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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

Ohio Standards Connection Vocabulary Benchmark D Use knowledge of symbols, acronyms, word origins and derivations to determine the meanings of unknown words. Indicator 5 Use word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases.

Lesson Summary: Students define a list of commonly known words and compare these words to a list of more complex words with similar origins. Students analyze similarities to determine common origins and meanings. Students use these observations to decode the list of unknown words. Estimated Duration: 50 minutes

Commentary: "I set up this lesson as if the students were criminal investigators," noted one field tester. "The sooner students accurately completed this work, the better their grades." Use whatever means possible to highlight the mysteries of words.

Pre-Assessment: · Provide students copies of a fast food restaurant menu that includes ethnic dishes. Instructional Tip: Access these quickly by searching the Internet using the restaurant name + menu. · Ask students to read through the menus and circle the words they associate with the culture of the restaurant. · Ask the students to list the words on a separate piece of paper. · In pairs, ask students to group the words by common characteristics (spelling patterns, similar sounds, etc.) · Discuss the lists as a whole class. What makes the words seem like they are from another language? Scoring Guidelines: · Do not assign grades for this activity. Observe student pairs to ascertain level of understanding. · Ask students to keep their lists for later in the lesson. Post-Assessment: · Distribute post-assessment handout, Matching Mystery Words, Attachment C. · Ask students to match words from pre-assessment (Mystery Words, Attachment A) with words from More Mystery Words, Attachment B.

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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

· Ask students to explain -a connection between meanings of the two words b how root or affix helped show connection.

Scoring Guidelines: · Assign a numerical score based on the number of correct responses. Discuss the value of using word origins as a decoding tool. Instructional Procedures: Day One 1. Discuss affixes. a List common prefixes and suffixes b Samples could include ­er, -est and anti2. Ask students to volunteer a base word for each affix. 3. Discuss how it changed word meaning. 4. Sample could be big, bigger, biggest 5. Discuss word origins. a Many American English words come from other languages b Often prefixes and suffixes give clues about word origins 6. List several prefixes and/or suffixes with which students are familiar 7. Ask students to name words that can be made from each prefix and/or suffix. 8. Give students origins for each affix. 9. Distribute Word Flowers, Appendix C. 10. Read directions and check for understanding. 11. Give students time to complete Word Flowers, Attachment C. i. Let students complete papers at home if not finished in class. 12. Day Two 13. Ask students to locate Word Flowers, Attachment C. 14. Encourage students to share their word choices. 15. Tell students they are going to be working on suffix meaning. 16. Write a series of word on chart paper with a common affix. 17. Ask students to determine the commonality. 18. Have students discuss affix meaning. 19. Encourage students to share the rationale for their meaning choice a Possible word clusters i. Prepare, preserve, prevent A. Pre- (prefix), Latin (origin), before (meaning) ii. rehearse, receive, recognize A. Re- (prefix), Latin (origin) back, again (meaning) iii. Catcher, dancer, driver A. ­er (suffix) Latin (origin), someone who performs a specific action (meaning) iv. brighten, shorten, sweeten A. ­en (suffix), Latin (origin), to cause to be, to come to be 20. Distribute Make a Word, Attachment D as the post assessment.

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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

21. Ask each student to complete a sheet. 22. Collect and score Day Three 23. Distribute scored Make a Word, Attachment D. 24. Pair off students. 25. Encourage students to discuss prefix and suffix meanings. 26. Assemble students and report out. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). · Allow students to work in groups to locate and record dictionary definitions. · Vary the difficulty of vocabulary based on student instructional level. · Use prefix, suffix and base word cards to give students opportunity to manipulate. · Record root words, prefixes and suffixes for students with any reading difficulties. Extensions: · Ask students to use the dictionary to locate other words with similar roots. · Use the words and roots as the basis for a vocabulary quiz or test. · Point out suffixes and prefixes in shared and independent reading. Home Connection: Encourage students to quiz parents. Create an illustrated book using a single affix. Materials and Resources: For the student Dictionary, colored pencil.

Interdisciplinary Connections: Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site's main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the students: dictionary, colored pencil or pen, internet access if possible 3

Word Origins ­ Grade Five

Vocabulary: · affix · prefix · suffix Technology Connections: Students can use online dictionaries to locate origins and meanings of words. Encourage students to use online games to build affix knowledge. · Nonstop English - http://www.nonstopenglish.com/exercise.asp?id=1&t=3834 · Quia - http://www.quia.com/cm/17271.html and http://www.quia.com/cm/17271.html · Study Shack - http://www.studystack.com/java-studysta/frames.jsp?reloading=1 · Fun Brain - http://www.funbrain.com/funbrain/roots/index.html Research Connections: Moustafa, M. Reconceptualizing phonics instruction in a balanced approach to reading. Unpublished Manuscript. SanJose, CA: San Jose State University, 1996 Extensive exposure to print and reading helps children internalize not only the spellings of particularly words, but spelling patterns Wilde, S. (1992). You kan red this! Spelling and punctuation for whole language classrooms, K6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. · In the long run, teaching children strategies for correcting their spelling is far more important than giving them the correct spelling of any particular word. Such strategies include: (1) writing the word two or three different ways and deciding on which one "looks right"; (2) locating the spelling in a familiar text or in print displayed in the classroom; (3) asking someone, consulting a dictionary, or using a computer software program or a hand-held electronic speller. · Discussing spelling patterns and drawing spelling generalizations as a class will also help children develop an ever-growing repertoire of words they can spell correctly in first drafts. Such interactive, thought-engaging lessons are likely to be more productive than spelling lists and tests. Attachments: Attachment A, Where Did It Come From? Attachment B, Where Did It Come From? Answer Key Attachment C, Word Flowers Attachment D, Make A Word

Attachment A

· · · · · adios (from adiós) adobe (originally Coptic tobe, "brick") aficionado albino alcove (from Spanish alcoba, originally Arabic al-qubba)

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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

· alfalfa (originally Arabic al-fasfasah. Many other English words beginning with "al" were originally Arabic, and many may have had a Spanish-language connection in becoming English.) · alligator (from el lagarto, "the lizard") · alpaca (animal similar to a llama, from Aymara allpaca) · armadillo (literally, "the little armed one") · armada · arroyo (English regionalism for "stream") · avocado (originally a Nahuatl word, ahuacatl) · banana (word, originally of African origin, entered English via either Spanish or Portuguese) · bandoleer (type of belt, from bandolera) · barracuda · barbecue (from barbacoa, a word of Caribbean origin) · bizarre (some sources, not all, say this word came from the Spanish bizarro) · bonanza (although the Spanish bonanza can be used synonymously with the English cognate, it more often means "calm seas" or "fair weather") · booby (from bobo, meaning "silly" or "selfish") · bravo (from either Italian or Old Spanish) · bronco (means "wild" or "rough" in Spanish) · buckaroo (possibly from vaquero, "cowboy") · bunco (probably from banco, "bank") · burrito (literally "little donkey") · burro · cafeteria (from cafetería) · caldera (geological term) · canary (Old Spanish canario entered English by way of French canarie) · canasta (the Spanish word means "basket") · cannibal (originally of Caribbean origin) · canoe (the word was originally Caribbean) · canyon (from cañon) · cargo (from cargar, "to load") · castanet (from castañeta) · chaparral (from chaparro, an evergreen oak) · chaps (from Mexican Spanish chaparreras) · chihuahua (dog breed named after Mexican city and state) · chile relleno (Mexican food) · chili (from chile, derived from Nahuatl chilli) · chili con carne (con carne means "with meat") · chocolate (originally xocolatl, from Nahuatl, an indigenous Mexican language) · churro (Mexican food) · cigar, cigarette (from cigarro) · cilantro · cinch (from cincho, "belt") · cocaine (from coca, from Quechua kúka) · cockroach (Two English words, "cock" and "roach," were combined to form "cockroach." It is believed, but isn't certain, that the words were chosen because of their similarity to the Spanish cucaracha.) · coco (type of tree, from icaco, originally Arawak ikaku from the Caribbean) · comrade (from camarada, "roommate") · conquistador · condor (originally from Quechua, an indigenous South American language) · corral · coyote (from the Nahuatl coyotl) · creole (from criollo) · criollo (English term refers to someone indigenous to South America; Spanish term originally referred to anyone from a particular locality) · dago (offensive ethnic term comes from Diego) · dengue (Spanish imported the word from Swahili) · desperado · dorado (type of fish)

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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

· El Niño (weather pattern, means "The Child" due to its appearance around Christmas) · embargo (from embargar, to bar) · enchilada (participle of enchilar, "to season with chili") · fajita (diminutive of faja, a belt or sash, probably so named due to strips of meat) · fiesta (in Spanish, it can mean a party, a celebration, a feast -- or a fiesta) · filibuster (from filibustero, derived from Dutch vrijbuiter, "pirate") · flan (a type of custard) · flauta (a fried, rolled tortilla) · flotilla · frijol (English regionalism for a bean) · galleon (from Spanish galeón) · garbanzo (type of bean) · guacamole (originally from Nahuatl ahuacam, "avocado," and molli, "sauce") · guerrilla (In Spanish, the word refers to a small fighting force. A guerrilla fighter is a guerrillero.) · hammock (from jamaca, a Caribbean Spanish word) · habanero (a type of pepper; in Spanish, the word refers to something from Havana) · hacienda (in Spanish, the initial h is silent) · huarache (type of sandal) · hurricane (from huracán, originally an indigenous Caribbean word) · hoosegow (slang term for a jail comes from Spanish juzgado, participle of juzgar, "to judge") · iguana (originally from Arawak and Carib iwana) · incomunicado · jaguar (from Spanish and Portuguese, originally from Guarani yaguar) · jalapeño · jerky (the word for dried meet comes from charqui, which in turn came from the Quechua ch'arki) · jicama (originally from Nahuatl) · key (the word for a small island comes from the Spanish cayo, possibly of Caribbean origin) · lariat (from la reata, "the lasso") · lasso (from lazo) · llama (originally from Quechua)

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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

Attachment B Where Does It Come From ­ Attachment B Answer Key

fraction population autograph geography community comment district disaster mosquito cargo

Latin Latin Greek Greek Middle English Middle English French French Spanish Spanish

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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

Attachment C Word Flowers Directions: Help the flowers bloom. Read the prefix or suffix in the center of the flower. Think of five words that use that prefix or suffix. Write each word on a petal. If you get stuck, use a dictionary to help you. Use a different color pen or pencil to show which words you used the dictionary to find.

antire-

anti-

-logy -ism

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Word Origins ­ Grade Five

Attachment D Make A Word

Name Date

Directions Your job is to add the base word to the prefix or suffix to make a new word. You will make a set of three words with one prefix or suffix. Based on your new words, try to define or give the meaning of the prefix or suffix you used.

Root Words turn view pay care use fear act celebrate direct appear cover guise happy able lock farm read erase

Prefix or Suffix re* re* re* *less *less *less *ion *ion *ion dis* dis* dis* un* un* un* *er *er *er

Makes this Word

Definition of prefix or suffix

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Information

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