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MODERN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM

Intro This is a survey of modern architecture and urbanism, with a focus on works of architecture, urban planning, and development that are particularly good expressions of major twentieth-century ideals about how a city should look and feel. Topics will include the Chigago School, the City Beautiful Movement in America, planning and the modern metropolis, the Garden City idea and its legacy, the Deutscher Werkbund, Futurism, and the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier, CIAM, and the functional city, Urban Renewal, the Megastructuralist movement of the late 1960s and 1970s, Postmodernism, and the suburbs. Schedule The class meets on Thursday from 9:00 - 11:45 in Bunting 470. Format The class will combine elements of a seminar, a studio, and a lecture class. Classes will usually begin with a slide lecture, and conclude with a discussion. Students will be required to make two presentations. Materials This class is reading intensive. In addition to excerpts from books and essays, we will watch numerous clips from film and television. You are required to purchase the following book: Conrads, Ulrich. Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1971. The following books on modern architecture and urbanism are on reserve in the Decker Library for your reference. Colquhoun, Alan. Modern Architecture. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 2002 Curtis, William. Modern Architecture since 1900. Oxford Oxfordshire: Phaidon, 1996. . Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007. Hall, Peter. Cities of Tomorrow. Cambridge: Blackwell Pub, 2002. Assignments Students will be expected to complete two papers: a formal analysis (15%), and a longer research paper (30%). Students will also be required to post weekly reading responses (15%), and make two presentations (10%). There will be a final exam on the last day of class (30%). Attendance Attendance at every class is manditory. All absenses must be excused by the professor. More than one absence will result in a lowering of your grade. Professor Daniel D'Oca may be reached at [email protected] He will hold office hours in Bunting 409 on Friday at noon.

Hugh Ferriss, Metropolis of Tomorrow

Modern Architecture and Urbanism Presentations Each student will have to make two presentations: one on a canonical work of architecture, and one on a building, plan, or development in Baltimore. Presentations should be between five and ten minutes in length, and should make use of Power Point. I have made sure that there are enough resources available in the library for each topic (with the exception of Morris A. Mechanic Theater, Charles North Vision Plan, and The Avenue at White Marsh, which will require some internet research). Below is a schedule of presentations.

Ludwig Hilberseimer, High Rise City

Presentation 1: Cannonical Architecture 02.04: Frank Lloyd Wright, Johnson Wax Administration Center, 1939 02.04: Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, 1956 02.25: Gerrit Rietveld, Schroder House, 1924 03.11: Richard Nuetra, Lovell House, 1929 03.25: Hans Scharoun, Schminke House, 1933 03.25: Alvar Alto, Paimio Tuberculosis Sanitorium, 1933 04.01: Eero Saarinen, TWA Terminal, 1962 04.15: Hassan Fathy, New Gourna Village, 1953 04.22: Louis Kahn, Salk Institute, 1965 Presentation 2: Architecture In Baltimore 02.04: One Charles Center, Mies van der Rohe, 1962 02.11: Charles North Vision Plan, Baltimore Development Corporation, 2008 03.04: Roland Park, Edward Bouton and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr, 1890 ­1920 03.04: 02.25: Greenbelt, MD, Rexford Tugwell, 1937 03.11: Marcel Breuer, Hooper House II, 1959 04.08: Flag House Courts, 1955 04.15: Morris A. Mechanic Theatre, John M. Johansen, 1967 04.15: Coldspring Newtown, Moshe Safdie, 1978 04.22: Harborplace, Benjamin C. Thompson (architect) and The Rouse Company (developer), 1980 04.29: Columbia, MD, The Rouse Company, 1967

A.D.A. Compliance In MICA's effort to provide the highest possible quality educational experience for every student, MICA maintains compliance with the requirements of the ADA Section 504. Any student who has, or suspects he or she may have, a disability and wants to request academic accommodations should contact Dr. Kathryn Smith a the Learning Resource Center 443-695-1384, email [email protected] immediately. Health And Safety MICA has developed policies and practices to ensure a healthful environment and safe approaches to the use of equipment, materials, and process. It is the mutual responsibility of faculty and students to review health and safety standards relevant to each class at the beginning of each semester. Students should be aware of general fire, health, and safety regulations posted in each area and course specific policies, practices, and cautions. Students who have concerns related to health and safety should contact Quentin Moseley, Environment Health and Safety Coordinator at 410-225-0220 or email at [email protected] H1N1 Pandemic Information: From the Office of Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) What to do if I get sick? If you are sick consider the following: · Limit contact with other people as much as possible. DO NOT GO TO CLASS! Seek medical attention at Mount Royal Medial Assoc. (410) 225-8855 but please call ahead · Students who are sick should self-isolate for at least 24 hours after any fever is gone. · Make sure to get plenty of rest and drink clear fluids to keep from being dehydrated · Avoid normal activities including work, school, travel, shopping, social events, and public gatherings Reporting Procedures: · Contact the Office of Student Affairs at 410-225-2422 who will assist with plans for self-isolation, arranging for meals, and any other necessary support · Contact any faculty whose class you anticipate missing and inform them of your illness. · Work with them to make arrangements for catching up on any missed work. If you have difficulty reaching your faculty or if your illness lingers to the point where you will miss two or more of any one class contact the Office of Student Affairs. Plagiarism Plagiarism is using someone else's words or ideas without acknowledgment. Submitting work containing plagiarism is grounds for failure of an assignment or failure of the course. Repeat offenses will be brought to the attention of the Chair. To be responsible when summarizing, paraphrasing, or quoting, include a citation like: "I read in yesterday's New York Times that..." "As Simone de Beauvoir famously asserts: `One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman." "My roommate Pete noticed that..." Document your citations in a bibliography at the end of your paper and follow standard guidelines such as MLA or Chicago manual style. Familiarize yourself with these guidelines in Diana Hacker's A Pocket Style Manual, and always check with your instructor before turning in questionable work.

Victor Gruen, Southdale Mall

PART 1: INTRODUCTION 01.21: Introduction 01.28. Modernism in Architecture and Urbanism What's modern about Modern Architecture and Urbanism? Readings: "Modernity: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow," in Berman, Marshall. All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1982. "The Development of Modernism: Architecture in the 19th Century," in Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, And Meaning. Oxford: Westview Press, 2006. PART 2: THE BIG CITY

Daniel Burnham, Flatiron Building

02.04: The Chicago School of Architecture Our focus here will be on the early development of the tall office building, which offered architects like Louis Sullivan a chance to define a "proud and soaring" new architecture for the twentieth century. Readings: Louis Sullivan, "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered" (1896) Excerpts from: Huxtable, Ada Louise. The Tall Building Artistically Reconsidered: the Search for a Skyscraper Style. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. Buildings: Richard Morris Hunt, Tribune Building (1875) Henry Hobson Richardson, Marshall Field Wholesale Store (1887) Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, Auditorium Building (1889) John Wellborn Root and Daniel Burnham, Monadnock Building (1891) Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, Wainwright Building (1891) John Wellborn Root and Daniel Burnham, Reliance Building (1894) Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler, The Guaranty Building (1896) John Wellborn Root and Daniel Burnham, The Flatiron Building (1903) Mies Van Der Rohe and Philip Johnson, The Seagram Building (1958) 02.11: Metropolis In this class, we will consider the birth of the modern metropolis in three cities: Chicago, New York, and Berlin. What is the metropolis? What explains the explosive city growth of the late nineteenth century, and why the need for such an intense concentration of business activities? What, if any, are the psychological effects of density? How was the metropolis depicted in the arts? Readings: "Downtown: The Business District in the Nineteenth Century," in Fogelson, Robert M..Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880-1950. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. Theda Shapiro, "The Metropolis in the Visual Arts: Paris, Berlin, New York, 1890 ­ 1940," in Anthony Sutcliffe, Metropolis 1890-1940. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1984. Georg Simmel, "The Metropolis and Mental Life" (1903) Film: Fritz Lang, Metropolis (1927) Walter Ruttmann, Berlin: Symphony of a City (1927) 02.18: Taming Metropolis In the early twentieth century, efforts were made to tame the metropolis with nascent tools like zoning and regional planning. In this class, we will draw on this history to

William Van Alen, Chrysler Building

Fritz Lang, Metropolis

Daniel Burnham, Plan of Chicago

talk about some of the icons of the metropolis, including William Van Alen's Chrysler Building, Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon's Empire State Building, and Raymond Hood's Rockerfeller Center. We will also consider the emergence of the Metropolitan Region through a discussion of the Regional Plan Association of America's 1931 Regional Plan for New York. Readings: Manfredo Tafuri, "The Disenchanted Mountain: The Skyscraper and the City," in Ciucci, Giorgio, Francesco Dal Co, Mario Manien-Elia, and Manfredo Tafuri. The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal. London: The MIT Press, 1983. Plans: Hugh Ferris, Metropolis of Tomorrow (1929) Regional Plan Association of America, Regional Plan of New York and its Environs (1931) Buildings: William Van Alen, Chrysler Building (1930) Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon, Empire State Building (1931) Raymond Hood, Rockerfeller Center (1940) 02.25: How the Other Half Lives Our focus here will be on the birth of the City Planning profession as a response to the deplorable conditions documented by people like Friedrich Engles and Jacob Riis. We will consider early tenement reform, the Settlement House Movement, the Parks Movement, and the City Beautiful Movement. Readings: "Beyond the Tenement," from: Plunz, Richard. A History of Housing in New York City. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 1990. Excerpts from: Addams, Jane. 20 Years at Hull House. Denver: Buccaneer Books, 1992. Frederick Law Olmstead, "Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns" Manieri-Elia, "Toward an "Imperial City": Daniel H. Burnham and the City Beautiful Movement," in Ciucci, Giorgio, Francesco Dal Co, Mario Manien-Elia, and Manfredo Tafuri. The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal. London: The MIT Press, 1983. Plans: Daniel Burnham, Plan of Chicago (1909) Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux, Central Park (1859) Buildings: Various, Dumbbell Tenement 03.04: Alternatives to the Metropolis: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright Here we will consider two proposed alternatives to the metropolis: Ebenezer Howard's Garden City, unarguably one of the most important and influential planning ideas of the late nineteenth and twentieth century, and the architectural system of Frank Lloyd Wright, who, perhaps more than anyone else, prophesized the urban environment that most of us presently inhabit: the sprawling, megalopolitan, edge condition that is neither city nor country. Readings: Louis Mumford, "The Garden City Idea and Modern Planning," in Howard, Ebenezer, Garden Cities of To-Morrow. Edited with a Preface by F.J. Osborn. Introductory Essay by Louis Mumford. London: The Mit Press, 1984. Ebenezer Howard, excerpts from Garden Cities of To-morrow (1902) Frank Lloyd Wright, "Organic Architecture," and "Young Architecture," in Conrads, Ulrich. Programs and Manifestoes on 20th Century Architecture, MIT, 1990 Buildings: Frank Lloyd Wright, Ward Willits House, (1902)

Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux, Central Park

Ebenezer Howard, The Town-Country Magnet

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, (1910) Plans: Clarence Stein and Henry Wright, Radburn, NJ (1928) Rexford Tugwell, Greenbelt, MD (1935) Frank Lloyd Wright, "Broadacre City: A Community Plan" (1935) James Rouse, Columbia, MD (1963) Film: The City (1939)

Frank Lloyd Wright, Broadacre City

PART 3: THE FUNCTIONAL CITY 03.11: Design for the First Machine Age For the second half of the class we turn our attention to the European avant-garde movements of the early and mid twentieth century. In this class we will consider early responses to mechanization in three early Modernist movements: the Deutscher Werkbund, Futurism, and the Bauhaus. Readings: in Programs and Manifestoes: "Responses to Mechanization: The Deutscher Werkbund and Futurism" Adolph Loos, "Ornament and Crime" Hermann Muthesius, "Aims of the Werkbund" Hermann Muthesius and Henry Van de Velde, "Workbund Theses and Antitheses" Antonio Sant'Elia and Philippo Tommasso Marinetti, "Futurist Architecture" Work Council for Art, "Under the Wing of a Great Architecture" Walter Gropius, "Programme of the Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar" Mies Van Der Rohe, "Working Theses" Walter Gropius, "Principles of Bauhaus Production" Buildings: Peter Behrens, AEG Turbine Factory (1909) Adolph Loos, Goldman & Salatsch Building (1910) Walter Gropius and Adolph Meyer, Fagus Factory (1912) Walter Gropius and Adolph Meyer, Werkbund Pavilion (1914) Bruno Taut, Glass Pavilion (1914) Walter Gropius, Dessau Bauhaus (1926) Various, Weissenhofsiedlung (1927) Ludvig Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona Pavilion (1929) Plans: Antonio Sant'Elia, Citta Nuova (1914) Tony Garnier, Cite Industrielle (1917) 03.18: Spring Break

Antonio Sant'Elia, Citta Nuova (1914)

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona Pavilion

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye

03.25: Towards a New Architecture This is the first of three classes devoted to Le Corbusier and the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM). Here we will consider Le Corbusier's first major publication Toward an Architecture alongside some of his early architecture. Readings: "Le Corbusier's Quest for Ideal Form," in Curtis, William J. R. Modern Architecture since 1900. London: Phaidon Press, 2003 Le Corbusier, "Towards a New Architecture: Guiding Principles," in Programs and Manifestoes Le Corbusier and Pierre Jannaret, "Five Points Towards a New Architecture," in Programs and Manifestoes Buildings: Le Corbusier, Pessac Housing (1924) Le Corbusier, Citrohan House (1927)

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye (1928) Le Corbusier, Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut (1954) 04.01: Towards a Contemporary City The second of three classes devoted to Le Corbusier and the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM), this class will look at Le Corbusier's 1925 publication Urbanisme and CIAM's Athens Charter as blueprints for the high-modernist city, especially as it was realized in Brazil's modern new capital city. Readings: From Programs and Manifestoes: Le Corbusier, "Founding Principles of Town Planning" CIAM, "Charter of Athens: Tenets" Le Corbusier, "A Contemporary City for 3 Million" "The High Modernist City: An Experiment and a Critique," from Scott, James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. Buildings: Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, Ministry of Education (1945) Plans: Le Corbusier, "A Contemporary City" (1922) Le Corbusier, Chandigarh Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, Brasilia (1956) 04.08: The Legacy of the Functional City In this class, we will focus on one legacy of the Functional City: Urban Renewal in America. Readings: "The City of Towers," in Hall, Peter. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. Chicago, Illinois : Blackwell Publishing Limited, 2002. "Robert Moses and Urban Renewal," in: Ballon, Hillary. Robert Moses and the Transformation of New York (2007) "Introduction" and "The Use of Sidewalks: Safety," from: Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Modern Library, 1993. "An Evaluation of the Redevelopment Plan and Process," in: Gans, Herbert J.. The Urban Villagers: Group and class in the life of Italian-Americans. New York: The Free Press, 1965. Buildings: Minoru Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe (1954) Plans: Boston Redevelopment Authority, West End Urban Renewal (1953) New York City Housing Authority, East River Houses (1953) 04.15: Mega City Experiments: Megastructuralists, Team X, Archigram, Situationists, Superstudio Megastructures are really big buildings, often advertised as cities within buildings. In the 1960s and 1970s, architects around the world--usually working in the "New Brutalist" style, became captivated with the Megastructural ideal. Subjects include the Japanese Metabolists, Yona Friedman, and the avant-garde groups Archigram and Superstudio. Readings: In Programs and Manifestoes: Constant / Debord, "Situationist Definitions" Situationsts, "International Manifesto" Yona Friedman, "The Ten Principles of Space Town Planning" Alison Smithson, from Team 10 Primer (1962)

Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa, Brasilia

Minoru Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe

Archigram, Urban Action Tune-Up

Arata Isozake, Metabolist City

PART 4: POST-FUNCTIONAL CITY 04.22: "City" Starting in the 1960s and 1970s, there emerged a sentiment that missing from the Functionalist City was a sense of the social and historical importance of older urban structures. But another response to the "less is more" orthodoxy of the Functional City is the "less is a bore" sentiment expressed by Robert Venturi and his followers. In this class, we will look at a very different use and reuse of history than the one explored in the previous class. Readings: Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour. Learning from Las Vegas. London: The MIT Press, 1972. Buildings: Robert Venturi, Vanna Venture House (1963) Robert Venturi, guild house (1966) Charles Moore, Plaza d'Italia (1979) Michael Graves, Portland Public Services building (1982) 04.29: Architecture of the Suburbs The suburbs are everyone's favorite example of what's wrong with contemporary city making, but the suburbs are certainly not devoid of architectural merit. In this class, we will focus on three misunderstood suburban products: the shopping mall, the mass-produced postwar subdivision, and the Case Study Houses of Southern California. Readings: Excerpts from: Hayden, Dolores. Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820-2000. New York: Vintage, 2004. "A Shopper's Paradise for Suburbia," in: Hardwick, M. Jeffrey. Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. Buildings: Charles and Ray Eames, Case Study House 8 (1949) Pierre Koenig, Case Study House 21 (1958) Victor Gruen, Southdale Mall (1956) Plans: William and Alfred Levitt, Levittown, NY (1951) 05.05: Exam

William and Alfred Levitt, Levittown

Robert Venturi, Guild House

Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater Zyberk , Seaside, FL

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