Read Chapter 19 Resource: The Human Body text version

Glencoe Science

Chapter Resources

The Human Body

Includes:

Reproducible Student Pages

ASSESSMENT

Chapter Tests Chapter Review

TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES

Section Focus Transparency Activities Teaching Transparency Activity Assessment Transparency Activity

HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES

Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity Laboratory Activities Foldables­Reading and Study Skills activity sheet

Teacher Support and Planning

Content Outline for Teaching Spanish Resources Teacher Guide and Answers

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS

Directed Reading for Content Mastery Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish Reinforcement Enrichment Note-taking Worksheets

Glencoe Science

Photo Credits

Section Focus Transparency 1: Oleg Prikhodko Section Focus Transparency 2: (top left) Bryan Davies/istockphoto inc.; (bottom left) Diane Diederich/istockphoto inc.; (top and bottom right) Maartje van Caspel/istockphoto inc.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the The Human Body program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN 0-07-867832-3 Printed in the United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 09 08 07 06 05 04

Reproducible Student Pages

Reproducible Student Pages

Hands-On Activities

MiniLAB: Try at Home Inferring How Hard the Heart Works . . . . . . . 3 MiniLAB: Try at Home Interpreting Infant Development . . . . . . . . . . 4 Lab: Improving Reaction Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lab: Design Your Own Defensive Saliva. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Laboratory Activity 1: How Muscles and Bones Work Together . . . . . . 9 Laboratory Activity 2: Fetal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Foldables: Reading and Study Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Meeting Individual Needs

Extension and Intervention Directed Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Enrichment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Assessment

Chapter Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Transparency Activities

Section Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

The Human Body

1

Hands-On Activities

Hands-On Activities

2 The Human Body

Name

Date

Class

Inferring How Hard the Heart Works

Procedure

1. Make a fist and observe its size, which is approximately the size of your heart. 2. Place your fist in a bowl of water. Then clench and unclench your fist to cause water to squirt out between your thumb and forefinger. 3. Continue the squeezing action for 3 min. Determine the number of squeezes per minute.

Analysis

1. How many times did you squeeze your fist in 1 min? A resting heart beats approximately 70 times per minute.

2. What can you do when the muscles of your hand and arm get tired? Explain why cardiac muscle cannot do the same.

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The Human Body

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Hands-On Activities

Name

Date

Class

Analysis

1. Name two skills an infant develops before walking.

2. List four skills that may develop during the same time period.

4 The Human Body

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Hands-On Activities

Interpreting Infant Development

Procedure

1. Make a bar graph of the following data.

Infant Development Age (in months) Skill 5 to 7 Sits with support 5 to 8 Gets on hands and knees; stands with support 8 to 9 Sits alone 8 to 10 Crawls 9 to 12 Pulls to standing 9 to 13 Walks around furniture 9 to 14 Stands with no support 10 to 15 Walks

Name

Date

Class

Lab Preview

Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.

1. How will you measure reasction time? 2. Do you think your reaction time will improve with practice?

Your reflexes allow you to react quickly without thinking. Sometimes you can improve how quickly you react.

Real-World Question

How can reaction time be improved?

Goals

Observe reflexes. Identify stimuli and responses.

Materials

metric ruler

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Procedure

1. Record where the ruler is caught in this lab in the data table below.

2. Have a partner hold the ruler as shown. 3. Hold the thumb and index finger of your right hand apart at the bottom of the ruler. Do not touch the ruler. 4. Your partner must let go of the ruler without warning you. 5. Catch the ruler between your thumb and finger by quickly bringing them together. 6. Repeat this lab several times and record in the data table below where the ruler was caught. 7. Repeat this lab with your left hand. 8. Use the table below to determine your reaction time.

Trial 1 2 3

Right Hand

Left Hand

The Human Body

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Hands-On Activities

Improving Reaction Time

Name

Date

Class

(continued)

Communicating Your Data

Compare your conclusions with those of other students in your class. For more help, refer to the Science Skill Handbook.

6 The Human Body

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Hands-On Activities

Analyze Your Data

1. Identify the stimulus, response, and variables in this lab.

2. Determine the average reaction time for your right hand and for your left hand.

Conclude and Apply

1. Compare the response of your writing hand and your other hand for this lab.

2. Draw a conclusion about how practice relates to stimulus-response time

Name

Date

Class

Design Your Own Hands-On Activities

The Human Body

Defensive Saliva

Lab Preview

Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.

1. What can you use as an indicator to test for acids and bases? 2. Why is it important to have your teacher examine the steps of your experiment?

What happens when you think about a juicy cheeseburger or smell freshly baked bread? Your mouth starts making saliva. Saliva is the first line of defense for fighting harmful bacteria, acids, and bases entering your body. Saliva contains salts and chemicals known as bicarbonates. An example of a bicarbonate found in your kitchen is baking soda. Bicarbonates help to maintin normal pH levels in your mouth. When surfaces in your mouth have normal pH levels, the growth of bacteria is slowed and the effects of acids and bases are reduced.

Real-World Question

How do the bicarbonates in saliva work to protect your mouth from harmful bacteria, acids, and bases?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Test Your Hypothesis

Make a Plan

1. List the materials you will need for your experiment. Red cabbage juice can be used as an indicator to test for acids and bases. Vinegar and citrus juices are acids, ammonia is a base, and baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) is a bicarbonate. 2. Describe how you will prepare the red cabbage juice and how you will use it to test for the presence of acids and bases. 3. Describe how you will test the effect of bicarbonate on acids and bases. 4. List the steps you will take to set up and complete your experiment. Describe exactly what you will do in each step. 5. Prepare a data table on a separate piece of paper. 6. Examine the steps of your experiment to make certain they are in logical order.

Form a Hypothesis

Based on your reading in the text, form a hypothesis to explain how the bicarbonates in saliva react to acids and bases.

Goals

Design an experiment to test the reaction of a bicarbonate to acids and bases. Test the reaction of a bicarbonate to acids and bases. water spoon white vinegar lemon juice orange juice

Possible Materials

head of red cabbage cooking pot coffee filter drinking glasses clear household ammonia bicarbonate of soda

Follow Your Plan

1. Ask your teacher to examine the steps of your experiment and data tables before you start. 2. Conduct your experiment according to the approved plan. 3. Record your observations in your data table. 7

Safety Precautions

WARNING: Never eat or drink anything used in an investigation. Ammonia fumes are irritating to the eyes and nose.

Name

Date

Class

(continued)

4. Infer how saliva protects your mouth from bacteria. 5. Predict what would happen if your saliva were made only of water.

Communicating Your Data

Using what you learned in this experiment, create a poster about the importance of good dental hygiene. Invite a dental hygienist to speak to your class.

8 The Human Body

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Hands-On Activities

Analyze Your Data

1. Compare and contrast the color change of the acids and bases in the cabbage juice.

2. Describe how well the bicarbonate neutralized the acids and bases.

3. Identify any problems you had while setting up and conducting your experiment.

Conclude and Apply

1. Determine whether or not your results support your hypothesis. 2. Explain why your saliva contains a bicarbonate based on your experiment. 3. Predict how quickly bacteria would grow in your glass containing acid compared to another glass containing acid and the bicarbonate.

Name

Date

Class

Your muscles and bones work together to move your arms, legs, and other body parts. Bones provide a framework for the body. Muscles are attached to the bones. The muscles move the bones by stretching and contracting them. Muscles are attached to bones by strong tissues called tendons. In this laboratory you will use a chicken wing to investigate how muscles and bones work together.

Strategy

You will observe how muscles and bones work together to move a chicken wing. You will compare the structures of a chicken wing to your own arm. 4. You should see two muscles. The largest muscle is the bicep muscle. Now look at your upper arm. The large muscle on top is your bicep muscle. 5. Follow the bicep muscle to where it is attached to the middle part of the wing. Look for some thin white tissues that connect the bicep to bone. This is a tendon. 6. Hold the far right end of the wing with your right hand. Grasp the tendon with the forceps. Use the forceps to pull the tendon to the right. Observe the left side of the wing. 7. Put your chicken wing in the container designated by your teacher. Remove your gloves and dispose of them as directed by your teacher. Wash the scissors and forceps carefully. Wash your hands with soap and warm water. 8. Look at the bicep on your upper arm again. Place several fingers from your opposite hand in the area where the bottom of your bicep is attached to your lower arm. Now flex your bicep to raise your lower arm.

Materials

plastic gloves raw chicken wing treated with bleach paper towel scissors forceps

Procedure

WARNING: Be careful when using the scissors. Always point the tips of the scissors away from your body when cutting. The chicken wing may have harmful bacteria on it. Do not touch your face with your hands during the lab. 1. Put on the gloves. Keep the gloves on until you have completed the lab. 2. Put your chicken wing in the middle of a paper towel. Arrange the wing so the pointed end is pointed to the left. 3. Find the thickest part of the wing, at the opposite end from the pointed end. Use the scissors to carefully cut the skin off of this part of the wing. Also take any fat off of the muscles. Do not cut into the muscle.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The Human Body

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Hands-On Activities

1

Laboratory Activity

How Muscles and Bones Work Together

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 1 (continued) Hands-On Activities Data and Observations

1. What did you observe when you pulled on the tendon in the chicken wing?

2. What did you feel in your arm when you flexed your bicep muscle?

Questions and Conclusions

1. What part of the chicken wing would normally pull on the tendon to move the wing?

2. Describe how your arm is like a chicken wing.

Strategy Check

Can you explain how muscles and bones work together to move a chicken wing? Can you describe how a chicken wing is like a human arm?

10 The Human Body

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3. Why are bones, muscles, and tendons all important in moving body parts?

Name

Date

Class

A human body usually develops inside its mother for 38 weeks. During the first eight weeks it is called an embryo. From the ninth to the thirty-eighth week it is called a fetus. Different organs and systems develop at different times during these 38 weeks. The age of a developing baby can be determined by its length.

Strategy

You will measure the length of five diagrams of a human fetus. You will match events taking place during development with the proper age of the fetus.

Procedure

1. Measure the length of each fetus from crown to rump. Record in Table 3. 2. To determine actual length, multiply each measurement by 2.75. Record in Table 3. 3. Record the events occurring to each fetus in Table 2. Events are listed in Table 1.

Crown to rump length E

Materials

ruler (metric)

D

C

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B

A

Questions and Conclusions

1. Explain the changes that take place in a fetus between week 9 and week 38. a. body hair b. the eyes c. sex determination

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Hands-On Activities

2

Laboratory Activity

Fetal Development

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 2 (continued) Hands-On Activities

2. A fetus born with a crown to rump length of 270 mm will have a difficult time of survival. About how old is a fetus of this length? 3. It is possible to "see" a fetus using ultrasound equipment. How might ultrasounds taken at 9 and 20 weeks of age differ?

Strategy Check

Can you measure the crown to rump length of a fetus diagram? Can you match events during development with specific ages of a fetus?

Data and Observations

Table 1

Event 24 weeks old sex can be determined eyes closed all organs well developed 9 weeks old 16 weeks old body covered with hair 38 weeks old Length 230 mm 140 mm 50 mm 230 mm 50 mm 140 mm 230 mm 360 mm Event eyes open 32 weeks old mother feels movement body "chubby" looking body hair is gone can grasp with hand sex cannot be determined Length 300 mm 300 mm 140 mm 300 mm 360 mm 360 mm 50 mm

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Table 2

A B C D E

Table 3

Fetus A B C D E Length in (mm) 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 Actual length

12 The Human Body

Name

Date

Class

The Human Body

Hands-On Activities

The Human Body

Directions: Use this page to label your Foldable at the beginning of the chapter.

Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Water

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Vitamins Minerals

13

Meeting Individual Needs

14 The Human Body

Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Overview The Human Body

fetus infancy

2.

Directions: Complete the flow chart using the terms in the list below. adolescence sperm adulthood zygote ovary

1.

3.

4.

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5.

6.

7.

The Human Body

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Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Section 1

Body Systems

Directions: Answer the following questions by filling in the missing word. 1. The place where two or more bones comes together is called a ____________________. 2. Muscles that you cannot control consciously are called ____________________ muscles.

____________________ ____________________. 8. You need to breathe air because air contains ____________________, which your cells need. 9. The ____________________ is the pump of the circulatory system. 10. ____________________ blood cells fight infection and heal wounds. 11. Proteins that destroy substances that are not part of your body are called ____________________. 12. The basic unit of the nervous system is the ____________________, or nerve cell.

16 The Human Body

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Meeting Individual Needs

3. Food moves from the mouth to the stomach through your ____________________. 4. ____________________ are the main energy source for the body. 5. Cells need ____________________ to carry out the chemical reactions needed for life. 6. The six types of nutrients are ____________________, ___________________, ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________. 7. Wastes produced by the cells are removed from the blood through the

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Section 2

Human Reproduction

Directions: Answer the following questions by filling in the missing word. 1. Males and females have different ____________________ systems. 2. The ____________________ produce testosterone and sperm. 3. ____________________ are the female organs that produce eggs and female sex hormones. 4. A fertilized egg grows and develops in the ____________________. 5. Phase one of the menstrual cycle is called ____________________. 6. An egg and sperm unite in the process of ____________________. 7. The ____________________ carries nutrients and oxygen from the mother and removes wastes from the embryo. 8. Childbirth begins with ____________________, the muscular contractions of the uterus. 9. ____________________ lasts from about 18 months of age until around 12 years.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

10. During ____________________, the human body matures sexually and the person becomes physically able to reproduce. Directions: Use the words to label the diagram below. Discharged egg Zygote Uterus Sperm

Ovulation 15. Fertilization 16. 14. 13. 12. 11.

Ovary Oviduct

Implantation

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Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Key Terms The Human Body

menstrual cycle ovulation semen

Directions: Select the term from the list that matches each description. muscle fetus respiratory system pregnancy alveoli skeletal system nutrient sperm embryo reflex melanin capillary

1. period of development from fertilized egg to birth 2. substance in food that provides for cell development, growth, and repair 3. mixture of sperm and fluid from the seminal vesicles 4. involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus 5. structures and organs that help move oxygen into the body and waste gases out of the body 6. name for the zygote after it attaches to the wall of the uterus 7. air sacs at the ends of the bronchioles 8. name for the developing embryo after the first two months of pregnancy 9. microscopic blood vessel 10. male reproductive cells 11. release of an egg from an ovary 12. pigment in your skin 13. all the bones in your body 14. organ that can relax, contract, and provide force to move body parts 15. monthly cycle of changes in a sexually mature female reproductive system

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Meeting Individual Needs

18 The Human Body

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para Dominio del contenido

Sinopsis El cuerpo humano

feto infancia

Instrucciones: Completa el mapa de conceptos usando los siguientes términos. adolescencia espermatozoide adultez cigoto ovario

1. 2.

3.

4.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5.

6.

7.

El cuerpo humano

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Satisface las necesidades individuales

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para Dominio del contenido

Sección 1

Sistemas corporales

Instrucciones: Responde las siguientes preguntas completando con el término que falta. 1. El lugar donde se unen dos o más huesos se llama ____________________. 2. Los músculos que no se pueden controlar voluntariamente se llaman ____________________.

necesario para las células. 9. El ____________________ es la bomba del sistema circulatorio. 10. Los ____________________ combaten infecciones y curan heridas. 11. Las proteínas que destruyen sustancias ajenas a tu cuerpo se llaman ____________________. 12. La unidad básica del sistema nervioso es la ____________________, o célula nerviosa. 13. El sistema endocrino produce ____________________. Éstas son sustancias químicas que llevan mensajes por el cuerpo.

20 El cuerpo humano

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Satisface las necesidades individuales

3. La comida pasa de la boca al estómago a través del ____________________. 4. Los ____________________ son la principal fuente de energía para el cuerpo. 5. Las células necesitan ____________________ para realizar las reacciones químicas necesarias para la vida. 6. Los seis tipos de nutrientes son ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, y ____________________. 7. Los desechos producidos por las células son eliminados de la sangre por el (las) ____________________ ____________________. 8. Necesitas respirar aire porque el aire contiene ____________________, que es

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para Dominio del contenido

Sección 2

La reproducción humana

Instrucciones: Completa las siguientes oraciones con el término que falta. 1. Los hombres y las mujeres tienen diferentes sistemas ____________________. 2. Los ____________________ producen testosterona y espermatozoides. 3. Los ____________________ son los órganos femeninos que producen óvulos y hormonas femeninas. 4. Un óvulo fertilizado crece y se desarrolla en el ____________________. 5. La primera fase del ciclo menstrual se llama ____________________. 6. Un óvulo y un espermatozoide se unen en el proceso de ____________________. 7. La ____________________ transporta nutrientes y oxígeno de la madre al embrión y elimina desechos. 8. El nacimiento se inicia con ____________________, las contracciones musculares del útero. 9. La ____________________ abarca desde los 18 meses a los 12 años.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

10. Durante la ____________________, el cuerpo humano madura sexualmente y la persona se vuelve capaz de reproducirse. Instrucciones: Usa los siguientes términos para rotular el diagrama. óvulo liberado útero cigoto espermatozoide

Ovulación

ovario oviducto

14. 13. 11. 12.

15.

Fertilización

16.

Implantación

El cuerpo humano

21

Satisface las necesidades individuales

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para Dominio del contenido

Términos claves El cuerpo humano

ciclo menstrual ovulación semen

Instrucciones: Escoge un término de la lista que corresponda con la descripción. músculo feto sistema respiratorio embarazo alvéolos sistema óseo nutriente espermatozoide embrión reflejo melanina capilares

1. período de desarrollo desde huevo fertilizado hasta el nacimiento 2. sustancia en los alimentos que ayuda al desarrollo, crecimiento y reparación de las células 3. mezcla de espermatozoides y fluido de las vesículas seminales 4. respuesta involuntaria y automática a un estímulo 5. estructuras y órganos que ayudan a ingresar el oxígeno al cuerpo y desechar gases fuera del cuerpo 6. nombre del cigoto luego de que se adhiere a la pared del útero 7. sacos de aire al final de los bronquiolos 8. nombre del embrión luego de los dos primeros meses de embarazo 9. vasos microscópicos de sangre 10. células de reproducción masculinas 11. liberación de un óvulo del ovario 12. pigmento en tu piel 13. todos los huesos en tu cuerpo 14. órgano que se puede relajar, contraer y hacer fuerza para mover partes del cuerpo 15. ciclo mensual de cambios en en el sistema reproductivo de una mujer sexualmente madura

22 El cuerpo humano

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Satisface las necesidades individuales

Name

Date

Class

1

Reinforcement

Body Systems

Function a. supplies nutrients and oxygen and removes wastes b. provides energy from food d. gives shape and support to the body e. controls body using nerves f. controls body using hormones g. allows the body to move h. removes wastes from the blood i. removes wastes from the body j. collects tissue fluid and returns it to the blood c. exchange of gases

Directions: Match each body system with its function. Body System 1. Nervous 2. Endocrine 3. Excretory 4. Muscular 5. Digestive 6. Lymphatic 7. Skeletal 8. Urinary 9. Respiratory 10. Circulatory

Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 11. Describe four ways the skin helps the body.

12. What are the two main types of muscles? Give an example of each type.

13. What happens to food in the small intestine?

14. What are the six main kinds of nutrients in food?

15. Describe what the kidneys do.

The Human Body

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Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

2

Reinforcement

Human Reproduction

Directions: Label the diagrams of the male and female reproductive systems below. Write the function of each part in the space provided.

1.

2.

6. 8.

7. 9.

10.

Female Reproductive System

24 The Human Body

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Meeting Individual Needs

3. 5.

4.

Male Reproductive System

Name

Date

Class

1

Materials

Enrichment

Body Systems

The respiratory and circulatory system work together to bring oxygen to your blood and remove carbon dioxide. You have probably noticed that you must breathe faster when you are exercising. The reason for this is that your cells need more oxygen and must get rid of more carbon dioxide. A part of your brain called the medulla oblongata controls how often you breathe. But which gas is more important in regulating breathing? You will find out in this lab. seltzer tablet tall, narrow plastic cup room-temperature water WARNING: Remain seated during this activity. If you have trouble breathing, do not do the lab.

Procedure

1. Do you think the level of carbon dioxide or the level of oxygen is more important in regulating breathing? What do you think will happen to your breathing if the level of carbon dioxide increases? Write a hypothesis about what you think will happen.

2. Put about 100 mL of water in the cup and add the seltzer tablet. Wait until the tablet produces bubbles, which are carbon dioxide. Hold the cup close to your face and take a deep breath. How do you feel?

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Conclude and Apply

1. Look at your hypothesis again. Was it supported by your results?

2. Why do you think your body reacts the way it does to an increased amount of carbon dioxide?

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Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

2

Materials

Enrichment

Human Reproduction

Enormous changes occur between fertilization of an egg and the birth of a baby. In this lab, you will look at frog embryos to observe their stages of development. Although frogs do not develop in exactly the same way as humans, there are many similarities. prepared slides of frog embryos (at least three at different stages) microscope WARNING: Handle the microscope and slides carefully. If you break a slide, do not try to pick up the pieces. Tell your teacher immediately.

3. Did you see any separate body organs? If so, at what stage were they visible?

26 The Human Body

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Meeting Individual Needs

Procedure

1. Look first at the slide that is at the earliest stage. Sketch what you see in the space below. 2. Look next at the next-earliest stage. Again, sketch what you see. Use additional sheets of paper if necessary. 3. Continue until you have looked at all of the slides in order. Sketch every stage.

Conclude and Apply

1. Did you see any differences among the cells on the slides? When did different cells first appear?

2. Could you see a distinct shape to any of the embryos? At what stage was it visible?

Name

Date

Class

Note-taking Worksheet Section 1 Body Systems

The Human Body

A. Bones provide structure. Muscles allow movement. 1. All the ______________________ in your body make up your skeletal system. The skeletal system gives shape and ______________________ to the body. 2. The place where two or more bones come together is called a ______________________. Joints make movement possible. 3. The ______________________ forms a protective covering for the body, is a sense organ, helps control body temperature, and helps provide vitamin D. 4. A ______________________ is an organ that can relax, contract, and provide force to move body parts. a. Muscles you can choose to move are ______________________ muscles. b. Muscles that are not controlled consciously are ______________________ muscles. B. Food is broken down in the digestive system. Undigested food is excreted. 1. Food travels through the mouth, esophagus, ______________________, small intestine, and large intestine. a. Most digestion and absorption of ______________________ occurs in the small intestine. b. ______________________ is absorbed in the large intestine. 2. The six main kinds of ______________________ are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water. a. Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins are ______________________ nutrients. b. Minerals and water are ______________________ nutrients. Your cells need water to carry out important ______________________ reactions. 3. The ______________________ are the main organs of the urinary system. Their function is to filter the ______________________ and remove wastes.

The Human Body

27

Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

Note-taking Worksheet (continued)

C. The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to supply oxygen to cells. 1. The respiratory system helps move ______________________ into the body and waste gases out of the body. a. The bronchi of the lungs branch into ______________________, which end in alveoli. b. Air leaves the alveoli and enters tiny ______________________ called capillaries. 2. The circulatory system is made up of the ______________________, blood vessels, and blood. The ______________________ pumps blood to all the cells of the body.

F. The nervous and endocrine systems control the body. 1. The brain, spinal cord, nerves, and nerve receptors make up the nervous system. a. The nervous system sends messages to and from the ______________________ to all parts of the body. b. A reflex is an involuntary, automatic ______________________ to a stimulus. Reflexes help protect your ______________________ by allowing your body to respond without you having to think about what to do. 2. In the endocrine system, chemicals called ______________________ carry messages throughout the body.

28 The Human Body

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

a. Red blood cells carry ______________________. ______________________ blood cells fight infections and heal wounds. b. The four major ______________________ are A, B, AB, and O. D. The ______________________ system collects tissue fluid and returns it to the blood. E. The body has many ways to defend itself against disease-causing organisms. 1. The ______________________ and respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems block or destroy many disease-causing organisms. 2. In specific immunity, the body makes ______________________ that destroy disease-causing organisms.

Name

Date

Class

Note-taking Worksheet (continued) Section 2 Human Reproduction

A. The male ______________________ system has both internal and external organs. 1. The ______________________ produce the male hormone testosterone and sperm, the male reproductive cells. 2. Fluid from the ______________________ mixes with sperm to form semen. 3. Semen leaves the body through the ______________________.

1. Ovaries are the female sex organs that produce ______________________ and the hormone estrogen. 2. An egg is released from an ______________________ roughly every 28 days--a process called ovulation. 3. The monthly cycle of changes in the sexually mature female ______________________ system is the menstrual cycle. 4. The menstrual cycle has three phases. __________________ occurs at the end of phase two. C. Human development goes through many stages.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Development begins with ______________________--the joining of a sperm and egg. 2. Development from fertilization to ______________________ is called pregnancy. During pregnancy the zygote becomes an embryo, then a fetus. D. The stages of development after birth are infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. 1. During infancy the nervous and ______________________ systems develop rapidly and the infant interacts with the world. 2. During childhood growth is rapid and the child learns many new ______________________. 3. Adolescence includes ______________________ and a final growth spurt. 4. During adulthood the muscular and skeletal systems stop ______________________.

The Human Body

29

Meeting Individual Needs

B. The organs of the female reproductive system are ______________________.

Assessment

Assessment

30 The Human Body

Name

Date

Class

Chapter Review Part A. Vocabulary Review

The Human Body

Directions: Use the following terms to complete the puzzle below. alveoli capillary embryo menstrual cycle muscle nutrient reflex respiratory system semen

1 2 3 4 5

fetus ovulation skeletal system

melanin pregnancy sperm

6

7

8 10 11

9

12

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

14

Across

1. It moves body parts by relaxing and contracting. 6. the monthly cycle of changes in the female's body 10. This allows oxygen to move into the body and gas wastes to move out of it. 12. release of an egg from the ovaries 13. a substance in food that helps the cell develop, grow, and reproduce 14. a very small blood vessel

Down

1. pigment that gives color to the skin 2. the name of the zygote after it attaches to the wall of the uterus 3. It is made from all the bones in your body. 4. mixture of sperm and fluid in the seminal vesicle 5. the embryo after two months of pregnancy 7. These are located at the end of the bronchioles and contain air. 8. the period of time from fertilization until birth 9. an involuntary response to a stimulus 11. male reproductive cells

The Human Body

31

Assessment

13

Name

Date

Class

Chapter Review (continued) Part B. Concept Review

Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.

1. What does the skeletal system do?

2. How do voluntary muscles work to allow movement?

3. What is the main energy source for the body?

4. How are proteins used in the body?

5. Why is water important for the body?

6. How is carbon dioxide removed from the body?

8. What is a transfusion and when would it be needed?

9. What are the main parts of a sperm? What are their functions?

10. What happens during birth?

11. What is the function of the placenta?

12. What happens to the body during puberty?

32 The Human Body

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Where does blood go when it leaves the heart?

Assessment

Transparency Activities

The Human Body

37

Transparency Activities

Name

Date

Class

1

Section Focus Transparency Activity

What Are Different Body Systems?

Look at the photograph below. Think about all of the different parts of the body that must work together so the person can run.

1. What parts support the rest of the body as it moves? 2. What parts of the body make the body move? 3. What parts of the body bring air into the body? 4. What parts of the body control the rest of the body?

38 The Human Body

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency Activities

Name

Date

Class

2

Section Focus Transparency Activity

Life Stages

Look at the photos below. They show different stages of life. Think about what changes a person goes through during each stage.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. What changes occur during infancy (first photo)? 2. What changes occur during childhood (second photo)? 3. What changes occur during adolescence (third photo)? 4. What changes occur during adulthood (fourth photo)?

The Human Body

39

Transparency Activities

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

2

Lining of uterus Lining of uterus thickening

Lining of uterus breaking down

Menstruation Blood vessels

Teaching Transparency Activity

Date

1 Phase 2

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Phase 3

Phase 1

Class

The Menstrual Cycle

Ovulation

The Human Body

41

Transparency Activities

Name

Date

Class

Teaching Transparency Activity

1. What happens during phase one?

(continued)

2. What happens during phase two?

3. What happens at the end of phase two?

4. What happens during phase three if the egg is fertilized?

5. What happens during phase three if the egg is not fertilized?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. How long does the menstrual cycle last?

Transparency Activities

42 The Human Body

Name

Date

Class

Assessment Transparency Activity

Body Systems

Directions: Carefully review the chart and answer the following questions.

Needed in Large Quantities Needed in Small Quantities

Nutrient

Organic

Inorganic

Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Vitamins Minerals Water

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Which nutrient is organic and needed in small quantities? A Carbohydrates B Lipids C Minerals D Vitamins 2. Which nutrient is inorganic and needed in large quantities? F Proteins G Lipids H Minerals J Water 3. Which nutrients are needed in small quantities? A Proteins and water B Vitamins and minerals C Minerals and water D Lipids and carbohydrates

43

The Human Body

Transparency Activities

Information

Chapter 19 Resource: The Human Body

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