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L ESSON P LAN

Holt Literature and Language Arts pages 363­369

"Eleven"

by Sandra Cisneros

Prereading

Background (10 minutes)

Reading Standard 3.7 Explain the effects of imagery in fictional texts. Resources Audio CD Library, Disc 8, Track 7 Fine Art Transparency 12 In this book: Vocabulary and Comprehension Master 57, p. 169 Additional Vocabulary Practice Master 60, p. 172 Teacher Tip Many ELL students, particularly those of Asian descent, may have difficulty hearing and producing the plosive "t" (as in "Not mine, not mine, not mine"), pronouncing it instead, "No mine." Help them practice this sound by repeating the word pairing (not mine) slowly, exaggerating the "t" sound if necessary.

Introduce the Main Character Explain to students that they are going to read a story about a girl named Rachel. Tell them that Rachel is a shy, quiet girl and that she feels even more shy and embarrassed on this particular day. The story tells about the day Rachel turns eleven and everything around her turns bad. Explain that Rachel doesn't feel as though she's eleven. Instead she feels like a little child again. Ask students if they have ever felt they were having the worst day of their lives. Ask if they ever felt younger than their real age. Preview Imagery Tell them that the writer has the character of

Rachel explain her feelings by using strong images and figures of speech that appeal to the reader's senses. Lead students to understand that while some words have similar definitions, certain words have more emotional impact than others. Use of connotations, or shades of meaning, is an important tool for creating memorable stories. Draw the following chart on the chalkboard, omitting the X's:

Skinny Slim Slender Bony Scrawny Lean People diet in order to be A starving animal is Meat without much fat is Ill people sometimes look Turkey necks are A witch's fingers are Chances are X X X X X X X X X X X

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

X

X

Work with students to complete the chart. Then, discuss the connotations of the words. Ask students to write sentences using the words to demonstrate their understanding of the shades of meaning.

Reading

Alternative Teaching Strategy (20 minutes) Identify Similes Point out to students that one of the figures of speech the character Rachel uses is a simile. Remind them that a simile is a comparison between two unlike things using like or as.

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Chapter 6 Lesson Plans for Language Development

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Write the following example on the chalkboard: Only today I wish I didn't have only eleven years rattling inside me like pennies in a tin Band-Aid box. (p. 364) Have the students takes notes on the similes they find while reading the story. Then, as a class, discuss the similes that were found. Lead a discussion about the literal meanings of the figures of speech and the connection to the figurative meaning. Ask students to describe how the similes helped to intensify the feelings Rachel was expressing at the moment in the story.

Postreading

Alternative Activity (20 minutes) Create Figurative Images Have students work in small groups. Tell them now that they have identified several of the similes in the story, it is time to try to write some vivid imagery of their own. Explain that they can use one of the images in the story and express the idea in their own way or they can write a new image for part of the story that doesn't have one. For example, Rachel says the sweater was like a big red mountain. Students might create such images as: · It sat there like a monstrous red roadblock refusing to let me run away. · "Of course it's yours," Mrs. Price says like a judge bringing down the gavel for the final time. Remind them to use images that appeal to their readers' senses. After the groups have worked on their figurative images, have students share their work. Encourage them to make constructive comments. Additional Activity (15 minutes) Make a Story Pyramid Draw a story pyramid on the chalkboard, and instruct students to copy it on a piece of paper. Then, pair students, and have them follow the directions to fill in the pyramid. 1. ______________ 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________________ 4. ______________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________ 1. Write the name of the main character. 2. Write two words describing the main character. 3. Write three words describing the setting. 4. Write four words stating the conflict. 5. Write five words describing the resolution of the conflict.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Eleven

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Vocabulary Development

Reading Standard 1.5 Understand and explain shades of meaning in related words.

Reteach the Key Idea (30 minutes) Understand Connotations Remind students that words often have two meanings. There is the literal meaning that they can find in a dictionary. This meaning is called the denotation. What a word denotes is its standard definition. Then, explain that a word can have another meaning to a reader or listener because of the emotional response the person has based on their own experience. This meaning is the connotation. What a word connotes is how the reader feels and thinks when he or she reads the word. Lead students to understand that Rachel uses many words that cause a strong emotional response. The connotations of these words help draw the reader into the story. Have students reread the story looking for these types of words. Discuss the difference between the words' denotations and connotations. Have students discuss other words in their experience that have similar denotations but different connotations.

Grammar Link Mini-Lesson

Alternative Teaching Strategy (20 minutes) Punctuate Dialogue Review the rules on page 369 for the use of quotation marks around dialogue and the placement of periods and commas. Then, write the following alternative sentences on the chalkboard or a transparency, and ask for volunteers to come up and correct them: · Whose sweater is this asked the teacher ("Whose sweater is this?" asked the teacher.) · It's not mine, not mine, said Rachel to the teacher ("It's not mine, not mine," said Rachel to the teacher.) · Phyllis finally shouted out Now I remember it's mine (Phyllis finally shouted out, "Now I remember. It's mine.") · All I want said Rachel is to be far away. ("All I want," said Rachel, "is to be far away.") · Give me some of that cried the little boy, as he lifted up his arms. ("Give me some of that," cried the little boy, as he lifted up his arms.) · Why don't you believe me when I tell you that I love you? ("Why don't you believe me when I tell you that I love you?") · Jason always says be careful about what you eat. (Jason always says, "Be careful about what you eat.") · Margery, called her mother, you have a phone call. ("Margery," called her mother, "you have a phone call.")

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Chapter 6 Lesson Plans for Language Development

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TARGETED S TRATEGIES S TUDENTS

FOR

S PECIAL E DUCATION

Reading Standard 3.7 Explain the effects of imagery in fictional texts. Resources Audio CD Library, Disc 8, Track 7 Fine Art Transparency 12 In this book: Vocabulary and Comprehension Master 57, p. 169 Additional Vocabulary Practice Master 60, p. 172 Teacher Tip

Prereading

Background (15 minutes) Introduce the Selection Tell students that they are going to read a story about a girl who doesn't feel very happy. Read the following passages from "Eleven" to students: . . . when you're eleven, you're also ten, and nine, and eight, and seven, and six, and five, and four, and three, and two, and one. . . . the way you grow old is kind of like an onion or like the rings inside a tree trunk or like my little wooden dolls that fit one inside the other, each year inside the next one. Ask: Have you ever experienced these feelings? Do you think it's possible to be a grown-up and still feel like a little kid?

Reading

Alternative Teaching Strategy (35 minutes) Clarify Symbols Explain that Rachel is having a very hard time thinking that this day is her birthday. Tell students that although she is eleven years old, she feels much younger. She says that she feels as though all her other ages, all her other birthdays are inside her. Lead them to understand that she talks about these feelings by using imagery. She says that the inner ages she has been are like the layers of an onion or like growth rings of trees or like nesting dolls. Spend time discussing and illustrating these images. Try to ensure that students understand the idea of having all your previous ages layered in you all the time.

Divide the story into sections (paragraphs 1­5, 6­11, 12­17, 18­19, 20­22), and read each section aloud to students, having them follow along in their textbooks. Pause frequently for comprehension check, clarification, and prediction.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Postreading

Alternative Assessment (20 minutes) Check Comprehension Evaluate students' ability to express comprehension of Rachel's imagery by asking them to draw pictures that correspond to the following similes: 1. a red sweater with sleeves all stretched out like you could use it for a jump-rope 2. a sweater sitting there like a big red mountain 3. a sweater hanging all over the edge like a waterfall 4. far away like a runaway balloon, like a tiny o in the sky

Eleven

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Vocabulary and Comprehension

You may use your book to help you answer the questions below.

Answer Key

NAME _________________________________________________________ DATE ___________________ Holt Literature and Language Arts pages 363­369

"Eleven"

A. Write the word from the Word Bank that best fits each group of words. ____________________ 1. thin, slender, scrawny ____________________ 2. homely, hideous, unattractive ____________________ 3. stinky, bad smelling, odorous ____________________ 4. pushed, moved, thrust ____________________ 5. afraid, frightened, anxious ____________________ 6. shabby, torn, tattered Word Bank scared raggedy shoved skinny ugly smelly

B. Choose two words from the Word Bank. Use each word in a sentence. 1. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

C. Answer each question below. 1. Name two things that Rachel compares growing older to. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. How does Rachel describe the red sweater? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What does Rachel do when she puts on the red sweater? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Master 57: Vocabulary and Comprehension

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Additional Vocabulary Practice

You may use your book to help you answer the questions below.

Answer Key

NAME _________________________________________________________ DATE ___________________ Holt Literature and Language Arts pages 363­369

"Eleven"

A. Complete each sentence with a simile from the Word Bank. 1. Rachel's eleven years are rattling inside her ______________________________. 2. All her years of life are ______________________________ that fit one inside the other. Each year is inside the next one. 3. She pushed the red sweater aside so that it was hanging off the edge of her desk ______________________________. 4. The old red sweater smelled ______________________________. 5. Rachel wished she could fly away and be ______________________________. B. Choose three of the similes from the Word Bank. Use each simile in a sentence. 1. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ C. Write the word from the Word Bank that best fits each group. ____________________ 1. prickly, scratchy, tickling ____________________ 2. ill, queasy, unwell ____________________ 3. sharp, bright, intelligent ____________________ 4. dumb, foolish, boring Word Bank smart sick itchy stupid

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

like like like like like

Word Bank a waterfall pennies in a tin box little wooden dolls cottage cheese a runaway balloon

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Master 60: Additional Vocabulary Practice

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Master 54, p. 166 A Civil War Thanksgiving A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. prominent crusade uniform unify proclamation

Master 57, p. 169 Eleven A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. skinny ugly smelly shoved scared raggedy

B. Sample answers given. 1. Hale saw Thanksgiving as a way to show gratitude for blessings and to unite the country. 2. She wrote an editorial every year calling for Thanksgiving to be made a national holiday. One year Lincoln saw a chance to help unify the country by making it a national holiday. 3. The North celebrated a Union victory. Master 55, p. 167 What Do Fish Have to Do with Anything? A. 1. 2. 3. 4. urgent, urgency intently, intent vague, vaguely contemplated, contemplation

B. Sentences will vary. C. Sample answers given. 1. Rachel compares growing older to the way a tree adds rings; to the layers of onion; and to dolls that fit one inside the other. 2. The sweater is ugly with red plastic buttons and stretched out sleeves. It smells bad and feels itchy and full of germs. 3. She puts her head down on her desk and starts crying.

Additional Vocabulary Practice

Master 58, p. 170 The Mysterious Mr. Lincoln; Lincoln's Humor; A Civil War Thanksgiving A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. repose animation omens paramount crusade editorial proclaimed

B. Sample answers given. 1. Willie thinks the homeless man can teach him the cure for unhappiness because the man knows a lot about being unhappy. 2. The mother says the cure for unhappiness is money. 3. The man says that what a person needs is always more than what experts or other people say that person needs. 4. The man disappears because Willie's mother called the police and asked them to make sure the man didn't beg on her street. Master 56, p. 168 Getting Leftovers Back on the Table A. 1. donate, donations 2. proposed, proposal B. Sample answers given. 1. food that has not been eaten and will probably be thrown away. 2. take it on and try to solve it. 3. a suggested plan presented to others. C. Sample answers given. 1. The school principal says that there is a rule that prohibits serving the same food twice. 2. They approve it and adopt it for all the schools in the county. 3. David asks the First Lady what the White House does with its leftovers.

B. Sentences will vary. Master 59, p. 171 What Do Fish Have to Do with Anything?; Getting Leftovers Back on the Table A. 1. c 2. a B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. b 4. d

contemplated urgency intently vaguely

C. Sentences will vary.

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Answer Key

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Master 60, p. 172 Eleven A. 1. like pennies in a tin box 2. like little wooden dolls 3. like a waterfall 4. like cottage cheese 5. like a runaway balloon B. Sentences will vary. C. 1. 2. 3. 4. itchy sick smart stupid

Chapter 7 Rhyme and Reason

Vocabulary and Comprehension

Master 61, p. 193 The Sneetches A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. brag moping hike paraded frowned 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. T

B. 1. F 2. T

C. Sample answers given. 1. The Plain-Belly Sneetches want the same privileges the Star-Belly Sneetches have. 2. They spend their money to have their stars removed so that they will still look different from the other Sneetches. 3. They decide that it doesn't matter who has stars and who doesn't. Master 62, p. 194 Ode to Mi Gato; In a Neighborhood in Los Angeles; Hard on the Gas A. 1. simile 2. metaphor 3. personification B. Sentences will vary. C. Sample answers given. 1. The words rush, rest, rush, rest help convey the car's movement. 2. He senses Mexico's mountains, desert, and ocean in her eyes, braids, and voice. 3. He laps up his welcome from his owners.

Answer Key

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