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Sistem Informasi Manajemen

Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-7 Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Program Pasca Sarjana, Magister Ilmu Komunikasi Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama) Dosen: Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi., MPP

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Topik Pembahasan

· · · · · · Konsep, Trend dan Issue Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi Strategi Sistem Informasi Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi

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Konsep, Trend dan Issue

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Mengapa Perlu Mempelajari SI?

· Getting the right information to the right people at the right time at the right cost; · Key to effective business processes; · Business process change; · The way organisations compete; · Creation of new services, markets; · Learning, Knowledge. E-commerce, E-Health, E-Government...

Why? How? Is it efficient? Effective? What are the risks? What are the skills?

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Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi

Perubahan dalam teknologi informasi : · Tersedianya jaringan info global, untuk menyalurkan berbagai format info (multimedia) · Tersedianya berbagai perangkat keras dan lunak untuk mengolah, menyimpan dan mengirim info. · Tersedianya berbagai perangkat untuk melakukan transformasi media yang digunakan

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Orientasi Informasi

IT Practices · IT for operational support · IT for business process support · IT for inovation support · IT for management support

Information management practices · Sensing information · Collecting information · Organizing information · Processing information · Maintaining information

Information orientation

Information behaviour and values · Information integrity · Information formality · Information control · Information sharing · Information transparency · Information proactiveness

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SI, CBIS, dan TI

Information Systems (IS) · involve more than just computers · an successful application of an IS requiring an understanding of the business and its environment that is supported by the IS · in learning about IS, not sufficient just to learn about computers Computer-Based Information Systems (CBIS) · an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended tasks · may include hardware, software, database, network, procedures, or people Information Technology (IT) · include the hardware, databases, software, networks, and other information devices (in narrow definition) · usually interchangeably with information systems

· a collection of several information systems, users, and management for an entire organization (in broad sense)

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Isu di dalam SI

Large variety of organisation and individual information processing needs Fast evolving information technologies - languages operating systems and the like Legacy investments Costs and resource management Complexity ? Where is the complexity coming from ? Maintenance, Support and Training - Leveraging systems Design and Analysis related issues

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Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi

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Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi -1

Information System Management IS Role in the enterprise

Review IS/IT roles, don't focus on particular issues only

Relationship with other department Computer Management Managing the IS department Managing the IS/IT activities

Users' awareness of the role of computers determine effectiveness of relationship

Department is managed as co-ordinated set of resources which are planned to meet expected future requirements Operations, programming, data collection, etc.

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Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi 2

· Delivery

­ ­ ­ Internal focus Improving the ability to deliver and support systems and technology Not necessarily providing users with what they need Establishing good relationship with the main business functions, Supporting business demands through provision of variety of services Provide valued service to all business functional management Need for redesign integration of IS investment with business strategy and across business functions. Best way of satisfying each of differing business needs through coalition of responsibilities for managing information and systems

·

Re-orientation

­ ­ ­

·

Re-organisation

­ ­

Hirschheim Model (1988)

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Model-2 SI Dalam Organisasi

Model Anthony (1965)

Planning Systems

Sales forecasting, operating plans, capacity planing, profit/earnings forecast, business mix analysis, manpower planning, financial modelling

Control Systems

Sales analysis, budgetary control, management accounting, inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market research/analysis, WIP control, requirement planning, supplier analysis, etc.

Operational Systems

Order entry/processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading

invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop floor scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word processing, etc.

Hirarki perencanaan, pengendalian, dan sistem operasional,

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Perbedaan DP dan MIS

TPS/DP Objectives Information sources Information time frame Process Efficient transaction Internal & external transaction Recent history, current & near future Algorithmic (very predefined) Operators Mainframe/mini computers MIS Effective problem resolution & decision making support Internal & external transaction + research data Historical data, current & future Sometimes need human intervention (esp. for decision making) Professionals & middle managers Local processing linked to information resources

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Users Technology

Strategic Information Systems

Wiseman Model (1985)

Use (objective) Function Automatic basic processes (efficiency) Satisfy information needs (effectiveness) Affect business strategy (competitiveness)

Transaction and exception processing

DATA PROCESSING STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Information enquiry and analysis

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

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Trend evolusi SI/TI

Galliers & Somogyl, (1987)

Aspects DP Computers' fragmented (hardware limitation MIS Distributed process' interconnected software limitation SIS `networks' integrated people/vison limitation)

Nature of the technology

Nature of operations

Remote from users controlled by DP

Regulated by management services Support business users'needs information management

Available and supportive to users Relate to business strategy

Issues in systems development

Technical issues (programming/ project managemen)

Reason for using technology

Reducing costs (especially administrative) ­ technology driven Regimented/ operational (internal)

Supporting the business (manager) - user driven

Enabling the business - business driven

Characteristic of systems 11/18/2008

Accommodating/ control

Flexibility/ strategic (external)

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Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi

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Lingkungan Informasi

Paper records Paper records Private records External information

Management information Operational database

Personal database

Official information records Unrecorded Lingkup memungkinkan untuk informasi yang dapat dikelola 17

Total lingkungan informasi internal

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Lingkungan yang terotomatisasi

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Nilai Informasi Bagi Bisnis

High

STRATEGIC

Value of information to future strategy Critical to business and of greatest potential value Essential for core process and value enhaced by horizontal integration Low

HIGH POTENTIAL

Potential value to business may be high, but not confirmed Needed for supporting Business, but little strategic value

KEY OPERATIONAL

High

SUPPORT

Low

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Value of information to current strategy

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Pertanyaan Kunci Dalam Membangun dan Mengelola SI

· People involved... · Many technologies.... · How do we decide what to build..? ­ for one person..for a dept..for the entire organization... · How much is it going to cost..? · How long is it going to take....? · How do we consider all the systems we have so far..? · How do we maintain and upgrade...?

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Hubungan Aplikasi SI dan Tingkatan Manajemen

Pengendalian Operasional Pengolahan Transaksi

Sistem Manajemen Data base

Logistik

Pengendalian Manajemen

Data base

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Personalia

Manajemen Puncak

Perencanaan Strategis Pemasaran Produksi

Keuangan & Akunting

Pengolahan Informasi

Pemakai dan Penggunaan SI

Pemakai Petugas Administrasi Manajer Tingkat Bawah Staf Ahli Manajemen Pengunaan Mengerjakan transaksi, mengolah data, dan menjawab pertanyaan Mendapatkan data operasi. Membantu perencanaan, penjadualan, mengetahui situasiyag tak terkendali, dan mengambil keputusan Informasi untuk analisis. Membantu dalam analisis, perencanaan dan pelaporan. Laporan tetap, Permintaan informasi khusus, Analisa khusus, Laporan khusus, membantu dalam mengenali persoalan dan peluang. Membantu dalam analisis pengambilan keputusan.

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Segitiga Pengambilan Keputusan Sistem Informasi Manajemen

SIM perencanaan Strategis & pengambilan kptsan Informasi manajemen Untuk perencanaan taktis Dan pengambilan keputusan Informasi manajemen untuk Perencanaan operasional, pengambilan Keputusan dan pengendalian Pengolahan transaksi Pemberian informasi (tanggapan atas pertanyaan)

SIM: sistem manusia/mesin yang terpadu, untuk menyajikan informsasi guna mendukung fungsi operasi, manajemen, dan pengambilan keputusan dalam sebuah organisasi. Menggunakan hardware & software komputer, prosedur, model manajemen dan keputusan, data base.

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Tiga Tahapan Dalam Penggunaan Sistem Informasi

· Productivity: a measure of the output achieved divided by the input requirement, something like (Output/Input) x 100% · Competitive Advantage: a significant and (ideally) longterm benefit that enables company to perform better than its competitors · Quality: the ability of a product (including services) to meet or exceed customer expectations 23

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Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Manajemen

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Type Sistem Informasi

KIND OF SYSTEM

STRATEGIC LEVEL

GROUPS SERVED

SENIOR MANAGERS

MANAGEMENT LEVEL

MIDDLE MANAGERS

KNOWLEDGE LEVEL

KNOWLEDGE & DATA WORKERS

OPERATIONAL LEVEL

SALES & 11/18/2008MARKETING MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING

OPERATIONAL MANAGERS

HUMAN RESOURCES

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Type Sistem Informasi · Executive Support Systems · Management Information Systems · Decision Support Systems · Knowledge Work Systems · Office Automation Systems · Transaction Processing Systems · Batch vs Online Processing · Sistem Informasi Fungsional · Distributed Systems vs Client/Server Systems · Enterprise Resources Planning System · Dukungan Pengambilan Keputusan · Sistem Dukungan Inteligen

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Subsistem dari Sistem Informasi

· SI (dapat) terdiri atas Subsistem:

­ Penjualan dan pemasukan pesanan ­ Produksi ­ Sediaan barang ­ Personalia dan payroll ­ Pembelian ­ Perencanaan ­ Kecerdasan lingkungan · Subsistem dibagi atas subsistem, sebagai contoh Personalia dan Payroll:

­ Penyiapan data masukan catatan personalia ­ Penyesuaian daftar gaji ­ Penyiapan data masukan daftar gaji ­ Daftar gaji harian ­ Daftar gaji bulanan ­ Laporan dafatar gaji untuk manajemen ­ Audit personalia dan dafatar gaji

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Data base

· Kumpulan data terdiri dari

­ ­ ­ ­ File Record Field Karakter

· Contoh

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Data base Pegawai File: Pegawai Record: Sukamto Field: Nama, Alamat, NIP Character: a, b,c 1,2, dll.

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Type Sistem Informasi

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Batch vs Realtime Processing

· Batch

­ Pengolahan data secara tidak seketika ­ Entry data dikumpulkan dalam satu file secara serial ­ Ada perbedaan waktu yangcukup signifikan antara entry dan eksekusi data

· Real Time Processing

­ Entry dan eksekusi data dilakukan seketika

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Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

· · · · · ·

Dimulai pada zaman "Data Processing" OPERATIONAL LEVEL INPUTS: TRANSACTIONS, EVENTS PROCESSING: UPDATING OUTPUTS: DETAILED REPORTS USERS: OPERATIONS PERSONNEL EXAMPLE: ACCOUNTS PAYABLE TPS TPS

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Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

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Distributed Systems vs Client/Server Systems

· Distributed System ­ Entry dan pengolahan data secara tersebar, ­ Masing ­ masing komputer memiliki fasilitas jaringan dengan fasilitas yang sama · Client/Server ­ Sedikitnya satu komputer berfungsi sebagai server, sementara komputer lain yang terhubung menjadi client, ­ Server menyediakan NOS, ­ Aplikasi dapat ditempatkan di Server atau masing ­ masing nodes ­ Nodes memilii kemampuan pengolahan lokal

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Management Information Systems -1

· · · · ·

MANAGEMENT LEVEL INPUTS: HIGH VOLUME DATA PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS OUTPUTS: SUMMARY REPORTS USERS: MIDDLE MANAGERS EXAMPLE: ANNUAL BUDGETING

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Management Information Systems -2

· STRUCTURED & SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISIONS · REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED · PAST & PRESENT DATA · INTERNAL ORIENTATION · LENGTHY DESIGN PROCESS*

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TPS Data For MIS Applications

TPS

Order Processing System ORDER FILE Materials Resource Planning System PRODUCTION MASTER FILE General Ledger System ACCOUNTING FILES UNIT PRODUCT COST PRODUCT CHANGE DATA EXPENSE DATA MIS FILES SALES DATA

MIS

MIS

REPORTS

MANAGERS

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Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Dalam Fungsi Pemasaran

Sistem Order Processing

Deskripsi Level Organisasi Entry, proses, dan track order Operasional Identifikasi pelanggan dan pasar menggunakan data demografi, pasar, perilaku konsumen, dan trend

Analisa Pasar

Knowledge

Analisa Harga Ramalan dan Tren Penjualan

Menentukan harga produk dan Manajemen layanan Penyiapan ramalan penjualan 5 tahun Stratejik

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Pendekatan Tradisional

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Enterprise System

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Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi

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Isu Di Dalam Pengelolaan TI

· Acquisition: pengadaan/penyediaan TI

­ ­ ­ ­ need (kebutuhan), resources (sumber-daya), time-frame (jangka waktu), dan design of IS (rancangan sistem informasi).

· Organization: prosedur pengelolaan, · Motivation: sumberdaya manusia, serta · Relationship: hubungan antara bagian Sistem Informasi dengan bagian-bagian lain di dalam organisasi

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Acquisition (pengadaan TI)

Need (kebutuhan) dari: · Size of the organization: besar kecilnya organisasi/perusahaan yang memerlukan TI. · Structure of the organization: struktur dari perusahaan. · Nature of operational: sifat dari operasional perusahaan, misalnya organisasi pemerintah, bisnis, dll. · Type of informationn needed (jenis informasi yang diperlukan),misalnya informasi mengenai keuangan, kepegawaian, dll.

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Strategi Sistem Informasi

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The Role of Information Technology

Add Value customers and markets

Wisdom

Knowledge

Information

Minimize Risks market, financial, legal, operational risks

Business Value of Information Technology

Reduce Costs transactions and processes

Data

Facts

Create New Realities intelligence (social, political, technological, etc.)

Gather

Organize

Select

Synthesize

Distribute

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The Balanced of Resources has Changed

Materials

Machines

Money

Four Ms Plus

Men

Information

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Strategic Systems · Connection to supplier & customer · Effective use of information in the value adding process · Enable to deliver new product/service · Provide executive with strategic information

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Business, IS & IT Relationship

Business Strategy

External & External & Internal Internal Factors Factors · · · Business decisions Objectives and direction Change Direction for business

Where is the business going & why?

Economy Society Politics Law Ecology Technology Culture Stakeholders

Supports business

IS Strategy

· · · Business based Demand orientation Application focused Needs & priorities

What is required?

Infrastructure & service

IT Strategy

· · · Activity Based Supply oriented Technology focused

How can it be realized?

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IT Roles in Business Process Reengineering

SIMPLIFY

INTEGRATE ELIMINATE

AUTOMATE

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MIT Theory of IT Evolution & Revolution

HIGH

Business Scope Redefinition Business Scope Redefinition

Degree of Business Transformation

Business Network Redesign Business Network Redesign

Business Process Redesign Business Process Redesign

Revolutionary Evolutionary

Integration Integration

LOW LOW

Localized Exploitation Localized Exploitation

Range of Potential Benefits

HIGH

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Internal Evolution of Information Technology

FUNCTIONAL USE

5

REMAIN IN BUSINESS 5 People Systems, Home Computers

MANAGEMENT FOCUS

Reaching the Consumer 4

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS 5 Restructuring of the Industry 4 Restructuring of the Organization 3 Growth and Increase in Market Share

MAKE MONEY 4 Mega Decisions 3 Marketing, Distribution, Customer Service

Enhancing Executive Decision Making 3 Enhancing Products and Services

Above the Line

2 Leveraging Investment

SAVE MONEY

Below the Line

1

2 Financial, Manufacturing, Services 1 Administrative

OPERATIONAL CONTROL

Reducing Costs

2 Asset Management 1 Process Management

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Nature of IT Center

Cost Center

I/T

Profit Center

Investment Center

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Service Center

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IT Benefits Measurement

TANGIBLE

HIGH

Better Information Improved Security Lower Risk

Staff Reduction Lower Assets More Sales

LOW

Market Reaction Faster Information Access to New Staff Positive Staff Reaction

LOW

HIGH

MEASURABLE

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IT and Business Alignment

Vision

Mission

Value

Objectives Critical Success Factors Key Performance Indicators

Business Strategy

I/T Strategy

Business Process and Tactical Procedures

DAY-TO-DAY OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES

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Boeing Strategic Architecture

Business Process Architecture

What business processes should be used? What information is needed to accomplish those processes? How are the processes and information related?

drives

Information Architecture

Standards

Product Groups Information Services

prescribes

Information System Architecture

identifies

Data Architecture How is the data managed?

Feedback

support by

Delivery System Architecture Hardware, Software, Communications PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG Which hardware, software, and network are required?

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Information System Strategic Planning

ANALYSIS PROCESS INPUT

K & P A R T N

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE COMPANY ASSETS VISION MISSION CSFs KPIs STRATEGY FINANCIAL RESOURCES

BLUE PRINT

R O W T E N

INTERNAL Corporate History Business Plan Existing Information Technology Constraints and Opportunities Strength and Weakness Approach and Methodology

BUSINESS PROCESS

THREE DOMAINS Information System Requirements

R S

E

Information Technology Supply Information Management Strategy

COMPANY GEOGRAPHICAL TOPOLOGY

STRATEGIC PLANNING List of Scenarios

CULTURE PEOPLE

EXTERNAL Industry Trend Information Technology Development Competitor Analysis Benchmarking Best Practice

PROCEDURES POLICIES STANDARD

Risk Management Cost/Benefit Analysis Technical Design

S H A R

LEGAL ASPECT

VALUE

Project Management

S R

Priorities Level and Schedule Implementation Plan Human Resource Skills and Competencies Requirements Change Management

E

H

O

L

D

E

Macro Environment

Ideology, Political Agenda, Economic Environment, Social and Culture, International Relationship, National Defense, Religion, Behaviors,

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New Type of Corporation

KNOWLEDGE COMPANY

Demand-Chain Components

·Market Strategy ·Product Design ·Marketing

·Customer Management ·Value Network Management

Application Enablers

·E-Catalogues ·ERP ·Email ·E-Collaboration

·E-Forms ·WWW ·EDI ·Electronic Funds

·E-Bulleting Boards ·Chat Rooms ·Financial EDI

Technology Vehicles

·Value-Added Networks ·Internet ·Extranet ·Web TV

·Wide Area Networks ·E-Marketplaces ·Intranet ·Private Network

Supply-Chain Components

·Procure ·Inbound Logistics ·Manufacturing

·Transportation ·Distribute ·Delivery ·Customer

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Success Indicators

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Etc.

New Business (products/services) New Market (customers) New Revenue (business model) New Company (business transformation) New Image (business community) New Wealth (paradigm shift)

Key Points: · From "nothing" to "existing" · From "existing" to "creating" · From "creating" to "improving" · From "improving" to "growing" · From "growing" to "performing"

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