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A Study Guide for Teachers and Students


Legally Blonde: Introduction


This teacher's guide ha s been developed as a teaching tool to assist who are bringing their teachers students to see the show . This guide is based on Ca mp Broadway's StageNOT ES, conceived for the origi Broadway musical adap nal tation of Amanda Brown's 2001 novel and the film re that same year, and has leased been adapted by Sarah Di ckinson for use within the UK. The UK Education Pack is intended to offer some pathways into the prod and focuses on some of uction, the topics covered in Le gally Blonde which may students and teachers interest . It is not an exhaustive analysis of the musical production, but instead or the aims to offer a variety of stimuli for debate, discu and practical exploratio ssion n. It is anticipated that th e Education Pack will be best utilised after a students have seen th group of e production with their teacher, and can enga informed discussion ba ge in an sed on a sound awaren ess of the musical. We the information provide hope that d here will both enhanc e the live theatre experie provide readers with infor nce and mation they may not other wise have been able to ac cess. Legally Blonde is an uplift ing, energising, feel-goo d show and with that in we hope this pack will mind be enjoyed through eq ually energising and enjoyable practical wo rk in the classroom and drama studio.



Legally Blonde: Introduction

Introducing Legally Blonde: Director's Message


INTRODUCTION CONTeNTs Page LLy BLONDe 1. INTRODUCINg Lega rector Jerry Mitchell A Message from the Di Synopsis Definitions Characters 2. BaCkgROUND gal System The Origins of the US Le History Key cases in US Legal Legal Terms 3. WOmeN IN The LaW the Law Overview of Women in udies Female Lawyers Case St sION 4. The aRT Of PeRsUa ge ing Persuasive Langua king Like a Lawyer ­ Us Thin Working for Change 5. eLLe ON sTage ather Hach (book) t ­ an interview with He Writing her Scrip ic) rnes and Neil Benjamin (mus ume Designer Gregg Ba ­ an interview with Cost Dressing her Up s 6. fURTheR ResOURCe

a message fROm DIR eCTOR JeRRy mITCheLL

Behind every great music al, there lies a great direc tor. He or she is the person whose job it is to translat e the words and music of the writers into a living and br ea th in g m om en t th at th experience along with th e au di en ce ge ts to e characters. In the case of Legally Blonde, that ta sk fell to the multi-talente d Jerry Mitchell. Jerry ha sa as actor, dancer, and ch lengthy Broadway CV oreo such hits as The Full Mon grapher that includes ty, Hairspray, and Dirty Ro Tony award to his credit tten Scoundrels. With a for his work on La Cage Aux Folles, Jerry makes Broadway debut as a di his rector with Legally Blon de. But why this show? Why would this talented an want to make his directo d well-respected player in the Broadway scene rial debut with Legally Bl onde? Here's what Jerry had to say...

When the producers of the show came to me an d asked if I was interes only thing I could say wa ted, the s YES! Why not? Elle W oods is a great characte She's a role model for r! us al herself. She is a true mo l because she is some-one who believes in dern hero. A hero is re silient. A hero is able to forge forward, and not dwell on the past. That 's Elle Woods. I love Elle for so many re asons, but I was drawn to this project because in some ways, I feel a lot like Elle. I live a very posit ive life. Everyone has successes and failures, but failures can be succ esses too, if you commit yourself entirely to that event and learn from it - sometimes you learn more from a failure than a success! She's all ab out maintaining a posit attitude about what you ive want to do with your life , and going after it. I als thought that this story ma o kes a perfect musical. W hen you have a characte who is larger than life, r a character whose co mmitment to a goal or themselves is so strong to ­ that is what makes the m sing. They need pass in order to justify song ion s that move the story along. Elle has passio Theatre ­ and especially n. musical theatre ­ has the power to communicate a message to people on an emotional level, so that they really connec with it. When people co t me and see Legally Blon de, I want them to be entertained, and there is no question in my mind tha t this show is entertainin But I also want people to g. leave the show having lea rned this lesson: to thine own self be true. Whe n no one else is there to guide you and supp you, you have the powe ort r within yourself to ac complish your goals! If you stay focused on what you want and wh o you are, it will lead yo to things you never drea u med you could achieve !



Introducing Legally Blonde: Synopsis

Introducing Legally Blonde: Synopsis

a syNOPsIs Of LegaLLy BLONDe The mUsICaL

rms with the However, when she perfo nd and cheer entire UCLA marching ba al statement team instead of a person ­ they let her in!

iculed by her At Harvard, elle is rid the University tes. During her It's Spring semester at over-achieving classma CLA). les (U ss of California Los Ange first class, the mercile y sisters are lls his students Callahan te The Delta Nu sororit t, Professor til/the thrill of their sorority presiden certain that that "you're nothing un ged be enga on ly la w !" elle Woods, will soon th e kil l/b ec om es yo ur le hasn't inently eligible llahan discovers that el to her boyfriend, the em . The girls Ca Third d throws her Warner huntington the done her homework an al ei r tradition ga th er to sin g el le th out of the class. nt Chorale. Engageme e, elle learns To make matters wors arner. w girlfriend, elle has dinner with W that Warner has a ne . ate Vivienne. The moment is perfect her two-faced classm ing, h all of this is But instead of propos elle's only support throug elle. He tant, emmett Warner breaks up with Callahan's teaching assis g to lta Nu sisters, explains that he's goin And, of course, elle's De d ar as her own the prestigious Harvar who continue to appe . Law School next autumn personal Greek Chorus he must marry and someone "serious" in In her grief, elle heads for the Hair order to fulfill his life Affair Salon, where she asks the stylist, a brunette plan of a career Paulette, to make her . talks her out in politics like Vivienne. Paulette e friends. of it, and they becom n, elle mopes le that her Heartbroke Paulette confides in el g Milky left her and in her room eatin ex-boyfriend, Dewey, a es dog. Ways. Then she devis took her trailer and her arner that strategy to show W Get in to she's "serious": Step 1) ep 2) Harvard Law School; St h IQ; Step 3) Impress him with her hig The Wedding! their way While her friends party ster, elle works through their final seme her LSAT and hard and gets a 175 on n. Bu t th e su bm its he r ap pl ic at io unimpressed. Admissions Officers are

Paulette to half their property. Paulette is overjoyed, and elle is exhilarated when she realises that this is what law is reall y about. Back at school, the lis t of Callahan's interns is posted. Seein g their names on the list together, War ner impulsively proposes to Vivienne in fro nt of elle is shocked, but feels everyone. much better when she discovers that her name is on the list, too. Callahan as signs emmett and the new interns to work on his latest case, defending Br ooke Wyndham, a TV fitness guru accuse d of murdering her husband. elle is the only member of the legal team who believes Broo ke is innocent. In a moment alone with Brooke, elle and Brooke discover that they were both members of the Delta Nu sorority in college. Brooke co nfides in elle that she was having lip osuction the day her husband was killed, and elle Double Delta Nu Sister Swears not to reveal the secret.

Vivienne invites elle to a "costume party". But wh en she arrives she realises she was th e only one told to arrive in fancy dres s. She stands out like a sore thumb, dressed as a Playboy bunny. As she lea ves the party, she runs into Emmett, who finally learns why she came to Harvard Law. emmett grew up poor an d is working two jobs while attending law school. He convinces elle that sh e, too, should "get a chip on her shou lder" and work hard to prove herself. elle stays at school over Thanksgiving break and Christmas as we ll, an and Paulette help her stu d emmett dy. In class, elle impresses Profes sor Callahan, who asks whether she's applying for his very competitive int ernship. emmett and elle help Pa ulette reclaim her dog by visiting Dewey and advising hi m th at hi s te n ye ar do m es tic relationship with Paulette is considered a Common Law marriag e and entitles

Callahan is furious that elle will not reveal Brooke's alibi. He tells "ratty corduroy" (emmet) and "L egally Blonde" (elle) to get lost for the day, so elle takes emmett shopping to update his image. She then has he r nails done at the Hair Affair, whe re kyle, the new UPS guy, appears and knocks Paulette's socks off. elle and her Delta Nu Chorus teach Paulette the Bend and Snap, which catches ky le's attention. The next day in court, Ca llahan is impressed by emmett's new look, and



Introducing Legally Blonde: Synopsis

Introducing Legally Blonde: Definitions

n arrives at court, where saves The processio en elle and hires elle even more impressed wh Brooke fires Callahan lls that the District tt as her counsel. elle ca the day: She notices ims to have and emme y-haired step-daughter cla Attorney's witness­who Brooke's frizz claims ver­­is impervious en Brooke's lo be y to the stand. Chutney d , and realises Chutne t had her hair permed an to her Bend and snap s him into she has jus trick n her father he must be gay. emmett was in the shower whe urt. ts that they outing himself in co was killed. elle reques the scene of re-convene the court at e te am demonstrates Ba ck at th e of fic e, th the shower, where she and Callahan bi: if she had celebrates the victory, the flaw in Chutney's ali n they t whe ight after her perm, congratulates elle. Bu her showered stra ruined s a pass at are left alone, he make atment would have been . rejects him. the tre e ir would now be straight and fires her when sh emmett and her ha hough d confesses elle is crushed, and alt Chutney breaks down an e is determined in an attempt to tries to stop her, sh that she shot her father return to d ge immediately to leave the course an shoot Brooke, and the jud . Los Angeles. dismisses Brooke's case in the trial, The next day, Paulette Seeing elle's success le's romance te that elle and ky Warner realizes too la g when ct for him. is bloomin would have been perfe , and she elle arrives to He asks her to marry him odbye. say go rejects him. But Vivienne is there and acknowledges arrives. elle's graduation day e was wrong that sh ictory speech She concludes her valed urging about elle, mett, and the with a proposal to em r to stay. he le to reprise Delta Nus are finally ab rees, but elle ag 's eir acclamation of elle on her own terms. th impending marriage. Sh e re tu rn s to the trial in a pink dress with her dog Bruiser under her arm, lta accompanied by the De own Nus, the Salon folks, elle's nts in stude parents, and her fellow a grand parade.

Sororities and Fraternit ies, single-sex student societies. Sororiti es are womenUNIVeRsITy Of CaLIfOR NIa LOs only (the name means sisterhood ­ aNgeLes (UCLa) Fraternities are the ma le equivalent) Founded in 1919, the and most universities ha University of ve a number California Los Angeles (kn own as UCLA) of them. Early in each academic ye ar in the second oldest of the ten campuses Sororities host events for new stude nts that make up the Universi ty of California. in a week called "rush week", enab ling It is attended by arou newcomers to get a feel nd 26,000 for the different undergraduates and 11 sororities and their me ,000 graduate mbers (there students every year. It is located in ar e m or e th an 60 Fr at er ni tie s an d Westward, a neighbou Sororities at the real UCLA rhood of ). If a student Los Angeles. It is cons istently ranked subsequently decides to apply her highly in league tables fo r universities application will be judged and vote d in the US. Amongst its Al umni it boasts on by existing members. If succes sful nobel winners, importa nt politicians she will be admitted into the sororit y and lawyers, plus notable names such through an initiation ceremony. as Francis Ford Coppola Alongside the core value (director of of a support the Godfather), Tom An network, sorority memb derson ership comes (founder of MySpace with other benefits in ), Jack Black cluding (actor) and Nancy Ca accommodation in the so rtwright (the rority house, voice of Bart Simpson financial support throug ) h scholarships and networking with exist ing and former sorority sisters. The name s of sororities are often represented by Greek letters, which link to their motto s. As seen in Legally Blonde, sorority women are often parodied, being re presented as airheaded and stupid ­ ye t, as Elle goes on to prove, in reality sis ters are often highly intelligent young women who go on to excel in their ch osen fields. Delta Nu is a fictionalis ed sorority at UCLA. sORORITy If you drive through an y American University Campus yo u are likely to see houses with signs on the door displaying Greek lette rs. These are the houses belonging to the haRVaRD LaW sChOOL Founded in 1817, Harvar d Law School is now the oldest continu ously operating law school in the U.S. Co nsidered the w or ld 's pr em ie r ce nt re fo r le ga l education and research , Harvard Law is home to the world's lar gest academic




Introducing Legally Blonde: Definitions

Introducing Legally Blonde: Definitions

nearly 2 law library, comprising nt like Elle million volumes. A stude deed to be would be very lucky in nearly 7, 000 accepted; each year, d and about applications are receive acceptance 800 places are offered; an rate of about 12%.

fe as t, Hi st or ic al ly a re lig io us thanksgiving st commemorating the fir the Pilgrim Fathers, to God in 1621 by cular holiday. it is now considered a se ther together Families traditionally ga ekend around at this time and the we busiest travel Thanksgiving is one of the Elle's decision periods in the US year. dy at this time to remain at Harvard to stu e not to LsaT significant as her choic ) is as as. ion Test (LSAT return home for Christm The Law School Admiss prospective by is an examination taken nts in the United States VaLeDICTORy sPeeCh Law School stude nt chosen school. the highest-ranking stude before applying to their w Schools In the USA e La ically given Created as a method to giv a graduating class is typ th ei r plicants uniformly, in a way to judge all ap le Va le di ct or ia n, an d te's logic and th e tit le is to give the final the exam tests a candida e from traditional ro es rang eech) at the reasoning skills. Scor speech (Valedictory Sp av er ag e sc or e That Elle gives 12 0 to 18 0, w ith an graduation ceremony. d is such a ar the end of Legally Blonde of about 151. As Harv quired this speech at Elle is re graduated top prestigious law school, indicates that she has LSAT. Valedictorian to score highly in the of her year! The title vale dicere comes from the Latin k ll". ThaNksgIVINg BRea meaning "to say farewe the fourth on Thanksgiving is held vember in the USA. Thursday in No

CheeR Team Cheerleaders lead spec tators at sports m at ch es us in g or ga ni ze d ro ut in es co m pr ise d of da nc in g, ac ro ba tic s, cheers and stunts to dir ect attention towards their team. Ch eerleading is recognized as a sport in its own right, and every US school an d college has a Cheer Team that will also compete in its own competitions , as well as in support of others.

INTeRNshIP An Internship is a temp orary position in an or ga ni sa tio n sim ila r to an apprenticeship in that it offers on the job training rather than jus t employment. Getting the right intern ship with the right firm early in a ca reer can offer valuable experience an d contacts. TeaChINg assIsTaNT As a le ad in g la w ye r Ca lla ha n's In universities a Teaching internships are highly pr ized by young Assista nt is a graduate law students wanting to get a leg up student who assists a in their career. professor in their classes . DIsTRICT aTTORNey UPs An individual elected in each judicial United Parcel district to charge and pr osecute those accused of committing Service ­ crimes. a leading international seNaTOR package delivery Co ng re ss , th e US Pa rli am en t, ha s service, well known for two elected houses: th e lower house, its brown trucks and smart the House of Representa tives, and the drivers dres sed in upper house, the Senate. Each US State brown unifo rms. is represented by two Senators. There are 100 Senators in total in the Senate.

hOmeCOmINg QUeeN Homecoming is celebrated at US schools and colleges in late Se ptember/ early October when past grad uates return to take part in a series of so cial activities traditionally built arou nd a central sporting fixture such as a football or basketball game. Other events include a parade, a feast and th e crowning of the Homecoming Quee n to reign over the proceedings (in so me places a whole Homecoming Co urt is elected). Pr os pe ct ive Ho m ec om in g Qu ee ns are nominated by their classmates in recognition of their co ntribution to the school (and often because of their popularity) and el ected by a student vote.



Introducing Legally Blonde: Characters

Background: US Legal System


eLLe WOODs een and Delta UCLA Homecoming Qu Nu President R, kaTe, maRgOT, seReNa, PILa NU aND a BeVy Of DeLTa sORORITy gIRLs Elle's sorority sisters BRUIseR Elle's Chihuahua III WaRNeR hUNTINgTON from an upper Elle's college boyfriend, to be a senator class family, who plans by the time he's 30. eLLe's mUm eLLe's DaD D WINThROP, LOWeLL aN PfORZheImeR s Officers Stuffy Harvard Admission PROfessOR CaLLahaN Criminal Harvard Law's merciless Law Professor.

DeWey Paulette's ex-boyfriend RUfUs Paulette's dog BROOke WyNDham accused Television fitness guru d of murdering her husban e kyLe BReNDaN O'BOyL perfect UPS Delivery Guy who's for Paulette JUDge NIkOs aRgITakOs ol boy, Brooke Wyndham's po her lover. who claims to have been CaRLOs Nikos's friend ChUTNey WyNDham pdaughter Brooke's frizzy-haired ste And.... luding UCLA A cast of thousands inc ching Band students, the UCLA Mar people, salon and Cheer Team, sales and the clientele, prison inmates ss of 2009. Harvard Law School cla

When the United States was formed in July 1776 (having de clared itself independent from the Un ited Kingdom), Have you ever wonder its leaders established ed why their national lawyers are "admitted government under a do to the bar" cument called and "approach the benc `T he Ar tic le s h"? of Co nf ed er at io n" . The US judicial system ha This document was the first s its origins in the British legal system, constitution of th e Un as do many of ite d St at es its terms. At the Inns of Co an d le ga lly established urt in the union of London, 16th Century law the separate states into a federation. students who were ready to practice law But the Articles didn't giv e th e passed a symbolic physical barrier fe de ra l go ve rn m en t ­ the bar ­ to join the seasoned lawye enough power and so rs on the other side; later, the word came failed to bring the to mean the railing surrounding the ar states to solve ea where the judge sat. The judge's se national problems. at and hence, the judge himself was re In 1789, the states ferred to as "the bench"; to this day ratified the U.S. the space around him or her is sacr Constitution, which ed, and one must seek permission to established three enter it. branches of government and set down the basic Both the British and Am laws erican systems of the U.S. as well as are based on English Co the mmon Law­ rights of its citizens. essentially the sum to tal of custom, The Constitution seek tradition, and especial s to ly precedent balance powers, over the centuries. assigning some to the federal government, and leaving others to th e in di vid ua l st at es themselves.

ORIgINs Of The Us LegaL sysTem

emmeTT hing Assistant Professor Callahan's Teac VIVIeNNe keNsINgTON an upper class Warner's new girlfriend, Harvard student NTe PaULeTTe BUONOfUO art of gold A hairdresser with a he

The struggle over the balance of these powers continues in th e courts today. Under the Constitution, both the federal and the state co urt systems have as their final court of appeals the Un ited



Background: US Legal System

Background: Key Cases Timeline

- the highest States Supreme Court other court or court in the land. No decisions and power can overrule its ere guide the the decisions made th king the laws lower courts and those ma tation of the through their interpre portion of the Constitution. The lower a few of the timeline below shows Supreme landmark decisions in Court history.

ion, and mob selfishness, superstit t it also attests mentality to abuse it; bu sig ht of th e to th e in ge ni ou s fo re , who designed Constitution's creators ad ap t to th e ju di ci al sy st em to d technological unimaginable social an changes over time.


DID yOU kNOW? is th e ol de st Th e U. S. Co ns tit ut io n rld! Its authors charter in effect in the wo ec ks an d cr ea te d a sy st em of ch ely e US today courts activ fectively kept In th e ba la nc es that have ef o e an d ov er se e Alternat en co ur ag an ch fro m ga in in g to ion (ADR), in the form an y on e br rtantly, they Dispute Resolut ich much power. Most impo diation and arbitration, wh for nt's own very of me allowed for the docume save time and expense can er time. and measured evolution ov both the parties involved the government. Kingdom has In contrast, the United rtheless, the US is a Neve document. ty, and no single constitutional famously litigious socie to ha ve an e Th e UK is of te n sa id ousands of cases m ov th constitution ­ `unwritten' or de facto ug h th e st at e and th ro ion y although most of the UK constitut federal courts. Only a tin s of n form does exist in the writte fraction of those in ents and treaties urt judgm either system will ever statutes, co s. t, as w el l as in un w rit te n so ur ce reach the Supreme Cour y Th e do ct rin e of Pa rli am en ta ry but throughout U.S. histor e d sovereignty is the foundation of th local cases have capture th e d Br iti sh co ns tit ut io n, an d so the nation's attention an an ge d by co ns tit ut io n ca n be ch focused debate on new Acts. Parliament by passing issues foremost in the sometimes Today this principle is minds of the populace. e to the UK questioned, however, du ion, e membership of the European Un Some of the cases in th udes of the and the changing attit eline, on the page tim r automatically judiciary, who no longe are landmark opposite, sacrosanct. e see Acts of Parliament as decisions in US Suprem Court history. e fact The timeline reveals th te n that the US sy st em of encies of al lo w s th e w or st tend human nature such as

1692­salem, massach usetts The salem Witchcraft Trials An atmosphere of hyste ria pervaded Salem Village during th e summer of 1692, during which ov er 150 people were accused of witchcr aft and brought into court presumed gu ilty. The court allowed torture to extra ct confessions and testimony that incl uded dreams 1886 - Chicago, IL and apparitions. After 19 executions, 1 de at h as a re su lt of The haymarket Riot Trial to rtu re , an d erupted when th e de at hs of se ve ra a bomb was thrown at l pr iso ne rs , an otherwise Governor Phips finally peaceful workers' prot disallowed est against "spectral evidence" an police violence and in d created a support of an superior court to hear th 8-hour workday. Eight an e remaining arch cases, all of which were convicted of inciting vio ists were dismissed. lence during Th e ev en ts of th es e tri th e rio t. A fre nz y of an al s w er e ti- la bo r an d dramatized in Arthur anti-immigrant fears in Miller's 1953 the populace play The Crucible draw resulted in an unjust trial; ing parallels although the with the contemporary prosecution produced no witch hunts evidence that of McCarthyism. the accused men had ma de or thrown the bomb that detonated during the riot, 1803 7 of the 8 were sentence d to death by hanging. marbury v. madison de clares a law passed by Congress un constitutional 1896 (contradictory to the constitution). As a result The Supreme Court's power Plessy v. ferguson of Judicial Review is es tablished and In 1892 Homer Plessy de liberately the "checks and bala entered a railway carriag nces" of US e designated government defined. for white passengers on ly. He had been born free and was one eighth black 1857 and seven-eights whi te, and yet Dred scott v. sanford under the law of Lous rules that iana was still African-Americans, wh ether freemen considered black. When Plessy refused or slaves, are not U.S. citizens, not to leave the white only carriage and protected by the constit ution and that moved to one for coloureds, he was arrested. In court Plessy argues that

Congress may not proh ibit slavery in federal territories. Dr ed Scott was a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before retu rning to the slave state of Missouri. He had appealed to the Supreme Court in hope of being granted his freedom. Comm only referred to as The Dred Scott De cision, it fuels the flames leading to the American Ci vil War. (T he 13 th an d 14 th Am en dm en ts ex pl ic itl y ov er tu rn Dr ed Sc ot t.)



Background: Key Cases Timeline

Background: Key Cases Timeline

and state'. `separation of church h irteent Inherit his rights under the th 55 play based on the trial, and and fourteenth The 19 (the abolition of slavery) d by Jerome Lawrence to all) had The Win ip ntly revived (extension of citizensh Robert E Lee, was rece Miller's t this was rejected. been violated bu Old Vic Theatre. Like gregation and at the ew parallels The decision upholds Se t The Crucible, it dr nality of the `separate bu thyism. the constitutio curb the with McCar l' doctrine, which will equa an citizens rk rights of African-Americ 1951­New york, New yo come. for decades to The Rosenberg Trial g became the Ethel and Julius Rosenber d for conspiracy 1919 1st U.S. citizens execute es case was schenck v. United stat commit espionage. Their rtiality elihood of speech to d the pa establishes the lik highly controversial, an t political climate g a "c le ar an d pr es en ca us in of the judge and the r its fair trial almost da ng er " as th e te st fo of the Red Scare made a tion. (This is and since the constitutional protec impossible. Both before e more e have been replaced in 1969 by th Rosenberg case, ther y to y defined test of narrowl s not only for conspirac less action.') conviction also for actual `imminent law commit espionage, but er defendants espionage, and yet no oth ayton, us it appears 1925­D have been executed. Th r gu ilt or Tennessee th at re ga rd le ss of th ei Trial ergs were The scopes innocence, the Rosenb ose story High school teacher convenient scapegoats wh John Scopes agreed to be arrested and put on trial in order to ch al le ng e a Te nn es se e la w ag ai ns t te ac hi ng ev ol ut io n. Th e ca se fa m ou sly pitted Clarence Darrow, a w el l-k no w n la w ye r an d ci vil lib er ta ria n, against fundamentalist Christian statesman n. William Jennings Brya ial" The so-called "Monkey Tr tio na l sp ar ke d he at ed na Case religion in the The Rosenberg spying Features debate over evolution, / Rex Photo: Everett Collection ing of an public schools, and me

helped build popular su pport for the 1995 ­ Los angles, Calif Ko re an War. Th e tri al ornia ha s be en The O.J.simpson Trial explored fictionally in no vels including After 133 days of televise E.L.Doctorow's book The Book of Daniel d testimony, jurors acquitted O.J. Si which was adapted int o a film. It also mpson of his ex-wife's murder, despite provided the inspiratio overwhelming n for James evidence of his guilt. The Philips' 2005 play The Ru case inspired benstein Kiss. national debate over th e relationship be tw ee n la w, ce le br ity 1954 , an d ra ci al at tit ud es . Simp Brown v. Board of educ son was later ation of Topeka convicted of wrongfu invalidates the `separa l death in an te but equal' anticlimactic civil trial. doctrine and outlaws racia l segregation in public schools, pavin g the way for 2003 desegregation in all area s of public life. grutter v. Bollinger and gr atz v. Bollinger Rules that colleges m 1963 ay consider race in admissions in a gideon v. Wainwright `holistic' and guarantees a individualized' manner, defendant's right to leg but not in a al counsel in `mechanical' one. criminal cases. 1966 miranda v. arizona rules that criminal suspects must be informe d of their rights before being questione d by police. 1973 Roe v. Wade guarantees a woman's right to an abortion in the first trimester, but allows states to int ervene in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters . Before this case laws in some US states prohibited abortion. Th is ruling made abortion legal thro ughout the United States. 1974 United states v. Nixo n limits the President's Executive Privilege, and leads to Nixon's re signation.

Photo: Sipq / Rex Features

OJ simpson



Background: Legal Terms

Background: Legal Terms

LegaL TeRms: hOW maNy DO yOU aLReaDy kNOW?

rriage" is no used, "common law ma legally recognised.


legal terms Here are some of the US Blonde, many encountered in Legally e in the UK of which are the sam there's (we've indicated where a difference). count of an aLIBI ­ A provable ac s at the time individual's whereabout it impossible of a crime that makes ve committed for said individual to ha said crime. empt or threat assaULT ­ Any willful att er person and to inflict injury upon anoth ility to do so. the apparent present ab ing the assault The individual threaten is the "assailant".

­ CROss eXamINaTION witness by an The questioning of a other than the individual or attorney ss on matters one who called said witne has testified to which the witness n. during Direct Examinatio inal trial, the DefeNDaNT ­ In a crim accused of defendant is the person the crime. e and testimony DefeNse ­ The evidenc t to defeat the offered by the defendan criminal charge. ­ DIReCT eXamINaTION g of the witness by the The questionin said witness counsel who has directed to be present.

LsaT ­ In the US, Law School Admission Test. The LS AT is all individuals in the US taken by (and some other countries) who wa nt to apply to law school and is intende d to measure certain basic reasoning ab ilities deemed to be im po rta nt in th e su cc es sf ul study of law. If you w ish to be a lawyer in the UK you will take a slightly different route. You must have a law degree or have co mpleted a law conversion course. Solic itors in the UK then take a course ca lled the Legal Practice Course and wi ll then apply for a two year trainin g contract. Barristers complete the Bar Vocational Course and then appl y for one year of `pupillage'. mOTIVe ­ The cause or reason that moves an individual to a certain action. In a criminal trial, the re ason why the defendant committed th e crime with which s/he is charged. PaTeNT ­ Something th at is evident or obvious. A legal patent for an invention gives the inventor the absolute right to the invention and pr otects it so as to exclude others from making, using or selling the invention for a period of time without first obtaini ng the patent holder's permission. PeRJURy ­ A criminal offense that involves making false statements, or lying, while testifyin g (making statements as a witnes s in court) under oath. PLea ­ In a criminal ca se, the "plea" is the statement by the defendant as

to whether they are "guil ty or not guilty", made at the arraignm ent (the proceeding during wh ich the state charges a person with a crime). PLea BaRgaIN ­ an arrangement whereby the district attor ney on behalf of the state and the defe ndant and his or her attorney negotia te a mutually agreeable resolution of the case, for example, less jail time provided the defendant "pleads guilty " to the crime or testifies against so meone else involved in the crime. ResIgNaTION ­ A forma l renouncement or relinquishment of a po sition or an office; for example, "Afte r being charged with assault, he offered his resignation as director of the Peac e Foundation."

al working in assOCIaTe ­ An individu or owner. rtner, a law firm who is not a pa

r D.a.) ­ DIsTRICT aTTORNey (o the US state; Essentially, an attorney for lf of the people an attorney who, on beha . initiates and of a state, prosecutes (i.e an ndant; tio n to its BaILIff ­ A court atte ca rri es ou t a le ga l ac a defendant thin a courtroom nclusion) the case against individual who works wi ing order, co state's laws. ep and is charged with ke charged with breaking the eys who rs the prisone attorn custody of the jury or There are also district ion. ss for the United while the court is in se protect and prosecute e. the federal States Government (i. equivalent age ­ government). In the UK COmmON LaW maRRI ecutor on le ga l up ions are the Crown Pros A m ar ria ge no t ba se d ired posit d No rth er n e with requ (in En gl an d, Wal es an ceremony and complianc urator Fiscal agreement of Ireland) and the Proc formalities but upon the lly e le ga in Scotland. tw o in di vid ua ls w ho ar to ge th er fo r a pe te nt to liv e co m ke e as husband L ­ A small hammer-li substantial period of tim for on Law gaVe Comm used by a judge to call and wife. The contract of s instrument d in 11 State courtroom. Marriage is only recognise order and attention in a in the USA. bia and the District of Colom h the term is often In the UK, althoug

TRIaL ­ An examinatio n and determination of issues be tween parties, whether they are issues of law or of fact, before and by a judge (a nd sometimes a jury) in a court of law .



Women in the Law: An overview

Women in the Law: An overview

LegaLLy femaLe: a BRIef hIsTORICaL OVeRVIeW Of WOmeN IN The LaW

that whether responded by legislating a free person or not a child is a slave or accordance will be determined in atus (hereby with their mother's st decision). overturning the court's

training for a Women faced a battle in re even fa ce d an profession before they we Fo r ce nt ur ie s, w om en 92 Mary their efforts to allowed to enter it. In 17 enormous challenge in titutions Wollstonecraft published her the law profession. All ins enter of Women. In s, Vindication of the Rights namely the law school viewed of the law, under the a period where women were society and courts, were law erty in as decoration and prop n. exclusive control of me central arguments marriage, one of its ucated tory of was that women should be ed th the UK and USA, the his In bo might contribute fully to the law is closely connected in so they women in 't until 1876 vement society. However, it wasn the women's suffrage mo , the owed women that the Medical Act all its early stage and later in ors in the UK to train formally as doct en's rights movement. wom ackwell had tice (British born Elizabeth Bl A women's right to prac qualified as ely trained in New York and y profession was clos an ere in 1849 status. the first female doctor th connected to her own legal the first the and went on to become A woman was seen as UK). In 1878 practicing doctor in the operty' of her husband `pr pted women London University acce and the ownership of all bjects ­ a for graduation in all its su he r po ss es sio ns w as universities move followed by many turned legally over to untry. However Oxford him on her marriage ­ a around the co degrees to University didn't award law which was not 20, Cambridge in 1948 changed until the 1880s. women until 19 ostensibly the and Harvard University, African American in the nation (and law women, often slaves, best law school e for Elle Woods in have an early powerful school of choic ), did not admit women history in pursuing the Legally Blonde 50. g to its law school until as late as 19 law as a means of obtainin 1655, d their own freedom. In her Women in the United States foun beth Key, a slave, sued for Eliza ter the legal themselves able to en arguing that her status freedom by an their ancestry profession slightly earlier th lle ld be determined by the shou than British sisters. Beginning with Be er, a free white, rather of her fath wa, women ve. Although A. Mansfield in 1869 in Io that of her mother, a sla Th e the right to slowly began gaining y won her case, in 1662. Ms Ke te. In 1923, practice law, state by sta ea lth of Vi rg in ia Co m m on w

In Scotland the first wo men Solicitor, Madge Easton Anderson, was admitted in 1920. In England the first women to pass their law exam ination were Maud Crofts, Carrie Mor rison, Mary Pickup and Mary Syke s in 1922. Carrie Morrison finished her articles first and was admitted to the role of solicitor in 1923. Both she an d Maud Crofts had studied at the wome n's college Girton, at Cambridge wh ere they had been allowed to attend lectures, and sit exams ­ but not be en allowed to receive degrees. A ye ar earlier, in 1922, Helena Normanto n was the first woman admitted to th e bar. A true trailblazer, she would go In the United Kingdom on to be the an application first woman to lead the by a woman to be admitte prosecution d as a solicitor in a murd er trial, the first, with Ro was made in 1876, but wa se s turned down. Heilbron, to be appointed King's Co Women were associat unsel, ed with the an d, as a ca m pa ig ne profession, acting as r on m ar ria ge assistants to reform, the first British solicitors and barristers woman to be , and in 1912 a issued wi th a passport in her ma bill was introduced into iden parliament to name. Sh e was also, like Elle, a permit them to qualify in their own Sorority Sister, an hono rig ht bu t fa ile d. In 19 14 rary member , w he n he r of the of the US women application to be registered lawyer's as a solicitor association, Kappa Beta Pi was turned down by th and Principal e Law Society, elected officer for Europe of th Gwyneth Bebb went to e the Court of International Legal Soro Appeal. Here she was re rity. Yet despite jected once these female again on the claim that she was not a professio pioneers, entry into the n remained difficult fo `person' within the term r s of the 1843 many women with the Solicitor's Act. The Comm high cost of ittee for the training fo r articles preventing on Admission of Women int o the Solicitor's women ly of independent means Profession was formed , or to take up the wealthy, enlightened parents fro fight, with new private m member's bills enterin g. In 1931, nine years introduced and reject after ed in 1914 Carrie Morrison had be and 1917. It wasn't un en admitted, til 1919, with only about 100 women th e su cc es sf ul pa ss in had qualified, g of th e Se x and as recently as 1967 Discrimination (Remov , only 2.7% of al) Bill that the solicito rs were women. cause was won. The bi ll finally recognized that women were `persons' From early on, as women ente and therefore able to ho red the ld public office. profes sion of law, contrasting views ha ve ar ise n as to th ei r ro le an d

Delaware was the last state to admit women to the bar. In 18 69, Lemma Barkaloo entered the La w Department of Washington Univers ity in St. Louis, thus becoming the first woman law student in the nation. She did not complete her studies bu t passed the Missouri bar upon the co nclusion of her first year of study and be gan practicing in 1870. Of all the regions in the US, the No rth ea st , w ith th e hi gh es t concentration of male at torneys, the longest history of male at torneys, and the most prestigious law schools, was the most resistant to th e admission of women to the practice of law.



Women in the Law: An overview

Women in the Law: An overview

US Supreme has been suggested by hand, On one r Ginsburg. In contribution to the law. Court Justice Ruth Bade that there is no before her women have argued a speech given shortly practiced is eme Court, difference in the way law nomination to the Supr sured en - that the two by men and wom rg suggested that "mea and thus equal Ginsbu em to me right, in the main, genders are equivalent motions se er, another ll as common in all aspects. Howev for constitutional as we bs too that women have argument is made judication. Doctrinal lim e perspective, law ad nce teaches, brought to the law a uniqu swiftly shaped, experie the ial than nsburg has one that is less adversar may prove unstable." Gi tablished by men) eme Court traditional method (es also urged that the Supr law and t of el ec te d of trying cases in a cour al lo w fo r di al og ue w ith e the winner and the t previously declaring one sid branches, a notion no who served other the loser. considered by the men r. ion that before he effort to find case resolut In an of a "win-win" rs today have come entertains the philosophy the Women solicito expanded sion than their instead, women have far further in the profes ts, native dispute tieth century counterpar law into areas of alter especially early twen tion, eir own. resolution such as media t still face barriers of th yment and family bu Law Society in the areas of emplo Research by the British ssarily ce d that in 31 law, where it is not ne published in 2007 reveale ve an le to ha itors on the appropriate or desirab July 2006 43.7% of solic the loser. Similarly, a outright winner and 49) were women and judication role (57,2 to ad more gentle approach

percentage of woman law students was 62.2%. There were more women trainees (61.8%) and m ore women student enrolments w ith the law society (63%). Howeve r, the of women partners in law number firms was far lower ­ only 23.2% an d concerns remain about how many women leave the profession after th e early stages of their careers. In a spee ch delivered to the Association of Wom en Solicitors on 12th March 2007 to ma rk the 85th anniversary of Carrie Morrison's qualification, Mrs Justice Dobbs noted that "research shows th at the issues of gender equality in the law and legal professions still continu es to present a challenge today all ov er the world." W hi lst th er e ha s be en a `h ea lth y increase' in women tra ining and qualifying as lawyers, "y ou only have to look at the attrition rates to see that women are not reap ing the same rewards and advancem ents as men... Women always have to be exceptional at everything to get ther e. Why, if they are equal at the start? Do women suddenly become inco mpetent at a certain level in a biza rre and unexplained way? Of course the answer is no. It is large ly due to the culture within which th ey operate." It is the changing of this culture that the Association of Wom en Solicitors and other organisation s are working hard to exact. Their curre nt campaigns include the encouragement of wome n to apply for more judicial appoint ments and equal pay in the legal se ctor. They also run services to supp ort re-entering the professio women n and giving

advice on maternity/ pa ternity rights for both men and wome n enabling parents to negotiate th e balance between family and wo rk with more support. Although many battles have been well fought in the campaign for women to achieve parit y with their male counterparts in th e courtroom, the war is not yet won.

Us supreme Court Jus

Photo: Rex Features

tice Ruth Bader ginsbu




Women in the Law: An overview

Women in the Law: An overview

e eXeRCIse: Discussion r a discussion about th n above as stimulus fo matio in the law Use the historical infor ally and currently with ve faced both historic obstacles women ha sed may include: profession. Questions po me in n lawyers had to overco e obstacles that wome th · What were some of the 1800s? law such obstacles in the ally women have had toric · Why do you think his profession? e obstacles? need to overcome thes What skills did women · le lawyers? What has for contemporary fema anged · How have things ch stayed the same? quest to cussion to Elle's own lly Blonde, turn the dis Thinking about Lega become a lawyer: taken had to overcome to be the obstacles that Elle · What were some of nt in Legally Blonde? seriously as a law stude er · What did she do to ov come these obstacles? at other characters / co ntemporary n?



she not meet th · What obstacles did women do?

nt wo have changed for curre · Do you think things Why or why not? yo · What changes would u make if you could?

men in the law professio





Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies

Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies

fIghTINg TO WORk, aRgUINg aT WORk: WOmaN PIONeeRs IN The LaW

LTZ CLaRa shORTRIDge fO ale lawyer accomplishment: First fem California's in California; Drafted Inventor of Women's Lawyer's Bill; Defender" the position of "Public

Clara shortridge foltz

Photo: University of Cali

fornia Portrait Library

ssage, Foltz Long after the Bill's pa as follows: described her feelings a Shortridge Foltz was I would have history: Clar "I coaxed, I entreated, five who had asonable a single mother of ns" reasoned had they been re us "women's occupatio t for a living, tried vario men. . . I had to beg -- no could not support her and rn a living." but to be allowed to ea family. She wrote that it the bill o After much hard campaigning, ng was her five children wh in 1877 and in the followi ir very dependence became law "by the me the first year, 1878, Foltz beca spur me onward in to the lawyer to be admitted d profession." The struggle woman my r. On the day she joine n career and family, California ba betwee ggested ng the bar, a fellow lawyer su the dilemma of the worki use `her sex that she would fail beca mother, is not a new a secret." During one omenon but was could not keep phen the jury "not trial, the prosecutor told an emotional issue her because she was for Foltz. "I have lost to listen to is of reason". Ms. Foltz more for myself that incapable e public d "th the person who invente I have gained for titution, in part due defender" as an ins all women. All the d that she herself suffere pleasure of my young to the fact onally. 's unfairness pers motherhood I sacrificed the system ny poor and Ms. Foltz represented ma man's cause..." for wo hi le en de st itu te pe op le fo r fre e w Ms. Foltz drafted the Wom ca se s w er e pr os ec ut or s on th es e er's Bill by substituting Lawy ent. She started speaking "person" for the receiving paym the word ion called the out about the need for a posit le words "white male" in nder who has a equal tit Code, thereby enabling public defe existing nt to those ssion. and resources equivale s. women to enter the profe osecutor of such case five children to support, of the pr With en won the When California's wom desperate to pass Foltz was yer. the bill and become a law

vote in 1911, they want ed a woman in the Brooklyn public sc prosecutor, and so Ms. hool system. Foltz became In 1895, Ray became the first female deputy dis active in the trict attorney Nationa l Association of Colored W for Los Angeles County. omen. We are lucky Ra y di ed on Ja nu ar y to have much informat 4, 19 11 , fro m ion about acute Bronchitis. Ms. Foltz, as she kept scrapbooks that are being used by a biographer CaRRIe mORRIsON who is writing a book ab out her life. accomplishment: First woman to be ChaRLOTTe e. Ray admitted as a solicitor in the UK. accomplishment: First AfricanAmerican woman admi history: Born in 1888, Ca tted to a US rrie Morrison state bar. had studied at the wome n's college, Girton, in Cambridge an d had served history: Charlotte Ray in the War Office and was born on Army of the January 13, 1850 in Ne Black Sea at Constant w York to a inople (now Reverend father who wa Istanbul) during the Fir st World War. s a member of the Underground Ra At Cambridge she had ilroad (which been allowed he lp ed sla ve s m ak e th to attend lectures and sit exams, but ei r w ay to freedom). In 1869, sh was not awarded a degr e graduated ee. Passing from the Institution for her law examinations the Education in 1922, she of Colored Youth in Washin finished her articles and was admitted gton, D.C. and became a teacher at Howa to role of solicitor in 1923 . She married rd University. She applied to the law sc Ambrose Appelbe and be hool at Howard came a partner using her initials (C.E. Ra in his firm when he es tablished it in y). Although there was some comm otion when the Lin co ln 's In n in 19 35 . Sh e ha d a university realized she was a woman, particular focus on family law, reading they allowed her to continu a pa pe r on th e co st s of do m es tic e her courses. Ms. Ray graduated Phi relations in 1931 and Beta Kappa in on reform of 1872 to become the first female attorney the married women's property law. in the Capitol as well In particular she argued as the first for African-American lawye independence from their women's r in the nation. husbands in The event is immortaliz terms of income and ta x. ed in the Woman's Journal, which describes her as a "dusky Mulatto ". In the same BReNDa maRJORIe haLe, year she opened her ow n law practice BaRONess haLe in Washington, D.C., ho accomplishment: First wever, due to woman to be the pervasive sexism appointed a UK Law Lo and racism of rd ­ the time, she was forced to close her transferred in 2009 to the new UK practice due to a lack of Supreme Court. business. She returned to New Yo rk where in 1886 she married and ob history: Born in Yorksh tained work ire in 1945 she studied at Richmond Hi gh School for



Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies

Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies

Girls an

ge d Girton College Cambrid

uating with a where she read law grad r class. She starred first, top of he ss again in graduated top of her cla called to 1969 when, having been he r fin al s. th e ba r, sh e co m pl et ed mbined work For eighteen years she co ademic work as a barrister with ac r of Law at OR and became professo saNDRa Day O'CONN iversity in 1986. In 1984 woman to be Manchester Un accomplishment: First youngest was the first woman and e Court. she e appointed to the Suprem er to be appointed to th person ev she oversaw Law Commission where Day O'Connor ­ history: In 1981, Sandra ed reforms in family law propos n appointed to e became the first woma her a target of hate for th which made Born in 1930 worked on the US Supreme Court. htwing press. She also rig from Stanford Ac t. in Texas, she graduated nd br ea kin g Ch ild re n th e gr ou rd University University and Stanfo Queen's Counsel in 1989 She was made r family settled . In 1994 Law School. She and he Recorder later that year and ere she served stice in Phoenix, Arizona, wh red the High Court of Ju she ente orney general as an Arizona assistant att d was appointed a as a judge an e joined the r of the from 1965-1969 until sh Commander of the Orde Dame e was elected e Arizona Senate. In 1974, sh e. In 1999 she became th British Empir s later, in 1979, a trial judge and five year ever to be appointed second woman Arizona Court new she was appointed to the urt of Appeal (breaking to the Co hteen months of Appeals. It was only eig n her background in ground give nald Reagan ivy Council later that President Ro ademia), entering the Pr ac preme Court as nominated her to the Su me time. In 2004 she w at the sa came its first where in 1983, she be come the first female appointed to be tired from the d was woman member. She re . of Appeal in Ordinary an Lord nd. bench after 24 years of service ronness Hale of Richmo created Ba about equal She holds strong views e importance RUTh BaDeR gINsBURg rights for women and th Woman to be ng the top of accomplishment: Second of more women reachi t. d judiciary. In a appointed to the US Supreme Cour the legal profession an 2004 she Bar Reform Lecture in years after verley history: In 1993, twelve quoted Chief Justice Be intment, Ruth e Court of Justice O'Connor's appo McLachlin of the Suprem the second e of women's Bader Ginsburg became Canada of the importanc the US ary: "The ... woman appointed to contribution to the judici ning the court, why I believe Supreme Court. Prior to joi most important reason benches is we need women on our

rspectives because we need the pe judging." that women can bring to ts are human This is because: "...juris are informed beings, and, as such, backgrounds, and influenced by their riences. communities, and expe , social and For cultural, biological en do have historic reasons, wom an men." different experiences th

Ginsburg worked as a law clerk and history: Born in 1955 in then as a professor at Dominica to Rutgers Antiguan and Dominican University Law School parents and and Columbia the tenth of twelve child University Law School ren, she . It was at moved to Walthamstow Columbia that she be London when came the first she wa s three where she attend tenured woman profes ed sor Walthamstow School fo co-authored the first law and r girls. school case She stu died for her Law Degree book on gender discrimina from tion. In 1971, London University externally at sh e la un ch ed th e Wom Mid en 's Ri gh ts Essex Te chnical College in 1976 Project of the American and Civil Liberties was ca lled to the bar at the Midd Un io n (A CL U) an d se rv ed as th e le Temple in 1977 specialisi General Counsel for th ng in family e ACLU from and ch ildren's law. She was ma 1973-1980. Ginsburg stepp de ed down from Queen's Counsel in 1991, the first that position in 1980 af ter President black woman to be made so an Jimmy Carter appointe d the d her to the youngest person since United States Court of Ap William Pitt peals for the the Youn ger. In 1994 she was na District of Columbia Circ med uit. On June as a Millennium Commiss 14, 1993, President Bill Cli ioner and nton nominated was also a member of the her as an Associate Ju stice of the Commission for Racial Supreme Court. During he Equality. In r confirmation 1997 sh e was elected as a Benc hearings, Ginsburg refu her of sed to answer the M iddle Temple and receive questions regarding her d a life personal views peerag e in the same year as pa on most politically char rt of ged issues the Labour Party list of (abortion, gay rights, working peers. separation of Whilst serving in the House of church and state, etc. Lords ) or how she she has served a numb would adjudicate certain er of hypothetical government posts includ situations if they wer ing e before her; Parliamentary Under-S "Were I to rehearse here ecretary of what I would State at the Foreign and say and how I would re ason on such Commonwealth Office questions, I would act and in 2001 she injudiciously." became Parliamentary Her refusals, now know Secretary in n as the the Lord Chancellor's De Ginsburg Precedent, ha partment and s reappeared was ma de a member of the Privy in subsequent confirmat ion hearings. Council . In 2003 she was made Minister of State for the PaTRICIa JaNeT sCOT Criminal LaND, Justice system and Law BaRONNess sCOTLaND Reform at the Home Office where she was accomplishment: First Black Woman charged with promoting a new to be made a Queen's Counsel and extradition treaty with th e USA in the First Woman to be appo inted Attorney House of Lords. In 2007 she was General of England, W appointed Attorney Gene ales and ral by Northern Ireland Gordon Brown, the first woman to hold this office since it was established in 1315.



Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies

Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies


tire cast enters in cap to graduation day. The en e is at we transition CLASS OF 2009." Vivienn (As Elle and Warner exit ads "CONGRATULATIONS er re and gown as a giant bann d it the lectern.) ine own self be true. An peare once wrote: "To th William Shakes not then be false to any VIVIENNE: ht, the day. Thou canst blonde must follow as the nig st applies to a woman. A self ve this wise statement be man." I belie , that being true to your ht me, and showed us all ictorian, Elle woman. She taug d gentlemen, your valed es out of style. Ladies an never go Woods! on the Wall eXeRCIse PaRT 1: Role as follows: tivity, Role on the Wall oup demonstrate the ac As a whole gr r Elle from represent the characte to be an paper, draw a figure to tline ­ so you don't need · On large piece of ould just be a general ou at you have room to write on Legally Blonde. This sh so th the form large enough e, Elle. artist to draw it. Draw e figure. Label the figur ide and the outside of th the ins , pressures, the external influences s of the figure brainstorm brainstorm her feeling · On the outside musical. On the inside Elle in the conflicts that affected ese external pressures. ghts associated with th and thou small groups. · Divide the class into ided. m the historical list prov the to choose a character fro them mplete the same, Role on · In these groups, ask oup and ask them to co each gr ible external Pass out large paper to will brainstorm the poss life, aracter. In groups they facts of the character's Wall activity for this ch e they don't have all the Sinc and internal pressures. sures might be. surmise what some pres ey are asked to th agonists the Life ­ Creating Prot awn eRCIse PaRT 2: Day in eX tween two characters dr e creation of a scene be up to th The next exercises build n you have selected. periences of the woma ur imagined ex from yo rd of their rapbooks to keep a reco scrapbooks women kept diaries or sc In the past many a Normanton both kept ortridge Foltz and Helen ing to experiences. Clara Sh source for people want d used as a valuable re an which are now archived t them. discover more abou depth, chosen woman in more oup in ng point to explore your rti rked with in a larger gr · Using this idea as sta . acter that you have wo e char r each of these women) split into pairs (keep th more than one story fo ere will be the earlier exercise ­ th

· In your pairs now wr ite a diary entry where this new character is `ta about the female lawye lking r." eXeRCIse PaRT 4: shar ing In Legally Blonde: The M usical characters sometim es use a theatrical device of mingling their spoken thoughts with their speech. This particularly happens wi thin songs. · Think of some exam ples where this happen s within the musical. · You are now going to use this device for the characters you've writ about. The written diar ten ies of the character's thoughts will be spoken aloud in pairs. In your pairs choose a character each e.g. Pe rson A is the Female Lawyer and pe rson B is the antagonis t character. · Divide the diary entry you will be reading int o sections that separate out the ma in thoughts of the charac ter. Number each of the sect ions. If possible Person A (the female lawyer) should have one more passag e than Person B. For example A might have 5 sections and B might have 4. ·

· In your pairs write a diary entry of "a day in the life" of this woman. include an obstacle fro This day should m her professional life that affected her. · In your writing think about where the obsta cle came from and how this obstacle as well as she overcame the obstacle itself. Wha t were the consequenc overcoming it? How did es of her she feel? Was she chan ged in any way? eXeRCIse PaRT 3: Poin t/Counter Point Diary en tries ­ Creating antago · Having finished your nists diary entry for this chosen woman, now think of an character who is oppo other sition to her in her life, and has contributed to she faced/ or knows ab the obstacle out them. This informatio n isn't in the historical information, so you mu st create this characte r yourself. For example be a judge, a male colle they might ague or an unsupportive family member. · Take the same obsta cle you wrote about in your day in the life diary approach it from the op entry and posing point of view of this new character (th about moments in Lega ink lly Blonde where char acters see things from different perspectives ­ for example Elle sees W arner breaking up with he a tragedy but Warner se r as es it very differently).



Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies

Women in the Law: Female lawyers Case Studies

practise reading e numbered passages, B, then 2 split up the entry into th · Once you've age 1 from A, then 1 from ces of g/pong approach ­ pass them aloud in a pin sh to redivide up the pie B and so on. You may wi from A and then 2 from gether. text so they flow well to ce and the shape of it. out the end performan think ab e end? How · As you're practising is it in the middle and th at the beginning? How What is the mood ce feels finished for the e final moment of the pie might you ensure that th audience? th · Share your piece wi the class.


KATE ELLE KATE ELLE (Meet Kate, Delta Nu's I have a 4.0 average. Harvard Law School? Scholastic Chair.)

Yeah, in fashion mercha ndising. What makes yo u think you can do this? LOVE! AND LOVE WILL SEE M I'M DOING THIS FOR LO VE, E THROUGH;

aring eXeRCIse PaRT 5: Comp e thinking about the eir texts spend some tim ared th of the When everyone has sh than one version of each parts of d. There should be more characters you create n them? What different the differences betwee re ht or wrong female lawyers. What we member there is no rig storical s were highlighted? Re their personalitie create stories from hi ter here. When writers several aspects) of that version of any charac drawn to an aspect (or ays characters they are alw riguing or resonant. they find interesting, int acter's life that char ting scenes yer has to eXeRCIse PaRT 6: Crea l obstacle that your law irs return to the origina tion. · Back in your pa ing to dramatise the ac me. This time you are go overco shows ene between them that acters create a short sc · Using your two char pact, rather than tells it. what happens and its im try to e situation itself either r was not involved in th acte nt in the day · If your second char think of another mome ting to ene to include them, or amend your sc supportive relative reac g ed eg. It might be an un where they are involv has on the lawyer tellin nt ­ and the impact that ide ict between your two being told about an inc ere there is a clear confl uation wh them. Try and find a sit characters. feel at How do your characters in the t the mood of the scene. ho has the most power · As before think abou changed at the end? W s the beginning? What ha end? wer shifted at all by the scene? Has the po the group. and play them back to Rehearse your scenes · u made at the beginning. nsider your roll sheets yo shared co els? · When everyone has your character thinks/ fe add to them about how Is there anything to





















The Art of Persuasion: Thinking Like A Lawyer

The Art of Persuasion: Thinking Like A Lawyer



Eg: a politician wants vo ters to vote for her (and not her opponent) by ma promises and highligh king ting her experience. Or a teenager wants to co his parents to let him sta nvince y out later because he ha s shown that he is respon and trustworthy. sible Make a record of these different speakers on a white board or sheet of You may want to create paper. a chart [Speaker/Argum ent/Audience/Methods] students' responses fo to record r their reference in Exer cise 2. 2. Get them to now think of a time recently when they have used a form persuasive language th of emselves. · What point were they trying · Who was their audie nc · How did they shape wh e? get their point across? to make?

se for yers have to argue a ca in many legal dramas, law their version of events. In Legally Blonde, and y of nvince the judge and jur age. In the their clients and try to co ar and persuasive langu guage their case by using cle They need to make r own clear persuasive lan er. onde, Elle harnesses he sband's murd final scenes of Legally Bl t responsible for her hu to convince te how Brooke was no to demonstra e persuasive language ript we watch Emmett us mies wrong. Elsewhere in the sc and prove her ene kle down to her studies Elle to knuc different courtroom but in many e 't just a skill used in the into account the audienc Persuasive language isn uasive language takes pers aspects of life. Effective ended effect on them. and the speakers int sive dents to explore persua cises to encourage stu Here are some exer s. language for themselve n dents to eXeRCIse 1: Discussio e language ask the stu e concept of persuasiv daily life. 1. Having introduced th ay be encountered in contexts in which it m think about Get them to consider: e persuasive language? u think of who might us · Who else can yo ? they ware trying to make What point do you think · d au · Who is their intende dience? apes their language in order to reach

at they said in order to

· How successful we re th

ey in their persuasion?

· If they were, why? If not, how might they ha ve changed their argume speech in order to be mo nt/ re successful.

this speaker sh · What are the ways that audience?



The Art of Persuasion: Thinking Like A Lawyer

The Art of Persuasion: Thinking Like A Lawyer




CALLAHAN (Smiling) Gotcha! MMENT HAS OFFENDED . .... HARD TO ARGUE, TH OUGH, WHEN YOU'RE TOO MAD TO SPEAK. YOUR EMPLOYMENT W ILL BE VERY QUICKLY EN DED ONCE THEY SEE HOW YO UR EMOTIONS MAKE YO U WEAK. eXeRCIse 3: Voting with your feet 1. Before the exercise assemble a set of state ments related to Legally on which students ar Blonde e likely to have strong opinion. They may incl things like: "It is never ude OK to repeat a secret", "Anger is always nega "It's understandable wh tive", y Elle was never taken seriously before" and so (you can also prepare sta on tements on specific area s). 2. On large sheets of pa per write out five possibl e responses to the state Strongly Agree, Agree, Ne ment: ither Agree or Disagree, Disagree, Strongly Disagr ee. 3. Line these pieces of paper in order across th e floor to create an `ax agreement (leave plent is' of y of space behind them and around them). 4. Read a statement fro m your list and ask the stu dents to vote with their fee stand behind the paper tha t and t corresponds to their ow n response to the statem ent. 5. When they have settle d on their responses ask them to discuss with the with them why they fin people d themselves at that po sition. 6. Ask the group to selec t a spokesperson who ca n relate to the rest of the the main points in sixty group seconds or less, and try to enlist people from ot groups to join them. On her ce all the arguments ha ve been heard, give stu the opportunity to move dents if them arguments have changed their minds. 7. After the exercise ha ve a group discussion about which argument particularly effective, an s were d why? How did it feel to have to explain what believed? How did it fe they el to change their mind s? OH DEAR, I FEAR MY CO


to Character te eXeRCIse 2: getting in are used to communica different kinds of media ny magazines, In the modern world, ma , newspapers, websites, ment including TV, radio a persuasive argu blogs and billboards. used to rent media that may be brainstorm all the diffe 1. Get the students to ments. convey persuasive argu in rs they created together rn to the list of characte retu er one of their own). 2. Ask the students to ernatively to think of anoth e (or alt Exercise 1 and select on r. Imagine some speech as that characte y for them write a letter or a short 3. Ask them to Think about the best wa e. at character might use. of the language th age and target audienc eping in mind their mess ould it make to express their case, ke to use in their context? W spot? the best media for them What would be s conference? A radio e a statement for a pres most sense to prepar itor? Or write a letter to an Ed have in character. When they e their work, remaining shar ny of them 4. Ask for volunteers to nce to find out how ma t a straw poll of the audie finished conduc were convinced.



The Art of Persuasion: Thinking Like A Lawyer

The Art of Persuasion: Working For Change




ELLE ELLE has a LIGHTBULB JUDGE WARNER VIVIENNE ELLE JUDGE e to go to the bathroom . Shouldn't you have gone before the murder trial? Why do girls always do that?.... (punches WARNER in th e bicep.) I mean, I'd like everyo ne to go back to the bathroom where this alleged show er took place. This I gotta see.... Let's all go to the bathroom. Your honour, I would lik MOMENT, raises her ha nd.


speechmaking ing to eXeRCIse 4: Impromptu ten finds herself need public speakers, Elle of d on her gut instincts to Like many lawyers an e to prepare and relies lot of tim speak without having a build her arguments. speeches nity to give impromptu nts will have an opportu ships. In this exercise, stude of low-exposure partner ered topics in a variety nt on a number of youth-ce be selects one partner to get into pairs. Each pair to 1. Ask all the students other to be "B". "A" and the ompt. ible topics below as a pr ng r offers one of the poss 2. The teache · Dating · College · Drivi mmer Vacation · Family · Friendship · Su ting · Technology · War · Food · The Media · Vo · Money At any point B of a particular topic to B. the topic. stating all of the "Pros" 3. Each A begins plain all of the Cons on ely A must now begin to ex can say "Cons", and d "Cons" for approximat tween saying "Pros" an be B continues to alternate 2 minutes. over: B must ic and the partners swap again w announces a new top 4. The teacher no king "pros" and "cons" alternates between spea now speak while A tes. for approximately 2 minu ten, speak and to prompt/lis had the opportunity to have 5. Once both partners d new partners. n instruct students to fin the teacher ca pings). 6 times (or for 5 or 6 grou Repeat the exercise 56. gether and discuss the bring the group back to ercise g? 7. At the end of the ex t did they find challengin exercise with them. Wha experience of the in different groupings? chmaking change at all Did they find their spee



The Art of Persuasion: Working For Change

The Art of Persuasion: Working For Change

"ChaNge BegeTs ChaNge. NOThINg PROPagaTes sO fasT."

ChaRLes DICkeNs world change? When and how does the r you decide Whenever and howeve de is populated to change it. Legally Blon to have their by characters motivated rld ­ whether hand in changing the wo s to run for the it be Warner's aspiration politician, or US Senate as an elected n the political Enid's desire to redesig the change system altogether, or tte's life brought about in Paule through Elle's support. ne xt ge ne ra l As w e ap pr oa ch th e later in 2010, election in this country with different the media will be filled n change the ideas about how we ca the better... country and the world for ople to do it. and who are the best pe

littering the cigarette butts were own. Since it beaches of her homet e remains of takes five years for th te, she knew a cigarette to disintegra ne. something had to be do -up campaign Joying launched a clean on the Beach". and dubbed it "No Butts s troop and She enlisted her Brownie , businesses, convinced local schools te labor and and carpenters to dona cigarette butt materials to construct each entrance disposal containers for to Joying's to the beach. Thanks hes are initiative, the local beac noticeably cleaner. kids for madhav subrmanian ­ Tigers med Madhav In 2008 the Guardian na o could save one of the 50 people wh s, Kirat Singh, the planet. With his friend shnol, twelve Sahir Doshi and Suraj Bi manian set up year old Madhav Subr ct which works the Kids for Tigers proje across India in hundreds of schools aware of the to make young people big cats. dangers facing these on the streets Madhav raises money s, singing and of Mubai by writing poem 2008 he had selling merchandise. By two years. collected £6,500 in just Well Ryan hreljac ­ Ryan's foundation ed of the dire Ryan Hreljac first learn Africa in his need for clean water in away he took first year at school. Right ores to raise on extra household ch he discovered $70 to build a well. When d only pay for that that amount woul ving until he the pump, he went on sa

had paid for his first we ll. Inspired by his perseverance, his classmates joined in the effort, and the media told his story, bringing in fu nds for more wells, as well as equipme nt to dig them. Ryan has continued his work through his non-profit organiza tion, Ryan's Well Foundation. Ryan is now 15, and to date he has raised ov er $1.5 million and built 266 wells in 12 countries. "I'm just a typical kid ," says Ryan. "I had a small dream, an d I stayed with. Everybody can do some thing." Talia Leman ­ Random kid Ten-year-old Talia Lema n was eager to help the victims of Hurri cane Katrina, but wasn't sure how to do it until she came up with her plan for TLC -Trick or Treat for the Levee Catastrophe. Talia challenged thousa nds of kids across the country to ask for small change instead of candy at Halloween an d co nv in ce d a M id w es te rn supermarket chain to print 8 million TLC trick-or-treat bags. Sh e asked the Governor of Iowa to co ntact each state's governor's office to help spread the word. Talia's origina l plan, drawn in #2 pencil on lined sc hool paper, resulted in kids from ap proximately 4,0 00 sc ho ol s tri ck -o r-t re at in g or holding hurricane relie f fundraisers. All told, the campaign raised over five million dollars. Talia is now CEO of RandomKid, an orga nization that helps kids help others. "You can do anything if you put your mind to it," sa ys Ta lia . "I t m ig ht be ha rd , bu t when you get worried, just remember all the people you are he lping."

Ricky mcCalla ­ froste d Ice Inc Ricky was a talented young dancer and choreographer fro m Bromley in Kent, who seemed to ha ve a promising future, already in demand from some of the biggest names in the music industry. But when he was shot in the back of the neck during a bung led carjacking he was left partially di sabled. De te rm in ed no t to be de fe at ed he decided to turn his ex perience into something positive by becoming a mentor to young peop le at risk of offending. Just three months after the shooting he devised Frosted Ice Inc, a music training pr oject to help violent teenagers esca pe life on the streets, which he set up with grant su pp or t fro m th e Pr in ce 's Tr us t. Th e pr oj ec t be ga n in 20 06 an d by 2008 more than 300 te enagers had completed his course.

happens in But change in the world en if you d ev many different ways, an vote you can are not old enough to ge ­ whether still contribute to that chan about things it be writing to your MP llowing in the that concern you, or fo young people footsteps of some of the ge the world below who set out to chan and succeeded. onmental Joying Brescia ­ envir Campaigner en children "I have learned that ev r the earth," can do good things fo o took on a says Joying Brescia, wh oblem at the local environmental pr noticed that age of eight when she



Elle on Stage: Writing her Script

Elle on Stage: Writing her Script


S OVERSEAS I DID THE PEACE CORP ENID ES INNOCULATING REFUGE ILT MYSELF FROM MUD MILY CLINICS THAT I BU IN FA AND TREES. THEIR LAGOONS I FOUGHT TO CLEAN UP ENDANGERED LOONS AND SAVE THEIR RARE MARCH AGAINST THEN LED A PROTEST NS. INSENSETIVE CARTOO PRETTY IMPRESSIVE EMMET & STUDENTS: LEGAL TRACK, BUT NOW I'M ON THE eps going) ENID (ke Y'S OUT OF WHACK BECAUSE THIS COUNTR D TAKE VE THE GUTS TO GO AN AND ONLY WOMEN HA IT BACK. RNMENT COME CLEAN, WE'LL MAKE THE GOVE VOTING GREEN, AND GET MORE PEOPLE E PHALLOCENTRIC WAR REALLY STICK IT TO TH AND MACHINE. action ange ­ Discussion and eXeRCIse: Creating Ch with students g off point, brainstorm song lyrics as a jumpin · Using Enid's em. issues that matter to th eir ich they could make th brainstorm of ways in wh · Follow this with a mmunities. voices heard in their co ht a difference? How mig s they face to making er · What are the barri come? they be over ing to this the next step in contribut each student to think of · Encourage change. sive writing ing some of the persua , iting to their local MP us · This may be wr g a network or a charity searching online, joinin techniques above, re event. organising a fundraising

nally, Elle Woods existed only in the mind of Amanda Br own, who penned the novel LEGA LLY BLONDE in 2001 and named her heroine after the vernacular law stud ents use to describe themselves to one another ­ a "1L" is a first year law student, so Brown named her fictio nal alter-ego "Elle", and a cultural ico n was born. After making the leap to the silver screen in the 2001 MGM film "Legally Blonde" starring Reese Witherspoon, Elle had officially broken loose as the newest pop culture em bodiment of female empowerment. After the resounding success of the film version, a sequel was spawned in 2003 chronicling Elle Wood's further adve ntures. So one has to wonder, how mu ch bigger can Elle Woods get? As k th e re sid en t bl on de s on th e musical's writing team Heather Hach (b oo kw rit er ) an d Ne ll Be nj am in (co-author of the mus ic an with her husband, Larry d lyrics, O'Keefe), and they'll tell you: MUC H bigger! How did the writers of Legally Blonde approach the challeng e of taking a well-known and loved character and translating her story in to a singing, dancing Broadway music al? We asked th em , an d go t th e an sw er, an d much more...

gOINg BLONDe ­ The ROaD TO BROaDWay fOR eLLe WOODs Origi

What first excited you about working on Legally Blonde? HH: The thought of Br oadway was intoxicating and a ne w challenge, as I'd never worked fo r Broadway before. What is your writing pr ocess like? HH: It's very collabora tive. closely with Larry and Ne I worked ll to beat out how we saw the story flowing - new twists and where the so ngs might fall - and crafted it together .

NB: Then, in terms of so ngs, the first thing, before the lyrics or music, is to identify the idea behi nd the song. The best songs are ne w ideas that can only happen at th is moment in the story. When you de cide what the important moment is, (w hat decision or statement needs to be made right now) then you know w hat your characters are going to sing about. Once we have the idea , we look for the right words, phrase s or ideas for them to sing. (For insta nce, of excited sorority girls a bunch would sing "Omigod you guys!") Th en we try and outline the things that happen in the song. Only then do we start writing lyrics and music .

What makes elle Woods special? HH: Everything! She is so fantastic and I adore her... the mo st positive person I know and alwa ys sees the be st in ot he rs an d he rs el f. I am a better person for havin g worked with Elle Woods so closely, and I feel very connected to her.



Elle on Stage: Writing her Script

Elle on Stage: Writing her Script

she wants NB: Elle goes after what ing other WITHOUT hurting or us meone smart, people. It's rare to find so o still thinks pretty and ambitious wh re than about about other people mo ge people by herself. She doesn't jud oves that you first impressions. She pr being nice and can succeed while still is an idealist. generous to people. Elle e sisterhood, She believes in things lik ist might real friendship and love. A be weaknesses consider those things to ck, but they -things that hold you ba creates a drive Elle forward. Elle ulette, Emmett network of friends (like Pa e helps and and Brooke) whom sh t where she who, in turn, help her ge wants to be.

with a smile HH: I hope people leave in their step! in their heart and hope little bit more I hope they want to be a like Elle Woods... s you real? eXeRCIse: What make ters in the · Many of the charac g" play have a "happy endin o they are, because they accept wh are funny sometimes in ways that or even surprising. of people · Ask students to think are whom they admire who found a way successful and have kes them to keep hold of what ma or real. What challenges dent's obstacles has each stu how did s/he person had to face and ies? overcome those difficult





est What has been the bigg story? challenge in telling this ine that they · Ask students to imag is s organizing , the biggest challenge NB: For me are marketing executive derdog. She's a pretty, d they can making Elle an un a "Be Real" campaign an de w ho 's th e nt to sm ar t, ric h, th in , bl on bring in any stars they wa ce an exclusive sorority. servi president of create a series of public lous of her, dents to y first reaction is to be jea M announcements. Ask stu But hopefully ir favorite not to listen to her story. write a script of what the le over because in spite allows, ask she wins peop person might say. If time ing for her, she's scripts for of all that she has go students to perform their or snobby. d not catty, or conceite each other. e person. She wants She's a really nic range of to be your friend. · Remind students of the e in their people they might featur people take away thors, What do you hope PSA's: actors, athletes, au de? wscastersexperience at Legally Blon from their educators, musicians, ne is . eling that being smart NB: The fe the list goes on and on as being gorgeous just as important that everyone that it is and well-dressed, and · The form of a PSA is u might le yo ents can in the world (even peop "short and sweet". Stud use they're in on one dismiss on sight beca use the exercise to home something to important different from you) has issue that is especially you. teach ter. offer, and something to to them and their charac

eXeRCIse: status Legally Blonde displays how our status is informe d by how we feel about ourselves and how it is co nferred upon us by other s through how they perc and treat us. At UCLA Ell eive e's status is high, living in a supportive community women who treat her wo of nderfully. It takes a knoc k when WARNER rejects but she overcomes this. her, At Harvard, though, her status sinks low ­ and sh work hard to raise herse e has to lf up amongst her peers ­ and to build her own se esteem. Her relationships lfwith EMMET and PAULET TE (as well as her SORO GREEK CHORUS) are im RITY portant in helping her do this. 1. Ask half the group to observe quietly as the audience. The other ha group is the first round lf of the of players. 2. Each player receive s a playing card that s/h e cannot look at, but ho to her/his forehead facin lds up g out. From the highest ­ an Ace ­ to the "lowe on the totem pole" ­ a Tw st o ­ the cards create a hie rarchy among the stude nts. 3. Give the players a settin g, such as a supermarke t or a school dance. Ask to interact with each ot players her in such a way that th ey can try to figure out card they are holding, an what d they also want to give the other players subtle hints as to what cards they have. 4. After a few minutes, pause the game and as k the pla themselves from lowes t to highest (point out wh yers to try to arrange ere you want the person who is 2 to stand, wher e the Ace should stand). They can only use the clu they have been given an es d th standing out of order. On ey can't "fix" other players if they see they ar e ce an order has been de termined, ask the playe to put their cards out of rs sight for a moment. 5. Ask them how it felt to play the activity, what clu es they received from the other players, how did the y feel about being watch ed? Ask the audience ab some of the behavior tha out t they observed. Was the re anything going on tha maybe the players were t n't aware of? Ask the pla yers to take out their card and see what they had. s How close did they get to achieving the "right" orde Where there any discrep r? ancies and why? Again, ask the audience for inp ut.



Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up




INTeRVIeW WITh COsTUme DesIgNeR gRegg BaRNes

how did you become a costume designer? I was a late bloomer in many ways. I'm from San Diego, an d I was going to teach high school, an d my major in college was dramatic lite rature. I took some technical classe s towards my requirements and found I had a strong connection to design an d history and clothing. A gentleman na med Robert Morgan [costume desig ner] came to talk to the Masters stude nts, and my teacher encouraged me and said I should go and talk to hi m. Well, that conversation with him changed the course of my life. I went to NYU (New York University) and go t my Masters in costume design. After I graduated, I taug ht at NYU for twenty years. I just rece ntly left. It was really through teaching that I realized how to question both my self and the students: `What is yo ur philosophy and how do you create a character through clothing?' I th ink I learned m or e fro m m y st ud en ts th an th ey learned from me! (Laug hs) I learned a lot from having to co mmunicate that daily. It was a grea t platform to learn your public person a. I w as al so do in g re gi on al th ea te r and opera. I was the re sident costume designer at Paper Mill Playhouse [in New Jersey], and there I met Jerry Mitchell [the direc tor of Legally

Blonde]... Through his kin dness and support, I did several sh ows with him, including Dirty Rotten Scoundrels on Broadway. This is my fifth Broadway show.

What does costume de sign add to a show? how do you vie w your role as a costume designer? To be a costume designe r the most important thing is to be a good listener... to listen to the people who you collaborate with. A clo thing designer may be viewed as an au teur, but we're kind of anonymous, beca use our job is to tell a story. I try to be a good listener. Sometimes you develop all these ideas, but they haven't cast the actor. You could be thinking of an actre ss who is five feet, ten inches, and th en they cast a four foot eleven inches ch aracter actor. So you have to be flexible, as sometimes you have to change for the actor, you have to be fluid. You ca n't be too set on your ideas. I always tell the actors, don't fall in love with the skirt be trousers tomorrow (la , it could ughs). I feel like my job in this case [with Legally Blonde], is to be a little qu iet. You want



Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

you do, and it shows ybody subconsciously but ever staying true to bring a signature to it, how the character is e lyricist, the ­ the bookwriter, th to herself. , the composer, the director her designers , who played choreographer, the ot The actor Christian Borle ], d all the parts of Emmet [on Broadway ­ all the collaborators an ate mesh the character intric tural bodyline, should be equal. It's like an wanted to obscure his na the foremost thing. a] makeover so that the story is so [when Elle gives him ristian didn't people think "wow!" Ch I did circus shows, y or unkempt In my past work, want to look too slopp as show and over the course the Radio City Christm before that, so we played times e some a lot of input ice shows, shows wher of many fittings, with and no narrative. good instincts. there's no dialogue from him. He has such ats! I did a fe It's just these amazing of work, and it's very n't we look lot of that kind Finally, we said, "why do irt from lly Blonde. t a sh different from Lega on the Internet, and ge re Emmet's r shows, you know when With theate e Roxbury School [whe that's when you know th d we'll put it you get it right ­ character is from], an le say, "Oh, I . So Emmet wears a it's just a skirt, and peop mehow under a jacket en so Roxbury logo, loved her costume." Th technical t-shirt, with a ht clothes. The final it's more than just ecific thing that we soug the audience a very sp still connected ingredient is that ­ when out to show that Emmet is Also he n experience and ideas brings their ow mother and his home. e en they connect to his to the table too, so wh ar Trek watch, becaus just clothes. wears a St n ." All of those to it ­ it becomes more tha Emmet is a little "nerdy thought out. things are very carefully me design how do you think costu sponse? Legally Blonde creates an emotional re In San Francisco [where s], some of the how does it convey began its performance rs would come emotional information? young girls and teenage rilling! has three Elle d as Elle, which was th Well, for example in Act II, stage dresse she's on ho came with different scenes where There was one girl w e ha d to ha ve to our inner th e w ho le tim e, so w bunny ears! It appeals veal in at re up. three different looks th child, the idea of dresse transitions from different ways as sh for al so as sh e rt of research did you do sc en e to sc en e, an d aring What so d by we transitions into Harvar Legally Blonde? re color]. So the ovie one k [her signatu less pin ve Well, we've seen the m d not s subtly. But we also ha outfit change nd times! (Laughs) I ha the Harvard clothes. thousa movie, before a pink slip under seen the movie, the first ey're subtle, out the movie Little things like that, th this project. What I love ab e audience doesn't els it works on. and maybe th is how many different lev . But I think that notice it right away

You know the story with in the first fish out of water. Then the few minutes, but what's re's Paulette's interesting is world in the hair salon, which HOW they tell it. The sto is a ry itself is very differen t suburban group... middle inspiring. You know wh class, at I love about young and sexy. We wanted a ro [the character of] Elle, ck star is that she's a look [for them] so we us woman who has it all, bu ed all denim, t she's so kind. every denim idea you can im You never see her play agine! that card. Then there's the Delta Nu She's a real humanitarian s, too, [as the ; very aware Greek Chorus]. Our story is of all the people around about her. I'm not a st ud en ts , an d El le 's a fa sh io designer who's done a n lot of modern m er ch an di sin g student, dress, fantasy or hist so she orical based. knows a lot. We spent a lot of time in pre-production. My assistant Skye and I photographed Th ere are a lot of challe people here in New Yo nges fo rk City, on the costu me designer specific to the r a Upper East Side. We had friend in genre of musicals. You have to bu Los Angeles who photogr ild [costumes] aphed people that are really strong. There at the Beverley Center are a lot and on Rodeo of quick changes. A lot of Drive, and we had frien fashion today ds in Boston is fra gile and disposable; slip at Harvard, taking phot dresses, os of what the t-s hirts, especially when yo kids were wearing. We loo u're young. ked at Vogue It's funny, when you go and those high-end maga from a drawing zines. We ran to a 3-D, it's not always a ho the gamut. We would sh me run. ow things to There is one dress in th Jerry [Mitchell, the direc e show, where tor]; we went Elle was picking up her dog, through a million ideas. Th and then e design was she's sitting on a rough textu a mix-master of a lot of dif re a little ferent sources. late r in the scene, and th e dress kept snagging. My favorite picture is fro m up on 5th Avenue, a beautiful blo nde from the Sometimes you have to back, crossing the stree see how the t. A beautiful choreography works, ho lace summer dress. W w the design e based Elle's wo rks, and design a costu first dress on it. I told me that will my assistant, I wished we had a pictu re of her from the front, and he said, sh e was about seventy years old. So it can come from anywhere. Legally Blonde has th ree different visual stories. First th ere is the Los Angeles story, which I call it the `Easter Bunny popped by' look; the Harvard, a brown world in which we us ed ev er y sh ad e of br ow n, gr ey, ochres, greens, so sh e looks like a



Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

We are always fit all of [those elements]. gs up until adjusting a lot of thin the opening.

is your own is in cool pinks. What show? favorite costume in the want to say There's a dress ­ I don't pt that it's a too much about it, exce at she wears trick ­ it's the dress th had d then we r. My friend We drew it, painted it an when Warner dumps he e their designs ar s, Je ff Be nd er, ha nd it bid [the designers tak sess how fo r 26 ye to as very simple to all the costume shops painted the dress. It's a be made]. You ainted. I love much it will take to slip dress, but it's hand-p going to cost. the story, and determine how much it's the role it has in telling , half of made 's roles in it, For this show, half of it is all the different people nt all over New a Bell's. it is purchased. We we Jeff's, Jerry's, and Laur in NYC, es York City, couture boutiqu odman, Woodbury rite outfit? Saks, Bergdorf Go What is your own favo s together. dressed up! Commons, mixing thing If I work too hard to be modern, it's purchased. it's not Usually if it's I have a uniform and get that, ar sneakers, historical, it's made. They it's impressive (laughs). I we ke your own. cked. I won but you ma jeans and a shirt un-tu d to wear a a Tony last year, and I ha ! I spend u for your hard What else inspired yo tuxedo and that was so , and gally Blonde? designs in Le essing other people up u ­ that's my life dr yo ss in the room (laughs). When the actor inspires g I'm the biggest me tress playin s are long, the best way. Orfeh, the ac y job is difficult. The hour e was a rocker Ever ys a week, I love all th Paulette [on Broadway], at she I work 7 da d her wh with people. in the 1980's ­ so I aske interacting I get to do ired me by her le shoes, I make wore then. She insp I don't wear uncomfortab tender, but ry wear those. (laughs) audition outfit. She's ve d roll, other people rock an with a rough edge, very e bought a pair tside In but in a playful way. W , Looking from the Ou r tform high-heel sneakers of vintage pla onde Elle Woods and he for her, first thing In Legally Bl ess and florescent green to sorority sisters at college dr at is When we showed them we found! hair in a certain style th the brand, from when wear their stume design, Orfeh, she knew very important to them. Co They didn't make egral element they were popular! en as we have seen, is an int . t they inspired. I had se the cut, bu us ic al Le ga lly Bl on de y (who plays Elle) in a of th e m Laura Bell Bund Elle expresses both her show last year The character in her clothing full workshop of the emotions and personality d her, and it's useful to ­ and watche th celebrated n. Elle wears choices, and is bo ow what suits the perso ith in her kn her and derided for her fa k in the first act, as it's a lot of pin own appearance. Laura Bell signature color, and so arsal to get stumes for wore a lot of pink to rehe When designing the co ter. into charac Barnes spent Legally Blonde, Gregg ely at the e of a lot of time looking clos s in , I could see what shad From that ways that people dres od on her. So the show different pink looked go

different cities and conte xts in America. As au di en ce s, as in lif e, w e ar e incredibly sensitive to th e way people look and as a result, ge tting the right costume for characters at a specific point is an important part of storytelling. In our lives how we dr ess is often controlled by the culture s in which we grow up and work. So ho w does fashion ch an ge an d ho w is it af fe ct ed by historical events and cu ltural contexts? The following set of exer cises explore fashion, clothing and ap pearance and its impact on who we ar e from a number of different sta ndpoints. eXeRCIse 1: Changing fashions/ fashioning Change Warm-Up Write the below three quotes from Legally Blonde on the board or large posters. Ask stude nts to write for two minute on PostIt notes their responses to the three qu otes. In pairs, ask students to share th eir responses, and then share out. Stud ents may also post their quotes on the boards to aid the next activity. `Dye hair brunette to be serious."

main activity: Buzz grou ps In this exercise, student s will explore both extemporary spea king ­ a skill that Elle develops and us es throughout Legally Blonde ­ and the themes explored in the warm-u p theatrically. 1. Break the students into discussion groups of 3 or 4. Ask th em to number off 1, 2, 3, 4. 1 wi ll speak first, then 2, etc. 2. Introduce and model the discussion: "As I ask questions I would like you to share your thou ghts with your group. 1 will spea k first. Please allow each pers on to speak - without interruption - un til I clap my hands (or use another so und device). Then 2 will have his/her chance to speak, etc. (On the second question 2 will begin first, etc.)."

· What fashion style wa s appropriate for your parents when they were young? What did they wear to school, to important oc cassions, during their free time? · What are the most po pular clothing styles for young people toda What happens if someon y? e wants to go against this style? How are they treated? Why migh t a person choose a different fash ion style? · What influences how styles change and adapt? · Discuss a fashion st yle in history (anything not current) th at appeals to you or that you ques tion. · How do male fashion styles differ from females?

" `Casual Friday' is no t in Callahan's vocabulary and you ha ve to dress the part if you want to get ah ead." [Emmett tries on new clo thing:] "Think of the guy you wa nt to be.



Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

ssions. sharing on their small group discu o a circle again to reflect Ask students to gather int Discussion questions: w · How did that feel? Ho did orary speaking? it feel to practice extemp

Read the scene aloud. ELLE EMMETT ELLE ELLE EMMETT ELLE EMMETT ELLE EMMETT ELLE If it's impressing Callaha n you want, I can help. There's more than one way to do that, too. Ok. How? silences that thought, pla cing a hand over EMMET T's mouth. You can start by tucking in your shirt. What? You look law school, no t law firm, Emmett. "Cas ual Friday" is not in Callahan's vocabu lary, and you have to dr ess the part if you want to get ahea d. Ah. So... shirt tucked in, problem solved. And ma ybe with some teeth bleaching, I'd win the case. Or... Get a lunchtime facial and be made partn er! Okay, you're right, you'r e right. The ratty cordur oy IS totally working for you. Elle, didn't your mother ever teach you about no t judging a book by its cover? She did. But this isn't a perfect world: books wi th tattered covers stay on the shelf . (beat) Think people haven't jud ged me my whole life? Think it wasn't a good idea to ma ke navy my new pink? No, that was a good ide a. I know. st-scene: Emmett?

? up in your small groups ghts or discoveries came · What new thou of opinion. you had any differences Please share with us if · d dress? thoughts on fashion an · What are your overall ? to certain fashion styles conform or not conform · Why do we is appropriate so often differ on what ung people and adults · Why do yo style and dress? eXeRCIse 2: Uniform? d other rules Introduction iform or dress code, an ildren, gland have a school un Most schools in En m the Department of Ch , at the end of last year fro e e UK to have a uniform on appearance. Guidanc encourage schools in th ongly thos of a Schools and Families str it contributes to the "e t many other benefits, stating that amongs lps to set the tone. particular school and he e s an issue for her. Can sh ng that Elle wears become attorney Elle debates thi In Legally Blonde, the clo blonde? Just as pic of aring pink, and being a succeed by we y we will explore the to om and courtroom, toda issues in her classro school uniforms. Warm-Up: scene study the students. Divide the scene from the script to below n each pair or group Pass out copies of the read chorally, and assig groups to class into pairs, or two a character.


Discussion questions po

· How does Elle persua de · Do you agree with Ell e's

t? · How does clothing ide ntify the person? When do people dress to fit in? When not?

choices? Why or why no



Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

e Writing main activity: Persuasiv t the following: On a large chart presen School Uniforms Pros Cons cle, each dents go around the cir ts er into a circle. Have stu Ask students to gath acher or volunteer char hool uniforms, as the te sc stating a pro or con to their comments. Number off 1, 2, 1, 2 arou nd the circle. will write a Con piece. an informal debate, 2s 1s write a Pro piece for


Oh, blondes make comm ission SO much fun. (The SALESWOMAN sw oops down on ELLE, ca rrying a dress.) SALESWOMAN (cont.) Excuse me, have you se en this? It just came in; it's perfect for a blonde. ELLE Right, with a half-loop sti tch on china silk? SALESWOMAN Uh huh. ELLE But the thing is, you ca n't us china silk. It'll pucker. An e a half-loop stitch on d you didn't just get this in because I saw it in last month's "Vogue." DELTA NUS (Sotto Voce , delighted) OH MY GO D. OMIGOD YOU GUYS . ELLE: I am not about to buy las t year's dress at this year 's price. DELTA NUS ...ELLE SAW RIGHT THRO UGH THAT SALES GIRL'S ELLE LIES. It may not be perfect for a blonde, but I'm not THAT blonde. "Legally Blonde" has ma ny characters who have pre-conceived notions each other, and much of about the comedy of the show builds on the audience's expectation of where ea own ch character may be co ming from. Ask student work in three smaller gr s to oups for brainstorming and discussion and to re their responses using ma cord rkers and large chart pa per. Each group will select a piece of paper at random . On each of the three pie paper is written one of the ces of three pairings listed below , though the pages are fa ce· UCLA & Harvard · Blonde & Brunette · Someone who is a "S ellout" & Someone "Rep resenting" The topics remain a se cret to the other groups until the end of the exer Each group is asked to cise. discuss and list the attri butes and characteris tics of each item in the pairing. Responses may be entire ly subjective and impres students are being aske sionistic; d for associations and not necessarily concre Once all three groups ha te facts. ve reached a natural br eaking place, ask the gr to announce their topic oups s and to post their resp onses. Ask the groups quietly to see each posti to travel ng and to reserve comm ents until the end. Ask stu if they have any questio dents ns about what they see posted and seek clarifi Do they agree or disagre cation. e with any of the points made by other groups? Is there SALESWOMAN (evil)

exercise 3 - stereotypes

e, hold an sharing opriate and there is tim are their pieces. If appr ting their pieces "in-role" Ask for volunteers to sh om with students presen ssro informal debate in the cla r speakers. as attorneys or othe



Elle on Stage: Dressing Her Up

Legally Blonde: Further Resources

yone think that the lists any of the lists? Does an ey add d with anything they would th ferent if it weren't paire ral item might have been dif e larger group the gene under each individual p to share briefly with th grou may have another item? Ask each d any challenges they group conversation an tenor of the small faced as a group. group to few moments with each da p discussions, spend a students stay on task an During the small grou your presence will help ten re clearly. monitor their progress. Of m focus their thoughts mo any ns from you may help the few guiding questio ve in common as well as at each pairing may ha to the exercise is meant Ask them to consider wh portant to stress that is im k students obvious differences. It ons within each group, as tion. there are a range of opini record responses. If ss any cause for conten to be prepared to discu d mind students that the to record all of them an sus should be noted. Re consen ld not Similarly, any points of nversation. Groups shou provoke thought and co y be asked to illuminate exercise is meant to nd their lists, but they ma fe feel that they need to de ess. their thought proc n self be true. And it once wrote: "To thine ow espeare lieve Vivienne: William Shak n be false to any man." I be the day. Thou canst not the nde woman. She taught must follow as the night, plies to a woman. A blo st ap t of style. this wise statement be yourself never goes ou us all, that being true to ! me, and showed ledictorian, Elle Woods and gentlemen, your va Ladies appearances portant eXeRCIse 4 : Judging on members about how im th friends and/or family es an individual have to Have a conversation wi w much responsibility do . Ho ll an instance appearances are to them ance? Can they can reca red that perceive his/her appear control how others ely, when they discove ed, positively or negativ expected their behavior when they were surpris did not match what they arance ? After the someone's physical appe was the reality different re they expected and how important points that we to be like. What had ief summary of the most a br conversation, write up at was said. discussed and wh

eXeRCIse 5: Creating Co stume Designs This exercise explores elements of costume de sign. Through creating costume designs stude their own nts will explore how clo thing characterizes an ind ividual. Warm-Up: Character W alk 1. When actors create their characters, they of ten analyze and create physicality based on th their eir character's clothes and posture. Ask stude the following questions nts : How do people show th eir character/personality about their clothing affe in what they wear?

How does how they feel

2. Clear a large space in the room for your cla ss to comfortably walk Ask students to stand, around in. and walk around the room according to the following prompts. Be tween each prompt, as k students to freeze an observe their own and d others' choices. Encour age students to transfo their posture and gestu rm res using their imagina tion and whole body. · Walk like a person who is wearing their fa vorite outfit. · Walk like a person who is not comfortable in their outfit. · Walk like a person on their way to an inter view. · Walk like how you imagine yourself in the future. · Walk like you have on your dream outfit. · Walk like you are in your favourite fancy dr ess costume. After the activity discu ss with students about their experience of the exercise. · What choices and discoveries did you ma ke? · · How do you think cloth es make, or don't make How do clothes (and how we , the person? physicality? Why?

ct their physicality?

feel about them) change our



Legally Blonde: Further Resources

Legally Blonde: Further Resources

Design gemain activity: Costume e musical in either a lar s the two quotes from th dent 1. Discuss with the stu , or in small groups. group discussion Elle's friend Margot sin gs: T TASTE IN CLOTHES! BOTH GOT SUCH GREA "CAUSE YOU'VE OPOSE!!!" OF COURSE HE WILL PR after she he Later, Elle tells Emmett, "THE OUTSIDE IS NEW BUT NOW IT REFLECTS COULDN'T CHANGE TH WHAT'S ALREADY IN YO AT IF I WANTED TO." eir thoughts. U, lps him update his ward robe:

fILms: Legally Blonde, direct ed by Robert Luketic, starring Reese Witherspoon. Released by MGM, 2001 . Legally Blonde II: Red, White and Blonde, directed by Ch arles HermanWurmfeld, starring Reese Witherspoon. Released by MGM, 2003 . Valley Girl, directed by Martha Coolidge, starring Nich olas Cage and Deborah Foreman. Re leased by MGM, 1983. Unzipped, directed by Do uglas Keene, starring Isaac Mizrahi. Released by Miramax, 1995. BOOks aND PLays: Editors of Phaidon Pres s. The Fashion Book. Phaid on Press,

LegaLLy BLONDe ­ fURTheR ResOURCes

Johnson, Donald Clay and Helen Br ad le y Fo st er. Dr es s Se ns e: Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothe s. Berg Publishers, 2007. Lawrence, Jerome and Lee, Robert E. Inherit the Wind. Mass Market, 2005 Lucia, Cynthia. Framing Fe male Lawyers: Women on Trial in Film. University of Texas Press, 2005 Lynch, Annette and Mitc hell Strauss. Changing Fashion: A Critic al Introduction to Trend Analysis and Cu ltural Meaning. Berg Publish ers, 2007. Miller, Arthur. The Cruc ible. Penguin Modern Classics 2000

e th · Ask students to shar

ments of costume design storm what the different ele to brain t point/ 2. In pairs, ask students (fabric choices, colors, plo ould identify at least three are ­ each pair sh board. (if you have access Write these criteria on the prompts). event, mood, theme, etc.). might be useful as visual of costume design these to any pictures awing themselves, through dr t as costume designers ac pts: 3. Now ask students to with the following prom their own three outfits or sketching 1) An outfit that is comf ortable for you now. m of... or how yo ture. u see yourself in the fu


Mossman, Mary Jane. The First Women Lawyers: A Co mparative Study of Gender, Law An d the Legal Professions. Hart Pub, 2006. Normanton, Helena. Ev eryday Law for Women. Nicholson and Watson,1932 Philips, James. The Ru benstein Kiss, Methuen Modern Plays, 2006 Russell, Willy. Educating Rita: A Comedy. A&C Black, 2001. Watson, Linda. 20th Ce ntury Fashion: 100 Years of Style by De cade and Designer, in Associatio n with Vogue. Firefly Books, 2004.

Adler, Sue. Baroness Pa tricia QC: Peer, Barrister, Junio Scotland r Minister (Black Profiles). Tamarin d Books 2001 Brown, Amanda. Legally Blonde. Time Warner Paperbac ks, 2003. Brown, Amanda. Elle W oods: Blonde Love (Legally Elle Woods). Hyperion, 2007. Brown, Amanda. Elle W oods: Vote Blonde. Hyperion, 2006 . Gregory, Mollie. Women Who Run the Show: How a Brillian t and Creative New Generatio n of Women Stormed Hollywood. St . Martin's Griffin, 2003.

2) An outfit that you drea

opriate for 3) An outfit that is appr

a job interview.

n (or all three, sharing and Discussio student's favorite sketch assignment, hang each After completing the allery" format around the d individual class) in a "g an 's work. depending on the space lk" to observe each other students on a "gallery wa classroom. Guide tice? similarities did you no st-gallery walk: What po unicate through our Discussion questions nces? What do we comm e choose a style differe Where there any/many es? If someon rough our clothing choic is that viewed? Is conformity e of color? Th choic on, not the norm, how that is not the most comm Is non-conformity important? not? important? Why or why

Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Women . Penguin Classics 2004



Legally Blonde: Further Resources

Legally Blonde: Further Resources

mUsIC: ical Original Legally Blonde: The Mus Cast Recording, 2007 l Motion Legally Blonde: Origina M, 2001 Picture Soundtrack, A& WeBsITes: for The official UK website Musical Legally Blonde: The www.legallyblondethem Legally The official website for Broadway Blonde: The Musical on www.legallyblondethem the- scenes For a wonderful behindk out look at the show, chec ": "The Road to Broadway n/general. aspx?ci=540070

Solicitors: Association of Women www.womensolicitors.o Law Society: w. The Women's Library: ww omenslibrary/ Harvard Law School Kids for Tigers: de ­ Interview Fashion of Legally Blon ner Sophie de with film costume desig .nz/article/573 Rakoff: d Beauty Legally Blonde Style an Page www.stealtheirstyl k movies/Legally%20loo

stageNOTes A FIELD GUIDE FOR TE AC A Camp Broadway LLC Publisher: Susan E. Lee Associate Editors: Rhon Art Director: Joseph M Contributors: Judith Bendewald, Mar Sherri Marton, Shanno Sami Plotkin, Alexia Ve For Legally Blonde The Jerry Mitchell Director Laurence O'Keefe Mus David Rockwell Scenic Gregg Barnes Costume Paul Miller Lighting De Acme Sound Partners



a Silverbush

. Pisarchick

iana Elder, Alexandra Ló

pez er

n Morrison, Karina Naum

rnon Musical UK:

/Choreographer er

Heather Hach Book Writ Nell Benjamin Lyrics an

ic and Lyrics d Music

Designer Designer Designer

Kenneth Posner Lighting


Sound Designer estrations

Christophe Jahnke Orch




31 pages

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