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AP Psychology: Key Terms and Concepts

David Myers, Psychology, 7th ed.

The following terms are the key concepts highlighted in your textbook. Make sure that you can explain and give an example of each idea, and be prepared to apply your conceptual knowledge on the unit exams.

Chapter One: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

Hindsight bias Critical thinking Theory Hypothesis Operational definition Replication Case study Survey False consensus effect Population Random sample Naturalistic observation Correlation coefficient Scatterplot Illusory correlation Experiment Double-blind procedure Placebo effect Experimental condition Random assignment Independent variable Dependent variable Mode Median Range Standard deviation Statistical significance Culture Mean

Chapter Two: Neuroscience and Behavior

Biological psychology Neuron Dendrite Axon Myelin sheath CT (computed tomography) scan Threshold Synapse Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Endorphins Nervous system Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Nerves Sensory neurons Interneurons Parasympathetic nervous system Reflex Neural networks Lesion Electroencephalogram PET (positron emission tomography) scan Action potential Wernicke's area Brainstem Medulla Reticular formation Thalamus Cerebral cortex Glial cells Frontal lobes Parietal lobes Occipital lobes Temporal lobes Motor cortex Association areas Aphasia Broca's area MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) Plasticity Corpus callosum Sympathetic nervous system Endocrine Hormones Adrenal glands Pituitary Gland Motor neurons Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Split brain

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Chapter Three: The Nature and Nurture of Behavior

Chromosomes DNA Genes Genome Natural selection Mutation Evolutionary Psychology Gender Behavior genetics Environment Interaction Molecular genetics Culture Norm Personal space Memes X Chromosome Y Chromosome Temperament Heritability Gender schema theory Testosterone Role Gender role Gender identity Gender-typing Social learning theory Identical twins Fraternal twins

Chapter Four: The Developing Person

Developmental psychology Zygote Embryo Fetus Teratogens Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Rooting reflex Habituation Critical period Imprinting Basic Trust Self-concept Adolescence Puberty Maturation Schema Assimilation Accommodation Cognition Sensorimotor stage Object permanence Preoperational stage Primary sex characteristics Secondary sex characteristics Menarche Identity Intimacy Menopause Conservation Egocentrism Theory of mind Autism Concrete operational stage Formal operational stage Stranger anxiety Attachment Alzheimer's disease Cross-sectional study Longitudinal study Crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence Social clock

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Chapter Five: Sensation

Sensation Perception Bottom-up processing Top-down processing Psychophysics Absolute threshold Signal detection theory Subliminal Difference threshold Weber's law Sensory Adaptation Transduction Wavelength Hue Sensorineural hearing loss Kinesthesis Intensity Pupil Iris Lens Accommodation Retina Acuity Nearsightedness Farsightedness Rods Cones Optic nerve Blind spot Fovea Gate-control theory Vestibular senses Feature detectors Parallel processing Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory Opponent-process theory Color constancy Audition Frequency Pitch Middle ear Inner ear Cochlea Place theory Frequency theory Conduction hearing loss Sensory interaction

Chapter Six: Perception

Selective attention Visual capture Gestalt Retinal disparity Perceptual constancy Human factors psychology Figure-ground Grouping Depth perception Convergence Perceptual adaptation Extrasensory perception Visual cliff Binocular cues Monocular cues Phi phenomenon Perceptual set Parapsychology

Chapter Seven: States of Consciousness

Consciousness Biological rhythms Circadian rhythm REM sleep Alpha waves Sleep Hallucinations Delta waves Insomnia Narcolepsy Sleep apnea Night terrors Dream Manifest Content Latent Content REM rebound Hypnosis Posthypnotic amnesia Posthypnotic suggestions Dissociation Hidden observer Psychoactive drug Tolerance Withdrawal Physical dependence Psychological dependence Depressants Stimulants Hallucinogens Opiates Amphetamines Ecstasy (MDMA) LSD THC Near-death experience Dualism Monism

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Chapter Eight: Learning

Learning Associative learning Classical conditioning Behaviorism Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response Conditioned stimulus Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination Operant conditioning Respondent behavior Operant behavior Law of effect Operant chamber Shaping Reinforcer Primary reinforcer Conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcers) Continuous reinforcement Partial (intermittent reinforcement Mirror neurons Prosocial behavior Fixed-ratio schedule Variable-ratio schedule Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule Punishment Cognitive map Latent learning Overjustification effect Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Observational learning Modeling

Chapter Nine: Memory

Memory Flashbulb memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Automatic processing Effortful processing Rehearsal Spacing effect Serial position effect Visual encoding Acoustic encoding Semantic encoding Imagery Mnemonics Chunking Iconic memory Echoic memory Long-term potentation Amnesia Implicit memory Explicit memory Hippocampus Recall Recognition Relearning Priming Deja-vu Mood-congruent memory Proactive interference Retroactive interference Repression Misinformation effect Source amnesia

Chapter Ten: Thinking and Language

Cognition Concept Prototype Algorithm Heuristic Insight Confirmation bias Fixation Language Mental set Functional fixedness Representative heuristic Availability heuristic Overconfidence Framing Belief bias Artificial intelligence Computer neural networks Phoneme Morpheme Grammar Semantics Syntax Babbling stage One-word stage Two word stage Telegraphic speech Linguistic determinism

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Chapter Eleven: Intelligence

Intelligence test Intelligence quotient General intelligence Creativity Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Validity Criterion Down syndrome Mental age Intelligence Savant syndrome Aptitude test Standardization Reliability Predictive validity Stereotype threat Stanford-Binet Factor analysis Emotional intelligence Achievement test Normal curve Content validity Mental retardation

Chapter Twelve: Motivation and Work

Motivation Homeostasis Glucose Anorexia nervosa Refractory period Sexual orientation Personnel psychology Achievement motivation Theory X Instinct Incentive Set point Bulimia nervosa Sexual disorder Flow Organizational psychology Task leadership Theory Y Drive-reduction theory Hierarchy of needs Basal metabolic rate Sexual response cycle Estrogen Industrial-organization psychology Structured interviews Social leadership

Chapter Thirteen: Emotion

Emotion Two-factor theory Feel-good, do-good phenomenon Relative deprivation James-Lange theory Polygraph Subjective well-being Cannon-Bard theory Catharsis Adaptation-level phenomenon

Chapter Fourteen: Stress and Health

Behavioral medicine Stress Type B Aerobic exercise General adaptation syndrome (GAS) Coronary heart disease Psychophysiological illness Biofeedback Health psychology Type A Lymphocytes Complementary and alternative medicine

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Chapter Fifteen: Personality

Personality Unconscious Superego Identification Repression Projection Projective test Collective unconscious Self-concept Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Reciprocal determinism Internal locus of control Spotlight effect Individualism Free association Id Psychosexual stages Fixation Regression Rationalization Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Self-actualization Trait Empirically derived test Personal control Learned helplessness Self-esteem Collectivism Psychoanalysis Ego Oedipus complex Defense mechanisms Reaction formation Displacement Rorsach inkblot test Unconditional positive regard Personality inventory Social-cognitive perspective External locus of control Positive psychology Self-serving bias Terror-management theory

Chapter Sixteen: Psychological Disorders

Psychological disorder DSM-IV Anxiety disorder Phobia Manic depressive disorder Dissociative disorders Delusions Medical model Neurotic disorder Generalized anxiety disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Manic episode Dissociative identity disorder Personality disorders Bio-psycho-social perspective Psychotic disorder Panic disorder Mood disorder Bipolar disorder Schizophrenia Anti-social personality disorder

Chapter Seventeen: Therapy

Psychotherapy Resistance Client-centered therapy Counterconditioning Aversive conditioning Cognitive-behavior therapy Meta-analysis Electroconvulsive therapy Eclectic approach Interpretation Active listening Exposure therapies Token economy Family therapy Psychopharmacology Psychosurgery Psychoanalysis Transference Behavior therapy Systematic desensitization Cognitive therapy Regression toward the mean Lithium Lobotomy

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Chapter Eighteen: Social Psychology

Social psychology Attitude Conformity Social facilitation Group polarization Stereotype Ingroup bias Aggression Social trap Companionate love Altruism Superordinate goals Attribution theory Foot-in-the-door phenomenon Normative social influence Social loafing Groupthink Ingroup Scapegoat theory Frustration-aggression principle Mere exposure effect Equity Bystander effect GRIT Fundamental attribution error Cognitive dissonance theory Informational social influence Deindividuation Prejudice Outgroup Just-world phenomenon Conflict Passionate love Self-disclosure Social exchange theory

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