarken, Simien, & Garber, 1994). Conclusion The present review suggests that depressive state including clinical depression is characterized by anomalous hemispheric asymmetry. However, from the available empirical evidences, it is difficult to suggest the nature of anomaly. We reviewed empirical evidences obtained from clinical studies as well as from EEG and behavioural measures based studies to uncover the nature of hemispheric dysfunction (anomaly in hemispheric asymmetry) in depression. None of them suggested a single hypothesis. Most of the studies supported either a LH hypoactivation or a RH hyper-activation in depression. Although very rare, some studies also reported a RH hypoactivation in depression. Despite this apparent inconstancy in findings, the present review suggests the possibility that either a LH hypoactivation or the RH hyperactivation or both may characterize depressive state. Thus, rather than taking the LH hypoactivation and the RH hyperactivation hypotheses of depression as contradictory it would be better to consider the

24 Pandey and Gupta

difference as indicative of different aspects of the depressive phenomenon. The available empirical evidences suggest that LH hypoactivation appears to be a stable causal factor behind depression whereas hyperactivation of RH seems to be the consequence of depression that is observed only when the depressive symptoms are present and not after the successful treatment of depression. This conclusion, though, is largely based on the EEG studies that are fraught with some methodological difficulties (Blackhart et al., 2002), subsequent behavioral studies also provide some support to the said speculation. However, such conclusions are not without controversy. A number of methodological and theoretical issues need to be addressed before accepting and generalizing such conclusions. For example, the existing literature has not properly addressed the issue of effect of clinical heterogeneity of depression and comorbid presence of anxiety disorders on the nature of hemispheric asymmetry. Further, most of the perceptual asymmetry studies providing direct or indirect evidences for an altered right hemispheric activity in affect and affective disorders have used emotion related tasks (such as emotion perception, emotional valence identification or discrimination) that are supposed to be lateralized to right hemisphere. Thus, there is a possibility that use of left hemisphere tasks (such as verbal tasks) may yield a different pattern of hemispheric asymmetry. The systematic effort to compare the perceptual asymmetry for verbal and emotional tasks in depressive disorders, though, have little been made, some preliminary evidences do support the speculation that a differential pattern of perceptual asymmetry will emerge with verbal tasks. For example, Wale and Carr (1990) using

verbal dichotic listening task observed no difference between depressives and normal controls. Another important issue in the existing literature dealing with hemispheric asymmetry in depression is the lack of empirical evidences in support of the theoretical explanations given for the observed findings. The observed pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in depression has been explained on the basis of hemispheric hypotheses of emotion. Researches dealing with the hemispheric substrate of emotion suggest that the right hemisphere is associated with regulation of negative affective states whereas the left hemisphere is related with experience of positive affect (Davidson, Mednick, Moss, Saron, & Schaffer, 1987; Reuter-Lorenz, Givis, & Moscovitch, 1983). Since depression has been found to be associated with high negative affect and low positive affect (see Clark & Watson, 1991), researchers have speculated that observed pattern of hemispheric asymmetry in depression can be explained on the basis of valance hypothesis of emotion. Based on the valance hypothesis of emotion it has been hypothesized that the observed hyper-activation of right hemisphere or hypoactivation of the left hemisphere in depressive patients (Otto, Yeo, & Dougher, 1987; Sorokina, Selitskii, & Kositsyn, 2005) may be because of their enhanced propensity for negative emotional experiences and reduced potential for positive emotional experiences. However, little have been done to empirically verify that the observed relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and depression is being largely mediated by the nature of positive and negative emotional experiences. To sum up, the present review, though clearly suggest that depression is associated with

Hemispheric asymmetry in Depression 25

anomalous hemispheric dominance or asymmetry, there is lack of unanimously agreed upon view regarding the nature of hemispheric dysfunction in depression. Two equally convincing and empirically supported hypotheses appear in the existing literature. Further, there are also some methodological and theoretical issues that have not been properly addressed which prohibit making valid conclusions regarding the nature of hemispheric dysfunction in depression. Future research is definitely required to address the said issues and gaps in the existing literature. References

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Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 29-38 ISSN 0974-9837

Changing Role of Teachers in Contemporary Educational Institutions

Peter Odera

The role of professionally trained teachers has changed dramatically in the contemporary educational setup to an extent that present day teacher finds himself/herself playing such roles that he/she was not trained for in college or university. This paper examines the roles of both primary and secondary school teachers in the classroom setting as well as outside the classroom and the community at large. A modern teacher differs from the traditional teacher in that he/she does not just pump knowledge into learners but allows them to fully participate in learning activities. A teacher is one who provides guidance to learners and others in the society. He or she is a source of change. In this paper, 21st century teacher is expected to be a source of knowledge, to nurture care within and without the class, to be an exemplary leader, to inculcate moral discipline, to be a democrat, motivator, to be a facilitator of co-operative learning, to link up with parents, to be an agent of change, to provide guidance and counseling and to promote good values for healthy living. This paper highlights appropriate strategies that a modern teacher can use to be more effective in carrying out his/her duties.

This paper critically examines roles of a modern teacher in school and its surrounding. The paper also recommends strategies that can assist a modern teacher to be effective in his/her profession. A teacher is the cream and torch-bearer of any society. The future of a country depends on its ability to teach. A teacher has moulded every important personality in the society. Today's medical doctors, engineers, journalists, preachers, administrators, political leaders in one way or another is a product of some teachers. However, a mother is the first teacher of her child; equally the teacher should be the mother or father of the pupil. Parents are the first teachers of a child in the sense that the very first knowledge about the world of a child is facilitated by them particularly the mother. The don'ts and dos are instilled first in one's life at the family level. Just as biological parents have interest in their child, parents and teachers are

co-creators of learners and so there is need to develop parent-teacher partnership. The teacher who is concerned with small children should let them grow and develop according to their natural progression. This is so because education is controlled development and thus calls on the teacher to regulate the process. Education is not merely imparting knowledge and information; it is the development of the child's natural powers and abilities from within. Different definitions have been given to the term teacher. Conventionally it is believed that a teacher is one who provides knowledge to others. Yet other educationists consider a teacher to be 'one who guides, takes care of and provides knowledge to others'. In East African countries Kwiswahili word "mwalimu" denotes a teacher, one who guides and imparts knowledge to learners. However, in this paper, the writer takes the most appropriate definition

Department of Educational Psychology Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology Kakamega

30 Odera

of the term teacher to be 'one who is professionally trained to impart knowledge to her/his learners and others in the society'. Such a teacher is expected to be competent and to have a holistic outlook, that is, she/he must have thorough pedagogical intervention skills in the subject matter and need to be knowledgeable in educational subjects such as psychology, philosophy, special education, educational management, developmental studies, guidance and counselling, inter alia. This paper is divided into two major sections, the first one deals with the roles of a teacher in the classroom and the last section deals with the roles of a teacher in the wider society. In this paper, a teacher is one who is professionally trained to teach nursery students or primary students or secondary students or high school students. ROLES OF A TEACHER IN THE CLASSROOM The role of a classroom teacher is profound and multi-faceted. She/he is an academician, a specialist, a methodologist, character trainer, caregiver, role model, ethical mentor, democrat, leader, effective member of the school staff among many others. School is a miniature society and a very complex community where concern and accountability for learners' socialization are the responsibility of all. A classroom teacher is integral component of this complex community and has many roles. Some of the roles a teacher plays in the classroom or school situation include: Teacher as a source of knowledge The first and foremost role of a teacher is to teach her/his learners. She/he should be in a position to inspire and guide her/his learners in experiences that will result in effective learning. Teachers are expected to help their students to learn certain traditional school

subjects such as mathematics, languages, sciences, history geography etc. Much of what is gained from school should help learners to solve problems in life besides enabling them to compete fairly with others in class. For these reasons, the subject matter taught in schools should be meaningful, relevant, and learnable and learner centered. Thus (Woolfolk, 1990) pointed out that meaningfulness or relevance of materials being taught to elementary children is important because children are more ready for skill learning, spelling, reading and writing which they seem to enjoy. In addition, their interest too gets aroused, consequently, they become ready to respond to materials which meet their needs, and which fit their already established interests and mental framework. Nevertheless, at a higher level, secondary school students prefer to discover, read adventurous stories and fiction texts. For them, a taste of good reading and acquisition of knowledge can be achieved through strategies that interest them. The teacher should involve children and parents in the process of learning without neglecting other components of development. Issues that affect life need to be discussed with an aim of finding lasting solutions. Strategies To be an effective source of knowledge, a teacher should: · · · know her/his subject matter well and be competent in it. be aware of the level of mental growth of her/his learners. be able to recognize educational needs currently felt by her/his learners. be aware of the needs of the society.

·

Roles of A Teacher In Educational Institution 31

Nurturing a caring classroom community As a miniature society, the school has rules and regulations. Rules and regulations are reflections of societal values and norms that are essential for healthy functioning of any society. One of the ways of facilitating a healthy society is to view a teacher as a 'caregiver'. In this case, the teacher can encourage his/her learners in two main dimensions. The first and probably the most important dimension is that a teacher should treat all learners with love, affection, care and respect. This will encourage learners to produce desirable behaviour and shun undesirable behaviours. The teacher-learner relationship also fosters a positive attachment of students to their teacher. Thus warmth, friendliness and understanding are the admired traits of a teacher that are strongly related to learners attitudes, thus, (Murray, 1983) reported that teachers who are warm, and friendly tend to have students who like them and subsequently have positive attitude towards learning activities. In addition, societal values, norms, school rules and regulations are best transmitted through warm caring relationships. As in families, children in schools care about societal values so long as they know that teachers care about the same. Failure on the part of the teacher to respect and care about learners and others in the society normally makes people not to be open or receptive to anything teachers wish to teach them about values, rules or regulations; this can be a c c e s s e d a t (http://www.cortland.edu/c4n5rs/12pnt_iv.ht m). The second dimension of nurturing love and care in a classroom setting involves encouraging learners to respect and care for each other. Just as learners need positive attachment from adults and teachers, they also

need care and positive attachment for one another. When they feel accepted and affirmed by the group, they are likely to accept the values and rules of the group they belong to, consequently, this discourages avoidance attachment among learners. Strategies Teachers can nurture positive interpersonal relationships in the classroom by assisting learners in the following ways: · · teachers should encourage learners to respect each other. teachers should assist learners to be part and parcel of the moral community in the classroom setting by practicing what they have learnt. learners should be made to feel valued as an in-group member of his/her class by being assigned responsibility. teachers can serve as promoters of love and respect among learners, assisting them to succeed at schoolwork and building their confidence.

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Teacher as a leader Teaching, almost inevitably is leading a group of learners. An effective teacher is an effective leader who uses power of group to promote individual growth. As a leader, a teacher is expected to give direction and guide learners. His/her behaviour will affect the behaviour of other people and so he/she should act as a role model to his/her learners and to others in the society. Learners learn not only from what their teachers say but also from what activity they carry out both in class and out of class. The knowledge, skills and attitudes teachers manifest as leaders have great influence on students (Harden and Crosby, 2000). As a

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group leader, the teacher is expected to act as referee, detective, counsellor in lowering hostile feelings, frustrations, anxiety and depression among learners. The teacher's role as a leader does not end up in a classroom. A teacher can serve in school as well as in the community organizations. By and large, a teacher should lead by giving good examples. As a classroom leader, a teacher can foster harmonious development of the students and make them responsible and participating citizens, sensitive and reflective human beings, productive and creative persons. Strategies For effective leadership, a teacher should: · be active physically and verbally. She/he must possess abilities and resources that enable him/her to influence others. be capable of bringing success to the endeavours of his/her class. have influence on activities of the learners or members of his/her group. lead by giving good examples

· · ·

authority a teacher can as well invite learners to share responsibility for classroom order. Consequences for rule breaking should by all means contribute to character development, helping students to understand why there is need for the rules and regulations so that their feeling towards moral obligation to respect rules and authority is increased. A teacher should establish rules in a way that develops moral reasoning in his/her learners. For instance, the teacher can help learners see the values such as love, respect, honesty, courtesy and caring behind the rules. This would enhance affective domain of learners in future in life. Learners' representatives especially at secondary level should be included when formulating the rules. By and large, the emphasis of instilling discipline should not only be on extrinsic rewards and punishment but also on following the rules because it is the honourable thing to do, that is, respect of self and others. Strategies Teachers can ensure that their learners are disciplined through: · giving learners chance to know consequences of breaking school rules. pasting the rules in a visible spot for easy references especially for upper primary and secondary students. Teachers can also deal with any misbehaviour promptly. isolation of offenders from the rest of learners. This strategy works out well because it helps learners to make connection between their behaviour and relevant school rules.

Teacher as a source of moral discipline Discipline within and without the school environment is a tool for moral growth. It assists learners to develop self-control and a generalized respect for others. A competent teacher is one who uses the rules and their consequences to develop moral reasoning, self-control and generalized respect for others in the society. Discipline without moral education is merely a crowd control, which is managing behaviour without teaching morals, t h i s c a n b e a c c e s s e d a t (http://www.cortland.edu/c4n5rs/12pnt_iv.ht m). Moreover, a teachers is expected to be the central moral authorities in the classroom or school. It is important that while exercising

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Teacher as a democratic leader Mathur (1983) was of the view that a

Roles of A Teacher In Educational Institution 33

democratic teacher is one who encourages his/her learners to participate in decisionmaking, and also take responsibility for making the classroom the best environment it can be. Such a teacher avoids domineering tendencies, allows learners to challenge his/her ideas, accepts constructive suggestions from learners and encourages them to work as a group. In such a learning environment, both the teacher and learners appreciate each other's point of view. Learners work in-group, they display a spirit of sociability honesty and responsibility. There is much give and take between the teacher and the learners. This may make them to develop positive attitude towards the teacher and the subjects that are taught by the teacher. Strategies To offer a democratic learning environment, a teacher should: · · encourage learners to work in groups and to hold discussions freely. meet with learners and assist them to deal with problems they encounter or plan upcoming events (field trips, excursions, and chat over next lesson). assist learners during problem-solving sessions by 'saying the right words' which would encourage learners' participation in class.

necessary to motivate learners to learn. Teachers should be conscious that they are models to their learners and so should act as powerful motivators to learners. Teachers need to emphasize intrinsic motivation as opposite to extrinsic motivation, this is because intrinsic motivation initiates self guided learning. Thus, (Woolfolk, 1990, p.5 and 2001) observed that most of the decisions a teacher makes may have an effect on the learner's motivation. For instance, the grading system can motivate learners to work harder or to give up. Any learning materials chosen with learners' interest and ability in mind may help to motivate students to learn better. The overriding question in the modern teacher's mind should be: 'how can I keep students actively involved in learning?' It is something a teacher needs to ask himself/herself every day. Strategies To motivate learners,a teacher should: · · avoid arousing fear or anxiety in the learners by giving difficult tasks. begin the task by motivating learners. For instance, a teacher can tell his/her learners what the task is good for and why they are important. help learners to set achievable shortterm goals. use familiar materials when giving examples. use verbal or written praises. This may include writing comments on homework and tests. However, too much praise is not productive, neither is the denial of praise where it is due.

·

· · ·

Teacher as a motivator Motivation as a control and source of human energy plays a vital role in learning. A competent teacher is a motivator to his/her learners. Heshe should know how to inculcate interest and positive attitudes in learners in relation to their activities. Good behaviour of learners that is reinforced is likely to be repeated. Teachers should make use of positive and negative reinforcements where

Teacher as a facilitator of co-operative learning A competent teacher assists in fostering

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learners' ability to work with and to appreciate others. Co-operative learning is a means of effective character moulding process because it gives learners regular practice in developing important virtues at the same time as they learn academic tasks and other school assignments. It assists in developing communication and perspective skills among learners so that they can have balanced way of judging right and wrong, acquire the ability to work as part of the group and be able to appreciate others who are different from them. If taught properly, cooperative learning builds a healthy community in the classroom. It integrates every learner, breaks down barriers and strengthens interpersonal relationships among learners as well as learners and teachers. It also enhances a feeling of in-group membership in learners such that they come to identify with their classmates, school and teachers. Strategies To encourage co-operative learning among students, a teacher should ensure that: · · co-operative learning is effective as an academic and character-building. learners hold group work/discussion; regularly have different learning partners, have small group projects and whole-class projects. time is spread and spent in order to teach learners the skills, techniques and roles they require in order to make co-operative learning effective. learners develop feeling of in-group membership among colleagues.

nature multidimensional and full of simultaneous activities from teachers' and learners' actions. However, in some instances these may not work out but appropriate approach must be found to bring the class into order so that teaching can take place in a conducive and supportive atmosphere (Woolfolk, 1990). Nevertheless, an effective classroom manager must juggle with all elements everyday in his/her class. He/she should provide a classroom atmosphere that is conducive for effective learning and attainment of objectives of school requirements. An effective classroom manager should allow ample time for learning, improve the quality of time use by keeping learners actively involved, and make sure that every activity is clear, straightforward and consistent. The teacher sets rules and establishes procedures for handling predictable problems in his/her classes or schools. An effective classroom manager will respond to indiscipline cases in his/her class by detaining learners, reporting to parents, to the headteacher, announcing the guilt at parade, assigning extra work, isolating the problematic learner from the rest etc. Strategies For effective classroom management, the teacher should: · · attempt to establish the cause of misconduct in the class. give learners tasks that are not too difficult for their level. Tasks beyond the ability of the learners may make them to be withdrawn and to become stubborn. avoid giving learners too easy tasks because the most intelligent learners will complete their work early and start involving in undesirable

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·

Teacher as a classroom manager Managing a class is a major challenge to a modern teacher. Many teachers mainly fail in their work because of their ineffective classroom management. Classrooms are by ·

Roles of A Teacher In Educational Institution 35

behaviours. · specify and communicate the punishable behaviours to the learners by means of classroom rules and be fair in using punishment.

teachers also have a vital role to play in determining levels of parent involvement. Thus teacher-parent partnership can be enhanced when a teacher shows positive attitudes and consultation with parents over key issues about their children. Strategies The following strategies are expected to promote strong partnership between teachers and parents: · both parties should understand, accept, and appreciate the role and process of partnership each plays. each party should be sensitive to each other's needs, desires and talents. home visits, conferences or workshops, participatory decisionmaking, parent and adult education programmes should be encouraged.

TEACHER'S ROLES IN THE WIDER SOCIETY A teacher as effective member of the society have certain social responsibilities that he/she is expected to carry out. A modern teacher is a facilitator of teacher-parents partnership, an agent of change, a counsellor, a psychologist, and a promoter of good health, among others. Schools are expected to strive towards the establishment of a good society by inculcating proper social training in the learners. Some of the roles played by teachers in the wider society are discussed below. Teacher-parent joint efforts Teachers and parents should have a common joint effort of partnership. Scheafer (1985) reported that parents who enjoy high selfesteem are more assertive in their family and school involvement. However, not all parents have the competence that supports the required attributes. It is the duty of a teacher to provide a setting that encourages the development of partnership with parents. Nonetheless, Swick (1991) reported that teachers and parents can create a healthy relationship if they have joint learning activities, support each other in their respective roles, carry out classroom and school improvement activities, plan curriculum projects, and participate in various decision making organs. Thus when teachers, families and community groups support each other in learning activities, learners tend to show more interest in school and are expected to perform better. Epstein (2001) argues that as much as parents have a major role to play in influencing their children's progress in school,

· ·

Teacher as an agent of change Changes are inevitable in education. Education all over the world is seen as the gateway to future economic growth, a means to combat unemployment, a safeguard to democratic values and an opening to personal success. Educational changes imply changes in the teacher's mind, lesson content, classroom practices, teacher-learners roles and relationships. A trained and motivated teacher considers these changes not for their own sake but for the sake of the change that is meant for the betterment and improvement of the society. Thus, (Fullan, 1991) showed that change in the teaching approach, style and materials used in school may present great difficulty if new skills must be acquired and new ways of teaching are to be established. Changes required in schools can take place if prevalent conditions in schools are taken into consideration. For instance, teachers can feel

36 Odera

frustrated due to a number of factors; these may include high rates of learners' dropout, poor performance, because of unprofessional way of handling learners, and the society's lack of full acceptance of education given in schools. In general however, the contemporary teacher should change from the conventional and traditional way of teaching since a teacher can become an expert counsellor, facilitator, manager in learning situations, team leader, among others. Today's teacher must accept changes in technological advances in ICT and use the same in his/her teaching, political changes and innovative approaches to education. Positive change is good as it leads to new learning, new commitments, new strategies and new accomplishments. However, the anxiety and uncertainty the changes bring cannot be ignored. Strategies To be effective and human agent of change, a teacher should: · be mentally open to new and different ways that are relevant to modern educational requirements. be aware of reasons for or against change, that is, he/she needs to recognize and monitor the attention one is giving to some activities. cultivate resourcefulness and possess necessary resources by keeping abreast of developments in his/her field. engage in frequent, continuous talks about teaching, observe each other's classes and provide feedback to each other so as to improve teaching strategy.

·

·

has positive attachment to learners is often seen by his/her students as someone to be approached for necessary support during times of crisis. As much as most teachers are not expected to play the role of guidance counsellors, they must be sensitive observers to their learners' problems. Learners in schools have multiple personal, educational, family, health and other problems that parents are not in a position to solve. Since learners seem to be with their teachers more often than with their parents at home, it is important that teachers be aware of the problems faced by their students. This way, they can handle learners' problems and provide solutions, guidance and counselling wherever and whenever they are called upon. The daily contact in different situations with learners in and outside the classroom is important because a teacher as a counselor will learn a great deal about the learners' abilities, interests, attributes, hopes, fears and aspirations. Besides, teachers should consider administering teacher made, achievement, interest, personality tests and to interpret objectively the results of these tests to learners and their parents or guardians. This would assist in knowing the nature of learners one deals with. To be a good counsellor, a teacher should be good listener, approachable, trustworthy, mature, well adjusted and able to maintain confidentiality of their clients. Strategies To offer effective guidance and counselling services, a teacher should: · have information about individual learner(s) in the form of anecdotal record. help learners to interpret the vocational implication of school subjects.

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Teacher as a counsellor A competent teacher who shows concern and

Roles of A Teacher In Educational Institution 37

· ·

help learners to understand their own personal strength and weakness. keep information about her/his clients as confidential as he/she can.

· ·

be sensitive to changes in learners' behaviours. assist learners in getting solutions to their problems.

Teacher as a psychologist As a psychologist, a teacher is required to know and understand his/her learners as well as the individual differences manifested by each learner in relation to the learners' intelligence level, problem solving, thinking and reasoning capacities. Moreover, as a psychologist, a teacher should constantly watch out for potential problems posed by learners in terms of drug abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, rape, aggression, truancy, anxiety, depression and withdrawal symptoms, this can be accessed at (http://www.nstu.ns.ca/issues/myths/pepff7.ht ml). In addition, the prevalent of HIV/AIDS and related diseases in learning institutions calls to attention and the contribution of teachers. The basic knowledge of causes, symptoms and necessary measures to be taken while dealing with those affected can be imparted to learners. It requires a competent teacher to observe and recognize symptoms of the problems mentioned in the above paragraph and then refer the learner to an appropriate authority for necessary steps if she/he cannot deal with the problems. Strategies As a psychologist, a teacher should: · · · try to establish the cause of the problem. hold discussions with the concerned learners. inform parents or guardians in case learners have any problem(s).

Teacher as a promoter of good health It is the role of the teacher to recognize learners with potential health problems in a class. Often some learners manifest poor physical and mental hygiene, physical inabilities, poor eyesight, speech and hearing problem, this can b e a c c e s s e d a t (http://www.nstu.ns.ca/issues/myths/pepft7.ht ml). These problems once identified need to be referred to and be dealt with by the appropriate specialist. Learners who are handicapped in any way need to be accepted by their teachers. Teachers should make the handicapped learners aware that they should not feel uncomfortable about the impairments. Other normal learners should be prepared to accept those who are different from them so that they can be fully integrated into the mainstream classroom or school setting. However, teachers should ensure that unnecessary anxiety and depression are not created in the learners since these are the sources of poor mental hygiene. In addition, teachers should be able to provide first aid assistance to learners and other people in the society who suffer from mild health problems; sudden faints, accident, acidity, etc. Strategies For healthy personality of learners, a teacher should: · identify sources of anxiety and depression to the learners and then help them to remove the anomalies if possible. assist in the integration of marginalized learners

·

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·

refer learners with various health problems to specialists if he/she cannot handle them effectively. ensure that learners take part in extracurriculum activities because it is good for their mental and physical well-being. This strengthens the phrase that goes all work without play makes Jack a dull boy.

Fullan, M. (1991). Productive Educational Change. Falmer Press. Grace, G. (1995). School leadership: Beyond education management. Basingstoke: Falmer Press. Harden, R. M. and Crosby, J. R. (2000). The good teacher is more than a lecturer. Association for Medical Education in Europe, 22, 334-3447. Harris, K. (1982). Teachers and classes. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Kagan, J. (1984). The Nature of a Child. New York: Basic Books. Mathews, J. (1989). Tools for change: Technology and the democratisation of work. Sydney: Pluto. Mathur, S. S. (1983). Educational Psychology. Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir. Murray, H. G. (1983). Low influence Calassroom teaching behaviour and teaching: Student Ratings of College teaching Effectiveness. Journal of Educational Psychology,75,138-149. Scheafer, E. (1985). Parent and Child Correlates of Parental Modernity. In Sigel, B., ed. Parental Belief Systems: The Psychological Consequences for Children. Hillsdale, NJ: Larence Erlbaum Associates. Swick, K. (1991). Teachers-parent Partnership to Enhance School Success in Early Childhood Education. Washington, DC; National Educatin Association. Swick, K. (1992). An Early Childhood School-Home Learning Design. Champaign, IL :Stipes Publishing. Tyler, L.E. (1974). In Differnces: Abilities and Motivational Directions. New york: Appleton-Century Crofts. Woolfolk, A.E. (1990). Educational Psychology: New Jersey. Pretice-Hall, Inc. Woolfolk, A.E. (2001). Educational Psycholog ( 8th ed.). Boston:Allyn and Bacon. Websites http://www.cortland.edu/c4n5rs/12pnt_iv.htm http://www.nstu.ns.ca/issues/myths/pepff7.html

·

Conclusion By and large, this profile of a teacher reveals a work force of a committed and professionally trained teacher who finds his/her work very satisfying. A teacher plays many roles in the school as well as outside the school. These roles were once not meant for teachers. A teacher's task in the contemporary world is no longer confined to the classroom or school. A well trained and an effective teacher in the modern society is expected to be able to deal with many challenges apart from conventional and traditional teaching of the subject matter. Thus many of the teacher's roles are intertwined. He/she has to care, love and show affection, impart knowledge, encourage cordial relationship with parents; be a good agent of cha nge; a good manager; a good counsellor, promoter of good health, and be a psychologist. In order to play these roles effectively, a teacher has to employ some of the appropriate strategies that have been given in this paper. References

Australian Education Council (1992). Employment related key competencies (Report, E. Mayer, Chair). Canberra: AGPS. Barton, L. and Walker, S. (Eds). (1981). Schools, teacvhers and teaching. Lewes: Falmer. Bork, A. (1984). Computers in education today and some possible futures. Phi Delter Kappan, 66, 239243.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 39-45 ISSN 0974-9837

Personality : A Yogic Conception

Mukesh Kumar Jha*

The utility and vitality of yogic treatment in contemporary India is impelling the scholar to think about personality in yogic term. Here an endeavor has been made to present the Indian view of personality in reference to upnishadic theory of koshas and the yogic theory of Gunas.. It has been emphasized that the triple division of personality according to gunas and the psychic nature of the gunas are practically very useful in understanding the basic nature of human being and their personality. The specific constructs associated with the said Indian theoretical models of personality such as nadis, granthis have also been discussed in brief. The relevance and implications of these Indigenous Indian models of personality from applied perspectives have also been discuseed.

Personality, though, has been defined and conceptualized in different ways in the existing psychological literature, the common thread linking all of them is that they all deal with uncovering the basic nature of human being. Attempt to explain the basic nature of human being (i.e., personality), however, can be traced back far beyond the origin of modern psychology. The ancient Indian scriptures are in fact full of psychological knowledge including thoughtful exposition concerning the human nature or personality. Further, many Indian and Western scholars (e.g., Dwivedi, 1971, 1978; Wolf, 1998) have made attempt to translate this ancient knowledge concerning the nature of human personality into a form acceptable to modern psychology. Thus, the topic dealt here is not a new one. Moreover, it may be seen to some as only an effort of reconstruction while for others it may appear to be a non-psychological exposition in the strict sense of the term personality. Even though, it is considered appropriate as well as desirable to be acquainted with the Indian and yogic view of personality inasmuch as yoga is proving its significance and utility in solving

the physical and mental problems of human being and have acquired the status of alternative medicine for a wide variety of physical and mental health problems. Thus, acquaintance with the Indian, particularly the yogic, view of personality will be helpful for those psychologists using yogic techniques for dealing with problems of personality disorganization and mental health. The ancient Indian scriptures, philosophical literature, astrological-astronomical literature and medical literature in essence are the reservoir of the knowledge concerning human nature and personality. Literary exposition of personality typologies can be found in Indian philosophical systems such as the samkhya, Yoga, Vedanta and Buddhism and the medical systems such as Charaka and susharut. The psycho-sexual treatise of vatsyayana and kalyanamale provide yet another approach to an understanding of personality. Asthana (1950), Krishan (1974) and Kuppuswamy (1977) have comprehensibly reviewed some of these materials. Several researchers have tried to compare the Indian conception of personality with some of the western models of

* Lecturar, Deptt. of Psychology, Chatra College Chatra, V.B.University, Hazaribag, Jharkhand.

40 Jha

personality in order to achieve a synthetic view of the two literatures. For example, some researchers have presented a comparative account of the concept of self in Ramanuja and Rogers (Seth, 1979) while others have tried to compare the concept of self-actualization discussed in yoga with that of Rogers, Allport, Maslow and Jung (Kappuswamy, 1977). Kakar (1982) went a step further and examined the image of adulthood in psychoanalysis and yoga, showing a two stage process of the working of eros and thanatos by establishing first a loving relationship and subsequently withdrawal to achieve liberation. Unlike the modern psychological approach which view personality as a psycho-physical disposition, in Indian thought human personality is assumed to contain within it physical, mental as well as spiritual aspects. Human being is not physical and mental evolutionary process but it is a spirit that is appearing in a physical body with mental levels of consciousness. Vedanta, Tantra and Yoga which deal with human personality argue that pure consciousness or the spirit, being bond manifests itself through mental phases or consciousness in a physical body. The gross body having different limbs is constituted of five tattwas that are representative of annamaya kosha within human personality. This physical body or the mula-prakriti associated with consciousness in their microcosmos form, is a personality having prana, granthis, nadis and chakras. According to ancient Indian view when shakti or maya is associated with pure consciousness, it evloves objectively into mahat. Psychologically this is also called intellect or budhi. This further evolves into sense of egoity or ahamkara, having three forms-sattvic, rajasic and tamasic. The sattvic ahamkara evolve into eleven indriyas and tamsic ahamkara into five subtle

elements which further evolve into five gross elements (Sharma 1997). In vedanta, yoga and tantra, we find the pancha-pranas and the pancha vayus playing a vital role in human personality (Mishra 1993; Sastri 1986; Venkatesananda, 1998). In tantra the human personality has been said to possess the chakras too, which are different centers of energy and the kundalini i.e., the dynamic energy, sleeping in latent from in the muladhara chakra. Awakening of kundalini makes the intelligence more brighten and potency gets opportunity for its manifestation in creativity (Swami Satyananda, 2000). There are nadis through which the sleeping energy awakened by the perfection of pranayama will rise upward. Among 72000 nadis, twelve or fourteen are important and among them three are most important i.e. ida, pingla and sushuman. Among these sushumana is the most important because it is that pathway through which the kundalini rises above and goes to sahasrara, transcending the granthis and chakras. Meeting of the kundalini with shiva in the sahasrara is the ultimate goal. This in fact depicts the evolutionary view of human personality and is considred significant from Indian perspective for positive transformation of personality. From the foregoing, it is evident that the understanding of personality and its elements from Indian perspective is not an easy task and it includes a wide variety of perspectives. The present paper attempts to highlight the description of personality from upnishadic tradition and shamkhya and yoga tradtion only and that too would be limited to the theory of panchkoshas and trigunas. The five sheaths (Koshas) are Indian attempts to unfold the entire spectrum of human being

Personality : A Yogic Conception 41

from the level of physical body to the level of transcendental dimension of consciousness. Koshas determine human thoughts, emotions, feeling and deeds by hiding the consciousness. They are like the curtain through which the light of pure consciousness is coming in everyday life. In a way the koshas may be called as 'psycho-physiological energetic vehicles' which facilitate the process of life. Naturally, koshas are a hindrance for immediate contact with pure consciousness. So, in yoga psychology efforts are made and techniques are preseribed to liberate the consciousness within our personality from the dirt covering of this koshas and their effects (see Swami Niranjanananda, 1999 for details). The five vital sheaths are annamaya kosha, pranamaya kosha, manomaya kosha, vijananamaya kosha and anandamaya kosha. Annamaya kosha is the physical body and the whole gross organism of our personality. All the organic systems function within it. The word 'anna' means food, implying that this kosha is nourished by the substances and energy found in food. It includes muscular, nervous, heart and biochemical energies. A wholesome diet, a healthy life style, practices of hatha yoga and raja yoga can help to purify this aspect of personality and make it healthier. Pranamaya kosha is concerned with the network of vital energy (Prana) which regulates growth, shape and functions of physical body, together with the decay of cells, tissues and organs (Swami Muktibodhananda, 2002). It surrounds and penetrates our physical body and can often been seen by sensitive and perspective people as the 'aura'. It corresponds to the 'L' (Life) field. The energy fields of this kosha differs in healthy and unhealthy individual and is unfluenced by climatge, machinery, cosmic rays etc; and even changes during human interaction.

Everything in this universe, animate or inanimate has an underlying energy field a pranamaya kosha. It is far more complex in human being than in a stone. Energy in this kosha is conducted through energy channels. According to tantra yoga texts, there are 72000 of these channels (nadis) in each human being. Connection between points on these nadis are rather like those in an electromagnetic field there are energy links which may not be obvious on a physical level (Swami Satyananda, 2000). Yogic texts clearly state that breathing acts directly on the pranamaya kosha, this has been collaborated by modern scientific research using kirlian photography. Hence the importance of the pranayama is improving its function. Otherwise all kinds of yoga practices also act on this kosha and help us to become more aware of it. Manomaya kosha (mental sheath) is what we normally call the mind. It controls and directly influences the pranamaya and annamaya koshas. This is the sphere of our mind which is closely tied to physical body and with which we normally identify. Everyone thinks and everyone knows that they think. According to yoga, however thought takes place through subtle energy channels. Mapping these thought nadis, however, is difficult, or perhaps impossible, since they don't operate or function in space (i.e. thoughts don't have a physical location). Yet, according to yoga, thoughts do how in a mental ether, bubbling up from the more subtle subconscious level to conscious perceptions. Conditioned thinking patterns attitudes and responses in the manomaya kosha give rise to most of our turbulent emotions as these are expressed through the pranamaya and annamaya kosha. We can develop greater understanding of the manomaya kosha by practicing all type of yoga techniques, especially mantra and meditation.

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Vijnanamaya kosha is the repository of transpersonal energies such as telepathy clairvoyance, thought reading and other so called psychic phenomena. This phenomena takes place through extremely subtle pathways. They are not confined to the individual but are located in a realm of our being where our individuality merges with a common bed rock of existence which we share with all other humans and everything else. Using. the terminology of modern quantum physich, we can say that these phenomena take place in what is called the arena of nonlocality (where time and space do not exist). The vijnanamaya kosha is the realm of intuition, insight and creative inspiration. Researcher, poet or musician are trying to open up (or perhaps more exactly, we should say reopen up) new channels of knowledge, experience and expression. These channels already exist in dormant form, but they have to be accessed. Once a new channel is opened up by one person, it then becomes easier for the rest of us to access it. All new ways of thinking, concepts and inventions are due to the opening up these intuitive pathways in vijnanamaya kosha. We can awaken and become more aware of this kosha by utilizing all kinds of yoga practices, especially meditation and jnana yoga (the yoga of wisdom and insight). Anandamaya kosha is the last of the koshas, relates to deep joy, the throb of our essential being. It is also known as the causal body, the seed of one's individuality. It is the trap door into the collective unconscious and into supper consciousness. Anandmaya Kosha is the sublime experience of bliss and is totally Stress-free state (Nagendra & Nagarathna, 1997). All form of yoga help to open it up. The koshas are in fact not separate but are

inextricably tied up with each other. They are classified as separate entities for the sake of ease in explanation and conceptual understanding. Energies flow from one kosha to another. For example, thought in the manomaya kosha stimulate a flow of vital force or energy in the pranamaya kosha, after detected as emotions, which in turn stimulate the annamaya kosha, the physical body, through nerve and hormonal pathways. Thoughts and intentions in the manomaya kosha are expressed in physical action such as walking, talking and writing; and intuition in the vijnanamay kosha may be accompanied by joy originating from the anandmaya kosha. In yogic literature, the koshas are shown as five concentric circles. The outmost circle normally represents the grossest physical annamaya kosha, and innermost circle, the more subtle anandmaya kosha. This does not mean that the koshas are one within the other but rather that they are progressively more subtle. Therefore, in a sense, it is just as accurate and meaningful to show the annamaya kosha on the inside as the largest, indicating maximum limitation, and the anandamaya kosha as the smallest circle, indicating lesser limitation and greater expansiveness.

Vijananamaya Kosha Kosha Anandamaya

Atman

Annamaya Manomaya Kosha Kosha Pranamaya

Personality : A Yogic Conception 43

The theory to triguna: The yogic way of classifying personality In fact, yogic conception of personality seems to be incomplete without the reference of guna. As samkhaya and Gita believe that every manifested thing is the production of the intercommunication of the guna. Guna in Sanskrit has three meaning. Its first meaning is 'secondary', secondly it means constituting elements, and thirdly it refers to quality. Here we are concerned with the second meaning i.e., constituting element, because prakriti constitutes the three guana. The three guans are ­ sattva, rajas and tamas. The gunas are said to be extremely fine and subtle, their existence is inferred from their effects ­ pleasure, pain and indifference respectively Taimni (1987). Since there is an essential identity between the effect and its cause, we know the nature of the gunas from the nature of their products. In other words, we can infer that the ultimate cause of things must also have been constituted by the three elements of pleasure, pain and indifference. The gunas are always changing and work together for the production of the world of effects, still they never coalesce. They are modified by mutual influence on one another or by their proximity. They evolve, join and separate. Not one loses its power, though the others may be actively at work (Radhakrishan 1997). So, in the context of human personality, it is said that personality of a particular guana will determine a particular personality. In this we find three types of personality on the basis of preponderance of guna1. Sattvic personality, 2. Rajasic personality, and

3. Tamasic personality 1. Sattvic personality : Etymologically, the word sattva is derived from 'sat', or which is real or existent. Since consciousness (chaitanya) is generally granted such existence, sattva is said to be potential consciousness. In a secondary sense, 'sat' also means perfection, and so the sattva element is what produces goodness and happiness (Radha Krishnan, 1997). It produces pleasure in its various forms, such as satisfaction, joy, happiness, bliss, contentment etc., is produced by things in our mind through the operation of the power of sattva inhering in them both. Sattva has been defined as "sattva is luminous and healthy because of its stainlessness. It is binded by attachment to happiness and by attachment to knowledge (Gita XIV, 6) Though sattva is the most divine mental attitude, it still binds us and act as limitation on our divine nature. Satva binds the infinite to matter through attachment to 'happiness' and 'knowledge' which here means lower intellectual knowledge. When the mind is purified from all its agitations (rajas) and the intellect is cleansed of its low passions and lusts (tamas), the personality becomes purified. We can experience happiness and enjoy a greater share of subtle understanding and intellectual comprehension. The fruit of good action is sattvic and pure (Gita, XIV-16). A thrilling joy of mental serenity is a state of minimum agitation. These all are indicated as the fruits of good actions. Knowledge arises from sattva. The result of the predominant sattva in our mind is ultimately the rediscovery of the self, the experience of pure wisdom. In other words, when sattva becomes predominant, sattva awakens knowledge just as the sun causes daylight. Sattva enlightens the intellect.

44 Jha

2. Rajasic Personality : Rajas which literally means foulness, is the principle of motion or action. Rajas is dynamic. It produces motion and it has the tendency to do work by overcoming resistance. So it always moves and makes other things movable. According to Gita, "rajas is of the nature of passions, the source of thirst and attachment; it binds fast, the embodied one, by attachment to action" (Gita XIV, 7). Passion expresses itself in a million different urges, desires, emotions and feelings, representing the two distinct categories; desires (thirst) and attachment. Human personality thirsts for the satisfaction of every desire that burns him down. Once the desire is fulfilled, a sense of attachment comes like vicious passions to smoother all the peace and joy of the mind. "Desire is our mental relationship towards objects, which have not yet been acquired by us and attachment is the mental slavishness binding us to the objects so acquired" (Swami Prabhupada, 2003). The characteristic that indicate the predominance of rajas are described as 'greed, activity, undertaking of actions, restlessness ­ these arise when rajas is predominant'.(Gita, XIV, 12). The passionate seeking of life and its pleasure arises from the dominace of rajas. The fruit of rajas is pain. Rajasic action brings disappointment and dissatisfaction. Rajasic activities are tainted by selfish desires. Thus, its furit is pain. Greed arises from rajas. Greed brings misery and pain. Greed is born of rajas. 3. Tamasic Personality : Tamas literally means darkness, is the principle of inertia. Samkhya karika states that tamasic attributes are sluggish and obsuring. Tamas resists activity and produces the state of apathy or indifference (visada). It leads to ignorance and sloth.

According to Gita, 'tamas is born of ignorance, deluding all embodied beings, it binds fast by heedlessness, ignorance and sleep" (Gita XIV 9). Tamas is born of ignorance. Under the influence of tamas man's intellectual capacity to discriminate between right and wrong gets veiled and he starts acting as if under some hallucination (Swami Prabhupada, 2003). When tamas predominates, the symptoms are darkness (aprakash), inertness (apravrittih), heedlessness (pramadah) and delusion (moha). It is the tendency of tamas to escape all responsibilities, the sense of incapacity to undertake any endeavor and the lack of enthusiasm to strive for and achieve anything in the world. Error, misunderstanding, negligence and inaction are the characteristic marks which indicate that tamas is predominant. The aforesaid description of the yogic theory personality attempt was made to discuss some of the prominent metaphysical features of the gunas. The gunas are not only viewed as being the ultimate stuff of the objective world, but they are also the ultimate physical stuff, which lies at the root of all sorts of experiences. Sattva guna consist of goodness, rajas of passion and tamas of darkness or delusion. Goodness is of different variety, such as calmness, lightness, contentment, patience, happiness etc. Passion manifests itself as grief, distress, separation, excitement, attainment of what is evil etc. Darkness is of endless varieties, such as covering, ignorance, disgust, misery, heaviness, sloth, drowsiness, intoxication etc. From this point of view, the yoga Psychology unanimously hold the view that the three gunas give rise to pleasurable, painful and delusive cognitions.

Personality : A Yogic Conception 45

References

Asthana, H.S. (1950). A historical and experimental approach to personality. University of Lucknow, Lucknow. Krishana B. (1974). Typological conceptions in ancient Indian thoughts. In B. Krishan(Ed.), Studies in Psychology, Mysore, Mysore university press. Kuppuswami, B. (1977). Some Indian concepts of Personality. Psychological Research Journal, 1, 5761. Kakar, S. (1982). Relative realities: Image of adulthood in psychoanalysis and the Yoga. In S. katar (Ed.), Identity and adulthood, Delhi. Mishara, K.(1993). Kasmir Saivism: The Central Philosophy of Tantrism. Shri Satguru Publications, Delhi. Nagendra, H. R., and Naganathna, R. (1997). New Perspective in Stress Management. Vivekananda Kendra yoga Prakashana, Banglore. Radhakhrishnan, S. (1997). Indian Philosophy, Vol.-II; page -265, Rekaha priters pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

Sharma, Chandradhar (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal banarsidas, Delhi. Sastri, Suryanarayan S. S. (1986). Vedantaparibhasa. The Adyar Library and Research Center, Madras. Seth, M. G. (1979). Ramanuja and Rogers on self. Journal of Psychological Reasearch, 23, 124-126. Swami Niranjanananda Saraswati (1999). Yoga Darshan. Shri Panchadashanam Paramhansa Alakhbara, Deoghar. Swami Satyananda Saraswati (2000). Kundalini Tantra. Bihar School of Yoga, Munger, p.6. Swami Muktibodhananda Saraswati (2002). Swara yoga. Bihar School of yoga, Bihar, p.39. Swami Prabhupada (2003). Commentary on Sri Madbhagvada Gita. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, Mumbai, p. 451. Taimni, I. K. (1987). Glimpses into the Psychology of Yoga. The Theosophical Publishing House. Adyar, Madras, p.356. Vendatesananada, Swami (1998). The Yoga Sutras of Patanajali. The Devine Life Society.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 46-55 ISSN 0974-9837

Religion and AIDS: An Overview

Shobhna Joshi and Shilpa Kumari

Despite substantial research documenting the connection between various religious dimensions and physical and mental health, surprisingly little attention has been given to the study of religion among individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Importantly, these disenfranchised subgroups report greater use of religion in their everyday lives. A small but growing number of studies conducted mostly in the past few years have recognized the importance of religion in the lives of individuals with AIDS. Researches indicated that religiousness and spirituality plays an important role in the health and well-being of people living with HIV. It occupies a significant role, often providing them with a context in which they can find meaning in their lives and stimulating psychological and spiritual growth. Greater engagement in spiritual activities is tied to decreased emotional distress, lower depression, greater optimism and overall better psychological adaptation in HIV individual. Several religious and spiritual coping methods are used by AIDS patients such as spiritual transformation, belief in higher power, prayer, belief in miracles etc. Thus, the present paper attempts to find out the impact of religion in the lives of AIDS patients, concluding that religious and spiritual resources hold particular value for people with HIV and plays a very important role in health and well-being of AIDS people.

Empirical studies have identified significant links between religion and physical and mental health but little attention has been focused on the importance of religion in the lives of individual with AIDS. AIDS challenges an individual physically, socially, and psychologically. Furthermore, it may threaten one's sense of meaning, purpose and significance in life. Individuals diagnosed with HIV often report feeling physically violated and every part of their lives seems to be infected by the disease. HIV is a significant psychological (Nott, Vedhara & Spickell, 1995) and physiological stressor (Robinson, Matthews & Witck-Janusek, 1999) which may influence specific health outcomes of interest among people with HIV. Individuals living with HIV often experience shame and guilt (Lee, Kochman, & Sikkema, 2002; Paxton,

2002) which have been associated directly and indirectly with higher levels of depression, avoidance coping, hopelessness, alienation, and loneliness among people with HIV (Demarco, 1999; Olivier, 1998). A small but growing number of studies conducted mostly within the past few years have recognized the importance of religion; in the lives of individuals with HIV (Arnold, Avants & Margolin, 2002; Ironson, Soloman, & Balbin, 2002; Kaldijan, Jekel, & Friedman, 1998; Kaplan, Marks, & Mertens, 1997). Religion and AIDS Religiousness and spirituality play a vital role in the health and well-being of people living with HIV. Researchers have growing interest in exploring correlations among religiousness, spirituality, physical health and mental health

Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

Religion and AIDS 47

and understanding the possible mechanisms that might explain these relationships (Ellison & Levin, 1998). HIV infection and AIDS disease progression have characteristics of both a chronic physical condition and terminal illness; moreover this illness has profound effects on both physical and mental health. Many researchers believe that certain beliefs, attitudes, and practice associated with being a spiritual person influence health. Studies conducted on people with HIV suggested that spirituality occupies a significant role, often providing them with a context in which they can find meaning in their lives (Hall, 1998; Kaplan et al. 1997) and stimulating psychological and spiritual growth (Dunber, Mueller, Medina, & Wolf, 1998). Several research studies reported on the relationship between religiosity and HIV/AIDS. A study of people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) found that those who had faith in God, compassion towards others, a sense of inner peace and were religious had a better chance of surviving for a long time than those who did not live with such belief system (Ironson, Soloman, & Balbin, 2002). Ironson et al. (2002) also found that helping others was related to better physical health outcomes in individuals with HIV/AIDS and that helping behavior mediated the relationship between religiosity, spirituality and health outcomes. In another study conducted by Woods, Antoni, Ironson and Kling (1999) on HIV positive individuals have reported that religious behavior (e.g. prayer, attendance at services) was associated with higher T helper/inducer cell (CD4+) counts and higher CD4+ percentages. Related analyses from this research group have also shown that greater reported spirituality was associated with lower

cortisol level and that this relationship partially accounts for the relationship between spirituality and long term survival with HIV (Ironson et al, 2002). Many people living with AIDS/HIV reported experiencing a more intense spiritual life as a result of their HIV infection (WHOQOL AIDS Group, 2003). In a situation such as these, when the end of life is clearly in sight, particular element of the spirituality can promote mental health of an individual. Similarly in a study Mullen, Smith, and Hill (1993) have demonstrated that spirituality resources were positively correlated with a sense of coherence and a sense of life as comprehensive, manageable and meaningful which intern was negatively correlated with psychological distress. Individuals battling life threatening illnesses use religious coping in complex and variable ways. Spirituality provides a sense of meaning in the face of threat to one's existence (Frankl, 1959; Mullen, Smith & Hill, 1993; Pargament & Hahn, 1986) those diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (Jenkins, 1995; Schwartzberg, 1993). Prayer allows expression of anger, disappointment, and fear that often accompany the illness experience, engenders a close relationship with God and provides the opportunity for contemplation and meditation. It also assists in repairing damaged relationships, letting go of the past, achieving a sense of closure while also providing hope of an ultimate victory, despite death, by joining God (Sevensky 1981). Relationship with Spirituality Studies have indicated that HIV is associated with greater religiosity and spirituality among HIV positive and negative partners of men with AIDS (Folkman, Cesney, Cooke, Boccellari & Collette, 1994) and spiritual well-being may

48 Joshi and Kumari

enhance HIV positive men's ability to maintain hope in the midst of HIV and AIDS related illness (Carson, Soeken, Santy & Terry, 1990). A spiritual belief system can serve to maintain a positive attitude, thereby lessening the fear of death in end stage of HIV. In most of the studies it has been observed that much of the religiosity among HIV positive persons was expressed in terms of God or a higher power rather than belonging to a religious denomination or attendance of religious services (Hall, 1998; Jenkins, 1995; Woods & Ironson, 1999). Individuals with HIV retain their spiritual beliefs and might choose to attend religious services at their church/temple (perhaps disclosing their HIV status to a few members) (Latkin, Topin, & Gilbert, 2002; Simoni & Ortiz, 2003). Working with a sample of hospitalized patients with HIV, Caldjian, Jekel, and Friedland (1998) have reported that among these patients religious belief was the rule i.e., with 98% indicating belief in a divine being called God, 84% expressing a personal relationship with God and 81% believing in God's forgiveness. In a study of 125 caregivers of individuals with HIV, Richards and Folkman, (1997) have reported that at the time of bereavement, 56% of the caregivers (some of whom were HIV positive) made spontaneous, explicit references to spiritual phenomena e.g. beliefs in experiences of a higher order. Global measures of spirituality have also been significantly associated with positive psychological outcomes. Specially, among women with HIV, greater engagement in spiritual activities is tied to decreased emotional distress (Sowell, Moneyham, & Hennassy, 2000), lower depression (Simoni & Ortiz, 2003), greater optimism (Biggar, Forehand, & Devimne, 1995) and over all better psychological adaptation (Simoni, Martone & Kerwin, 2002). In a study Nelson,

Rosenfeld, Breitbart and Galietta (2002) have found a negative association between spirituality and depression, with more spiritual individuals demonstrating lower levels of depressive symptoms among the AIDS patients. Spirituality is a significant strength for HIV positive and it was identified as a primary factor in providing meaning and shaping the purpose of life in patients with AIDS. Spirituality has been observed to improve psychological well-being and health related quality of life in persons living with HIV/ AIDS (Fryback & Reinhart, 1999; Sowell et al.2000; Tate & Forchheimer, 2002; Tuck, Mccain, & Elswick, 2001). Similarly, Coward and Lewis (1991) have performed a phenomenological study of experience associated with feelings of increased interconnectedness with others, a sense of well-being and meaning/ purpose in life of gay men with AIDS. The men's experiences were reaching out for help and helping others, maintaining an attitude of hopelessness for living longer and accepting a limited future and the accompanying urgency to make a difference in the world. Participants have reported an increased quality in their lives as a result of AIDS diagnosis. In another study related to spirituality Pargament (1997) has stated that spirituality may help individuals conserve meaning and transform their sense of significance through integration of the stressor into existing definitions of self. It also provides practical supportive resources that assist with psychological adaptation such as ritual, prayer, an outlet to express affect, and community. Researchers have identified a linkage between HIV symptomatology and depression, and demonstrated that HIV symptoms have significantly predicted negative psychological well-being (Coleman & Holzemer, 1999).

Religion and AIDS 49

Depression has been identified as a risk factor for disease and was reported to be associated with a decline in immune functioning (Herbart & Cohen, 1993). Earlier, pioneers explored the relationship between mental health and immune functioning and reported that depressed models altered neuropeptide receptors expression on lymphocytes, and led to decreased proliferation of CD4 cell count (Ader, Felton, & Cohen, 1991). In addition to this it was discovered that depressive symptoms among HIV positive women were associated with a decline in CD4 cell count (Ickovics, Hamburger, Vlavoh, Schoenbaum, & Schuman 2001). HIV/ AIDS a serious illness that raises existential issues, which are potentially manifested as changes in religiousness and spirituality. In a very recent study Cotton, Kudel, Leonard, Tsevat, Susan, and Sermon (2006) have reported that out of 188 participants (25%) are found more religious and 142 (41%) reported more spiritual since being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Approximately one in four participants also reported that they felt more alienated by a religious group since their HIV/AIDS diagnosis and approximately one in ten reported changing their place of religious worship because of HIV/ AIDS. A total of 174 participants (50%) believed that their religiousness/ spirituality helped them to live longer. Thus, many participants have reported having become more spiritual or religious since contracting HIV/ AIDS, though many have felt alienated by a religious group. Over all the researches conducted upon the people with HIV/ AIDS described spirituality as an important factor in their health and wellbeing (Fryback & Reinhart, 1999). According to Rabin (1999), spiritual or religious practices can have a positive influence on health. One

possible mechanism by which participation in religious or spiritual activities fosters a beneficial health effect is the relaxation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhancement of immune functions. Spirituality and well-being among HIV Spirituality could be related to immune system functioning and its effect on health by enhancing one's ability to cope with stress, resulting in better health practices, increased social interactions, and a greater satisfaction with quality of life (Rabin, 1999). Spiritual activities may alleviate depression by enhancing feelings of happiness and increasing greater satisfaction with life, resulting in fewer negative psychosocial stressors (Rabin, 1999). Depression is a major concern within the HIV population because it has been correlated with HIV disease progression (Ickovicks et. al., 2001; Morrison, et. al., 2002; Vedhara et. al., 1997) and reports of decreased health related quality of life (Sarna, Van Servelen, Padilla, & Brecht, 1999). Belief in God may provide emotional assurances that produce favorable autonomic responses including a decrease in stressinduced catecholamine (neurotransmitters) and mental relaxation (Rabin, 1999). Several researchers have examined the health related quality of life of persons with HIV and other chronic illness as it relates to spirituality (Fryback & Reinhart, 1999; Sowell et al., 2000; Tate & Forchheimer, 2002; Tuck, et al., 2000) and psychological health (Nannis et al., 1997; Sarva et al., 1999). Positive association between spirituality and quality of life has been observed in person with HIV/ AIDS (Sowell et. al., 2000; Tuck et. al., 2000). Similarly positive associations between spirituality and mental health (Coleman & Holzermer, 1999; Nelson et al., 2002; Somlai

50 Joshi and Kumari

et al., 1996; Tuck, Mc Cain, & Elswick, 2001) and between spirituality and religiosity and immune system function have been reported among terminally ill and HIV/ AIDS patients (Ironson et al., 2002; Koenig et al., 1997; Septon, Koopman, Schaal, Thoresen, & Spiegel, 2001; Woods, Antoni, Iroson, & Kling, 1999). Meaning and purpose in life, and connectedness are major attributes of spirituality (Barnum, 1996; Friedman, Mouch, & Racey, 2002; Nolan & Crawford, 1997; Simoni, Martone, & Kerwin, 2002). Hence, within a spiritual context HIV infected women can be helped as they search for meaning and purpose in order to establish or strengthen connections with others. Although religious and spiritual beliefs and practices have been frequently associated with greater psychological well-being among population with illness, little is known about the specific benefits individuals perceive they receive from these beliefs and practices. This issue was examined in interviews with 63 older HIV infected adult. Participants reported a variety of benefits from their religious and spiritual beliefs and practices including (1) evokes comforting emotions and feeling (2) offers strength, empowerment and control (3) eases the emotional burden of the illness (4) offers social support and a sense of belonging (5) offer spiritual support through a personal relationship with god (6) facilitates meaning and acceptance of the illness (7) helps preserve health (8) relives the fear and uncertainty of death (9) facilitates self acceptance and reduces self blame. These perceived benefits suggest potential mechanisms by which religion/spirituality may affect psychological adjustment (Siegel & Schrimshaw, 2002). Empirical Studies related with AIDS In sum, empirical studies suggest that religion and spiritual resources hold particular value

for people with HIV. It is important to note that religion and spirituality may represent a source of pain and struggle for at least some people with HIV. As yet, researchers have not generally focused on the role of negative religious coping methods among people with HIV. In one exception, Jenkins (1995) found that men with HIV who reported more spiritual struggles (e.g. anger and alienation from God) experienced more depressive symptoms and loneliness Given the links between religious struggles and poorer health documented in other groups, the religious stigma attached to HIV, and its potential to challenge the individual's most deep seated assumptions about world, people with HIV may be particularly likely to experience spiritual struggles and their potential to ill-effects. A few investigators have begun to evaluate the efficacy of spiritually in integrated forms of treatment, with some promising results (McCullough, 1999; Worthington, & Sandage 2001; Worthigton, Kurusu, & McCullough, 1996). These treatments draw on a variety of spiritual coping resources such as meditation, prayer and rituals (Razali, Hasanh, Aminah, 1998), reading of scriptures (Azhar & Varma, 1995), spiritual imagery (Cole, Pargament, 1999), forgiveness (Worthington, Scandage, & Berry, 2001), and spiritual schemas (Avants & Margolin, in press). Consequently, there may be benefits to the incorporations of spiritual practices as an additional means of intervention into traditional mental health care to facilitate psychological wellness and coping among HIV/ AIDS. Models of religious coping Much of the research on religious coping with adversity is based on Pargament's theory and methods (Pargament, 1997; Pargament et al. 2000) and the works of Lazarus and Folkman

Religion and AIDS 51

(Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Park & Folkman, 1997). According to these transactional stress models, the relationship between religious factors and coping with adversity can be considered as a bidirectional process. Adversity can affect faith and faith can impact the effect of adversity. Much of the research into religious coping has intended to examine how religion as a complex set of experiences, attitudes and behaviors shapes or frames the individual's response to crisis According to Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) classic stress, appraisal and coping theory the stress is defined as a relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her responses and endangering his or her wellbeing. The significance of the stressor is determined through cognitive appraisals influenced by the personal beliefs and values, such as personal control and existential or spiritual beliefs. Spirituality may be an especially available and compelling resource in cases in which the usual human coping resources are ineffective or are threatened, as in the face of potentially fatal disease like HIV/AIDS Pargament (1999) has also developed a transactional model of religious coping wherein religion is viewed as contributing to the coping process by shaping the character of life events, copings activities, and outcomes of events. Religion could also be a product of coping such that people can increase their religious faith as a result of life events. As part of an individual's general orienting system, religion influences how individuals appraise situations, participate in activities, and develop goals for themselves. In particular, when faced with difficult situations, individuals have been reported using a wide variety of religious coping methods, such as

benevolent religious appraisals, seeking support by clergy or church members, seeking spiritual support, discontent with congregation and God, negative religious reframing and expressing interpersonal religious discontent (Pargament, 1997). Religious coping methods could be divided into two types i.e., positive religious coping and negative religious coping methods. Positive religious coping methods rest on a secure relationship with God, a belief in a larger, benevolent purpose to life, a sense of connectedness with a religious community e.g. seeking God's love and care, asking for forgiveness. Negative religious coping methods reflect a religious struggle that grows out of a more tenuous relationship with God, a more ominous view of life, and a sense of disconnectedness with a religious community e.g. expressing anger at God, feeling punished by God (Pargament, Smith, & Koenig, 1998). Negative religious coping also occurs when major life stressors pose a threat or challenge not only to physical and psychological health and well-being but also to the individual's religious and spiritual world view. In crosssectional and longitudinal studies, the use of religious coping has been associated with a variety of indicators of mental health (i.e. depression, positive affect, life-satisfaction), after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables, global religious measures (e.g. frequency of prayer and church attendance, and self-rated importance of religion), and non-religious coping measures (Koenig, Cohen, Blazer, 1995; Pargament, 1997; Tix, Frazier, 1998). In number of studies, the use of religious coping has been found to be associated with a variety of indicators of mental health. Importantly, the relation between religious coping and mental health is shaped by the kinds of religious coping methods used by individual. More use of positive religious coping strategies, such as

52 Joshi and Kumari

spiritual support and benevolent religious appraisals of negative situations, has been associated with greater well-being, such as improved mental health status (Pargament & Ishler, 1994), reduced rates of mortality (Zukerman, Kasl, & Ostfeld, 1984), stress related growth and spiritual growth (Pargament, Ensing, & Falgout, 1990; Tarakeshwar & Pargament, 2001). Conversely, greater use of negative religious coping strategies (alternatively called religious struggle), such as attributions of situations to a punishing God and dissatisfaction with clergy, is tied to indicators of more psychological distress, such as greater depression and anxiety and poorer resolution of the negative life events (Exline, Yali, & Lobel, 1999; Jenkins, 1995; Pargament, Smith, & Koenig, 1998; Thompson & Vardaman, 1997). Several religious and spiritual coping methods have been identified among individuals with HIV (Kaldijan, Jekel & Friedland, 1998; Jenkins, 1995; Somlai & Heckman, 2000). They have been transformed spiritually (Schwartzberg, 1993) and belief in a higher power (Richards & Folkman, 1997), prayer and belief in a higher power (Arnold, Avants, & Margolin, 2002), collaboration between themselves and God / higher power in miracles (Woodard & Sowell, 2001) and prater (Biggar, Forehand, & Devine, 1995; Kaplan, Marks, & Mertens, 1997; Sowell, Moneyham, & Hennessy, 2000). Jenkins (1995) has revealed that religious coping is associated with less distress and more adaptive social functioning. The use of spirituality based coping has been found to be more prevalent among women (Spilka, Hood& Gorsuch, 1985) than other individuals. Jenkins, (1995) has also found that African Americans with HIV, compared with whites with HIV, indicated a greater preference for a coping style involving collaboration with God. In addition, studies

have consistently indicated a greater use of spirituality based coping activities among samples of women than samples of gay men (Demi, Moneyham, Sowell, & Cohen, 1997; Jenkins, 1995; Remien, Rabkin, Williams & Katoff, 1992; Schwartzberg, 1993). Conclusions A small but growing body of empirical evidence indicates that religiousness and spirituality play an important role in the health and well-being of people living with AIDS. Based on the studies cited, this paper confirms that religion is an indispensable tool for providing hope, meaningfulness, a sense of inner peace and empowerment to deal with the life challenges in HIV patients. There are some questions which are still to be investigated, viz. are spirituality integrated interventions helpful for people with HIV? Do they add valuable components to existing models of treatment? Are they particularly helpful to specific groups that grow out of the attempt to integrate the religious and spiritual dimension more fully into our efforts to understand and treat people confronting HIV etc? These are some of the very exciting questions that have to be systematically evaluated and include the religious and spiritual dimension more fully to understand and treat the individuals having AIDS. References:

Ader, R., Felton, D. L., & Cohen, N. (Eds.). (1991). Psychoneuroimmunology (2nd.ed.) San Diego: Academic. Arnold, R. M., Avants, S. K., & Margolin, A. (2002). Patient's attitudes concerning the inclusion of spirituality into addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33, 319-326. Avants, S. K. & Margolin, A. Development of spiritual self-schema therapy for the treatment of addiction and HIV risk behavior: A coherence of cognitive and Buddhist-psychology. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration (in press).

Religion and AIDS 53

Azhar, M. Z. & Varma, S. l. (1995). Religious psychotherapy as management of bereavement. Acta Psychiatrica Scandivia, 91, 233-235. Barnum, B. S. (1996). Spirituality in Nursing: From traditional to new age. New York: Spinger. Biggar, H., Forehand, R., & Devimne, D. et al. (1995). Women who are HIV infected: the role of religious activity in psychosocial adjustment. AIDS Care, 11, 195-199. Carson, V., Soeken, K. L., Shanty, J., & Terry, L. (1990). Hope and spiritual well-being: Essentials for living with AIDS. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 26, 28-34. Cole, B., Pargament. K. I. (1999). Recreating your life: A spiritual/psychotherapeutic intervention for people diagnosed with cancer. Psychology oncology, 8, 395-407. Coleman, C. L., & Holzemer, W. L. (1999). Spirituality, psychological well-being, and HIV symptoms for African-Americans living with HIV disease. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 10, 4250. Cotton, S., Kudel, I., Leonard, Tsevat, J., Susan, Sherman, N., et al., (2006). Changes in religiousness and spirituality attributed to HIV/ AIDS: Are there sex and race differences? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 1525-1497. Coward, D. D. & Lewis (1991). Self-transcendence and emotional well-being in women with advance breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 18, 857863. Demarco, F. (1999). Coping with the stigma of AIDS: An investigation of the effects of shame, stress, control and coping on depression in HIV positive and negative gay men. Dessertation abstract international section B Sci Eng, 69; 5574 Demi, A., Moneyham, L., Sowell, R., & Cohen, L. (1997). Coping strategies used by HIV infected women. Journal of Death and Dying, 35, 173-177. Dunber, H. T., Mueller, L. W., Medina, & Wolf, T. (1998). Psychological and spiritual growth in women living with HIV. Social Work, 43, 144-154. Ellison & Levin, (1998). The Religion-Health Connection: Evidence, Theory, and Future Directions. Health Education & Behavior, 25, 700-720. Exline, J. J., Yali, A. M., & Lobel, M. (1999) When God disappoints: difficulty forgiving God and its role in negative emotions. Journal of Health Psychology, 4, 364-379. Folkman, S., Chesney, M. A., Cooke, M., Boccellari, A. M., & Collette, L. (1994). Caregiver burden in HIV positive and HIV negative partners of men with AIDS. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 746-756. Frankl, V. E. (1959). Man's search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. Boston; Beacon. Friedman, M., Mouch, J., & Racey, T. (2002). Nursing the spirit: The framework of systematic organization. The Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39, 325-332. Fryback, P. B., & Reinert, B. R. (1999). Spirituality and people potentially fatal diagnosis. Nursing Forum, 34, 13-22. Hall, B. A. (1998). Patterns of spirituality in persons with HIV disease. Nursing and Health, 21, 143-153. Herbert, T. B. & Cohen, S. (1993). Depression and immunity: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 472-486. Ickovicks, J. R., Hamburger, M. E., Vlavoh, D., Schoenbaum, E. E., Schuman, P., Boland, R. J. & Moore, J. (2001). Mortality, CD4 count decline, and depressive symptom logy HIV seropositive women: Longitudinal analysis from the HIV epidemiology research study. Journal of American Medical Association, 285, 1466-1474. International Section A: 58, 5574. Ironson, G., Soloman, G., & Balbin, E. G. (2002). The Ironson-woods spirituality/ religiousness index is associated with long survival, health behaviors, less disorders, and low cortisol in people with HIV/ AIDS. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 34-38. Jenkins, R. A. (1995). Religion and HIV: Implications for research and intervention. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 131-144. Jenkins, R.A. & Pargament, K.I. (1995). Religion and spirituality as resources for coping with cancer. In B. Curbow & M.R. Somerfield (Eds.) Psychosocial resource variables in cancer studies: Conceptual and measurement issues (51-74). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. Kaldijan, L. C., Jekel, J. F., & Friedland, G. (1998). End of life decisions in HIV positive patients: The role of spiritual beliefs. AIDS, 12, 103-107. Kaplan, M. S., Marks, G., Mertens, S. B. (1997). Distress and coping among women with HIV infection: Preliminary findings from a multiethnic sample.

54 Joshi and Kumari

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 80-91. Koenig, H. G., Cohen, J. J. & Blazer, D. G. (1995). Religious coping and cognitive symptoms of depression in elderly medical patients. Psychosomatics, 36, 369-375. Latkin, C. A., Tobin, k. E., & Gilbert, S. H. (2002). Shun or support: the role of religious behavior and HIV related health care among drugs users in Baltimore, Maryland. AIDS Behavior, 6, 321-329. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer. Lee, R. S., Kochman, A., & Sikkema, K. J. (2002). Internalized stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Behavior, 6, 309-319. McCullough, M. E. (1999). Research on religion, accommodative counseling: Review and metaanalysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 9298. Mullen, P. M.., Smith, R. M., & Hill, E. W. (1993). Sense of coherence as a mediator of stress for cancer patients and spouses. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 11, 23-46. Nannis, E. D., Patterson, T. L., & Semples, S. J. (1997). Coping with HIV disease among seropositive women: Psychosocial correlates. Women and Health, 25, 1-23. Nelson, C. J., Rosenfeld, B., Breiatart, A., & Galietta, M. (2002). Spirituality, religion, and depression in the terminally ill. Psychosomatics, 43, 213-220. Nolan, P., & Crawford, P. (1997). Towards a rhetoric of spirituality in mental health care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, 289-294. Nott, K. M., vedhara, K., & Spickell, G. P. (1995). Psychology, immunology and HIV. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 451-474. Oliver, G. J. (1998). A dialogue of touchstones: An analysis of existential guilt, meaning making, alienation and loneliness. Dissertatiion Abstracts International SectionB: Sci, eng, 59, 2428. Pargament, K. I. & Hahn, J. (1986). God and the just world: Causal and coping attributions to God in health situations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 25, 193-207. Pargament, K. I. (1997). Psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press. Pargament K.I. (1999). The psychology of religion and spirituality? Yes and no International. Journal for the Psychology of Religion , 3­16. Pargament, K. I. Isher, K., Dubow, E. et al. (1994). Methods of religious coping with Gulf war: Crosssectional and longitudinal analysis. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33, 347-361. Pargament, K. I., Ensing, D. S., Falgout. K. et al. (2001). God helped me' I: Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant negative life events. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 247-260. Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., & Perez, L. M. (2000). The many methods of religious coping: Development and initial validation of the RCOPE. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 519-543. Pargament, K. I., Smith, B., & Koenig, H. G. (1998). Patterns of positive and negative coping with major life stressors. Journal of Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 710-724. Park, C. L. & Folkman, S. (1997). Meaning in the context of stress and coping. Review of General Psychology, 1, 115-144. Paxton, S. (2002). The paradox of public HIV disclosure. AIDS Care, 14, 559-567. Rabin, B. S. (1999). Stress, immune function, and health: The connection. New York: Wiley Liss. Razali, S. M., Hasanah, C. I., Aminah, K. et al. (1998). Religious-sociocultural psychotherapy in patients with anxiety and depression. Australian National Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 867-872. Remien, R. H., Rablin, J. G., Williams, J. B., & Katoff, L. (1992). Coping strategies and health beliefs of AIDS long term survivors. Psychology and Health, 6, 335-345 Richards, T. A. & Folkman, S. (1997). Spiritual aspects of loss at the time of a partner's death from AIDS. Death Studies, 21, 527-552. Robinson, F. P., Mattews, H. L., & Witek-Janusek, L. (1999). Stress and HIV Disease progression: Psychoneuroimmunology framework. Journal of the Association of Nurses, in AIDS Care, 10, 2131. Sarna, L., Vanservellen, N., Padilla, G., & Brecht, M. L. (1999). Quality of life in women with symptomatic HIV/AIDS. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30, 597605. Schwartzberg, S. S. (1993). Struggling for meaning: How

Religion and AIDS 55

HIV positive gay men make sense of AIDS. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 483-490. Sephton, S. E., Koopman, C., Schaal, M., Thoresen, C., & Spiegel, D. (2001). Spirituality expression and immune status in women with meta static breast cancer: An exploratory study. The Breast Journal, 7, 345-353. Sevensky, R. L. (1981). Religion and illness: An outline of their relationship. Southern Medical Journal, 74, 745-750. Simoni, J. M. & Ortiz, M. Z. (2003). Meditational models of spirituality and depressive symptomology among HIV positive women. Cult Rivers Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9, 3-15. Simoni, J. M., Martone, M. G., & Kerwin, J. F. (2002). Spirituality and psychosocial adaptation among women with HIV/AIDS: Implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 139-147. Sodestrom, K. E., & Martinson, I. M. (1987). Patients' spiritual coping strategies: A study of nurse and patients perspective. Oncology Nursing Forum, 14, 41-46. Somlai, A. M., & Heckman, T. G. (2000). Correlates of spirituality and well-being in a community sample of people living with HIV disease. Mental Health Religion Culture, 3, 57-70. Sowell, R., Moneyham, L., Hennessy, M., Gillory, J., Demi, A., & Seals, B. (2000). Spiritual activities as a resistance resource for women with human immunodeficiency virus. Nursing Research, 49, 73-82. Spilka, B., Hood, R. W., & Gorsuch, R. L. (1985). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Tarakeshwar, N, & Pargament, K. I. (2001). Use of religious coping in families with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Development Disability, 16, 247-260. Tate, D. G. & Forchheimer, M. (2002). Quality of life, life satisfaction and spirituality: Comparing outcomes between rehabilitation and cancer patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 400-410. Thompson, M. P. Vardaman, P. J. (1997). The role of religion in coping with loss of family member in homicide. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 44-51. Tix, A. P., & Frazier, P. A. (1998). The use of religious coping during stressful life events: Main effects, moderation and meditation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66,411-422. Tuck, I., McCain, N. L. & Elswick, R. K., Jr. (2001). Spirituality and psychosocial factors in persons living with HIV. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33, 776-783. WHOQOL HIV Group (2003). Initial steps to developing the world health organization's quality of life instrument (WHOQOL) module for international assessment in HIV/ AIDS. AIDS Care, 15, 347. Woodard, E. K., & Sowell, R. 92001) God in control: Women's perspectives on managing HIV infection. Clinical Nursing Research, 10, 233-250. Woods, T. E. & Ironson, G. H. (1999). Religion and spirituality in the face of illness: How cancer, cardiac and HIV patients describe their spirituality/ religiosity. Journal of Health Psychology, 4, 393412. Woods, T. E., Antoni, M. H., & Kling, D. W. (1999). Religiosity is associated with affective and immune status in symptomatic HIV infected gay men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 165-176. Woods, T. E., Antoni, M. H., Ironson, G. H., & Kling, D. W. (1999).Religiosity is associated with affective immune status in symptomatic HIV-infected gay men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 165176. Worthigton, E. L. Jr., Sandange, S. J., & Berry, J. W. (2000). Group intervention to promote forgiveness: What researchers and clinicians ought to know, in McCullough,M. E., Pargament, K. I. & Thoresen, C. E. (Eds.) Forgiveness: Theory, research and practice, New York, Guilford. Press, 228-253. Worthington, E. L. Jr., Kurusu, T. A., & McCullough, M. E. et al. (1996) Empirical research on religion and psychotherapeutic processes and outcome: A 10 Year review and prospectus. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 448-487. Worthington, E. L. Jr. & Sandage, S. J. (2001). Religion and spirituality. Psychotherapy, 38, 473-478. Zukerman, D. M., Kasl, S. V., & Ostfeld, A. M. (1984). Psychosocial predictors of morality among the elderly poor. American Journal of Epidemiology, 11, 410-423,

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 56-59 ISSN 0974-9837

Job Status, Gender and Level of Education as Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Senior Secondary School Teachers

Nasir Ali

*

and Zaki Akhtar **

The present study was an attempt to ascertain the job satisfaction of senior secondary school teachers as a function of gender, job status and the level of education. Job satisfaction Questionnaire administered individually to 100 teachers to gather information. The data were analyzed by means of t- test to see the difference between the mean job satisfaction scores of various comparison groups. The results of present research revealed that: i. the degree of job satisfaction among female teachers was found significantly more in comparison to male teachers; ii. Postgraduate teachers showed significantly greater degree of job satisfaction than part time teachers; and iii. teachers holding only postgraduate degree were significantly more satisfied than the teachers holding Ph. D. degree.

The concept of job satisfaction is central to many aspect of industrial and organizational psychology. Job satisfaction is probably the most widely studied aspect in the field of organizational psychology. Though job satisfaction has been an area of active concerned for many decades, yet some attention is needed towards the study of job satisfaction to job status, sex, educational qualification and quality of work life which affect the satisfaction level of a person that he derived from his job. Job satisfaction is of great significance for the growth and development of any organization. The reviewed literature revealed that educational qualification was negatively related with job satisfaction (Sinha & Agarwala, 1971 and Padmawati, 1995). But contrary to it Rao (1970) found positive correlation between educational qualification

and job satisfaction. On the other hand gender difference appeared important factor of job satisfaction that females were found more satisfied with their job than males ( Ali & Khan, 2004) while Gakhar and Sachdeva (1987) found males were more satisfied than females. In the light of reviewed literature the present study was planed to ascertain job satisfaction of senior secondary school teachers. To ascertain the objectives of present research, certain null hypotheses were formulated. Ho1. There would not be significant difference between male and female on job satisfaction. Ho2. Postgraduate and Part time teachers would not differ significantly with regard to job satisfaction. Ho3. Educational qualification would not have significant effect on job satisfaction of teachers.

* Lecturer, Dept. of Psychology, A.M.U., Aligarh . E ­mail : [email protected] ** Lecturer, Karim City College, Jamshedpur . E- mail : [email protected]

Job Status, Gender and Level of Education 57

Method Sample The present study was conducted on 80 senior secondary school teachers (Male= 40 and Female=40; Postgraduate teachers=45 and Part time teachers =35; Ph.D. holders = 51 and Non Ph.D. =29) selected randomly from boys girls sections. All factors were dichotomized, as the postgraduate teachers were permanent while part time teachers were temporary in terms of employment and they can be terminated any time without any reason. Tool Singh (1989) developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire used in this study. This questionnaire consists of 20 items that measures the degree of job satisfaction. Each item was rated on five point rating scale ranging from highly satisfied to highly

dissatisfied with a weighted score of 5 to 1, the total score of an individual varies from 20-100. Data Analysis Based on dichotomy of all factors studied, various comparison groups were formed to see its effect on job satisfaction. To compare means of comparison groups t - test was found suitable to verify the hypotheses. Procedures Researchers personally met the individual teachers and requested them to furnish the required information. The investigators assured them that their identity would not be reveal before any authority. The information would use only for academic purpose. Results and discussion The results have presented in the following tables with its justified interpretations in the following tables.

Table-1: Showing Mean, Sd and t- value on job satisfaction of male and female teachers.

Groups Compared Male Teachers Female Teachers N 40 40 Mean 60.39 65.33 SD 7.28 2.98** 7.45 t-value

** Significant at .01 level It is evident from the result shown in Table-1 that the mean job satisfaction scores of male and female teachers were found 60.39 and 65.33 with SDs. of 7.28 and 7.45 respectively. When the means of two groups compared, the difference between comparison groups was found statistically significant (t- 2.98, P< .01). The proposed null hypothesis Ho1 was rejected. The trend of result showed that female teachers were significantly more satisfied with their job than male teachers. Khan and Ali (2005) reported the similar finding in the case of male and female subjects. While Gakhar and Sachdeva (1987) finding was contrary to present result that males were more satisfied with their job than females. The greater degree of job satisfaction among female teachers might be attributed to their aspiration, social acceptability, job responsibilities, challenge and career

58 Ali and Akhtar

development. It is the perception of female teachers that in this competitive world they got teaching position in the school of a central University, they are treated equal and feel proud of being teacher. On the other hand, the observation that male teachers were less

satisfied with their job might be discussed in the light of their non-fulfillment of high aspirations and expectations, greater social and family responsibilities (Reddy & Ramakrishna, 1981 and Bhatt, 1998).

Table-2: Showing Mean, Sd and t- value on job satisfaction of Postgraduate and Part Time teachers.

Groups Compared Postgraduate Teachers Part Time Teachers N 45 35 Mean 67.94 56.41 SD 7.53 6.90** 7.32 t-value

** Significant at .01 level

It appears from Table-2 that the mean job satisfaction scores of Postgraduate teachers and Part-time teachers were 67.49, 56.41, with SDs. of 7.53, 7.32 respectively. When the mean job satisfaction scores of two groups of teachers compared a statistically significant difference between postgraduate and part time teachers was observed (t- 6.90, P< .01) and Ho2 was rejected. The result might be interpreted that postgraduate teachers having job security and enjoy all sorts of benefits on

the other hand part time teachers are purely temporary and can be terminated any moment from the job. Hence, they are feeling sense of job insecurity that might led them low degree of job satisfaction. In the case of part time teachers, hygiene factors are main contributors of job satisfaction of teachers. Here, it cannot ignore the Taylor's assumptions that money is the sole motivator because part time teachers were low paid and sharing the same responsibility as the postgraduate teachers.

Table-3: Showing Mean, SD and t- value on job satisfaction of teachers holding Ph. D. and Non- Ph. D.

Groups Compared Ph.D. Holders N 23 Mean 57.40 SD 8.84 3.14** Non Ph.D. 57 64.34 7.13 t-value

** Significant at .01 level

Job Status, Gender and Level of Education 59

The result revealed in the Table-3 that the mean job satisfaction scores of teachers having Ph.D. degree and Non Ph. D. were found to be 57.40 and 64.34 with SDs. of 8.84 and 7.13 respectively. The two groups of teachers were compared in terms of their mean on job satisfaction; the difference between the two groups of teachers found statistically significant (t- 3.14, P< .01), hence rejected Ho3. The Non Ph.D. teachers showed significantly greater degree of job satisfaction in comparison to the teachers having Ph.D. degree. The result might be attributed to motivational factors of Herzberg et al.(1959) as achievement, recognition, advancement, work itself, possibility of growth and responsibility that having positive effect on job satisfaction of teachers. On the other hand, highly qualified teachers lacking the possibility of growth, advancement and such other factors at school level, hence they were less satisfied with their job. Conclusion Job satisfaction of employees is the most important for the growth and development of any organization. In this case all the groups of are reasonably satisfied with their job but they differ in terms of degree of satisfaction. It is suggested that the school administration take suitable measures to increase the level of job satisfaction of teachers to improve the teaching. References

Ali, N., Khan, M. S. & Allam, Z. (2004). A study on job satisfaction among doctors: Effect of Locus of control, sex and marital status. PCTE Journal of Business Management, vol.1, No. 2, pp. 34-36. Bhatt, D. J. (1998). A study of socio- personal variables and job satisfaction of LIC employees. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, vol. 24, No.

1-2, pp. 73-77. Gakhar, S. & Sachdeva, S. C. (1987). Effect of level, type of management and sex on job satisfactiona of teachers. Asian Journal of Psychology, 19, pp. 1115. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Peterson, R. and Campwell, D. (1959). Job attitude: Review of research and opinion. Pitsberg: Psychological Services of Pitsberg. Khan, M. S. and Ali, N. (2005). Job satisfaction as function of work commitment, religiosity and certain biographical variables. Magadh Journal of Social Research, vol. XI, No. 1, pp. 1-9. Padmawathi, M. (1995). Job satisfaction among teaching at primary and secondary levels. Progressive Educational Herald, 9(4), 54-57. Price, J. L. (1971). Organizational stress and job satisfaction in public school teachers. Dissertation Abstract International, 31, pp. 5727-8. Rao, S.N, (1986). Work adjustment and job satisfaction of teachers. Delhi; Mittal Publication. Reddy, A. V. and Ramakrishnan, D. (1981). Job satisfaction of college teachers. Journal of Education and Psychology, 38, pp. 211-218. Sinha, D. and Agarwal, U.N. (1971). Job satisfaction and general adjustment Indian white color workers. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 6, pp. 357-367. Singh, S. (1989). Organizational stress and executive behaviour. Unpublished Research Monograph, Sri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and human Resources, New Delhi.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 60-71 ISSN 0974-9837

Leader- Member Exchange and Mental Health: A Study of Middle Level Managers

Meena Singh* and Urmila R. Srivastava**

This study examined the relationships between the three leader-member exchange dimensions (LMX -affect, loyalty, and perceived contribution) and employees positive mental health in a sample of middle level managerial personnel (N=265) from two manufacturing organizations. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that all the three LMX dimensions as well as overall LMX were important predictors of employees' mental health. This corroborated the relevance of multidimensional conceptualization of LMX relationships. Implications of the study and avenues for future research were discussed

In the present dynamic world, leaders and their subordinate are the backbone of any organization. The organization's success and growth substantially depends on effective leadership. Any organization will be in a strong position when the employees of that organization are happy, healthy and satisfied. Leaders have a greater possibility to shape organization's goal (profit, growth and success) as well as individuals' goal (Satisfaction, health and progress). In the process of interaction with the organization, leadership style may be a key factor that significant impact on the health of subordinates (Diensch, & Liden, 1986; Nyber, Berin, & Theorell, 2005 Hogg et. al. 2005; Bang, 2008). The core feature of leader-member exchange theory is, that leader found certain subordinates, more compatible in regard to personality, interpersonal skills, or job competencies. Hence, leaders do not use the same style in dealing with all subordinates, but

rather develop a different type of relationship or exchange with each subordinate. Leadermember exchange theory have introduced new insight with respect to leaders' behaviours and stressed the possibility that leaders actually treat their various subordinates differently. Leader-member exchange is relationship based approach of leadership. LMX theory is different from other theories of leadership (i.e., trait leadership theories, contingency theories etc.). The leader-member theory assumes that leaders differ in the relationships they develop with subordinates, thus the unique relationship between a given supervisors and subordinate is the focus of interest (Bhal & Anasari, 1996; Dienesch, & Liden, 1986; Graen & Uhl-Bein 1995; Sparrowe, Liden, 1997). The theory explains the nature of the relationship between leaders and member of the organization which is based on trust, professional respect and mutual obligation (Hogg et. al. 2005; Breukelen, Schyns, & Blance 2006). The leader-member

* Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi **Correspondence concerning this article can be addressed to Dr. Urmila R. Srivastsva, Sr. Lecturer, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi. Email- [email protected]

Leader- Member Exchange and Mental Health 61

exchange theory aims to maximize organization success by establishing the positive interaction between the two. Leadermember exchange theory was firstly documented 30 years ago in the classic works of Dansereau, Grean, & Haga (1975). Leader-member exchange theory was formally called the Vertical Dyad Linkage theory because of its focus on reciprocal influence within Vertical Dyads Linkage composed of the person who has direct authority over another person. The VDL model of Grean and his associates (Dansereau, Cashman, & Grean, 1973; Danasereau, Graen, & Haga, 1975; Graen & Cashman, 1975) proposed that leader show very different patterns of behavior with different member of their work groups. Leader treat subordinates differently at varying degrees and levels contingents on whether the latter are of part of the in-group or out-group. In the early 1980 the VDL "in-group-out-group approach" was renamed the leader- member exchange theory. The relationships between superior and subordinate (dyad) two-way relationship, which can be broadly categorized as low-quality and high-quality relationships (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995; Sparrowe & Liden, 1997; Uhl-Bien, Graen, & Scandura, 2000). In high quality relationships (in-group), subordinates receive several advantages including formal and informal rewards, high degree of trust, support, favour doing and increased communication (Diensch, & Liden, 1986; Duchon, Green, & Taber,1986; Dienesch, 1987; Liden, Sparrowe, & Wayne, 1997). On the other hand, subordinates in low-quality (out-group) leader- member exchange relationships have exchanges with their supervisors that reflect low level of trust and emotional support and few benefits outside the requirement of formal employment

contract (Hogg et. al. 2005; Breukelen, Schyns, & Blance 2006; Bang, 2008). Bernas and Major (2000) asserted that high quality relationship with his/her supervisor for stress reduction. Hence, a qualitatively positive relationship between leaders and member in times of realignment can be useful, in the sense that it reduces stress and thereby lead to a more positive towards the organizations as a whole and prevents intentions to quit. Rose (1998) found that a positive LMX leads to greater work satisfaction and that it correlates negatively with burnout, Type A behaviour, and other medical problems, symptoms which are well known from stress research. Cumulative research has substantially documented that leader-member exchange, i.e. the quality of relationships between supervisors and subordinates to be a significant predictors of a number of such as higher performance ratings (Liden, Wayne, & Stilwell, 1993), better objective performance (e.g., Graen, Novak, & Sommerkamp, 1982; Vecchio & Gobdel, 1984), increased levels of organizational commitment (e.g., Liden & Maslyn, 1998; Liden, Wayne, & Sparrowe,2000; Schriesheim, Castro & Yammarino, 2000; Nystrom, 1990), job satisfaction (e.g, Graen, Novak, & Sommerkamp, 1982; Liden & Graen 1980; Hooper & Martin, 2008) organizational citizenship behaviors (Wayne & Green, 1993; Wayne et al., 1997; Hofmann, Morgenson, Gerras, 2003; Wayne, Shore, Bommer, & Tetrick, 2002; Bhal & Anasari, 2005), Organizational Justice (Cropanzano, Prehar, & Chen 2002; Masterson, Lewis, Goldman, & Taylor,2000; Murphy, Wayne, Liden, Erdogan, 2003; Rupp & Cropanzano 2002; Wayne, Shore, Bommer, & tetrick, 2002) Mutual-Interest (Uhl-Bien & Maslyn,2003), Perceived Organizational Support(Wayne et

62 Singh and Srivastava

al.2002), Performance Ratings (Howell & HallMerenda 1999), Social Loafing (Murphy, Wayne, Liden, & Erdogan, 2003) and decreased turnover intentions (Graen, Liden, & Hoel, 1982; Vecchio, 1985). All these research efforts demonstrate that positive organizational and individual outcomes are primarily the results of high quality LMX relationships. However, there is a relative lack of well-founded studies targeted the relationship between leader-member exchange and employees health (Kuoppala, Lamminpaa, Anne, Liira & Vainio, 2008). This should be an important agenda for research, as mental health of employees is supposed to predict work-related loss of productivity and disability at work. It has been suggested by the academics and scholars that leadership factors have significant impact on health of the employees, but these suggestions have rarely been incorporated in the studies of leadership. Recently with the rise of positive psychology (Seligman, 2003) organizational researchers have shifted there paradigm to focus their attention on the positive aspects of work place. Research on study of the relationship between leadership and health have started focusing a limited amount of studies pertaining to the relationship between leadership and health, started focusing not only on how high-quality leadership is occulted to lowering the negative indicators of health (burnout, depression, anxiety etc), but also on how high quality leadership help employees to enhance their positive mental health (Dutton, Forst, Worling, Lilius, Kanov, 2002, Turner, Barling, Zacharatos, 2002; Townsend, & Klkins, 2000). In one study Turner et. al. 2002, have reported that notion of good leadership having a positive impact on the well-being of employees. Further, the finding of Townsend et. al 2000 suggested that higher levels of

mutual support, trust and respect in leaderemployee relations lead to more positive work behaviours (positive mental health, organizational citizenship behaviour, organizational commitment, job performance, and fewer negative (retaliatory) behaviour. Therefore, the major objective of the present study is to examine quality of the relationship between leader-member exchanges as a predictor with special reference to positive mental health of employees. Guided by the previous research and findings the specific hypotheses of the present study is Hypothesis H1: The various dimensions of leader-member exchange (affect, perceived contribution, and loyalty) would be positively related to the employees' positive mental health. Method Sample The sample of the present study consisted of 265 middle level managerial personnel from manufacturing organizations of Bokaro Steel Plant (B.S.L.,Bokaro) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL, Lucknow). Participants of these organizations primarily worked in team and consistently communicated. At times they were dependent on their supervisors to complete many components of their jobs. Thus, the respondents of both these organizations had jobs where the leader-member exchange relationship was integral and important for completing their jobs. The participant's of the studied sample age range from 24 to 60 years. The mean age of the participants was 46.8 years and (S.D. =10.97 years). Demographic characteristics of the sample showed that 44.9% of the managers' participants in the study were getting more

Leader- Member Exchange and Mental Health 63

than 40,000 Rupees per month, 47.9% were getting 20,000 to 40,000 Rupees per month, and 7.2% were getting less than 20,000 Rupees per month. Demographic characteristics of the sample showed that 31.4% employees were postgraduate and above 59.9% were graduate and 9% of employees were undergraduate. While 41.2% participants belong to upper middle designation, 32.5% were middle designation, and 26.5% were low level designation. With respect to coworkers (same level employees) 19.3% of employees have work without coworker, 60.4% of worker had to work in small groups (1 to 10 employees) and 20.4% of workers work in large group (11 to 209). The information regarding the length of service of the participants was found as: 21.5% of participants have job experience between 5 to 10years, 10.9% between 11 to 20 years, 35%between 21 to 30 years and 32% between 31 years and above. Participants were also asked to indicate about their size of the team. Of the 265 participants 42.7% worked in team size between 2 to 20 employees, 24.6% of participants worked between team size of 21 to 60 employees, 17.4% of participants worked between team size of 61 to 300 employees, and 11.8% of participants worked between team size 301 to 800 employees. Measures and Procedure Mental- Health Inventory: For the measure mental health General Health inventory developed by Jagdish & Srivastava (1983) was used. This inventory consists of 56 items of which 25 items were true and 32 were false items. Which are to be rated on a four- point scale ranging from never (1) to always (4). The scoring pattern for false keyed items range from (4) never to always (1). This inventory covers the following six dimensions of mental health-positive self evaluation (10 items),

perception of reality (8items), integration of personality (12items), autonomy (6items), group oriented attitude (10items), and environmental mastery (10items). The overall reliability of the scale is 0.73 (split-half). Leader- member Exchange: To assess the quality of quality of leader-member exchange relationships and 19 items scale develop by Srivastava & Singh (2009) were used. This scale measures the quality of relationships between subordinates and supervisor/immediate officer on three factors namely affect (no. of items=12), perceived contribution (no. of items=2), and loyalty (no. of items=5). Out of 19 items 14 items were true and 5 items were false keyed. The items rated on a five- point scale. The trued keyed were rated strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1). The scoring pattern was reversed for false keyed items ranges strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5). Higher scores of the scale indicated higher quality of leadermember exchange relationships. The overall reliability of the scale assessed by Cronbach's alpha was found to be 87. Personal data sheet Questions pertaining to demographic information were included in the personal data sheet. Demographic variables included: age, gender, marital states, salary, designation, education, coworkers, experience, and size of team. Procedure Each employee has received a set of structured questionnaire with an attached letter that asked for their participation. Initially the investigators contacted with HR managers of the organization and seek permission for the study. The HR managers informed the potential respondents about the purpose of the study in brief to ensure cooperation.

64 Singh and Srivastava

Respondents were assured of anonymity and completed the survey during working hours. Statistical analysis To test the hypothesis, the current study explores effects of quality of leader- member

exchange relationship with positive mental health of employees. More specifically, we have assessed whether the various dimensions of leader-member exchange are predictive of employees positive mental health.

Table-1: Mean, S.D., and range of scores of studied variables:

S.N. 1) 2. 3. 4. 5. Variables Leader-member exchange overall LMX-Affect LMX- Perceived contribution LMX ­Loyalty Positive mental Health Mean 66.96 40.20 8.24 15.27 173.76 S.D. 9.99 6.42 1.77 5.40 13.86 Range of Score 27-90 15-50 2-9 5-25 92-207

Table- 1 indicated the mean, SD, and range of scores of the study variables including overall leader-member exchange, and its dimension affect, perceived contribution, loyalty, mental health.

Table- 2: Correlations between leader-member Exchange, its dimensions (affect, perceived contribution, and loyalty) and mental health.

Criterion variable S.N. Predictor Variables Leader-member exchange overall LMX-Affect Mental health

(1) (2)

.298**

.308**

(3)

LMX- Perceived contribution .120

(4)

LMX- Loyalty

.178**

**P<0.01, *P<0.05

Leader- Member Exchange and Mental Health 65

Results regarding the relationship between overall leader-member exchange, and its dimensions LMX-affect, LMX-perceived contribution, and LMX-loyalty with mental health are presented in table-2. The results revealed that mental health was found to be significantly positively correlated with overall LMX (r=0.298, p<0.01) and its dimensions LMX-affect (r=.308, p<0.01), and LMXloyalty (r=.178, p<0.01). However, the

relationship between mental health and LMXperceived contribution was found to be non significant(r=.120, p>.05). The findings of the correlational analyses were further supported by examining the significance of difference (t-test) between mean scores of the mental health in group of participants with high and low quality of LMX (based on median split).

Table 3 : (a) Significance of difference between mean scores outcome variable in high and low level group of Leader- member exchange

Variables

Group of Participants with High quality of LMX (N= 135) M S. D 176.88 14.90

Group of Participants with low quality of LMX (N=130) M 170.54 S. D 11.92

t-Value

Mental health

3.83**

**P<0.01, *P<0.05

Table 3: (b) Significance of difference between means scores outcome variable in high and low level group of (Leader- member exchange) Affect

Variables

Group of Participants with High level of Affect (N=140) M S. D 176.76 14.41

Group of Participants with Low level of Affect (N=125) M 170.42 S. D 12.45

t-Value

Mental health

3.81**

**P<0.01, *P<0.05

66 Singh and Srivastava Table 3: (c) Significance of difference between means scores outcome variable in high and low level group of (Leader- member exchange) perceived contribution

Variables

Group of Participants with High level of perceived contribution (N=153) M S. D 175.38 15.15

Group of Participants with Low level perceived contribution (N=112) M 171.57 S. D 11.59

t-Value

Mental health

2.23*

**P<0.01, *P<0.05

Table 3: (d) Significance of difference between means scores outcome variable in high and low level group of (Leader- member exchange) loyalty

Variables

Group of Participants with High level of Loyalty (N=145) M S. D 174.96 14.54

Group of Participants with Low level of Loyalty (N120) M 172.32 S. D 12.90

t-Value

Mental health

1.55

**P<0.01, *P<0.05

Participants who experienced high quality of LMX significantly scored higher on the measure of positive mental health in comparison to participants who experienced low quality of LMX overall (t=3.83, p<.01). Similarly, employees who experienced high quality of LMX-affect (t=3.81,p<.01), and LMX- perceived contribution (t=2.23,p<0.05) significantly scored higher on the measures positive mental health in comparison of participant who experience low quality of exchange. The mean scores of mental health was found to be not significant (t=1.55 p>.05) in groups of participants having high and low levels of LMX-loyalty. (Tables- 4a, 4b, 4c, and 4d).

Result of hierarchical regression analyses predicting mental health from leadermember exchange and its dimensions (affect, perceived contribution, and loyalty) 4 sets of hierarchical regression analyses were performed to gain insight into the relative contribution of each LMX dimension in the prediction of mental health (table-4). In each set of hierarchal regression, the demographic variables were entered in the first step of the regression equation to partial out their effects prior to entering LMX and its dimensions. The demographic variables in the analyses included- age, gender, marital states, salary, size of team, designation, education, coworker, and work experience. The results

Leader- Member Exchange and Mental Health 67

revealed that demographic variables accounted for 7.9% of variance in the prediction of mental health (F9,255 =2.419). Findings further indicated that all the dimensions of (LMX-affect, LMX- perceived contribution, LMX-loyalty) and overall LMX have made significant contribution in the prediction of mental health, over and above demographic variables. LMX-affect (F10,254=4.765, p<.01) explained 15.8% of variance, LMX-perceived contribution (F10,254=3.075, p<0.001) explained 10.8% of total variance, LMX-loyalty (F10,254=2.902, p<.01) explained 10.3% of total variance, and overall LMX (F 1 0 . 2 5 4 =5.066, p<0.001) explained 16.6% of variance in the prediction

of mental health. LMX-affect added 7.9% of variance, LMXperceived contribution added 2.9% of variance, LMX loyalty added 2.4% of variance and overall LMX added 8.8% of variance in the prediction of mental health above the controlled variables. A closer look of results, further revealed that after controlling the effects of demographic variables LMX affect (ß=.290, P<.001), LMX perceived contribution (ß= .178, P<.01), LMX-loyalty (ß=.170, P<.01), overall LMX ( ß=.312, P<.001) significantly positively predicted mental health.

Table: 4: Results of hierarchical analysis for predictor mental health from LMX and its dimensions (LMX-affect, LMX-perceived contribution, & LMX-loyalty)

Variable Age, Gender, Marital States, Salary, size of team, Designation, education, coworker experience, LMX-affect LMX-perceived contribution LMX- loyalty Overall LMX .280 .079 .079 2.419 .012 9,255 â R Step-1 Overall R2 R Change

F

Sig.

d.f.

Step-2 Step-2 Step-2 Step-2

.290** .178* .170* .312**

.397 .329 .320 .408

.158 .108 .103 .166

.079 .029 .024 .088

4.765 3.075 2.902 5.066

.000 .001 .002 .000

10,254 10,254 10,254 10,254

**P<0.001, *P<0.01

68 Singh and Srivastava

Discussion The main objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between LMX and employees positive mental health. A number of theoretical and practical implications related to LMX and positive mental health may be derived from the results. The results primarily supported that LMX and its dimensions LMX-affect, LMX-perceived contribution, LMX-loyalty were found to be important predictors of employees' positive mental health, beyond that explained by other socio-demographic variables. Our results add support to previous studies showing association between supervisor behaviour and employees' health and well-being. Our results are similar to those of Barling & Carlson (2008) and Gilbreath & Benson (2004). In a comprehensive review of the current literature, Barling & Carlson (2008) have suggested that poor-quality leadership has been linked with mental health consequences (e.g. stress, burnout, depression) where as high quality leadership is related to both reduced incidences of these negative outcomes such as increased well-being. Similarly in an exploratory study, Gibreath & Benson (2004) have found that supervisor behaviour can affect employee well-being and suggested that those seeking to create healthier workplace should not neglect supervisor (p.225). The possible explanation of these findings is that the high quality LMX is characterized by formal and informal rewards, high degree of trust, support, favour doing and increased communication (Diensch, & Liden, 1986; Duchon, Green, & Taber,1986; Dienesch, 1987; Liden, Sparrowe, & Wayne, 1997) and which lead to experience of less stress and enhanced positive mental health. Additionally, the result of the study, consistent with the abundant extant literature that has

shown that LMX is positively related to desired outcomes such as psychological well-being, job satisfaction, commitment, performance, organizational citizenship behaviour and turnover intention (Bhal & Anasari, 2006; Genster & Day, 1997; Harries, 2007; Gilbreath & Benson, 2004). While studying the influence of LMX on various organizational outcomes most of earlier researchers have used a one-dimension construct measure of LMX for predicting outcomes. According to the assertions of Dienesch and Liden (1986) and Liden and Maslyn (1998) Bhal and Anasari (1996) quality of interactions in a leader-member dyad is multidimensional and various subordinate outcomes are differentially associated with different dimension of leader-member exchange. In this study three dimensions of LMX- affect, LMX-perceived contribution, and LMX-loyalty were selected as multidimensional dyad relationships. The results of the study provided substantial evidence that, mental health of employees influenced by high quality LMX- affect, LMX-perceived contribution, and LMX-loyalty. Though earlier studies suggested that leadership is related to various indicators of mental health but only a handful of studies have discussed the impact of leadership on subordinates' positive mental health and wellbeing. Hardly few studies have analyzed how and which behaviour of leadership affects the health of the subordinates. Hence, the present study therefore was a more rigorous examination of the extent to which high quality leadership affect employees' positive mental health and well-being. In reference to organizational effectiveness, the major implications of this study related to improving the quality of supervisor-

Leader- Member Exchange and Mental Health 69

subordinate relationships. Supervisors are should be trained to improve their communication, listening and feedback skills. In addition, supervisors should also be trained to be more supportive of subordinates and to treat them with greater dignity and respect. The results of this study also provide evidence that should be of interest to the organizational and management with regard to what they may do in order to enhance LMX quality for subordinate. Despite these strengths, our study had certain limitations as well. The present study was cross-sectional in nature. This prevented us to make reliable conclusions regarding the causal relationship between LMX and mental health. Therefore, further research could employee longitudinal data would allow us to provide more conclusive support for the effect of supervision on employees' health and well-being. References

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Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 72-79 ISSN 0974-9837

Influence of Parents' Education on Achievement Motivation of Adolescents

Neha Acharya* & Shobhna Joshi **

Achievement motivation is defined as a disposition to strive for success and/or the capacity to experience pleasure contingent upon success. It involves a concern for competition with some standard of excellence (Atkinson, 1957). Early child rearing practices exert the most direct influence upon acquisition of achievement motivation (McClelland, 1967; Sears, Macoby & Levin, 1957; Witerbottom, 1958). But besides these variables certain socio-economic variables such as parents' level of education and their occupation and income, influence the achievement motivation of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of the present investigation was to study the influence of parental education level on achievement motivation of adolescents. A total of 200 intermediate students belonging to parents having four levels of education (high school, intermediate, graduation and post graduation) were administered Deo-Mohan achievement motivation scale. The result indicated that parental education level influences the achievement motivation in academic area. Higher the level of parental education, better the achievement motivation in academic area. Other areas were not found to be significantly influenced by the level of fathers' and mothers' education.

The home environment factors such as family level of encouragement, expectations and educational activities in the home is related to socio economic status of the family (Song & Hattie, 1984). Families from different socio economic group create different learning environment that affects child's achievement motivation Murray (1938) described achievement motivation as a desire to accomplish something difficult, to overcome obstacles and attain a high standard, to excel one self. Burger (1997) indicated that high achievers are moderate risk takers and have an energetic approach to work. In other words, achievement motivation has been defined as the reintegration of affect aroused by cues in

situations involving standard of excellence (McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell, 1953). Such standard of excellence typically learned from parents who urge the child to compete against the standards. Parent's education influences parent's skill, values, and knowledge of the educational system, which, in turn influences their educational practices at home. Parents with more education talk and use more varied languages which influence language skill of the child (Hoff, 2003). Parents with more education also have higher expectation for their children's education which facilitate the greater educational attainment for their children (Alexander, Entwisle &, Bedinger, 1994). Well educated parents are involved more in their children's

* Research scholar, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi, 221005 **Lecturer, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi, 221005

Influence of Parents' Education on Achievement 73

education than less educated parents. (Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994; Stevenson & Baker, 1997) Such parental involvement in children's education is fruitful. The more actively involved parents are in their children's education, the higher their children's perceptions of competence and better they perform in school and enhance their achievement motivation. Many studies have demonstrated the direct positive effect of parent's education on achievement of adolescents (Jimersion, Egeland & Teo, 1999; Kohn, 1963; Luster, Rhoades & Hass, 1989). Researches also show that parent's education is related to warm social climate in the home. Klebanov, Gunn and Duncan (1994) found that both mother's education and family income were important predictors of the physical environment and learning experiences in the home. But mother's education alone predicts the warmth in the family. Similarly Smith, Gunn, and Klebanov (1997) also found the association between parent's education and children's academic achievement was mediated by the home environment. Corwyn and Bradley (2002) also indicated that maternal education had the most direct influence on cognitive and behavioral development of the child. Research has revealed that highly educated mothers' have greater success in providing their children with cognitive and language skills .Parents who are more educated generally display more positive value towards education, achievement and social mobility; and usually set higher carrier goals for their

child. Richard and David (1967) argued that parental level of education influences parental involvement, support and expectation for their children. In turn these parental involvement, support and expectation influence achievement motivation of adolescents. Thus education, occupation and income of parents are important factor which influence the achievement motivation of children. Some studies have also shown weak relationship between parent's education and achievement generally in less developed countries. Hao and Burns (1998) argued that family income, education and occupation is less influential for achievement motivation of adolescents than parental interaction with children, involvement in their children's education and expectation for their children. Maya (2001) also found that parental level of education did not have significant effects on adolescents' achievement motivation. Thus parents' education and income levels are not important determinants of students' achievement motivation in comparison to parental support and encouragement. In the above presented review, the majority of researches indicate the positive affect of fathers and mothers education on achievement motivation of the adolescents. However, some other studies have reported parents' education less effective than parent-child relationship, support, involvement and expectation in less developed countries. These controversial findings raise question about the influence of parents' education on achievement motivation of the adolescents. Earlier studies have been

74 Acharya and Joshi

undertaken to explore the influence of parents' (both father and mother) education together. Further, most of the studies have established the relationship between parents' education and overall achievement motivation. The present investigation explores the influence of education of father and mother separately on different areas of achievement motivation i.e., academics, general interest, dramatics and sports. Objectives a) To study the influence of mothers' educational level on adolescents' achievement motivation in four areas viz academic, general interest, dramatics and sports. b) To study the influence of fathers' educational level on adolescents' achievement motivation in four areas viz academic, general interest, dramatics and sports. Hypotheses a) Mothers' educational level would affect the achievement motivation of adolescents in academic area. b) Fathers' educational level would affect the achievement motivation of adolescents in academic area. Method Sample Two hundred male and female adolescents of class XI and XII (16 to 19 years) studying in different schools of Varanasi City volunteered for the present study. These adolescents were

selected in four groups (50 in each) on the basis of education level of their parents i.e., post graduation, graduation, intermediate, and high school. Information regarding the parents' education was obtained from the participants. The participants belonged to three streams, viz. science, arts and commerce. Tool Deo-Mohan achievement motivation scale (1985) was used to measure the achievement motivation of adolescents. There were 50 items in the questionnaire which measure four area of achievement motivation i.e., academic, dramatics, General Interest and Sports. The reliability of the scale was obtained through test retest method. The reliability coefficients were found to be .69 and .78 for male and female groups respectively. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for overall male and female was found to be 0.86. Data Analysis The data was analyzed by using parametric statistics. Mean, SD and one way ANOVA was used for the analysis of the data. The analysis was done by using SPSS, version 11.01. There were four groups of respondents based on the level of their parents' education (post graduate, graduate, intermediate, high school) and four areas of achievement motivation (academic, general interest, dramatics and sports) in the present study. Table-1 shows that mothers' education significantly affected the academic area of achievement motivation. The close look at the table of ANOVA indicates that the value of F-ratio for the academic area of

Influence of Parents' Education on Achievement 75 Table1: Achievement motivation scores of adolescents of mothers having different education level

A chievem e nt m otivation

M others' education post graduate graduate

N

M ean

SD

F

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

127.34 121.18 120.28 114.94 11.18 11.18 10.60 11.46 5.36 5.24 5.38 5.50 13.78 13.80 13.70 12.92

13.92 16.68 19.62 16.12 2.50 2.92 3.18 3.02 1.74 2.11 1.94 1.56 4.48 4.03 3.99 3.58 0.55 0.17 0.77 4.62**

academ ic

interm ediate high school post graduate

G eneral interest

graduate interm ediate high school post graduate

dram atics

graduate interm ediate high school post graduate graduate

sports interm ediate high school

**p<.01,*p<.05

achievement motivation is 4.62 and found to be significant at .01 level, but the F-ratios for other three areas, i.e., general interest, dramatics and sports are not found to be significant. The mean scores of academic motivation of adolescents found to be 127.34, 121.18, 120.28, and 114.94 for post graduate, graduate, intermediate, and high school educated mothers respectively. The comparison of mean scores makes it clear that the levels of mothers' education have positive effect on achievement motivation in academic

area. Higher level of mothers' education leads to higher level of achievement motivation in academic area but not in other areas like dramatics, sports and general interest. The positive effect of father's education is clearly demonstrated in Table 2. There is a significant difference between four groups (F=9. 97) which is highly significant (p<.001). In other words, adolescents of highly educated fathers are more motivated in academic area than those adolescents whose fathers are less educated. Other three areas remained

76 Acharya and Joshi

unaffected by the level of fathers' education. The comparison of mean scores of academic area makes it apparent that adolescents of post graduate and graduate fathers scored higher as compared to the adolescents of intermediate and high school educated fathers. Discussion Review of the literature shows that there is a positive correlation between maternal education and children's academic

achievement. Some studies explain the relationship through genetic factors between mothers' education and child's academic achievement motivation. Higher maternal education is related to high intelligence level of mother which is inherited by child and leads to high level of academic achievement. Some studies also provide environmental explanation for the positive effect of mother education on child's achievement motivation.

Table2: Achievement motivation scores of adolescents of fathers having different education level

Achievement motivation

Fathers education post graduate

N 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

Mean 127.96 129.00 121.18 113.38 10.74 10.92 11.40 10.88 5.82 5.58 5.70 5.44 14.14 14.30 13.68 13.20

SD 11.57

F

9.97*** academic graduate intermediate high school post graduate graduate General interest intermediate high school post graduate graduate dramatics intermediate high school post graduate graduate sports intermediate high school 4.52 3.86 2.19 1.70 3.69 3.42 0.81 3.36 3.24 1.85 1.70 0.38 0.42 16.20 18.23 17.80 2.99 2.86

***P<.001, **p<.01,*p<.05

Influence of Parents' Education on Achievement 77

Well educated parents are more involved in their children's education as compared to less educated parents (Grolnick & Slewiaczek, 1992; Stevensen & Baker, 1987). Such parental involvement in child education is fruitful. The more involvement of parents increases the children's perceptions of competence, and enhances their performance in school settings (Gottfried 1991; Grolnick & Slewiseczek, 1994, Stevensen & Baker 1987). The Table 1 shows that the level of mothers' education affects the achievement motivation of adolescents in academic area. The motherchild relations have been considered to be important in all aspects of child's achievement motivation. If the mother is educated, her children will do better in academic area and will have high achievement motivation. Education of father also plays an important role in the development of achievement motivation in academic area of adolescents. Behavior of adolescents guided by achievement motivation is positively correlated with the level of parents' education, especially education of father. Hansley and Eligabeth (1982) found that father's education had strong influence on academic achievement of girls in early grades, whereas its effect on boys' academic achievement was seen in later grades. The results of the Table 2 reveal that there is significant difference in four groups of adolescents based on father's education level. Higher the level of father's education, better the achievement motivation of adolescent in academic area. The demographic characteristics of home like family income, occupation, residence, type of school, neighborhood opportunities and learning opportunies are affected by the fathers' occupation and educational level, which intern influences the child's motivation towards education.

Parents with higher education make sure that their children would have lots of educational opportunities in their communities. Highly educated parents give more support and encouragement to their children which enhance adolescents' academic motivation. Whatever parents learn during their education influences the way in which they interact with their children and learning activities in the home (Brody, Stoneman, & Flor, 1995; Corwyn and Bradley, 2002; Davis- Kean, 2005; Davis-Kean, Malanchuk, Peck, & Eccles, 2003; Hoff et al. 2002). Achievement motivation in other areas are not significantly influenced by parents' education probably because motivation in dramatics, general interest and sports of the child is influenced by other factors such as their interest in dramatics and sports, their aptitude and opportunities for extracurricular activities in the school than parents' education. Conclusions Education plays a vital role in enhancing the level of thinking and standard of living. Educated parents transfer the value of education to their children which intern affect the aspiration level and achievement of the child. The present paper was designed to address the following questions: Does the parents' educational level have significant influence on achievement motivation of adolescents in four areas viz. academic, general interest, dramatics and sports. In the view of results obtained from the analysis of the data, the following conclusions could be drawn from the present study: 1. Mothers' educational levels significant effect on the achievement motivation of the adolescents in academic area. Achievement motivation in academic area was found more among adolescents belonging to post graduate

78 Acharya and Joshi

and graduate mothers as compared to intermediate and high school educated mothers. 2. Fathers' educational level has significant effect on the achievement motivation of the adolescents in academic area. Achievement motivation in academic area was found more among adolescents belonging to post graduate and graduate fathers than intermediate and high school educated fathers. Why children success or fail in school is most enduring question for educational research. The findings of present study and earlier researches supported the notion that parents' education is one of the most important factors influencing child's achievement motivation. Highly educated parents have greater success in providing their children with the cognitive and language skills that contribute to early success in school. The relationship of parents' education to their children's achievement motivation in academic area is mediated by parents' beliefs and behaviors. There is still much to understand about what aspect of parental beliefs and behaviors are likely to be influenced by their educational experiences and how these parental beliefs and behaviors actually influence children's achievement motivation in academic area. References

Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Bedinger, S. D. (1994). When expectation work: Race and socioeconomic differences in school performance, Social Psychology Quaterly, 57 (4), 283-299. Bordy, G. H., Stoneman, Z., Flor, D. (1995). Linking family process and academic competence among rural African-American youth, Journal of Marriage & the family, 57, 567-579. Burger, J. M. (1997). Personality, Pacific Grove:

CA,Book, Cole, PU. Corwyn, R. F. & Bradley, R. F. (2003). Family process indicators of the relationship between SES and child outcomes. Unpublished manuscript, University of Arkansas of Little Rock. Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment, Journal of family, Psychology, 19 (2), 294-304. Davis-Kean, P. E. Malanchuk, O., Peck, S. C. & Eccles, J. S. (2003). Parental influence on academic outcomes: do race and education matter? Paper presented at the society for Research. Deo, P. & Mohan, A. (1985). Deo-Mohan Achievement Motivation Scale (Ach). Agra: National Psychological Corporation. Furstenberg, F. F., Cook, T. D. Ecdes, J., Elder, G. H. & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to take it: Urban families and adolescent success (Chicago, University of Chicago Press). Gottfried, A. E. (1991).Maternal employment in the family setting: Developmental and the environmental issues ,In J. V. Lerner & N. L. Galabos (Eds.) ,Employed mother and their children (63-84), New York: Garland. Grolnick, W. S. & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parent's involvement in Children's Schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65, 237252. Gyles, R. (1990). Learning mathematics: A qualitative inquiry on parental involvement as reported by urban poor black parents and their fourth grade children. Doctoral dissertation, New York University. Hensley S., & Elizabeth, B. (1982). The influence of selected social variables on the achievement of elementary school children in a Textile Mill Community. A Ph.D. dissertation submitted to the University of North Carolina, Greensbaro. Hao, L. & Bouns M. B. (1998). Parent Child differences in educational expectations and the academic achievement of immigrant and native students. Sociology of Education, 7 (31), 175-198. Hoff, E. (2003). The specificity of environmental influence socio-economic status affects early

Influence of Parents' Education on Achievement 79

vocabulary development via maternal speech, Child Development, 7 (5), 1368-1378. Hoff, E., Laursen, B. & Tardif, T. (2002). Socioeconomic status and parenting. In M. Bronstein (Ed) Handbook of parenting, 2: biology and ecology of parenting (Mahwan, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum). Jimerson, S. Egeland B. & Teo, A. (1999). A longitudial study of achievement tranjectories factors associated with change. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 116-126. Keith, R.Z. Reimers, B.M. Fehrmann, M.G. Potterbaum, S. M. & Aubrey A. W. (1986). Parental involvement, homework and T.V. time ,direct and indirect effect on high school achievement, Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 373-380. Kohn, M. L. (1963). Social class and parent children relationships: An interpretation: American Journal of Sociology 68 (4), 471-480. Luster, T., Roades, K., & Hass, B. (1989). The relation between parental values and parenting behaviour. A test of the Kohn Hypothesis, Journal of Marriage and The Family, 51, 139-147. Maya, C. (2001). Factors affecting the achievement motivation of high School students in Manine, Running Head: Achievement Motivation: University of Sothern Manine. McClelland, D. C. (1953). The achievement motive, Princeton NID Van Nostrand. McClelland, D. C. (1967). The achieving society New York press: The free press. Murray, M. A. (1938). Exploration in personality, New York. Richard, A. R. & David L. W. (1967). Parental in encouragement, occupation, education and family size: artificial or independent or independent determinants of Adolescent's educational expectations: Social forces, 45, 362-374. Sears, E. R., Maccoby, E. E. & Levin, H. (1957). Patterns of child rearing. New York: happer & Row publishers. Smith, J. R., Brooks Gunn, J. & Klebanov, P. K. (1997). Consequences of living in poverty for young children congnitive and verbal ability and early school achivement. In G. J. Duncan and J. BooksGunn (Eds), Consequences of growing up poor. 132189. New York Russell Sage Foundation. Song, I. S. & Hattie, J. (1984). Home environment, Self concept, and academic achievement: A causal model in approach, Journal of Educational Psychology, 76 (6), 1269-1281. Stevenson, D. L. & Baker, D. (1987). The family School relation and the child school performance, Child Development, 58, 1348-1357. Witterbottom, M. R. (1958). The relation of need for achievement to learning experience in independent and mastary. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed). Motives in fantasy, action and society Princeton, N.J. Van Nostnand 453-538.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 80-83 ISSN 0974-9837

Relapse Precipitants in Alcohol Addiction

Divya Agrawal* Anil Lal** and R. Chandra***

Alcohol and drug dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder so that there is a need for continued care to prevent relapse. Relapse is generally understood as a return to earlier pattern of use of alcohol after a period of abstinence. The factors leading to relapse can be intra-psychic and interpersonal. In an attempt to understand the factors leading to first use and relapse in alcohol dependence this study was conducted in de-addiction centers and private clinics at Ghaziabad and nearby places of NCR (National Capital Region). The sample consisted of 150 consecutive subjects with alcohol dependence that had used alcohol after a period of 2 weeks of self reported abstinence in the 12 months prior to assessment. A semi structured interview schedule was used to interview the subjects. The first use occurred after a mean abstinence of 13 weeks. The reason for first use and regular use thereafter were almost the same and the common reasons were inability to concentrate, sleep disturbances, body ache and urge to take alcohol. Some subjects reported frustrations, losses, sadness, family conflict and peer influences also as reasons for first as well as regular use. This preliminary study found that the factors leading to first use and regular use in our subjects are the same and that very soon after the first use the regular use ensues thus interventions that focus on preventing first use need to be emphasized.

Alcohol and drug dependence disorder is characterized by a chronic course with frequent relapses. The implications of chronic relapsing course are reflected in the need for continued treatment and measures to handle relapses. Relapse has been variously understood. However, most agree that it amounts to a return to earlier (dependent) pattern of use. Within the context of richly variable behavior, relapse may be interpreted either as a presence or absence of a behavior or a range of behavior lying above a certain threshold. Most often relapse implies a change to undesirable status associated with drug use (Marlatt, 1979). According to Marlatt (1979), factors

contributing to relapse are categorized as intrapsychic and interpersonal. Various authors have cited negative emotional states, social isolation and family factors as predictors of relapse (Heather et. al., 1991). Donovon (1996) reported that negative emotional states like anger, sadness are particularly important. These emotions followed by interpersonal conflict and social pressure to consume alcohol often led to relapse (Sandahl, 1984). On the contrary, Litman et al., (1983), emphasized that positive emotional state could also cause relapse. Method Setting and Sample The present study was conducted in de-

* DIVYA AGRAWAL- Reader (psychology), S.D. (P.G.) College, Ghaziabad. ** ANIL LAL- Lecturer (psychology), S.D. (P.G.) College, Ghaziabad. ***RAKESH CHANDRA- Consultant Psychiatrist, DIBS, Ghaziabad.

Relapse Precipitants in Alcohol Addiction 81

addiction centers and private clinics situated in Ghaziabad and nearby places of NCR, which serve the population of Ghaziabad and nearby towns and villages. Most patients belong to middle and lower middle socioeconomic status. Patients with alcohol and drug dependence are treated with pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions (single, extended group counseling and family session). Patients and their families are also encouraged to visit the centre for consultation on any alcohol related issue concerning self or the family. Most patients with alcohol dependence receive pharmacotherapy (minor tranquilizers and antidepressants) in addition to the above mentioned psychosocial therapies. One hundred fifty subjects attending the centers and clinics for de-addiction were included in the present study. The following inclusion criteria was adopted in sampling the participants: 1) ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence; 2) reuse/relapse alcohol use following a period of abstinence from alcohol for at least 2 weeks in the previous one year; 3) had reported for follow up at the clinic in above one year, and 4) gave verbal consent for participation. If a person had more than one episode of abstinence (2 weeks or longer) in the above period, the most recent period of abstinence was considered as the index episode. Based on the Marlatt's (1979) a distinction between first use (reuse) and relapse was made in the present study. The first use (reuse) was defined as any alcohol use in one-year period whereas relapse was defined as use of alcohol for four times or more in a weak.

Tools Semi structured interview schedule was used to collect information about possible reasons of relapse. . This schedule, developed by the authors for the purpose of study, collected information on 1) demographic details 2) alcohol and drugs used 3) details regarding previous efforts of abstinence 4) reasons for first use (lapse-as defined) and 5) reasons for continued use (relapse-as defined). Procedure The subjects were interviewed by the psychologist and psychiatrist using the afresaid semi-structured interview schedule. The interview focused on the circumstances around the use of alcohol by the patient for the first time after having abstained completely for at least 2 weeks. If the alcohol use persisted beyond the first use, inquiry was made into the circumstances leading to relapse (as defined above). Details of various abstinence attempts in the past (life time) as well as in the last year and the details of treatment in the above period were recorded. Subjects self-report was the major source of information. Collateral sources were used for verification wherever available. Not much inconsistence was noticed between the report given by the subjects themselves and their relatives. Results The average age of these subjects was 35 years. Most were males, about 92% were married and 8% were single. The average duration of dependence was 12 years (range 2-24 years). The clinical details and progress from first use to relapse are given in the table:-

82 Agrawal et al Tabel: Rasons for first use and regular use

Reasons

First Use(lapse) N=150 N % 40 36 26 50 20 16 30 53 10 13

Continuous Use(Relapse) N=115 N 60 40 45 85 45 15 80 60 40 % 52 34 39 73 39 13 69 52 34

Sleep disturbance Irritability and restlessness Body ache Urge to take alcohol Frustration Losses and sadness Family conflicts Peer pressure Fun Boredom

60 55 40 75 30 25 45 80 15 20

This table shows the reasons for first use and relapse which were similar. Common reasons cited were physiological, namely sleep disturbance, and urge to take alcohol. However peer pressure was important in many patients. Psychological reasons like sadness and family conflicts were also important for first use and continued use. The time lag between first use and relapse varied between 3 to 25 days with an average of 6 days. This indicates a rapid progress from first use to relapse among those where it occurred. Discussion One of the greatest problems in the treatment of addictive disorders such as alcoholism is maintaining abstinence or self control. Most alcohol treatment programmes show high success rates if "curing" the addictive problems but lessening rates of abstinence or controlled drinking at various periods of follow up. It is important to document the reasons for early identification and initiate intervention. The interview schedule used in this study made a differentiation between lapse (first use)

and relapse (continued use). A minimum of 2 weeks abstinence was chosen because alcohol withdrawal syndrome may last up to 2 weeks and alcohol use within this period should be understood as continuation of this disorder. Information was obtained for a period of one year prior to inclusion as it was felt that recall for periods beyond one year would be difficult and unreliable. It was observed that the subjects were able to distinguish between the first use and the patterns of continued use. The results indicate that the patients had made a number of visits in this one year and they relapsed even though they had received psychosocial therapies and pharmacotherapy. The reasons for first use and regular use (relapse) were almost alike. Psychological and psychosocial factors like urge to take alcohol (50% in lapse and 73% in relapse), family conflict (30% lapse and 69% in relapse) and peer pressure (55% in lapse and 52% in relapse) were the major reasons. In a longitudinal study of alcohol abuse Vaillant, G.E. (1983) reported that several familial factors were significantly associated with

Relapse Precipitants in Alcohol Addiction 83

alcoholism. These are father's alcoholism, marital conflict, lax maternal supervision, no attachment to father and lack of family cohesiveness. Family counseling and group therapy can be helpful to prevent relapse. These results are in keeping with the results reported from other studies among alcohol as well as opiate users (Annis, 1990). In another Indian study it was seen that among heroin dependent subjects, negative mood states and social pressure were the common reasons for relapse (Kumar and Singh 1996). Sleep disturbance was also a major psychobiological disturbance (40% patients in first use and 52% in relapse). This has been highlighted earlier by proponents of psychobiological theories (Gorski and Miller 1979, Adinoff et. al.995). Medication for insomnia is required to prevent relapse. Irritability and restlessness were also significant factors (36% in first use and 34% in relapse). 26% body ache in first use and 39% in relapse was also a factor. For these precipitants additional medication is required. Frustration (20% in lapse and 39% in relapse), losses and sadness (16% in lapse and 13% in relapse), fun (10% in lapse) and boredom (13% in lapse and 34% in relapse) are also the common factors for relapse. The development of regular use and dependent use after first use was rapid and most (77%) progressed to regular use. Connors et. al. (1996) reported that cumulative relapse rate for alcoholism following treatment was 35% at 2 weeks and 58% at 3 months. 90% had at least one drink. Thus intervention should focus on preventing first use. In conclusion it seems that the reasons for first use and relapse in our subjects are predominantly psychological, psychosocial

and psychobiological. Assessment for the reasons is feasible in the community setting and the treatment procedures need to be reexamined. References

Adinoff, B., O'Neil, H. K. & Ballenger, J. C (1995). Alcohol Withdraw and limbic kindling: A hypothesis of relapse. American Journal of Addiction, 4, 5. Annis,H.M. (1990). Relapse to substance abuse : empirical findings within a cognitive-social learning approach. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 22, 2, 117. Connors,G. J., Maisto,S. A. & Donovan,D. M. (1996). Conceptualizations of relapse : A summary of psychological and psychobiological model. Addiction,91, 55. Donovan,D. M. (1996). Marlatt's classification of relapse precipitants : Is the emperor still wearing clothes? Addiction, 91,S131. Gorski,T. T. & Miller, M. (1979). Counselling for relapse prevention. Alcoholism System Associates, Hazel Creste. IL. Heather,N., Stallard, A. & Tebbut, J. (1991). Importance of substance cues in relapse among heroin users. Comparison of two methods of investigstion. Addictive Behaviours, 16, 41. Kumar,V. & Singh, B. K. (1996). Relapse of heroin dependence. Indian Medical Journal, 90, 276. Litman,G. K., Stapleton, J., Oppeheim, A. N.Peleg,M. & Jackson, P. (1983). Situations related to alcoholism relapse. British Journal of Addictions, 78, 381. Marlatt,G. A. (1979). A cognitive behavioural model of relapse process. In N.A. Krasnegor, (Ed.) Behavioural Analysis and Treatment of Substance Abuse,NIDA Research Monograph,25, Washington DC: 191. Sandahl, C. (1984). Determinants of relapse among alcoholics : a cross-cultural replication study. International Journal of Addictions, 19, 833. Vaillant,G. E.(1983). Natural history of male alcoholism V: Is alcoholism the cart or the horse to sociopathy? British Journal of Addiction, 711, 31726.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 84-91 ISSN 0974-9837

Subjective Experiences of Abuse and Neglect Among Eastern U.P. Elderly: A Qualitative Approach

Sunil K. Verma

The major objective of the study was to identify the pattern of subjective experience in terms of verbal abuse, Physical abuse, and Neglects among elderly of different socioeconomic conditions. A total of 48 elderly from lower, middle and higher socioeconomic groups were interviewed from Gorakhpur city. Results obtained by content analysis revealed that the victim of abuse and neglect mostly belonged to lower socio economic status but the experience of type of abuse and neglect varied in different socioeconomic class. Results showed that the elderly in lower class family experienced physical as well as verbal abuse, middle class elderly experienced verbal abuse, but the higher class elderly showed the experience of neglect. Same pattern with respect to the experience of abuse and neglect was observed across the gender on. Findings suggest that lower class elderly experience the physical abuse due to scarcity of resources and their inability to fulfill their basic needs. This leads to conflict among family members and experience of physical abuse. In middle class family, elderly and their young family members are interdependent and experience less support in house hold work. Life style, submissiveness, economic insecurity and individualism minimize the physical abuse but fail to control the verbal abuse. The higher class elderly, in contrast to their counterparts, are economically independent but they experience neglect due to changing life style and values of other family member.

In the present era India is facing rapid socioeconomic changes. Changes in the family pattern as well as values of society are the by product of this transition. The priorities of investment in monetary expenses as well as care and concern have also been changed. Traditionally the elderly enjoyed place of power and prestige, in the family. But the sociological, psychological and gerontological studies show a somewhat different picture of modern society. Aging studies are now basically focused on using words that have negative connotation, like old age problems, generational conflict, elderly abuse etc. Among these most common problem faced by the elderly is abuse by the family members and by the society. As population ageing becomes more and more pronounced the concern for quality of life and wellbeing of older people is

also increasing. Parallel to this concern is effort to understand the nature, cause and manifestation of elderly abuse. Reported rates of elderly abuse vary from country to country. In the US most researches indicate that 4-10 % of elderly are at risk for abuse (Penhale, 1998). In India there has not been country wide, cross regional study giving estimates of elder abuse. News papers report that 50% of crimes committed against elderly citizens involve matters of inheritance. Abuse at the psychological level is far more pervasive although hidden. Shah, Veedon and Vasi (1995) report that it happens in varying ways such as being taken for granted, being used as additional domestic help, not being included in family social affairs, being made the focus of cruel jokes by youngsters of the family and not

Department of Psychology, Allahabad University,Allahabad

Verma 85

being appreciated for making contributions in household chores. Prevalence of elderly abuse varies depending on several factors like profile of the victim, the abuser and the other factors. Initial studies reported typical victim as being frail, dependant female of 75+ years who was physically or mentally impaired and was living with an adult child. The degree of frailty was supposed to put the victim in a position of high vulnerability. For example, Kosberg and Garcia (1995) report that victims are more likely to be women, impoverished, living alone, uneducated, physically or mentally frail and socially, psychologically and economically dependant on others. It has been reported that abusers are more likely to have alcohol and mental health problems (Anetzberger, 1993). Dependency of the abusers on the victims is also important issue. Elders who are neglected appear to fit the stereotyped view like they are frail, disabled and dependant and are a source of great stress for the caregiver. Invariably the perpetrators are close family members or are usually living with the victim. Studies have shown that abusers are more likely to be the middle aged offspring of the abused (Gelles, 1987). In west most of the studies report that the main perpetrator is spouse. Another important factor influencing the elderly abuse is gender. Majority of the victims of abuse are female whatever may be the reason. Shah, Veedon and Vasi (1995) contend that abuse of elderly women is not only rampant in India but cuts across all age groups and exists at all levels. Dependency of women, high level of illiteracy, lack of remunerative occupation and negligible awareness about legal and economic rights create difficulties for older women. The dependency of the elderly, with physical or mental impairments, on caregivers in performing daily activities of living may result in stress to the caregiver, in turn leading to abuse of the elderly unless sufficient resources are available (Block & Sinnot, 1979; Rathborne-McCuan, 1980).

Along with these, financial dependencies of the caretaker on the elderly are also found to be a significant factor in elder abuse. Srinivasan and Vijaylakshmi (2001) studied a sample of 140 individuals (both male and female) and found that the respondents who are the victim of abuse and neglect belong to lower socioeconomic condition, and are dependent on others. They further report that the form of abuse is more frequently verbal abuse than physical, and the respondents reported neglect which affected their psycho-social well-being. Over all, in the area of the study on elderly abuse researches have a lot of variation in the meaning of elderly abuse. Though there is lack of consensus on what is elder abuse, most of the researches stipulate that the act must be intentional and should result in infliction of physical pain or injury (Block & Sinnott, 1979; Gelles, 1987; Pillemer & Finkelhor, 1988). Bennet, Basingstoke, Kingston & Penhale (1997) make a distinction between Macro, Mezzo and Micro level abuses. While macro level refers to the issues at the societal level such as lack of access to health care, poor social security and institutional abuse, the Mezzo level abuse refers to the injustice heaped on the older people at the community level such as ageism, anti social activities etc. The Micro level usually deals with the conflict and interaction between two people. In general Elderly abuse refers to infliction of Physical, Emotional or Psychological harm on an older adult. A voluntary group in UK defines elder abuse as a single or repeated act, lack of appropriate action causing harm or distress to an older person (quoted in Jayprakash, 2001). In a sociological study conducted by Devi (2006) on elderly in middle-income group of a district in Tamil Nadu, the most common form of abuse faced by the elderly was neglection, lack of attention, denial of freedom, food and health care. According to Wolf and Pillemer (1989) the kinds of abuses are:

86 Subjective Experiences of Abuse

Physical abuse: infliction of injury or physical harm includes sexual abuse also. Psychological abuse: infliction of mental anguish, verbal and emotional abuse Material abuse: illegal or improper exploitation of funds or material, including property, also called financial abuse. Active Neglect: refusal or failure to undertake a care giving obligation. Usually it is intentional. Passive neglect: unintentional refusal or failure to fulfill care taking obligation. Prevalence Bambawale (2006) define two major category of elderly abuse i.e. Overt and Covert. Overt abuse can be explained in terms of "very obvious and are direct"; these can be form of physical abuse, deprivation of residence, money, and participation in public and private functions and through non cooperative attitude at public places as bus stop, post office, bank and neighbor hood places. Covert abuses are hidden and these are not direct. But all the same they are directed at the targets. The pattern may be changed and they are directed to the aged in the different ways such as derogatory reference, food habits and life styles. Besides these two levels, Bambawale defines five types of elderly abuse i.e. Social abuse, Economic abuse, Religious abuse, and abuse due to health factors. In over all review we found three major gaps in the elderly abuse research. Most of the researches have been done in western countries or replicating them in other cultures (individualistic society). In India, studies have been carried out mostly in Southern India or the Central India where there are different family patterns and conditions that are varied in comparison other parts of India. In Southern India the families are more independent and individualistic. Kollienda (1987) expresses that

South Indian families have more individualistic tendencies where as northern Indian family are more interdependent. On the basis the observed gap in the literature the author has set the following objectives for the present study. · To identify the pattern of experiences in terms of verbal abuse, Physical abuse, and Neglects. · To examine whether the different abuses are context specific. · To identified the subjective experiences of the elderly in terms of different type abuse. · To find out whether patterns of abuse, context, and experiences differ with varied socio- economic conditions. Method Sample A sample of 48 elderly (mean age 63.95) individuals (24 men and 24 women respondents) was selected on the basis of random sampling from joint families of Gorakhpur city. The sample was heterogeneous and varied on several aspects such as level of education (21.7% intermediate, 20% illiterate, 15.2% high school, 12% post graduate, 10% Graduate, 8% Middle, 10.5% primary, and 2.2% Literate), caste (55% General category, 34.1% Schedule caste, and 10.9% OBC), type of family (73.9% lineal collateral families, 4.3% lineal family and 21.7% collateral family) and job profile (retired, working in private jobs, business men, labours, cultivators, house wives, and unemployed). Almost all the respondents belonged to Hindu religion. Interview method was used to explore the nature of intergenerational relations. The following aspects of the respondents were explored.

Verma 87

· ·

Description about the family members. Different types of behaviour experienced with family members (in terms of abuse and neglect with examples in behaviours). The context in which these behaviors

emerged. · What are the subjective experiences taking place as an out come of these behaviour?

The information obtained by the interview was analyzed by using content analysis method.

·

Results Table No.1 Pattern of experiences in terms of Abuse and Neglect

Experienced behaviour Physical abuse Verbal abuse Neglect

Higher class Male Female

Middle Class Male Female 2 8

5

7

8

Lower class Male Female 2 4 4 4 8 8

Table shows the frequency of the experiences of physical, verbal abuse and neglect in different class and gender of elderly. Of the 48 respondents, 6 respondent (2 male and 4 female) reporting physical abuse belonged to lower socio economic class. 10 elderly respondents (2 female from middle socio

economic status, and 4 male and 4 female from lower socio economic status) report verbal abuse and as 44 respondents (5 males and 7 females from higher socio economic status, 8 males and 8 females from middle socio economic status, and same ratio for lower class) report neglect.

Table No.2: Context emerging out of these experiences.

Experienced behaviour Physical abuse Context Scarcity of resources, Economic support, dependency of young family member, life style of younger family member, Individualism in younger member, sharing behaviour. Verbal abuse Support in house hold work. Life style, submissiveness, economic insecurity, individualism Neglect Family decision making, change respect pattern, lack of physical economic and emotional support, values differences and life style differences

88 Subjective Experiences of Abuse

Table shows the context and the types of experiences in those contexts by the respondents that have emerged from the data (abuse: physical, verbal; and neglect). Physical abuse emerged in the context of scarcity of resources, lack of economic support, dependency of younger member, and disparities in sharing behaviour by the younger family members. Verbal abuse emerged in context of lack of support in house hold work,

disparity in life style, economic insecurity, and expectation towards younger generation which are not fulfilled, laziness on the part of younger family member, and perceived interferences by family member (younger family member). Neglect was experienced in family decision making, support (physical, economic and emotional), economic investment, values differences and life style differences.

Table No. 3: Subjective Experiences as an outcome of abuses

Subjective experiences Loss of power and authority, insult, lack of cooperation, helpless, distance in family member, Authority in decision making, Submissiveness, separation, Low future orientation

Table 3 shows the subjective experiences of the elderly in over all experiences of abuse and neglect. The elderly report the experience negatively. The experiences are: Loss of power and authority, insult, lack of cooperation, helpless, distance in family member, Authority in decision making, Submissive ness. These experiences lead to separation and Low future orientation among elderly. Discussion The focus of the study was to understand the pattern of experiences in terms of verbal abuse, physical abuse and neglect among elderly. Another point of focus was to identify the context and subjective experiences as outcome of abuse and neglect among elderly. The study also tries to find out whether there is variation with varying demographic trends or not. The main findings of the study are: · · Physical abuse was reported only by lower class elderly. Females experienced more of

physical abuse than the male. · More verbal abuse was reported by both male and females in lower class family, but a smaller proportion of middle class females also reported the verbal abuse. Neglect was experienced in the all the groups of people but the elderly of higher socio-economic status family experienced lower degree of neglect than the middle and lower class elderly.

·

The over all experience of abuse is based on the status of elderly in family and the dynamics of the family. Most of the respondents belonged to joint family where older male member, his son, daughter in law and his grand sons lived together and were interdependent. Generally in lower class family younger male members were unemployed or had lower level jobs which were unable to fulfill their needs and desires. So they were economically dependent on their older family member whereas in middle class family both younger

Verma 89

family member and older family member were economically and emotionally interdependent but older were physically dependent on younger family member. In higher class elderly respondent were physically and economically independent but they were emotionally dependent on younger family member. Lower class elderly reported experienced physical abuse because they retired from government job and getting pension and some younger family members either do not have any job or doing some low paid private jobs such as taxi car driver or have small business (as peanut seller) etc. whereas females, both elderly and young, work as a house holds servant and earn from 1000 to 2000 rupees per month. Generally younger members do not want to share own income and expect older members to fulfill their obligations and familial responsibilities which leads to a condition of scarcity of resources. Besides this, the younger male members are also involved in some antisocial behaviour like Gambling, substance abuse (drinking alcohol) etc. and fight and beat their elderly in the family for money where as females do not support in household work and abuse her elderly physically. For example: Case: A lower class elderly reports that he is retired as class 4th employee from Nagar Nigam and his wife is a house wife. He has two sons elder son is class 12th pass and younger son is graduate. Both are married and living with him. Elder son has two kids, a son and a daughter, and has his own tempo. The younger son is a private taxi driver. "Hum log sath sath rahate hain. Bada ladaka tempo chalata hai. Apani tempo hai, manmarji ka malik hai. Kisi ko Jabab nahi deta hai. Dinbhar sharab pita hai. Abhi hal ki hi ghatana hai. Eak din jua me sab paisa haar gaya. Ghar aaya apani patni ka payal le gaya use bhi har gaya . Dubara aaya jab uski ma ne

roka to use mara aur dhakka de diya woh gir gai uska hath toot gaya. Asahaya ho gaye. Tab se hum bach ke rahate hain. Apana jo karana hai kare hum door hi rahate hain." Another case, an elderly female who is a house hold servant and whose daughter-in-law is also a household servant reports that, "teen bahuyen hain. Eak din ki bat hai mujhe tej bukhar tha. Mera man kuch karane ka nahi tha. Mai chup-chap let gai bad me bahuyen aaie aur oo bhi kuch nahi kar rahi thi baithi thi sham ka samay tha maine kaha ki ladake aane wale hain khana bana lo. To is pr sab ek doosere se takarane lagi. Maine thoda kada ho kar kaha to mujhese gali galloj karane lagi is pr oo (mere pati) aaye samajahne ka prayas kiya to unhe lota chalakr mar diya. Sar phat gaya. Is ghatana se aapamanit hue aur hum log apane ko alag kar liye, bhai tum apana dekho hum apana dekhenge." These examples make it clear that the experience of physical abuse take place in the context of scarcity of resources, support in house hold work, sharing behaviour, economic support and subjective experiences of insult and helplessness. Experience of verbal abuse is reported by middle class female and lower class male and female. Basically the verbal abuse is the part of or the first stage physical abuse. Major factors which leads to verbal abuse are support in house hold work, life style, and economic insecurity. Generally in middle class family both the elderly are dependent on younger member which probably is one of the main factors of the experience of physical and verbal abuse. For example: A 62 years old lady belongs to high class family (Kayastha family), her husband is a lawyer. She has a married son (son is a medical representative and daughter-inlaw is graduate), a daughter, a grand son and a grand daughter. She reports that,

90 Subjective Experiences of Abuse

"Parivar to thik hai, parivar ke liye tayag karana padata hai, samjhauta karana padat hai. Bete jaise hai thik hain apani marji se jina chate hain. Bahu bhi apani marji se jina chahati hai usme mera koi oo (rok tok) nahi hai. Aisa kuch bhi nahi jis tarike se khus raho thik hai. Pratyak vyakti ki apani samajh hoti hai fark ki koi bat nahi jaise hum log bade buddhe ki izzat karate the, khayal karate the lekin aab ye chij nahi hai. Agar hum kuch kahen to koi baat koi manata hi nahi, to dukh hota hai. Isse accha ki chuup rahen. Parivar me tension tab aati hai jab bat man-samman ki aati hai jaise koi parivar me aaya hai, maine kaha ki chai- pani le aao, to aakr samane kahengi biskit nahi hai. Ye nahi ki biskit nahi hai to koi bat nahi kuch aur la den ye nahi hoga. Mehman ke chale jane ke bad samajhane ka prayas kiya to mujhme hi kamiyan nikalane lagati hain. Subh- subh pati ko kachari jana hota hai beta der se aata hai, to der tak sota hai, sara kam jhadu poccha karana hota hai, to usi samay bacchon ko taiyyar karane lag jati hain halanki meri ladaki bacchon ko taiyyar karati hai. Kam me koi sahayoug nahi karati kahane pr bayang kasati hain. Jaise abhi hal hi ki ghatan hai ghar me inverter ki koi jaroorat nahi thi lekin ladake ne inverter kharida, second hand car khridi. Maine sirf itana kaha ki abhi iski kya jaroorat, gudia ki sadi ho jane dete tab le lete. Ye bat bahu ko buri lag gai, bura-bhala sunane lagi. Aap to haum logon ki khusi dekh nahi sakati. Aap kyon paresan hain? hum log hain na! hum log kar lenge. Aap, paresan na hon. Ees poori ghatana se mujhe bahut apaman laga apane ko alag kar liya. Prayah parivar me hum pati, aur beti milkar nirnay lete hain aur woh log apana lete hain. These examples explain that the elderly experience that the young family members lack the sense of responsibility and have individualistic attitude. They receive very less

support form younger which leads to the incident of verbal abuse and subjective experience of loss of power and authority. It is also observed that generally higher class elderly experience neglect in family. The higher class elderly, who retire from the service or business, are economically and physically independent, but emotionally, they are dependent on the younger family members. Presumably, differences in life style of younger family members, lack of physical support from them and avoidance of elderly in family decision making lead to the subjective experience in terms of loss of power, authority and lack of cooperation. For example, a case retired from 2nd class government service as executive engineer in electricity department. He has three daughters and one son, the son is the eldest among his siblings and involved in computer business. The elderly reports avoidance in decision making. "Mara ye manana hai ki pais ko bacha ke rakho aur samay aur upyougita ke hisab se kharch karo. Jaise ki hamare pass Maruti 800 car (2000 model) thi, aur hume doosari car nahi chahiye thi. Lekin ladake ne doosri car kharid li 5 lakh ki. Mai kabhi bhi doosari car nahi chahata tha lekin ladke ne khrid lee. Uske car kharidne pr maine usse kaha jisse thoda conflict ki stithi aayee. Mujhe laga ki oo is pr rai bat kr sakta tha, lekin nahi maine apane ko niyantrit kiya aur socha ki ye paisa usne kamaya tha, main kyoun upset hun, lekin maine mahsoos kiya ki prayah oo mujhe bypass karte hai kinhee kamon ko karne men. Mai chup chap rahata hoon dekhta hoon baki to sab wohi karate hain. Beside this a female respondent reports lack of physical support in family: "Jaise mere husband rat me 8.30 pr khana khate hain, lekin bahueen hain ki der rat me

Verma 91

khana banana chahati hain (10.30-11.00 pm). Generally beta jab der se aata hai to wo log outing pr chale jate hain , aur wapas aane ke bad koi khana banana nahi chahta, wo bahar se hi kha ke aate hain, to mai generally aapna khana bana leti hoon bina kisi ke madad se. The examples show that higher class elderly experience neglect in terms of family decision making, and life style of young family member. Conclusion The study reveals that experience of abuse is frequently observed in the society. Women experience more verbal and physical abuse than men, because of their dependency and illiteracy. Findings also suggest that the victim of abuse and neglect mostly belong to lower socio economic statuses. Similar findings have come to fore in the present study, but the experience of types of abuse and neglect varies along with socio-economic class. The elderly in lower class family experience physical as well as verbal abuse, middle class elderly experience verbal abuse, but the higher class elderly show the experience of neglect. No differences were found across the gender regarding the experience of abuse and neglect. Findings suggest that lower class elderly experience the physical abuse due to scarcity of resources which leads to conflict in family and experience of physical abuse. The middle class elderly and their young family members are interdependent and experience less support in house hold work. Characteristics of members of middle class family such as Life style, submissiveness, economic insecurity, and individualism try to minimize the physical abuse but fail to control the verbal abuse. The higher class elderly however, are economically independent, they experience neglect probably due to changing life style and values of family member.

References

Antzberger, G. J. (1993). Elder abuse programming among geriatric education centers. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 5(3) 69-87. Bennet, G. C, Kingston, P. A. & Penhale, B. (1997). The dimension of elder abuse: Perspective for practitioners. Basingtoke: Macmillan. Block, M. R. & Sinnot, J. D. (1979). The battered elder syndrome: An exploratory study. CoUege Park, Bombawale, U. (2006). Abuse of elderly: A myth or reality. Handbook of Indian Gerontology. Serial Publication. Devi, K. R. (2006). Elderly abuse in the family. In Arvind K. Joshi (Ed.) Older persons in India (208-218). Serials Publications: India Gelles, R. J. (1987). Family violence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Kolenda, P. (1987). Regional differences in family structure in India. Rawat Publication- Jaipur. Kosberg, J. L, & Garcia, J. J. (Eds.) (1995). Elder abuse: International and cross cultural perspective. New York : The Howarth Press. Penhale, B. (1998). Bruises on the soul: Older women, domestic violence and elder abuse, Quarterly Journal of International Institute of Aging, 8 (2),16-31. Pillemer, K. A. & Finkelhor, D. (1988). The prevalence of elderly abuse: A random samples survey. Gerontologist, 28 (1), 51-57. Prakash, I. J. (2001). Elder abuse: global response and Indian initiatives. Indian Journal of Social Work, 62 (3), 446-463 Rathborna McCuan (1980). Elderly victims of family violence and neglect: Social casework. The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 61, no. 5, pp. 296304. Shah, G., Veedon, R., and Vasi, S.(1995). Elderly abuse in India. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 4, 18-19. Srinivas, S. & Vijaylakshmi, B. (2001). Abuse and neglect of elderly in families. The Indian Journal of Social work, .62 (3), 462-492. Wolf, R. S. & Pillemer, K. A. (1989). Helping elderly victims: The reality of elderly abuse. New York: Colombia University Press.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 92-102 ISSN 0974-9837

Qualitative Exploration into the Phenomenon of Work-Family Facilitation in Indian Context

Shamini Srivastava*, Urmila R. Srivastava** and A. K. Srivastava***

After two decades of work­family literature dominated by a conflict perspective, there is increasing impetus for exploring the positive interaction between work and family roles i.e. work-family facilitation. In contrast to the scarcity perspective which is based on the assumptions that work and family roles are inherently incompatible, a substantial body of studies is now showing a positive relationship between work and family life. But these studies have been hindered by a lack of theoretical frameworks in which to explore these positive relationships and a limited variety in methodological approaches. Therefore the major objective of the present paper is to understand the phenomena of work-family facilitation specifically in the Indian context through qualitative exploration. The participants for the present study included IT employees and Banking sector employees of Varanasi (U.P., India) (N=50). Data were obtained with the help of a short interview schedule that contained 10 open ended questions which were related to the two areas (1). What ways your work life positively influences your family life and, (2). What ways your family life positively influences your work life? Behavior and skills, work-place benefits, work-place support, autonomy were identified as important components of work-to-family facilitation. Similarly, behavior and skills, positive mood and family support were identified as important components of family-to-work facilitation. Implications of the study as well as suggestions for further investigation for work­family facilitation theory and research were discussed.

After two decades of work­family literature dominated by a conflict perspective, there is increasing impetus for exploring the positive interaction between work and family roles (Barnett, 1998; Frone, 2003; Grzywacz, 2002; Hill, 2005; Fu & Shaffer, 2001; Noor, 2002). In contrast to the scarcity perspective which is based on the assumptions that work and family roles are inherently incompatible, a substantial body of studies is now showing a positive relationship between work and family life. But these studies have been hindered by a lack of theoretical frameworks in which to explore

these positive relationships and a limited variety in methodological approaches (Berscheid, 2003; Frone et al, 1997; Carlson & Perrewe, 1999; Parasuraman, Greenhaus, & Greenrose, 1992; Fredman & Greenhaus, 2000; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Voydanoff, 2001). Grzywacz's (2002) theory of the positive interdependencies between work and family roles and Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) proposed model of the process of work­family enrichment contribute significantly to theoretical understanding but need to be tested and refined. Studies

* Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi ** Sr. Lecturer, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi ***Professor, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi Correspondence concerning this article can be addressed to Shamini Srivastsva, Department of Psychology, B.H.U., Varanasi. [email protected], [email protected]

Srivastava et al 93

incorporating methodologies beyond selfreport scales and observed correlations are also needed to expand understanding of what defines positive interdependencies in the work­family interface and how they are experienced. The present status of the research pertaining to work-family facilitation rigorously calls for a variety of new methodologies, development of new measures, and continued exploration of theoretical frameworks (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006). In an effort to further this endeavour, we have used qualitative research methods to explore employees' perceptions of how work life is positively influenced by the experiences of family life and how family life is positively influenced by the experience of work life. Therefore, the major objective of the present paper is to understand the phenomenon of work-family facilitation specifically in the Indian context through qualitative exploration. Related research on Work-family facilitation Much of the extant work-family interface research has focused on negative spillover between work and family life or conflict and it reflects the mismatch between work and family lives (Kahn, 1990; Grzywacz & Marks, 2000; King, Mattimore, King, & Adms, 1995; Ruderman, Ohlott, Panzer, & King, 2002; Pittman & Orthner, 1988; Sinacore & Akcali, 2000). Research on the positive side of the work­family interface began nearly three decades ago when Sieber (1974) argued that employees involved in multiple roles could gain four types of rewards derived from role accumulation: (1) role privileges, (2) overall status security, (3) resources for status enhancement and role performance relates, and (4) enrichment of the personality and ego

gratification. Consequently, involvement in multiple roles can have positive outcomes that in turn, lead to enhanced functioning in other roles (Barnett & Baruch, 1985). Similarly, Marks (1977) proposed the expansion theory in response to the scarcity approach. In this approach, Marks (1977) suggested human energy is a supply-demand phenomenon, and the body creates energy to perform the multiple roles that people undertake. Consequently, he suggested that multiple roles could enhance resources and create additional energy. After this, relatively little scholarly attention was paid to work­family facilitation during the 1980s and 1990s (Crouter, 1984; Kirchmeyer, 1992; Pittman & Orthner, 1988; Zedeck & Mosier, 1990; Thomas & Ganster, 1995; Cobb, 1976; House, 1981). Now the trend is changing and there has been important theory development and research on facilitation (Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne & Grzywacz, 2006; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Wayne, Grzywacz, Carlson, & Kacmar, 2007; Wayne, Randel, & Stevens, 2006; Allen, 2001; Fredrickson & Losada, 2005) emphasizing beneficial payoffs from each role for the other. Work-family facilitation, is defined as "the extent to which participation in one role (e.g., work role) is made easier by virtue of the experiences, skills, and opportunities gained or developed in the other role (e.g., family role)" (Frone, 2003). In a very recent study Wayne et al., (2007) have defined work-family facilitation as "the extent to which an individual engagement in one life domain (i.e. work/family) provides gains (i.e. developmental, affective, capital or efficiency) which contribute to enhanced functioning of

94 Work-family facilitation

another life domain (i.e. family/work)". Work-family facilitation occurs in both the directions i.e. Work-to-family and family-towork facilitation. Work-to-family facilitation characterized by "one's involvement in work provides skills, behaviour or positive mood, etc. which positively influence the family" while family-to-work facilitation refers to "one's involvement in family results in positive mood, support or a sense of accomplishment that help him/her to cope better, work harder, feel more confident or reenergized for one's role at work" (Wayne, Grzywacz, Carlson, & Kacmar, 2004, p-111) and these two dimensions of work-family facilitation are distinct from each other (Wayne et al., 2007; Wayne et al., 2004). Although work-family facilitation is a new construct, researchers have previously examined the effect of work and family roles. This construct has been conceptualized in four different terms: Work-family positive spillover (Carlson et al., 2006; Crouter, 1984; Edward & Rothbard, 2000; Grzywacz, 2000; Kinnunen, Feldt, Geurts, & Pulkkinen, 2006; Kirchmeyer, 1992; Sumer & Knight, 2001; Grzywacz, Almeida, & McDonald, 2002; Stephens, Franks, & Atienza 1997), Workfamily enhancement (Seiber, 1974; Voydanoff, 2002), Work-family enrichment (Carlson et al., 2006; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Grzywacz & Bass, 2003), and workfamily facilitation (Grzywacz, & Butler, 2005; Hill, 2005; Boyar & Mosley, 2007; Frone, 2003; Voydanoff, 2004, 2005; Wayne et al., 2007; Wayne et al., 2004). But recently several studies have reviewed and clarified that the constructs which researchers have used interchangeably may be different depending upon the measures employed (Boyar &

Mosley, 2007; Carlson et al., 2006; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Wayne et al., 2007). These studies have identified that positive spillover, work-family enhancement and work-family enrichment focus on the individual as a unit of analysis while work-family facilitation focuses on the system as a unit of analysis (Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005; Frone, 2003 ). This conceptual distinction between these constructs is important to consider when developing the measure of each construct (Carlson et al., 2006). Despite of the use of the different basic constructs, these studies have contributed to identifying aspects of work life that lead to positive outcomes in family life and aspects of family life that lead to positive outcomes in work life. In a comprehensive theoretical review Srivastava, (2008) has suggested to study and operationally define the concept of work-family facilitation especially in the Indian context. The author has illustrated that there is a considerably strong need for more empirical research on this dimension. Focusing on the benefits of multiple role involvement, the author has further emphasized that empirical research is required on the Indian employees working in the different occupational groups to understand how individual work and family factors contribute to the experience of work-family facilitation. Therefore, in the present study, our aim is to identify the components of work that positively influences the family life and vice versa in the Indian context. The use of open ended responses and their qualitative analysis will enable further exploration of how family and work positively contribute to one another from the perspectives of employees.

Srivastava et al 95

Method Survey and Sample Description The participants for the present study included information technology (IT) employees and Banking Sector employees from different organizations such as ICICI Bank, S.B.I., Bank of Baroda, HDFC Bank and Reliance Telecom situated at Varanasi (N=50). Data were obtained with the help of a short interview schedule that contained 10 open ended questions which were related to the two areas (1). What ways your work life positively influences your family life and, (2). What ways your family life positively influences your work life? Data was obtained with the help of interview schedule, which contained 10 open ended questions about the interface between work and family life. Out of fifty participants, 56% participants were male and 44% were female. Participants were on average 40 years old, but a wide range of age represented (<26 years to > 60 years). Married employees comprised of 425 of sample while unmarried were comprised of 58% of the sample. With respect to the educational qualifications 36 % had obtained bachelor's degrees and 64 % had master's degree. The information regarding the length of service of the participants was found as follows: 24 % of participants had job experience between 5 to 10 years, 42 % between 10 to 20 years and 34 % had 21 years and above years of experience. All the participants in the sample were fulltime paid employees. The participants reported average number of hours spent in paid employment was 54 hours per week. Participants reported their monthly income as follows: 18% participants reported their monthly income 10 thousand and below, 34%

reported their monthly income between 11000 to 20000 and 40% participants reported their monthly income 21000 to 30000 and 8% participants reported their monthly income 31000 and above. Finally, participants were asked to report number of their family members. 16% participants reported number of their family member between 4 to 5, 22% reported number of their family members between 6 to 8 and 24% reported number of their family members 9 and above. Procedure Members of the research team contacted to the respondents, explained in more detail the nature of the study, and arranged an appropriate time and place for the recorded interviews to take place. The interview schedule comprised of ten open ended questions and took approximately forty five minutes time to complete. It comprised of various sections included eliciting data about basic demographic details. Informed consent was sought prior to the interviews and participants were informed. Results We have analyzed the written response to the ten open ended questions which were related to two major areas including in what ways your work life positively influences your family life and in what ways your family life positively influences your work life? The analyses of the data involved organization of the data, acquainting one self with the data, generating major categories and themes, coding the data and interpreting the data (Rossman & Rallis, 2003). Responses of the interview schedule were first analyzed by using open coding to discover name and identify as many as potentially relevant categories and subcategories as possible.

96 Work-family facilitation Table: 1 Aspects of Work That Positively Influence Home Life

S.N. Main Categories Behaviour and Skills Sub categories Communication Skills Decision Making 1. Interpersonal Relationship Work-place Benefits 2. Income Job Satisfaction Profit Work-place Support 3. Emotional Autonomy Time Management Initiative 4. Self Confidence Planning Capacity 47 33 94% 66% 41 42 33 82% 84% 66% Instrumental 42 50 46 33 50 84% 100% 92% 66% 100% Frequency 45 33 % 90% 66%

Table: 2 Aspects of Home That Positively Influence Work Life

S.N. 1.

Main Categories Behaviour and Skills

Sub categories Responsibility Communication Skills Relationship

Frequency 37 47 40 50 50 45

% 74% 94% 80% 100% 100% 90%

2. 3.

Positive Mood Family- Support

Total Instrumental Emotional

Srivastava et al 97

The process of coding revealed that participants have identified not only the aspects of paid work that facilitates family life and but also specific aspects of family life that facilitates work life. To capture this, we have organized the data into two categories for each of the questions being coded (Figure 1). Workto-family facilitation includes aspects of work life which have most frequently identified as facilitator of family life (Table 1). Family-towork facilitation includes those aspects of family life which have most frequently identified as facilitator work life (Table 2). Aspects of work that positively influence the family life The major findings of this qualitative analyses indicated that participants have identified four aspects of work life that positively influences the family life (1) Behaviour and Skills (2) Work-place Benefits (3) Work-place support (4) Autonomy (frequency and percentage of each category is presented in the Table: 1). Behaviour and skills obtained through work, such as communication skills, decision making skills and interpersonal relationship emerged as important aspects of work that positively influence the participants' family life. Most of the participants have reported that "the skills we have acquired at work-place helped me to handle and manage my home life." Relationship with managers, co-workers and clients were also emerged as an important feature of work-place that benefited the family life. Regarding this most of the participants have said that "how to manage the interpersonal relationships in family and social domain, we have learned from our job." Participant's responses indicated that workplace benefits (income, job satisfaction and profit from work) were an important factor that

facilitates the family life. One of the participants has said that "nice income from my job makes me efficient to fulfill the requirements of my family members". Another has revealed that "my bank provide scholarship which is very helpful in educating my children". Similarly participants have said that "my organizations profit keeps in a better mood which in turn positively affects my family life". Support received at work-place (such as instrumental and emotional support) was consistently identified as a most important component of work that positively influenced the participant's family life. One IT sector employee has said that "I can perform my family responsibilities and can easily solve my financial problems very easily due to the support of my organization". Finally, the responses of the participants revealed that perceived autonomy at work was also positively influences the family life. One bank employee has said that "due to the autonomy at work-place we are free to take our own decisions about our work-related matters, which make us confident, save our time and reduce our level of stress, which in turn facilitate our family life." Aspects of home that positively influence the work life Participants were not only reported the aspects of work that enhance their family life but they have also reported three major aspects of family life that benefited their work life such as (1) Behaviour and skills (2) Positive mood (3) Family support (frequency and percentage of each category is presented in the Table: 2). Family based behaviour and skills were identified as benefiting work life. One of the female participants said that, "I'm able to use the same skills I use to manage my household

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to manage my projects at work." Another has revealed that "the way in which I have maintained the relationships at home, enables me to maintain good interpersonal relationship at work. Family support was reported as a most important factor of family life that positively influenced the participant's work life. One banking sector employee has shared his experiences and said "my family members give me enough trust and respect that makes me a better person at work". Another has said "after discussing the problems with my parents, I am in a better position to take important decisions at work." Finally, positive mood was consistently identified as the second most crucial factor that positively influence that participants work life. Employees also identified increased personal well-being, personal time, and psychological and physical wellness as features of their home life that benefited work life. They have consistently reported that "After having good time with my family member/spouse, I come cheerfully at work which in turn positively affects the atmosphere at work". Most of the participants have reported that "mostly I come at work in a fresh mood from the family". Summary and Discussion This study used qualitative research methods to explore employees' perceptions of how work life is positively influenced by the experience of family life and how family life is positively influenced by the experience of work life. The findings revealed aspects of paid work that facilitate the specific aspects of home life as well as aspects of home life that facilitate the specific aspects of paid work. The finding of the present study revealed that work-place benefits was the most frequently

mentioned work factor that benefiting the family life corroborates earlier studies identifying work-place benefits as key feature of work-family facilitation (Wayne, Randel, & Stevens, 2006; Wayne et al, 2007; Allen, 2001; Thomas & Ganster, 1995; Fredrickson & Losada, 2005). These studies have reported that benefits usage likely relates to work-family facilitation for at least three reasons. First, employees' use of benefits creates perception of support for and control of work-family matters and generates more positive work attitudes (Allen, 2001; Thomas & Ganster, 1995). This positive affect reflects positive sentiments or attitudes (Fredrickson & Losada, 2005), such positive attitude at work likely to create greater positive affect to transfer to the family. Work-place support was emerged as the second important factor of work life that positively influences the family life. This finding is in agreement with a number of empirical studies (Berscheid, 2003; Frone et al, 1997; Cobb, 1976; House, 1981; Carlson & Perrewe, 1999; Parasuraman, Greenhaus, & Greenrose, 1992; Fredman & Greenhaus, 2000; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Voydanoff, 2001). It has been found that humans are innately inclined to form strong, harmonious relationships with others (Berscheid, 2003), and when job takes include meaningful interpersonal interactions. People are more likely to engage themselves in work (Kahn, 1990). Thus supportive work environment, including supportive coworkers, supervisors and culture, promote gains that benefit one's family. Research has consistently demonstrated that the positive consequences of work-place support such as reduced perception of role stressors and depression and increased the satisfaction and well-being. Thus, family supportive work environment

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may lead to more positive affect, a sense of energy (Marks, 1977), or confidence from work which carries over and enhances functioning of the family. This finding also fits well with Grzywacz and Butler's (2005) theory of work-family facilitation, which found that jobs with more variety in time and place, and that required greater complexity and social skills, enabled greater work­family facilitation. Findings of the present study further indicated that family support was most crucial factor of family life that positively influenced the participant's work life. This finding is in the accordance with a bulk of empirical studies (Wayne et al, 2006; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Fu & Shaffer, 2001; Noor, 2002; Grzywacz & Marks, 2000). Greenhaus and Powell, (2006) are reported that availably of resources in the family environment influences the extent to which family facilitate work life. Family support is a key resource that leads someone to feel loved, cared for, and valued (King, Mattimore, King, & Adms, 1995), which can foster affect in the family to transfer to the individual's functioning at work. We have found that both Instrumental and emotional support from family positively influence the work life. Instrumental support likely frees the family member to focus his/her time and preserve energy for work when it might otherwise be scarce. It has been also positively influences both the job and life satisfaction (King et al, 1995), suggesting that it positively influences the individual's functioning at work-place. Emotional support refers to the emotions and behaviours in the family that can positively alter the individual's experience of positive affect and ultimately, functioning within work domain. This suggests that relational and psychological aspects of home

life can be important resources in both personal and professional arenas. Previous findings similarly found that interpersonal strengths, such as empathy and helping others (Ruderman, Ohlott, Panzer, & King, 2002) and emotional or practical support received through family relationships (Frame & Shehan, 1994; Pittman & Orthner, 1988; Ruderman et al., 2002; Sinacore & Akcali, 2000), benefited work life. Through "listening to the voices" of those engaged in the work­family interface, this analysis highlighted insights that support and extend the existing theoretical work relating to the facilitative relationship between paid work and family life in a number of ways. First, the facilitative work and home aspects identified in this analysis are largely consistent with Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) theoretical discussion of five categories of role-generated resources (skills and perspectives, psychological and physical resources, social­capital resources, flexibility, and material resources) in that many of the specific categories that emerged in our data could fit into their broad theoretical categories. The facilitative processes Greenhaus and Powell, (2006) describe are also very similar to the processes we noted in our data. Similarly our finding is consistent with the findings of Wayne et al, (2007) which reported that an individual engagement in one life domain (work/family) provides gains (i.e. development affective, capital or efficiency) which contributes to enhanced the functioning of another life domain (i.e. family/work) (Wayne et al., 2007; Carlson et al, 2006 ). Implications, limitations and suggestions for the further investigation The major implications of this qualitative analyses suggests that higher authorities of the

100 Work-family facilitation

organizations should and must develop many developmental activities and training modules to help employees balance their work and family lives. Another most important implication of this qualitative analysis is to provide substantial information for a shift in paradigm that focuses on work­family training and other activities related to facilitation instead of conflict. Although present paper identified various aspects of work and family life that facilitate each other but still has several gap that provides a rationale for further exploration. First, the present investigation focused on the various aspects of work and home life that positively influenced each other, but it did not examine the pathways through which they influence. Therefore to overcome this limitation future research should further explore the pathways through which this process occurs. Second the current study did not explore differences in the experience of work­family facilitation based on demographic variations. A substantial body of research has indicated that variance may occur due to age, gender and other demographic variations. By paying attention to these demographic factors it can be very well explored why different employees experience different level of facilitation and why variation in the responses of employee occur in the identification of specific benefits. In conclusion the qualitative analysis of the study has identified various aspects of work and family life that facilitate each other. Major contributions of the study are: First, the findings of the analyses contribute to theoretical understanding of the work-family facilitation with special reference to the Indian working population. Second the categories and themes identified in the analyses will be

used further development and refinement of theoretical model and measures of workfamily facilitation especially in the Indian context. Finally, the findings of this qualitative exploration can be utilized in designing a quantative study for further understanding of the antecedents and outcomes of work-family facilitation References

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Rossman, G. B., & Rallis, S. F. (2003). Learning in the field: An introduction to qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Ruderman, M. N., Ohlott, P. J., Panzer, K., & King, S. N. (2002). Benefits of multiple roles for managerial women. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 369­386. Sieber, S. D. (1974). Towards a theory of role accumulation. American Sociological Review, 39, 567-578. Sincacore, A. L., & Akcali, F. O. (2000). Men in families: Job satisfaction and selfesteem. Journal of Career Development, 27, 1­13. Srivastava, U. R. (2008). Work-Family Facilitation: An off-neglected aspect of the work- family interface. Journal of Psychological Researches, 52, 91-98. Stephens, M. A. P., Franks, M. M., & Atienza, A. A. (1997). Where two roles intersect: Spillover between parent care and employment. Psychology and Aging, 12, 30-37. Sumer, H. C., & Knight, P. A. (2001).How do people with different attachment style balance work and family? A personality perspective of work-family linkage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 653-663. Thomas, L. T., & Ganster, D. C. (1995). Impact of family supportive work variable on work-family conflict and strain: A control perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 6-15. Voydanoff, P. (2001). Conceptualizing community in the context of work and family. Community, Work and Family, 4, 133-156. Voydanoff, P. (2002). Linkages between the work-family interface and work, family, and individual outcomes: An integrative model. Journal of Family Issues, 23, 138­164. Voydanoff, P. (2004). The effects of work demands and resources on work-to-family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 398­412. Voydanoff, P. (2005). The differential salience of family and community demand and resources for family-towork conflict and facilitation. Journal of Family Economic Issues, 26, 395-417. Wayne, J. H., Grzywacz, J. G., Carlson D. S., & Kacmar, M. K. (2007). Work-family facilitation: A theoretical explanation and model of primary antecedents and consequences. Human Resource Management Review, 17, 63-76. Wayne, J. H., Randel, A. E., & Stevens, J. (2006). The role of identity and work-family support in work-family enrichment and its work-related consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 445-461 Wayne, J.H., Musisca, N., & Fleeson, W. (2004). Considering the role of personality in the workfamily experience: Relationship of big-five to workfamily conflict and facilitation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 108-130. Zedeck, S., & Mosier, K. L. (1990). Work in the family and employing organization. American Psychologist, 45, 240­251.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 103-112 ISSN 0974-9837

Psychosocial Problems and Needs of Parents in Caring Mentally Retarded Children: The Impact of Level of Mental Retardation of children

Shambhu Upadhyay* and Anju Singh**

The present research paper discusses the impact of level of mental retardation of children on the perception of psychosocial problems and needs by parents of mentally retarded children in providing care to them. The study was conducted on a purposive sample of 100 parents (100 mothers and 100 fathers) of mentally retarded children. These samples were collected from various clinics and hospitals having the facility to provide treatment and care for mentally retarded children in Varanasi city. The responses of parents of mentally retarded children were recorded on structured questionnaire and analyzed. Result of the present research shows that the level of psychosocial problems faced by the parents of mentally retarded children increases with the level of mental retardation of the child. Parents of moderately retarded children registered more problems, in all aspects, compared with parents having mildly retarded children. The parents of mildly and moderately retarded children expressed fulfillment of different needs. The needs expressed by the parents of mildly retarded children were more of preventive and adjustment nature whereas parents of moderately retarded children were more concerned with life long adjustment and financial security, including government help, of their child.

Mental Retardation (MR) has been defined as a condition of arrest or incomplete development of brain centers connected to the various mental faculties of the child. According to American Association for the Mentally Deficient (1983) mental retardation refers to a significant sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with defects in adaptive behavior, which manifested during the developmental period. Accardo and Captue (1996) defined mental retardation as a condition characterized by cognitive limitation due to organic brain dysfunction. Seeta Sinclair (1981) described mental retardation as sub average intellectual function combined with subnormal adaptation to a person's surrounding. Researchers have noted that birth of retarded child shatters the hope and aspirations of

parents leading to hopelessness and negative attitude towards the child (Ramaswamy: 1995). Speedwell and associates (2003), in their study, observed that parents of sick or disabled children are likely to be more stressed than parents of non-disabled children and may benefit from being given information about their child's condition and its implications, but the stage at which parents should receive such information and who should provide it, has not been fully investigated. Mental Retardation has posed a great problem throughout the world due to its highly complex, social, medical, psychological, legal and educational components, apart from various unanticipated problems. It is considered as one of the most difficult problem to understand, define, educate and manage to everybody's satisfaction at different levels of

* Reader, Department of Psychology, M.G. Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi ** Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, M.G. Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi

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the human community. In recent years a sharp increase in the number of studies, on working with parents of mentally retarded children, have been brought out with valuable information. The parents as an agency of socialization have great impact on the personality development of the child. In the present day society the status of mental deficiency and maladjustment has become an alarming universal problem. Objective The present research paper attempts to elaborate the perception of parents of mentally retarded children regarding the psychosocial problems and needs in providing care to them, specifically related with mild and moderately retarded children.

within the age group of 12-15 years (54%) followed by 6-8 years (26%) and 9-11 years (20%) respectively. Some parents were having male MRC whereas others having female MRC. Around 59 percent of parents in the sample have male MRC in comparison to 41% parents who have female MRC. Majority of the parents were having MRC of mild category (55%) followed by 40% in moderate category. Tools 1. The Parents Problem Inventory (PPI) developed by the investigator was used to assess the psychosocial problems of educated and uneducated fathers and mothers of mentally retarded children. The Parent Problem Inventory consists of 57 items distributed over nine (9) problems areas- family problems, physical, social, financial, vocational, child management, psychological, professional advice and psychosomatic problems. In each area the number of items varied from 3-10. The respondents have answer by choosing 'Yes' or 'No' on each item. If the response was 'Yes' a score of "2" was given. For 'No' response a score of "1" was given. The higher the score the greater was the problems of parents with the mentally retarded children. The reliability and validity of the inventory was found to be satisfactory. 2. Family need schedule (parents) adopted from Reeta Peshawaria (1995) was used to elicit the needs of parents having children with mental retardation. This schedule had 45 items under 15 domains, they are information-condition, child management, facilitating interaction, services, vocational planning, sexuality, marriage, hostel, personal-emotional support, physical, financial, family relations, future planning and government benefits. A qualitative scoring system

Method

Sample The study was conducted on a purposive sample of 100 parents (100 mothers and 100 fathers) of mentally retarded children. Various clinics and hospitals having the facility to provide treatment and care for mentally retarded children in Varanasi city were initially identified. From the OPD and/or Inpatients department of these hospitals, 150 parents of the mentally retarded children were incidentally sampled. However, 50 parents were not included in the present study either because (1) either father or mother of the MR child was not accessible for data collection, and/or (2), either father or mother showed their unwillingness to participate in the present study. Thus, only those 100 parents were included in the study in which mothers and fathers both agreed to participate in the study and were accessible for data collection. The final sample included both parents having a male and parents having a female mentally retarded child. The majority of the parents were having MRC

Upadhyay and Singh 105

based on the intensity of the need felt was evolved to assign numerical values for each of the parents response to every item on the schedule. The score of each item on the schedule ranged from no need- 0, little- 1 and very much- 2. It was considered that greater the score, greater was the need felt. At the end of each main area provision was made to have total and mean score. At the end of the schedule total need score and mean score was listed. The test retest reliability coefficient for the respondents (parents) was found to be 0.75. Procedure The researchers personally visited the different location selected for the study of mentally retarded children and explained the purpose of the study to the parents of MR children. The Parent Problem Inventory (PPI) and the NIMH Family Need Schedule (NIMH- FNS) were individually administered on the parents of MR Children. In order to examine that father and mother of a given MR child present their

own view and not the views of their spouse on the said questionnaires, the said questionnaires were administered separately on fathers and mothers in the presence of investigator. After getting back the filled questionnaires the investigators examined that respondents have given their answers to each and every question. If any question/item was found unresponded then the questionnaire was referred back to the respondents with the request to make their answer on the unanswered items. After getting back the completed questionnaires, the responses were scored as per the predetermined standard scoring procedure. Result In order to compare the mean scores obtained by the parents having mild and moderate mentally retarded children on various dimensions of psychosocial problems, 't' test was performed and the obtained results have been presented in Table1.

Table-1: Comparison of Mean scores (with SD) obtained by parents of mild and moderate mentally retarded children on various dimensions of socio-psychological problems inventory

Problem Areas Family Problems Psychological Problems Physical problems Social Problems School adjustment problems Financial Problems Child rearing and management problems Psychosomatic problems Professional advise problems Mild Means± SD N=55 14.69 ± 2.74 7.44 ± 1.78 9.09 ± 1.00 11.01± 2.40 9.41± 1.41 7.31± 1.57 7.27 ± 1.50 9.41± 1.40 8.31± 1.57 Moderate Means ± SD N=45 17.37± 3.18 8.93 ± 1.65 11.12± 3.05 11.22± 2.46 10.80 ± 1.21 8.78± 1.98 9.15± 1.90 10.76± 1.36 9.78± 1.98 t-value 4.5262** 4.3026** 4.6447** [email protected] 5.2231** 4.1413** 5.5299** 4.8591** 4.1413**

**:P< .01 @:Not Significant

It is evident from Table-1 that the two groups of parents, divided on the basis of level of retardation of their child, differed significantly

(except for social problems) regarding various types of psychosocial problems associated with providing care to MR children.

106 Psychosocial Problems and Needs of Parents

A careful analysis of the Mean scores (Table1) obtained by parents of the mildly and moderately retarded children on various dimensions of socio-psychological problems reflects that parents of the mildly retarded children did not score higher in any area of psycho-social problems in comparison to parents of moderately retarded children who scored higher for all of the psycho-social problems such as Family (M=17.37), Psychological (M=8.93), Physical (M=11.12), Social (M=11.22), School and Vocational (M=10.80), Financial (M=8.78), Child rearing and Management (M=9.15), Psychosomatic (M=10.76) and Professional

Advice (M=9.78) problems. Another related aspect of the present research includes the assessment of the differences in experience levels of sociopsychological needs of the parents of mildly mentally retarded children and moderately mentally retarded children .To analyse the statistical significance of the difference the mean scores obtained by parents of mild and moderate mentally retarded children on various dimensions of socio-psychological needs were compared using t-test and the obtained results have been presented in Table2.

Table-2: Comparison of Mean scores obtained by parents of mild and moderate mentally retarded children, on various dimensions of socio-psychological needs inventory

Need Area Information condition Child management Facilitating Interaction Services Vocational Planning Sexuality Marriage Hostel Personal- Emotional Personal-Social Support-physical Financial Family relationship Future planning Government benefits Mild N=55 Mean± SD 7.16 ± 2.35 10.23 ± 1.99 5.02 ± 3.77 7.19 ± 2.71 1.59 ± 0.86 0.93 ± 0.91 0.57 ± 0.84 1.16 ± 1.61 3.80 ± 1.15 1.94 ± 0.48 2.18 ± 1.80 3.86 ± 2.35 6.53 ± 1.10 2.04 ± 0.43 2.971 ± 1.006 Moderate N=45 Mean ± SD 5.66 ± 1.93 10.05 ± 1.66 7.27 ± 3.95 9.27 ± 1.92 1.61 ± 1.20 0.88 ± 0.93 0.71 ± 0.90 1.39 ± 1.69 4.82 ± 1.51 2.45 ± 0.63 3.56 ± 2.07 5.46 ± 2.24 6.37 ± 1.53 2.02 ± 0.16 3.64 ± 0.773 t-value 3.4365** 0.4843 2.906** 4.3335** 0.0969 0.2707 0.8029 0.695 3.83332** 4.593** 3.5648** 3.4589** 0.6073 0.2955 3.5833**

Note:**Significant at 0.01% level of probability

As evident from Table-2 ,the two groups of parents, divided on the basis of level of retardation of their child, differed significantly in relation to various types of psychosocial needs associated with providing care to MR children.

The Mean scores (Table2) obtained by the parents of mild and moderate mentally retarded children, on various dimensions of socio-psychological needs suggest that parents of mildly retarded children scored higher

Upadhyay and Singh 107

mean values and expressed more needs for Information Condition (M=7.16), Child Management (M=10.23), Sexuality (M=0.93), Family Relationship (M=6.53), Future Planning (M=2.04); whereas parents of moderately retarded children scored higher mean values for Facilitating Interaction (M=7.27), Services (M=9.27), Vocational Planning (M=1.61), Marriage (M=0.71), Hostel (M=1.39), Personal Emotional (M=4.82), Personal Social (M=2.45), Support-Physical (M=3.56), Financial (M=5.46) and Government Benefits (M=3.64). Further, to find out statistical significance of pattern of mean difference on need requirements of parents of mentally retarded children, in relation to the level of retardation of their children, t-test was conducted. It was found that mean difference was statistically significant for needs like Information Condition, Facilitating Interaction, Services, Personal-Emotional, Personal-Social, SupportPhysical, Financial and Government Benefits. Discussion The intensity level of various psychosocial problems faced by the parents of MR children has direct linkages with the level of retardation of their child. The present paper attempts to find out the difference in the experience levels of parents having MR children of different levels of retardation and the achieved results establish such notion. The parents of moderately retarded children registered greater problems, compared to those of mildly retarded children, for family problems, psychological problems, physical problems, school adjustment problems, financial problems, child rearing and management problems, psychosomatic problems and professional advice problems. However, for

social problems, parents of moderately retarded children noted greater problems but did not differed significantly from parents of mildly retarded children. Family problems were more in the parents of moderately retarded children as compared to parents of mildly retarded children. The reason for such higher values might be that the parents of moderately retarded children were facing more risk in marital life which arose due to the conflicts between wife and husband in properly sharing the additional needs for caring the MRC. Further, adding to this they often bear the blame by in laws, for one thing or the other, lack of time for any sort of recreation that also results in blaming each other for giving birth to such a child, or for fear of giving birth to another such child and so on. For the parents of mildly retarded children, comparatively, the family problems were at a lesser level and the parents help themselves with a keep going tendency. Somewhat similar results and reasons could be offered from the studies of Seiquira & associates (1990) in relation to severely retarded children. Seth (1979) in his enquiry showed that mothers perceived large number of associated problems like behavior problems, seizures, poor comprehension, drooling of saliva etc were more disruptive for attending the routine family activities. Therefore it was very difficult to those mothers who were all time housewives with least help from other agencies. Regarding the psychological problems, parents of moderately retarded children noted more problems than those of mildly retarded children. This might be due to that the parents of moderately retarded children primarily worry about the future of the MRC, and they felt sad or depressed at various occasions of life of the children, some families faced adverse

108 Psychosocial Problems and Needs of Parents

rejection or neglect from the other elder family members. Furthermore, it was noted that the parents of female MRC with moderate retardation were invariably undergoing unexplainable mental agony about the child's sex protection and marriage and the kind of future than the other counterpart who had lesser needs. With reference to physical problems of the parents, the parents of moderately retarded children reported more problems parents of mildly retarded children. This difference might be due to lack of connected thinking and poor cognitive that may likely be essential to learn and follow even some of the basic daily routine activities. In case of moderately retarded children the condition was very bad and they were depended completely on their parents hence parents of this group encounter more physical strain and burden. Sometimes they wish to put this burden on other family members. School and vocational problems were found more in parents of moderately retarded children as compared to parents of mildly retarded children. The reason is quite understandable that the moderately retarded children depend much on parents for the most of their basic needs, they might be able to walk and to some extent manipulated objects but they were incapable of looking after themselves at any point of time, even within house environment. Hence, parents found it difficult to get admission for their retarded children in schools or in any such institutes and often they might be troublesome to others in many routine activities. Tangri and Verma (1992) compared the social burden between the mothers of mentally handicapped children with those of the mothers of the physically handicapped and

reported that former category of mothers had higher social burden. Some other investigations also reported that the mothers of the female mentally retarded children most often reported greater burden because of onset and many needs for unexplainable services, which lead to restlessness and mental strain to majority of the mothers with moderate to severe MRC. The financial problems of parents of moderately retarded were more as compared with parents of mildly retarded children. The reason could, thus, be envisaged that the parents of moderately retarded children spend much of their income, beyond their total capacities, with the fond hope that their children will grow normal one day or the other and expect some kind of miracle to happen from some unknown sources i.e. God. Seiquira & associates (1990) found that more than 50% of the mothers of mentally retarded children were having severe financial burden. Jain and Satyavathi (1969) reports that 61% of parents studied by them had financial constraints. Many earlier studies on mentally retarded children also have reported rising financial burden because of two reasons, one is additional expenditure involved in caring for the MRC and the other is reduced sources of income because the parents had to spend extra time in parenting severely retarded children. (Mc Andrew: 1976, Seth: 1979 and Veena: 1985) In regard to child rearing and management problems, parents of moderately retarded children nodded for more problems as compared to those of mildly retarded. There was every reason that the parents of moderately retarded children were to take nursing care round the clock to attend their routine life activities, which demand prolonged dependency for years. They cannot

Upadhyay and Singh 109

walk cautiously, bath, dress or even feed properly for themselves. The other problem of the MCR was the odd behavior patterns, which require constant surveillance not only during daytime, but also in some instances during nights as well. The Psychosomatic Problems were also more in parents of moderately retarded children in comparison to parents of mildly retarded children. The reason might be that the parents of moderately retarded children undergo more mental agony and might face ridicule, which in turn lead to psychosomatic problems of unimaginable tensely and gravely disparate moods and behavior and develop a feeling of negligence to life forces in day to day activities. The present results are at par with the results of Magra & colleagues (1999), who have stated that mothers face many challenges such as poor health to care for their loved ones with mental retardation. Professional advice problems were found more in parents of moderately retarded children as compared to those of mildly retarded children. The reason might be that the abnormal behavior problems in moderately retarded children create greater amount of stress and management difficulties to parents. Sometimes wrong advice given by well wishers and faith healers to improve the child condition often prove very dangerous and worst. Therefore, taking advice from the concerned professionals always result in a better pattern of behavior in MRC. Parents of mildly retarded children were also mislead by the so called well wishers and miracle propagators through rituals in the society who believe myth and magic for healing chronic problems, which create irreparable problems with heavy loss of money and parents deeply repent for not taking suitable timely advise

from professionals, who are well versed in the field to solve the problems with reasonable thought and experience. Level of retardation of the child has is a crucial factor in relation to the needs of parents in providing care to mentally retarded children. The present study compared the level of needs among parents having mildly and moderately retarded children. The results received from this comparison reveal that parents with mildly retarded children had higher needs only for information condition; whereas parents of moderately retarded children responded more for needs related with facilitating interaction, services, personal-emotional, personal-social, support-physical, financial and government benefits. The need for information condition was felt more among parents of mildly retarded children as compared to those of moderately retarded. The reason for such higher value was that after knowing that their child has mental retardation the parents get utterly confused and this jargon probably make no sense for them as what do with mental retardation, why it occurs, any cure for it, what is the prognosis, that implies whether the retarded child become normal or not? If so, when and how? This jargon of confused ideas make the parents desperately try to know more about their child's condition. The results of present investigation for the parents of mild retarded children revealed that the condition for their children was somewhat better as compared to the parents of moderately retarded children. So, they hoped and decided to give better training and intervene through the information schedule relating for better level of the children, if information and condition of the child was properly understood and timely implemented.

110 Psychosocial Problems and Needs of Parents

Regarding facilitating interaction needs, the parents of moderately retarded children responded more then their counterparts having mildly retarded children. The possible reason might be that the birth of a child with mental retardation invariably caused stress for parents. The kind and degree of stress experienced and the nature of adjustment required highly depends upon the critical level of the child's condition. The findings of the present study illustrate that moderately retarded child automatically needs more care, nurturance and support as long as s/he is in awakening state, produces extra burden on the parents. Hence, the support of spouse and other members for one thing or the other is of utmost important. Other members must recognize, understand and finally accept the child with mental retardation and need to support him with responsibility. The parents and other members need to work through their emotional reactions and concerns and understand the problems and need of the child and promptly intervene with approved intervention programs for more successful facilitating interaction, which provided the MRC with better management of their environment under identical circumstances. The concern of siblings varies according to the nature and degree of severity of their handicapped siblings' disability. Key concerns were many such as how to deal with parents, friends, relatives and acquaintances and what kind of future they could expect for their handicapped sibling as well as for themselves; seem to be similar across types of impairments (Murphy: 1976). In regard with the services needs, the parents with moderately retarded children nodded more requirements as compared to parents of mildly retarded children. This might be due to fact that in comparison with mildly retarded,

moderately retarded individuals had poor ability to learn and they might not understand their own needs and ignore much of the basic need and grossly neglected the patterns of behavior which would help them to live a bit harmoniously in the social environment, some what in contrast to the normal individuals for whom learning during their interaction with the environment is not a problem. For example, the habits like eating, toileting, bathing or dressing skills etc. were totally ignored by the two groups. Hence, to practice these needs the parents of moderately retarded individuals should look for professionals like special educators and clinical psychologists who have marked skills to help them critically in the choice of services needs. But much depends upon what kind of professional services were available in practice for their children with moderate mental retardation. This aspect of judgment for effective services need would be left to the choice of parents. Personal-emotional needs for parents of MR children were more among moderately retarded than mildly retarded category. This might be due to that the parents of moderately retarded children were unable to understand much of their self thinking, to clearly discriminate their own problems and did not adjust faster, leaving the emotional trends. Sometimes they tried to solve their problems on their own with less chances of sharing with others and hiding the true emotional internal feelings about the child's retardation. This kind of obstinacy might result in very difficult ways and spoil things and might lead to form untold depression. Hence, trained counselor or psychologists or trained social workers or the professionals should not be ignored by the parents who in turn resolve slowly their personal emotional needs in a more rational and better way.

Upadhyay and Singh 111

The personal-social needs of the parents were also significantly more among moderately retarded children's parents. This difference perhaps might be primarily due to the hesitant attitude of some parents to take their retarded children along with them to public or family functions, because they found it very difficult and uneasy to answer queries of people regarding the condition of their children. Further, parents with MRC often had to deal with positive and adverse reaction of the neighbors as they talk about the behavior of their children. These reactions might range from fearful conduct or aggressive rejection to answer questions. Friends do not fully understand the problems faced by the parents in raising their MR children with special needs and they indulge in all kinds of unwanted and inexperienced advises which were utter useless to them. Hence, the parents of moderated children preferred more of personal-social needs to come out of such problems. With regard to support-physical needs, the parents of moderately retarded children responded more needs as compared with parents of mildly retarded children. The reasons might be that the parents were generally known to face maximum stress and strain owning to the major responsibility of bringing up the MRC, were more in the case of moderately retarded children. They struggled between meeting the time bound household chores and in attending the mentally retarded child's extra needs. Hence parents of moderately retarded children preferred support physical need expecting somebody to share the extra needs of the retarded child at least when they were busy with guest and other personal routine. Financial needs were also more among parents

of moderately retarded children as compared to parents of mildly retarded children. The reason for such higher response is the condition of mental retardation that is certainly life-long and a person with mental retardation could not achieve total financial independence. If parents' resources permit, parents consider financial planning when the child with mental retardation was young so that the expenses towards living training and rehabilitation could be met out of their savings and management at his adulthood. Small savings in the name of the retarded child made by the parents in a span of 20-25 years could grow into a large sum enough to generate interest to meet the living expenses of the person with MR with or with out a life partner or a friend or well wisher, neighbor or servant for a long time even after the death of the parents thus the parents savings would be an eternal treasure to them for life time. Government benefits were another need area that noted more response from parents of moderately retarded children. The reason for this might be that the majority of the parents of mentally retarded children were not aware of the commonly available concessions, the free bus and train travel, income tax benefits and scholarships for training in special schools etc. earmarked especially for them which might improve the saving levels of the MRC by the parents and the related. Mehata (1983) in his book entitled "Handbook of disabled in India" surveyed the problems abroad and in the context of national scene. He also covered the categories of the disabled, specific disabled groups, facilities and concessions available and allied matters in more elaborate way and lucid enough to understand. Mothers and fathers of mentally retarded

112 Psychosocial Problems and Needs of Parents

children did not differ significantly in the need areas like child management, vocational planning, sexuality, marriage, hostel, family relations and future planning. The foregoing areas of no significant difference among the needs of parents in these areas might not remain the same in future and when some of the needs gain significances at the levels of individual parents level suitably they should be guided to successfully go ahead with other needy areas to over come the problems as much as possible in the direction MRC management. In essence nothing can replace the role of parents in bringing up MRC. Conclusion The above discussion amply clears that the level of psychosocial problems faced by the parents of mentally retarded children increases with the level of mental retardation of the child. Parents of moderately retarded children registered more problems, in all aspects, compared with parents having mildly retarded children. The parents of mildly and moderately retarded children expressed fulfillment of different needs. The needs expressed by the parents of mildly retarded children were more of preventive and adjustive nature whereas parents of moderately retarded children were more concerned with life long adjustment and financial security, including government help, of their child. References

A Survey of Research in Psychology (1972). Indian Council of Social Sciences Research. Popular Prakashan, Accardo, P. M., Capute, A. J.(1996). Mental Retardation, In A. J. Capute and P. M. Accardo (Eds) Developmental Disabilities. Infancy and Childhood, 2nd ed. Paul Brookes, Baltimore.

Magra, Sandra Marie, Brandeis U. (1999). Puert Rican mothers of adults with mentally retarded: the impact of cultural values on life long care in The F. Heller Grad Sch. For Advance Studies in Social Welfare, Mc Andrew.I., (1976). Children with a handicap and their families. Child Care, Health and Development, 2, Murphy, A., Pareschel, S., Duffy, T., & Brady E. (1976). Meeting with brothers and sisters of children of Down's Syndrome. Children Today, 5, Ramaswamy, K. (1995). Parental Attitude towards Mentally Retarded Children. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 22, Reeta P., et al., (1995). Understanding Indian Families having persons with mental retardation. National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped, Secunderabad, Seiquira, E. M., Rao, P. M., Subbu Krishna, D.K. & Prabhu G. G. (1990). Perceived burden and coping styles of the mothers of mentally handicapped. NIMHANS Journal, 8(1), Seth, S., (1979). Mental attitude towards mentally retarded children. In E. G. Parameswaran and S. Bhogle (Ed.), Developmental Psychology, New Delhi, Light and Life Publishers, Sinclair, Seeta, Rehabilitation of the Mentally Handicapped in India. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 48, Number 6/ November, 1981 Speedwell, L., Stanton, F. & Nischal, K.K., Informing Parents of Visually Impaired Children: Who should do it and when? Child: Care, Health and Development, 29, Issue 3, May 2003 Tangri, P. and Verma, P., A study of social burden felt by mothers of handicapped children. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, Vo.8 (1&2), 1992 Veena, S.G. (1985). Management Problems and Practices of Homemakers with a disabled member in the family. The India Journal of Social Work, 65, 4.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 113-117 ISSN 0974-9837

Women's Rights Awareness of Urban and Rural Adolescent Girls of Uttar Pradesh: A Comparative Study

Mukta Garg* and Srilata**

The period of adolescence (11-18) years is said to be the period which begins with sexual maturity and ends with legal maturity. Girls should have knowledge about their rights; due to lack of knowledge the adolescent girls in India have been found to face a number of problems like early marriage, unwanted pregnancies, domestic violence, death due to dowry, dropouts from school etc. In the present study 200 adolescent girls were selected from the different cities of Uttar Pradesh, 100 from urban areas and 100 from rural areas. A survey, was conducted using a self-prepared interview schedule to collect the data about the knowledge of adolescent girls in urban and rural areas in regard to women's rights. The results showed that the difference of knowledge regarding right to health, right to freedom, political rights, property rights and domestic violence against women's, was found to be significant among rural and urban adolescent girls, whereas the difference of knowledge regarding right to education, reservation of seats in every panchayat and in each municipality for women, dowry rights and directive principles that concern women workers was found to be non-significant among rural and urban adolescent girls.

Adolescents form a major portion of country's population. Development of a country depends upon them at large. But they face many problems related to sexual issues and rights as they don't have the knowledge about their rights (Madan, 2000). Teachers and parents do not provide adequate information about these issues to their children. Literacy rate in females is lower than in males. In 1999 about 40% of girls had no education. Girls' education level has still not improved much. In addition, adolescent girls particularly between age group (14-19 years) are more prone to gender discrimination, early marriage, early pregnancy, high school dropouts etc. and have little unawareness of their rights (UNICEF, 1998). Women represent a disadvantaged section of

the society. The inequalities in the social, political and economic spheres are manifested in the adverse sex ratio, poor educational and nutritional status, inequality in wages, and prevalence of violence against women, including trafficking. Let us consider the following statistics: · · · · · In India, 42 girls per thousand die before the age of five compared to 29 boys. 40 percent of India's women are literate compared to 67 percent of males. 43 percent of Indian girls attend primary school compared to 62 percent of boys. There are only 93 women for every 100 men in India. In every 102 minutes one women die in India due to dowry related violence one

* Assistant Professor, Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, C.S.A.University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. **M.Sc. Student. Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, C.S.A.University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur.

114 Women's Rights Awareness

women is molested every 26 minutes or raped in 54 minutes or kidnapped in every 43 minutes (National Crime Bureau). Therefore the present study entitled "Women's rights awareness of urban and rural adolescent girls of Uttar Pradesh" was planed to highlight these issues. Objectives · To assess the knowledge related to women's rights of urban adolescent girls. · To assess the knowledge related to women's rights of rural adolescent girls · To assess the differences in knowledge

related to women's rights of urban and rural adolescent girls. Method A structured interview scheduled with close ended questions was prepared by the researcher and was used for data collection in the present study. The sample comprised of 200 adolescent girls, 100 from urban area and 100 from rural area were randomly selected from the selected cites of Uttar Pradesh. The data was collected using survey method. Statistical analysis was performed using chisquire test. Results and Discussion

Table- 1: Comparison of adolescent girls of urban and rural areas to their knowledge about Fundamental Rights.

Urban n=100 % Rural n=100 % Total N=200 %

2 c

S. No. 1.

Fundamental Rights State obligations relating to right to health a) Know b) Don't Know State obligations relating to right to Education a) Know b) Don't Know Constitutional Provisions for protection of rights of freedom includes. a) Know b) Don't Know Constitution Provides that the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of : a) Know b) Don't Know

S/NS

91 9

64 36

77.5 22.5

20.903*

S

2.

72 28

59 41

65.5 34.5

3.739

NS

3.

4.913* 72 28 57 43 64.5 35.5

S

4.

7.167* 88 12 73 27 80.5 19.5

S

* S = at 5% level, NS = Non significant

Garg and Srilata 115

Table shows, knowledge regarding, state obligations relating to right to health; the urban adolescent girls had must knowledge (91%) than the rural adolescent girls (64%). The difference was found to be significant (2 value 20.903) at 5% level of significance. Knowledge regarding state obligations relating to right to education; In urban area the percentage of girls having knowledge (72%) was little more than the girls in rural area (59%). The difference was found to be nonsignificant (2 value 3.739) at 5% level of significance.

Knowledge regarding constitutional provisions for protection of rights of freedom includes; the urban adolescent girls had must knowledge (72%) than the rural adolescent girls (57%). The difference was found to be significant (2 value 4.913) at 5% level of significance. Knowledge regarding constitution provide that the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of the urban adolescent girls had must knowledge (88%) than the rural adolescent girls (73%). The difference was found to be significant (2 value 7.167) at 5% level of significance.

Table-2: Comparison of adolescent girls of urban and rural areas to their knowledge about Directive principal.

Directive Principles that concern women workers Directive Principles that concern women workers directly. a) Know b) Don't Know Urban n=100 % Rural n=100 % Total N=200 %

2 c S/NS

S. No.

1.

71 29

58 42

64.5 35.5

3.690

NS

* S = Significant, NS = Non-Significant

Knowledge regarding 'directive principles that concern women workers directly are'. Majority of the girls both in urban and rural areas (71% and 58%) respectively had

knowledge about this. The difference of knowledge was found to be non-significant as shown by the X2 value of 3.690 in the table.

Table-3: Comparison of Adolescent girls of urban and rural areas to their knowledge about Political Rights of women.

Political Rights. The Political rights of women the terms of this convention woman are to be on equal terms with men, without any discrimination, in being entitled. a) Know b) Don't Know Reservation of seats in every panchayat and in each municipality for women a) Know b) Don't Know Urban n=100 % Rural n=100 % Total n=200 %

2 c

S/NS

7.327* 76 24 58 42 67 33

S

10 90

5 95

7.5 92.5

0.015

NS

* S = significant, NS = Non-Significant

116 Women's Rights Awareness

On studying the knowledge about "the political rights of women the terms of this convention woman are to be an equal terms with men without any discrimination in being entitled" the urban adolescent girls had must knowledge (76%) than the rural adolescent girls. The difference was found to be significant. (2 value 7.327) at .05 level of

significance knowledge regarding 'Reservation of seats in every panchayat and in each municipality for women. Both the urban and rural girls had less knowledge. The percentage of urban adolescent girls knowing this was 10% and in rural girls it was 5%. The difference was found to be non-significant (2 value 0.015) at .05 level of significance.

Table-4: Comparison of Adolescent girls of urban and rural areas to their knowledge about dowry rights.

S. No. Dowry rights The Dowry given by parents of girls at the time of marriages, who has rights on this : a) Know b) Don't Know If the wife had died within less than 3 months of her marriage, who has rights on the article constituting Dowry. Urban n=100 % Rural n=100 % Total n = 200 % X2 S/NS

1

66 34

53 47

59.5 40.5 3.507 NS

2

a) Know b) Don't Know

55 45

45 55

50 50

2.000

NS

* S = at 5% level, NS = Non-Significant

Both the girls of urban & rural areas had knowledge about who has rights on the dowry given by parents of girls at the time of marriages, the percentage of urban adolescent girls have knowledge (66%) was little more than the girls have knowledge (53%) in rural area. The difference was found to be nonsignificant as shown by the 2 value of 3.507. On further enquire, girls were asked about 'If

the wife had died within less than 3 months of her marriage who has rights on the article constituting Dowry' The majority of urban adolescent girls had knowledge whereas in rural area the percentage of girls knowing about this (45%) was little less than girls in urban area (55%). The difference was found to be non-significant as shown by the 2 value of 2.000 in the table.

Table- 5: Comparison of Adolescent girls of urban and rural areas to their knowledge about Property Rights.

Property Rights Right of widow in deceased husband's property brings to an end Know Don't Know Urban n=100 % Rural n=100 % Total n=200 %

2 c

S/NS

68 32

52 48

60 40

5.333*

S

* S = at 5% level, NS = Non-Significant

Garg and Srilata 117

Further it was enquired in the study that whether the girls were having the knowledge about 'Property rights'. The girls were asked about 'Rights of widow in deceased husband's property brings to an end'. In urban areas majority of the adolescent girls had knowledge about property rights. Whereas in rural areas the percentage of girls knowing (52%) was must less the girls in urban areas (68%). The difference was found to be significant. The 2 value of 5.333 was found to be significant at .05 level of significance. Conclusion The results showed that the difference of knowledge regarding right to health, right to freedom, political rights, property rights, domestic violence against women's rights, was found to be significant among rural and urban adolescent girls, whereas the difference of knowledge regarding right to education, reservation of seats in every panchayat and in each municipality for women, dowry rights and directive principles that concern women workers was found to be non-significant among rural and urban adolescent girls. The study emphasize the need to develop women rights education package for school going girls and intervention programmes for non-school going girls which can be implemented at Mahila Mandal or Anganwadi centers of various villages. Some of this knowledge is spreading in the adolescent population, but the dissemination is slow and uncertain. Mass media generally do not include such sensitive and controversial issues; therefore, more informal means of dissemination may play an important role.

References:

Census of India (1981). Ministry of health and family welfare. Government of India Press shimla (1983). Madan, R. (2000). Education and employment: Agents of women's empowerment abstract of int.women,s conference on Women's status : Vision and reality held at New Delhi. (27 Feb-2 March) p.183. Rashid S.F. (2006). Emerging changes in reproductive behavior among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, Reproductive health Matters, 14 (27). Sex of India Iloveindia: www.iloveindia.com/population of - of India / sexratio.html UNICEF India Statistics. Volunteer Ramblings: Status of Women in India http/volunteer thoughts blogspot.com/ 2005/09/status of women in India in over all.html

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 118-121 ISSN 0974-9837

Behavioural Adjustment of Pre-adolescent Children of Working and Non-working Mothers

Roopali Sharma* and Monika Dharmawat*

The present investigation was conducted with a view to conduct a comparative study: of behavioural adjustment of pre-adolescent children of working and non-working mothers. Sample consisted of 120 Pre-adolescent children which was further divided into three groups:- (A) Pre-adolescent Children of working mothers. (B) Pre-adolescent Children of non-working mothers. (C) Groups of Pre-adolescent Children divided on the basis of Gender (Boy & Girls) of both working and non-working mother. Preadolescent adjustment Scale (P.A.A.S.) was administered to know about the adjustment level of the children. Findings revealed significant difference among three groups and girls were found to be higher in adjustment level in all the groups. (A,B,C) in comparison to Boys.

Social behaviour is defined as the interaction which takes place between human organism and his environment. Social behaviour may be classified on the basis of social processes involved in it, such as adjustment, Cooperation etc. The most commonly discussed factor possibly responsible for the influence of maternal work on child development and health is that working women cannot spend as much time on childcare as non-working women due to the dual role played as income earner and childcare provider. In some situations it seems that children of working mothers actually benefit compared to those of non-working mothers. The years from 8-11 are a time of great increase in social development. This is socially a most decisive stage (Erikson, 1963). Between the years 8-11 child's awareness of other and his surrounding greatly increase (Sutton and Smith, 1973). English and English (1958) defines adjustment as a condition of harmonious relation to the environment where in one is able to obtain satisfaction for most of one's needs and to meet

fairly well the demands of physical and social nature. Every member of the family occupies a vital position in the interaction map of the child but among them the role of the mother is very important and varied. According to Mussen (1963) among the various agents of socialization in the family, mother plays a distinct and important role in the development of personal characteristic, social behaviour and emotional adjustment, motivation and many of the such traits. Few researchers in developing countries found that working women spent less time on childcare as compared to non-working women (Basu & Basu, 1991; Sivakami, 1997 for India; Paolisso et al. 1991 for Kenya, Wongboonsin & Ruffalo, 1992 for Thailand). Mother's time investment in child care is presumed to be strongly influenced by whether she is economically active or not. Due to the natural constraint of time, a working woman would have less time at her disposal for childcare as compared to non-working woman. Women when participate in the labour market are believed to spend less time in maternal

* Dr. Roopali Sharma, Lecturer, Department of Psychology, G.N. Girls College, Udaipur. ** Ms. Monika Dharmawat, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Udaipur.

Sharma and Dharmawat 119

activities such as feeding, bathing and other activities than those who do not participate in market activities. Also, working women may not be able to provide care with the some intensity to their children as non-working women. Current research also looks at positive outcomes of working mothers. Some studies show that while the lack of a mother's presence can impact a child negatively, this impact is not as severe as what occurs if the mother does not work. Such factors include poverty, parental education, and quality childcare (Booth, 2000). Method It consists of 120 Pre-adolescent children. They were further divided into three groups:Group (A) Pre-adolescent Children of working mothers. (B) Pre-adolescent Children of nonworking mothers. (C) Groups of Pre-adolescent Children divided on the basis of Gender (Boy Table 1.1

Working Mothers Girls Boys Mean 19.17 10.33 S.D. 12.71 20.40

& Girls) of both working and non-working mothers. Their age ranged from 8 to 11 years, all the children were taken from different homes. Tools Pre-adolescent Adjustment Scale (P.A.A.S.) developed by Pareek and Rao (1971) was administered on all the Pre-adolescent children with view to know about their adjustment level. Procedure Each child was contacted personally in their home then the P.A.A.S. was administered to all the children. Investigator also explained about some questions asked by subject to get correct response. Subjects were not allowed to keep the scale with them at home. Scoring of P.A.A.S. was done as per instructions provided in the manual. Results & Discussion

Difference of Mean 8.83

`t' Value 2.01

Significance 0.05 (S)

Analysis of data revealed significant difference between the mean scores of P.A.A.S. among pe-adolescent girls and boys of working and non-working mothers. As table 1.1 indicates that the mean score was found to be significant at .05 level (2.01) and pre-adolescent girls mean score (19.17) was found to be more than boys (10.33). It indicates that while comparing adjustment on the basis of gender, it was found that pre-adolescent girls of working mothers are better adjusted in comparison to boys.

They are better in adjusting at every stage of life in comparison to boys. Pathak (1970) did a study on sex difference on school children in the area of adjustment. The results indicate that girls face more problems than boys. But they are found to be better in area of the home adjustment. But the critical ratio calculated in this respect was found to be non-significant. Thus, indicating that girls are better than boys in case of adjustment in every area.

120 Behavioural Adjustment of Pre-adolescent Children

Table 1.2

Non-Working Mothers Girls Boys Mean 17.43 8.43 S.D. 13.59 20.62 Difference of Mean 9.00 `t' Value 2.00 Significance 0.05 (S)

The Table 1.2 indicates that the mean scores of pre-adolescent girls (17.43) of non-working mothers were high in comparison to preadolescent boys (8.43) of non-working mothers and mean was found to be significant

at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, in this group (pre-adolescent children of non-working mother) also it is indicated that pre-adolescent girls of non-working mothers are much better in comparison to pre-adolescent boys.

Total Both Girls Boys

Mean

S.D.

Difference of Mean

`t' Value

Significance

18.30 9.38

13.08 20.36

8.92

2.85

0.05

When overall comparison in Table 1.3 was done between the pre-adolescent children of working and non-working mothers in this group (groups of children divided on the basis of gender (boy & girls) of both working and non-working mothers) also the mean score of girls (18.30) was found to be much higher in comparison to boys (9.38). From the results it is revealed that the status of mother does not play much role in the adjustment of pre-adolescent children. Further, Duvall and Duvall (1964) have concluded, "there is no evidence that maternal employment as such leads to devastating deviations from good parent child relations. In some homes the general family spirit improves when the mother gets a job and the children feel more part of the total working team. Some women are good mothers and some are not. The fact of their working in itself seems to have little effect on their children." Similarly, Tedesh et al. (1969) also found

females to be more cooperative and more adjusting than males. In another study by Lynn (1969) it was found that sons of employed mother have more adjustment problem than sons of non-employed mother. Thus, the family environment and gender of the child plays important role in adjustment of preadolescent children. The findings of present research suggests that status of mother does not play much role in adjustment level of pre-adolescent girls and boys but gender have been found to be important and have affected the adjustment behaviour of pre-adolescent children. So, it can be said that the family environment and mother's attitude and upbringing of the preadolescent children plays important role in comparison to status of mother. Further more, research is required in this field to know the importance of status of mother.

Sharma and Dharmawat 121

References

Basu, A. M. & Basu, K. (1991). Women's Economic Roles and Child Survival: The Case of India, Health Transition Review-1, (1), 443-445. Booth, (2000). Child Development with Working and non-working mother. http://:w.w.w.google.com. Duvall, S. & Duvall, E. (1964). Cited in Garrison G.K.C. et.al. The Psychology of Childhood. London: London Staples Press. English, H. B. & English, A. C. (1958). A Comprehensive Dictionary of Psychological and Psychoanalytical terms. New York: Longmans Green and Co. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: W.W. Norton. Lynn, D. B. (1969). Parental and Sex Role Identification. Berkeley, Calif:Mccutchan. Paolisso, M. N. Duncan & Jodith T. (1991). Behavioural research on household activity patterns, resource allocation and care practices. In J. Cleland and A. G. Hill (eds.). The Health Transition: Methods and Measures. Health Transition Series No. 3, 289-302. Pathak, R. D. (1970). Sex Differences among School

Children in the Areas of Adjustment, Psychological Studies, (15), 120. Sivakami, M. (1997). Female work participation and child health: An Investigation in rural Tamilnadu, India, Health Transition Review-71 (1), 21-32. Sutton-Smith B. (1973. Child Psychology. New York: Appleton Century-Crafts. Tedesh, J. T., Huston, D. S., Gahagan, J. P. & Trust and P.D.G. (1969): Journal of Social Psychology, 79 (1), 43-50. Wongboonsin, K. & V.P. Ruffalo (1992). Childcare in Chiang Mai: Determinants and health consequences for pre-school aged children. Institute of Population Studies, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Indian Journal Social Science Researches Vol. 6, No. 1, March, 2009, pp. 122-134 ISSN 0974-9837

Role of Emotional Intelligence in Stress and Health

Anil Kumar Choubey*, Santosh Kumar Singh* and Rakesh Pandey**

The present study examined the role of emotional intelligence (EI)) in predicting stress and health. The moderating role of EI in stress- health relationship was also examined. A heterogeneous sample of 209 adults belonging to different occupational groups in the age range of 21 to 50 years were assessed on the self report measures of EI, psychosocial stress, and physical and mental health. The findings revealed that emotional intelligence and its various component abilities, in general, are associated with better health outcomes. Similarly, the findings also revealed that EI is associated with lower levels of stress. However, among the four dimensions of EI examined in the present research, the ability to manage emotion in self was found the best predictor of stress as well as health. Findings also revealed that two components of EI, namely, ability to appraise and express emotions and ability to utilize emotions significantly moderated the stress-health relationship. Another important observation was that the ability to appraise and express emotion, though, was found to adversely affect an individual's health, the findings of the moderated regression analyses identified it as a positive resource in high stress condition. The obtained findings have been discussed in the light of the available empirical evidences.

The impact of stress on the mental and physical health of the individual has been well documented (Cooper, 1994; Cooper & Marshall, 1976; Quick & Quick, 1984 ). Stress can manifest itself in numerous ways. A range of somatic and mental ailments such as, tension headaches, allergies, back problems, colds and flu, depression (Arroba & James, 1990), anxiety, irritation, tension and sleeplessness (Cooper, Cooper & Eaker, 1988) and may lead to health compromising coping strategies such as increased consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs (Quick, Nelson & Quick, 1990). Chronic exposure to stress may have even very serious consequences such as cancer, heart disease, respiratory illnesses, strokes, arthritis, ulcers and high blood pressure (Quick, Nelson & Quick, 1990;

Cooper, Cooper & Eaker, 1988). However, all individuals do not develop such problems in face of stress. Researchers have identified several psychosocial variables that buffer the adverse effect of stress and help the individuals to protect their health. Emotional intelligence (EI) is one among them that can potentially moderate the effect of stress. For example, researchers have demonstrated that EI is related with lower level of stress and reduced chance of its adverse consequences (Duran & Ray, 2004; Hunt & Evans, 2004; Naidoo & Pau, 2008; Pau and Croucher , 2003). Pau and Croucher (2003) observed in their study that lower levels of EI (particular ability to regulate mood) was associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Similarly, Slaski and Cartwright (2008) observedthat managers who

* Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, M.G.K. Vidyapeeth, Varanasi ** Reader, Department of Psychology, B.H.U. Varanasi

Choubey et a1 23 l

scored higher on measures of EI suffered less subjective stress, experienced better health and well-being, and demonstrated better management performance. Such observations have been supported in recent studies also (e.g., Duran & Ray, 2004; Naidoo & Pau, 2008). Emotional intelligence has been found to be positively correlated with measures of psychological well-being such as life satisfaction and happiness, while associations with measures of mental ill-health such as depression, stress and loneliness have been found to be negative (Austin, Saklofske, & Egan, 2005; Dawda & Hart, 2000; Day, Therrien, & Carroll, 2005; Palmer, Donaldson, & Stough, 2002; Saklofske, Austin, & Minski, 2003; Schutte et al., 1998; Slaski & Cartwright, 2002; Tsaousis & Nikolaou, 2005). Positive associations of EI with higher levels of selfrated physical health have also been reported by researchers (e.g., Tsaousis & Nikolaou, 2005). Attempts have also been made to examine the relative significance of various components of EI in predicting stress and health and the findings in general suggest that some forms of emotional intelligence may protect people from stress and lead to better adaptation (e.g., Mikolajczak, Nelis, Hansenne, & Quoidbach,2008). Studies dealing with the direct influence of EI on health have in general reported a positive influence. For example, Extremera, & Fernandez-Berrocal (2002) reported that perceived skill at mood repair was significantly associated with scores on health-related quality of life in these middleaged women. These findings provide empirical evidence that aspects of perceived emotional intelligence may account for the

health-related quality of life in midlife including social, physical, and psychological symptoms. Such findings have been substantiated in recent studies. In contrast to it, the low EI has been found to be associated with health-damaging behaviors (Pau, Croucher, Sohanpal, Muirhead, & Seymour, 2004). To sum up, these empirical evidences suggest that individuals with high EI abilities adopt healthenhancing behaviour and enjoy better health, whereas the low EI may lead to health compromising behavior and poor health. This hypothesis is supported by a number of recent studies. For example, several studies revealed that EI is associated with reduced tendency to smoking and alcohol consumption (Austin et al., 2005; Trinidad & Johnson, 2002; Tsaousis & Nikolaou, 2005) and with better selfcapability for mood regulation (Thayer, 1996). Despite these grounds for predicting that higher emotional intelligence would be related to better mental health, under certain circumstances higher emotional intelligence may also have maladaptive consequences. For example, Petrides and Furnham (2003) found that individuals with higher emotional intelligence reacted more strongly to mood induction procedures, including a negative induction. Such greater sensitivity to moodrelated stimuli might for some individuals lead to greater distress under adverse circumstances. Similarly, Gohm and associates (2005) observed that emotional intelligence is potentially helpful in reducing stress for some individuals, but unnecessary or irrelevant for others. They reported that the confused participants having average emotional intelligence were found to be highly stressed. Such participants despite having the emotional intelligence do not get benefit from it presumably because they lack confidence in

124 Role of Emotion Intelligence in Stress and Health

their emotional ability and therefore do not appear to use it. In spite of these caveats, the available empirical evidences, on the average, favour the hypothesis that high EI helps to reduce stress experiences and promote health. For example, a recent meta-analysis (Schutt et al, 2007) of 44 effect sizes based on the responses of 7898 participants reports that higher emotional intelligence was associated with better health. Emotional intelligence had a weighted average association of r = .29 with mental health, r = .31 with psychosomatic health, and r = .22 with physical health. Emotional intelligence measured as a trait was more strongly associated with mental health than emotional intelligence measured as ability. It is evident from the preceding review that on the average, EI and its component abilities help individual to protect health and reduce the experience of stress. However, most of the studies dealing with the role of EI have focused on its direct effect and little has been done to examine the probable mediating or moderating effect of various affect related abilities included in the EI. In the light of this gap in the literature, the present study makes an attempt to re-examine the relationship of EI with stress and health and to explore its probable mediating and/or moderating role in stress-health relationship. Method Sample The present study was conducted on a relatively heterogeneous sample of 209 adults belonging to different occupational groups including self-employed, housewives, students and employed participants. The age of participants ranged from 21 to 50 years and all

of them belonged to middle class socioeconomic status. The subjects beyond this age range were not included in the present study because the dynamics of stress and health in the teen age and old age is quite different from the early and middle adulthood. Sampling of subjects from a wide age range was proposed in view of the fact that restricted age ranges truncate the correlation (between the measures) as well as reliability of the measures. Tools The following self-report measures were used in the present research to assess EI, psychosocial stress and various dimensions of health. 1 Multidimensional Self report emotional intelligence Scale-Revised (MSREIS-R, Pandey and Anand; 2008):- To assess the Emotional Intelligence of the participants the MSREIS-R (Pandey, & Anand, 2008) was used. This scale consists of 56 items related to four dimensions of emotional intelligence namely Ability to perceive emotions (18 items), Ability to utilize emotions (18 items), Ability to express emotions (9 items), and Ability to manage emotions (11 items). The participants were asked first to decide whether they agree or disagree with the statement and then they are asked to describe the intensity of their agreement or disagreement on a 3-point scale ranging from 1 (very much) to 3 (to some extent). Finally the ratings are converted to 6 point scale ranging from 1 to 6. ICMR Stress Questionnaire (Srivastava & Pestonjee 1995): This questionnaire was used to quantify the perceived psychosocial stress. There are several subscales in

2

Choubey et al 125

this questionnaire but in the present study we used the Perceived Psychosocial Stress and Life Event Stress subscales. The former subscale consists of 40 items rated on 4point scale of frequency whereas the later lists 10 Stressful Life events. On the life event scale subjects were asked to check the occurrence of these events during the last year and estimate the intensity of the stress experienced due to those events. The former subscale measures psychosocial stress related to interpersonal relationship, responsibilities and expectations of others, financial problems, marriage related problems, health related problems, adverse or unfavorable situations, social position and prestige. 3 General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldberg, 1978). The 28-item version of GHQ was used to assess four dimensions of mental health, viz. anxiety, somatic complaints, social dysfunction and depression. Each item in this questionnaire is followed by four response alternatives with score credit ranging from 0 to 3. The response alternatives have been arranged in such a way that higher scores on the scale indicate greater health problems.

every item of the test booklet. The obtained data were analysed by using Pearson r and regression analyses. Results To ascertain relationship between components of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and dimensions of health (measured by GHQ) bivariate correlation coefficients were computed. The obtained results have been presented in Table-1. It is evident from the table that various measures of physical and mental health correlated negatively with emotional intelligence and its various dimensions. Since higher score on measures of health reflect more health problems, the observed pattern of correlation indicates that individuals with high EI are likely to have fewer symptoms of physical and mental ill health. However, the statistical test of significance revealed that all the dimensions of health are not correlated significantly with EI and its various dimensions. For example, the ability to express and appraise emotion (the first dimension of EI) correlated significantly (negatively) only with GHQ total score, score on depression, and physical health. Other measures of health did not correlate significantly with this dimension of EI (p >.05). A similar pattern of correlation was obtained between the various measures of health and the ability to manage emotion in others (the fourth dimension of EI). This dimension of EI also correlated significantly (negative) only with GHQ total score and depression. Overall, this pattern of obtained relationship suggests that individuals having superior ability to appraise and express emotions as well as to manage other's emotions are less likely to suffer symptoms of

Procedure The aforesaid psychometric measures were administered to participants either individually or in small groups, consisting of 3 to 4 persons. Before actual administration of the said scales, instructions related to each scale were clearly explained to each participant and their queries (if any) were attended appropriately. In addition to it each participant was requested to ensure that they have responded to each and

126 Role of Emotion Intelligence in Stress and Health Table 1: Correlation between components of emotion intelligence and various measures of health

Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence Ability to manage emotion in other's .000 -.114 -.115 -.224* -.147* -.087

Ability appraise and express emotion -.029 -.105 -.055 -.290**

Ability to utilize emotion -.062 -.139* -.101 -.261** -.184** -.240**

Ability to manage emotion in self -.194** -.216** -.175* -.335** -.297** -.240**

Total score on EI! -.083 -.159* -.116 -.319** -.222** -.224**

SHC Anxiety and insomnia Social dysfunction score Depression Total score (GHQ) Physical health

#

-.160* -.173*

** P< 0.01 *P< 0.05

To examine the relative significance of various emotion related abilities (dimensions of EI) in predicting various components of health, a set of stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted using dimensions of EI as predictor

variables and various dimensions of mental health as criterion or dependent variable. The obtained results have been presented in Table-2.

Table - 2: Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis using various dimensions of EI as predictor and various dimensions of mental and physical health as criterion.

Dependent Variable: Somatic complaints Predictors

R R2 R Square change F change Sig. of F change Beta t Sign.

Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to appraise and express emotion Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to utilize emotions

.194 .223

.038 .059

.038 .022

8.071 4.747

.005 .030

-.337 .205

-3.57 2.17

.000 .030

Dependent Variable: Anxiety and insomnia

.216 .047 .047 10.145 .002 -.216 -3.185 .002

Dependent Variable: Social dysfunction

.175 .031 .031 6.514 .011 -.175 -2.552 .011

Dependent Variable: Depression

.335 .112 .112 26.152 .000 -.335 -5.114 .000

Dependent Variable: GHQ total score

.297 .088 .088 19.991 .000 -.297 -4.471 .000

Dependent Variable: Physical health

.240 .058 .058 12.676 .000 -.240 -3.560 .000

High score on measures of health indicates poor health.

Choubey et al 127

Examination of the Table reveals that the ability to manage emotions in self emerged as the best predictor of all the dimensions of health except physical health, which was best predicted by the ability to utilize emotions. Further, for all the dimensions of health only a single predictor was found significant except somatic health complaints, which was also best predicted by the ability to appraise and express emotion. It is also evident from the Table that the beta coefficients for all the significant predictors were negative except for ability to appraise and express emotion (beta = .205, p<.0). The obtained pattern of findings suggest that while ability to manage emotions in self and the ability to utilize emotions are associated with better health, the ability to appraise and express emotion contributed negatively to it.

Comparison of the explained variance (see Table-2) indicates that ability to manage emotion in self is stronger predictor of depression as compared to others dimensions of mental health (SHC, anxiety & insomnia and social dysfunction). The ability to manage emotion in self explained 11.2 percent of the total variance in depression whereas its contribution to other dimensions of mental health was less than 5 percent. Even in predicting the total GHQ score this dimension of EI contributed only 8.8 percent to the total variance. To explore the relationship of emotion related abilities with various aspects of stress the product moment correlation was computed between various dimensions of EI and measures of stress. Obtained results have been presented in Table- 3.

Table- 3: Correlations between components of emotion related abilities and stress

Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence

Ability to appraise and express emotion Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to manage emotion in others

Ability to utilize emotion

Total score on EIS

Frequency rating on various types of stressors

Stress due to personal relationship Stress due to responsibilities and expectations of others Stress due to economical problems Stress due to marriage related problems Stress due to health related problems Stress due to worst or unfavorable situations Stress related to social status Total stress Life event stress -.061 -.086 -.112 -.048 -.129 -.112 .019 -.106 -.107 -.078 -.100 -.084 -.102 -.096 -.016 .055 -.075 -.105 -.146* -.184** -.155* -.103 -.194** -.047 -.061 -.156* -.128 -.092 -.077 -.084 -.054 -.120 -.043 -.049 -.094 -.092 -.100 -.126 -.124 -.087 -.150* -.068 .004 -.120 -.123

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

128 Role of Emotion Intelligence in Stress and Health

Examination of the Table- 3 revealed that all the four dimensions of EI as well as EI total score were found to be negatively correlated with various measures of stress. Results further revealed that ability to appraise and express emotion (first dimension of EI), ability to utilize emotions (second dimension of EI) and ability to manage emotion in others (fourth dimension of EI) were not significantly correlated with any aspects of stress. The ability to manage emotion in self (third dimension of EI) was found to be significantly (negative) correlated with total stress score (r=-.156, P<.05), and other domain stressors. This dimension of EI correlated significantly with stress due to personal relationship (r=-.146, P<.05), stress due to responsibilities and expectations of others (r=.184, P<.01), stress due to

economical problems (r=-.155, P<.05), and stress due to health related problems (r=.194, P<.01). However, the EI total was found to be correlated significantly (negative) only with stress due to health related problems(r=-.150, P<.05). The pattern of obtained relationship, therefore, suggests that higher the ability to manage emotion in self lower the level of stress (related with relationships, responsibilities, economy, and health). In other words, high EI is associated with managing various stressful outcomes of person's life Stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative significance of various dimensions of EI in predicting stress. The obtained result has been presented in the Table- 4.

Table- 4: Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses using various dimensions of EI as predictor and domains of stressors as criterion

Predictors R R2 R Square change F change Sig. of F change Beta t Sign.

Dependent Variable: Stress due to personal relationship

Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to manage emotion in self Ability to manage emotion in self .146 .021 .021 4.520 .035 -.146 -2.126 .035

Dependent Variable: Stress due to responsibilities and expectations of other

.184 .034 .034 .7.285 .008 -.184 -2.699 .008

Dependent Variable: Stress due to economical problem

.155 .024 .024 5.092 .025 -.155 -2.256 .025

Dependent Variable: Stress due to marriage related problems (no result found) Dependent Variable: Stress due to health related problem

Ability to manage emotion in self .194 .038 .038 8.119 .005 -.194 -2.849 .005

Stress due to worst or un favorable condition (no result found) Stress related to social status (no result found) Dependent Variable: Total stress (frequency rating)

Ability to manage emotion in self .156 .024 .024 5.159 .024 -.156 -2.271 .024

Choubey et al 129

Findings reveal that the ability to manage emotion in self emerged as single common best predictor of stress due to personal relationship, stress due to responsibilities and expectations of others, stress due to economical problems, stress due to health related problems as well as total stress. This dimension of EI explained 2.1 %, 3.4 %, 2.4 %, 3.8 % and 2.4 % of total variance in the score of respective stressors. The direction of the relationship between criterion and predictor variables was found to be negative (beta ranged from -.146 to -.194). This pattern of findings suggests that the greater ability to manage emotion in self, help to overcome the experience of stress (particularly the stress related with personal relationship, responsibilities, and expectations of others, economical problems and health related stress). To examine the moderating role of EI (and its component abilities) in stress health relationship moderated hierarchical regression analysis was performed. Various dimensions of GHQ as well as GHQ total was entered as dependent variable (one by one) whereas total stress and dimensions of EI were entered in first step of the model and cross product of the total stress and dimensions of EI were entered in the second step of the model as predictor variables. Results indicate that various components of EI significantly moderated the relationship of stress and social dysfunction and the relationship of stress and GHQ-total score. The interaction term (moderating effect of EI components) contributed 4.4% and 3.3 % respectively to the total variance (F change (4,198) = 2.418, P<0.05; F change (4,198) = 2.279, P<0.05). However, the moderating role of EI in the relationship of stress with anxiety and

insomnia was found to be somewhat limited as the contribution of the interaction term (2.27%) failed to reach the conventional level of significance (F change (4,198) = 1.76, p>.05). As far as the moderating role of various components of EI in the stress health relationship is concerned, the observation of beta weights and their statistical significance suggest that only two components of EI significantly contributed to the observed moderation effect. The ability to appraise and express emotion significantly moderated the relationship of stress with anxiety and insomnia and GHQ-total score (beta = -1.57, P<.05; beta = -1.55, p<.05, respectively). The ability to manage emotion in others was another component of EI that significantly moderated the relationship of stress with social dysfunction and GHQ total score (beta=-1.43; beta=-1.24, respectively, P<.05). To sum up, the findings of the moderated regression analysis suggest that out of the four components of EI only two components, namely, the ability to appraise and express emotions and the ability to manage emotion in others, have a significant moderating effect on the stress-health relationship but only on some components of mental health. The ability to appraise and express emotion significantly moderated effect of stress on anxiety and insomnia along with total GHQ score, whereas the ability to manage emotions in others significantly moderated the effect of stress on social dysfunction and total GHQ score. Since high score on GHQ and its subscales indicate poor health, the obtained negative beta weights for moderating effect imply that under high stress conditions the said EI abilities helps to buffer the ill effect of stress on mental health particularly on social dysfunction, anxiety, and insomnia.

130 Role of Emotion Intelligence in Stress and Health

Discussion The present study extends extensive empirical support for the notion that various affect related abilities included in emotional intelligence (EI), in general, help to protect an individual from stress and its ill effects on physical and mental health. The findings nevertheless also warns that certain EI related abilities such as ability to appraise and express emotions might have some negative consequences in terms of stress and symptoms of ill health (as evident by the results of multiple regression analysis). However, the results of moderated regression analysis suggest that such EI related abilities become a positive resource in face of high stressful episodes. Findings of the present study dealing with the relationship of stress with various aspects of physical and mental health indicate that perceived psychosocial stress were found to be positively and significantly correlated with various measures of ill-health. This observation suggests that higher levels of stress impair the physical and mental health of an individual. This finding extend support to the earlier observations that high stress is associated with poor health status and complaints of physical and mental health (Cox, 1978; Cooper, 1994; Cooper & Marshall, 1976; French & Caplan, 1972; Holt, 1982; Levy & Wise, 1987; Nowack, 1991; O'Leary, 1990; Quick & Quick, 1984). The findings imply that individuals experiencing stress in various domains of their life are likely to report health problems such as somatic complaints, anxiety, insomnia, depression and other symptoms of general physical and mental ill health. However, in the development of social dysfunction the role of various types of stressors has been found to be very limited as the findings of the present study revealed that

this aspect of mental health was adversely affected only by stress due to health related problems. The findings of the multiple regression analyses revealed that among the various stressors examined in the present research, stress due to health related problems best predicted the various aspects of perceived physical and mental health followed by stress due to responsibility and expectations of others. Overall, the finding suggests that stress due to health related problems and due to responsibility and expectations of others have more strong impact in deteriorating health status of an individual as compared to other stressors (used in the present study). Further the findings suggest that stress due to marriage related problems, though, does not appear to be a strong predictor of physical and most of the dimensions of mental health, it is one of the significant predictor of depression. Thus, likelihood of reporting depressive symptom is not only determined by the stress arising from health related problems, and responsibilities and liabilities of others but it is also significantly influenced by stress arising from difficulties marital life. Findings of the present study also extend support to the notion that emotional intelligence is associated with lower levels of stress and better health outcomes. For example, the ability to appraise and express emotion was found to be associated with fewer symptoms of physical and mental health problems (particularly depression). Similarly, the ability to manage emotion in others was found to be associated with fewer symptoms of depression. These observations extend the hypothesis that an individual having superior ability to appraise and express emotions as well as to manage other's emotions is less likely to suffer from various health problems

Choubey et a1 31l

(particularly the symptoms of depression). The ability to utilize emotions was found to protect an individual from anxiety, insomnia, depression, and symptoms of physical illness. The total EI score and the ability to utilize emotions, however, emerged as a factor associated with all the dimensions of mental and physical health examined in the present study. The aforesaid observation is further supported by the findings of the step-wise multiple regression analysis in which the ability to manage emotions in self emerged as best predictor of all the dimensions of mental health examined in the present research. Nevertheless, in predicting physical health the ability to utilize emotions emerged as the best predictor. However, unlike the findings of the bi-variate correlation analysis the findings of multiple regression analysis revealed that the ability to appraise and express emotions is associated with more symptoms of somatic health complaints. Overall, the findings imply that certain components of EI (e.g., ability to appraise and express emotions) have deteriorating effect on health whereas others (e.g., ability to manage emotions in self) have a beneficial effect on the same. The present observation that high EI is associated with better physical and mental health and lesser chance of having symptoms of mental illness such as anxiety and depression is in congruence with a number of earlier empirical observations. Several researchers, for example, have documented that the problems of mental health such as depression, stress and loneliness are less likely to occur in high EI individuals (Austin, Saklofske, & Egan, 2005; Dawda & Hart, 2000; Day, Therrien, & Carroll, 2005; Palmer, Donaldson, & Stough, 2002; Saklofske, Austin, & Minski, 2003; Schutte et al., 1998; Slaski &

Cartwright, 2002; Tsaousis & Nikolaou, 2005). Similarly, the present observation that the ability to regulate and repair mood (emotion management ability) is relatively more important in promoting health and well-being and reducing the risk of physical and/or mental illness has been demonstrated in earlier researches also (e.g., Extremera & FernandezBerrocal, 2002). Other researchers have reported similar positive health outcomes of the ability to repair mood including perceived physical and mental health (Mikolajczak et al., 2006), work satisfaction (Augusto et al., 2006a) and life satisfaction (Augusto et al., 2006a, b). The findings related with relationship of EI and stress suggests that the ability to manage emotion in self is associated with lower levels of stress arising from different domains of psychosocial life. The findings imply that the ability to manage emotions, particularly one's own, help to overcome the experience of stress arising from different domains of life including stress due to- personal relationship, responsibilities and expectations of others, economical problems and health related problems. The present finding is in congruence with the earlier observations demonstrating the significant role of emotional intelligence in predicting stress and related outcomes such as burnout (e.g., Duran & Ray, 2004; Naidoo & Pau, 2008; Slaski & Cartwright, 2007). The relative importance of the ability to regulate and repair mood (emotion management ability) in reducing the stress and its adverse outcomes have been observed in the present study. Other researchers have documented the significant role of emotion management in reducing/preventing stress experience and its negative outcomes also (e.g., Duran & Ray, 2004; Hunt & Evans, 2004; Pau & Croucher, 2003).

132 Role of Emotion Intelligence in Stress and Health

As far as the moderating role of emotional intelligence is concerned, the observations of present study extend the hypothesis that certain EI abilities (particularly the ability to appraise and express emotions and the ability to manage emotion in others) buffer or offset the adverse effect of stress particularly in high stress condition. Here it is important to mention that the ability to appraise and express emotions was found to have a negative effect on some components of health and stress (see results of regression analysis). However, the findings of the moderated regression analysis suggest that the same ability becomes a positive resource under high stress condition. In face of highly stressful situation the ability to appraise and express emotions help to cope with and buffer the ill effects of stress. To sum up, the findings of the present study, though, definitely suggest that emotional intelligence and its component abilities provide protection from stress and its adverse effects on health, the mechanism relating EI with stress and health is not very clear. The available empirical evidences extend several alternative hypotheses. For example, some researchers have proposed that high EI enhances positive emotional experiences (Fredrickson, 1998; Mikolajczak et al., 2008) which in turn enhance the coping resources (Mikolajczak and Luminet, 2008) and immune competence (Epel et al., 1998; McEwen, 1998) and thereby leading to better health. Another mechanism, through which the EI may have its stress preventive and health promotive function, is the mobilization of social resources and enhancement of psychosocial functioning. Higher emotional intelligence is linked with aspects of better psychosocial functioning by several researchers (e.g., Brown & Schutte, 2006; Salovey & Grewal, 2005;

Schutte et al., 1998; Schutte et al., 2001), including intrapersonal factors such as greater optimism and interpersonal factors such as better social relationships. Some of these psychosocial factors, such as more social support and more satisfaction with social support for those with higher emotional intelligence (Brown & Schutte, 2006), may serve as buffers to physical illness. Despite, the scientific thoroughness on which the aforesaid conclusions are based, it is suggested that drawing such conclusions would be premature inasmuch as the role of other relevant variables such as personality, method of EI assessment etc. has not been properly addressed in the present research. The available empirical evidences suggest that the positive and/or negative influence of EI on health may not be generalized to all individuals. For example, Gohm and associates (2005) observed that emotional intelligence is potentially helpful in reducing stress for some individuals, but unnecessary or irrelevant for others. Similarly, the present study assessed emotional intelligence using self-report measure and not using performance measures. It is likely that the findings obtained through one type of EI measure may not be compatible with that obtained from others. Such differences in findings dependent on the types of EI measures have been reported in the literature. For example, it has been observed that emotional intelligence measured as a trait (using self-report format) was more strongly associated with mental health than emotional intelligence measured as ability using performance measures (Schutte et al., 2007). Thus, future research in needed to explore the health benefits of EI in relation to personality and other relevant psychological and social variables.

Choubey et al 133

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