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SAMPLE For GRAMMAR by the BOOK This is just a sampling of the product GRAMMAR by the BOOK. In the complete file, there are additional colored sheets and directions.

LOWER LEVEL GRAMMAR WORKSHEETS­ Teaching Guide

NOUNS Nouns name a PERSON, a PLACE, or a THING, or an IDEA. Examples: Person­ mom, friend, Sally, neighbor Place­ park, town, school Thing­ fork, towel, rat, car Idea­ love, honesty, beauty, anger COMMON and PROPER NOUNS Common nouns do not name anything specific or begin with a capital letter. Examples: dog, store, restaurant, woman, day, state Proper nouns give the specific name and start with a capital letter. Examples compared to the ones above: Scruffy, Target, McDonalds, Susan, Tuesday, Michigan

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ADJECTIVES

CONCRETE and ABSTRACT NOUNS Concrete nouns can be seen or are made up of atoms. Even air is a concrete noun. There are atoms that make the air we breathe. Examples: frog, barn, leaf, thermos, soup

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VERBS

Abstract nouns are something in our heart or mind or cannot be touched. Examples: love, trust, fear, eternity, justice, intelligence

Adjectives describe nouns. They tell us how many, which one, whose, what color. Examples: Articles: a, an, the Demonstratives: those, this, that, these Numbers: five, ten, one hundred Possessive Pronouns: my, his, her your, its, our, their, whose Possessive Nouns: Sally's, girls', today's Indefinites: any, few, no, many, most, several, some

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OTHER VERBS

There are two main types of verbs, ACTION or BEING. We cannot make a sentence without a verb. ACTION verbs are things you can do­ doing words. Examples: walk, fry, eat, jump, went, snored, felt BEING verbs tell us what is. Examples: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been Jim stood in the rain. (action verb) Jim is wet. (being verb)

Helping verbs go with other verbs to make a verb phrase. do has may can could does have might shall should did had must will would Example:

were fishing = (were is the helping verb)+ (fishing is the action verb) might have been talking = (3 helping verbs) + (one action verb)

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TYPES of SENTENCES

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is am are PREPOSITIONS and PHRASES

were be been being was

IMPERATIVE sentences give a command for you to do something. Sometimes, YOUR name is not given, it is just understood. Example: (You) Go close the window. DECLARATIVE sentences tell you about something and end with a period. EXCLAMATORY sentences show a strong feeling and end with an exclamation mark. INTERROGATIVE sentences ask a question and end with a question mark.

A phrase is a group of words. Every prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. Below is a list of commonly used prepositions.

about above across after against along among around at before behind below beneath beside between beyond by concerning down during except for from in inside into like near of off on onto out outside over past regarding since through to toward under underneath until up upon with within without

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but (except for)

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LOWER LEVEL GRAMMAR WORKSHEETS­ Student Sheet

NOUNS Person: Place: Thing: COMMON and PROPER NOUNS Common Nouns: 1.________________ 2.________________ 3.________________ Proper Nouns: 1.____________________ 2.____________________ 3. ____________________

1.______________ 1.____________ 1.____________ 2. ______________ 2.____________ 2.____________ 3. ______________ 3.____________ 3.____________

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ADJECTIVES

CONCRETE and ABSTRACT NOUNS Concrete Nouns: 1.________________ 2.________________ 3.________________ Abstract Nouns: 1.____________________ 2.____________________ 3. ____________________

Adjectives and the nouns they describe: 1. ___________________

(adjective)

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VERBS Being verb: 1.________________ 2.________________

2. ___________________

(adjective)

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(adjective)

_________________

(noun) (noun) (noun)

_________________ _________________

3. ___________________

OTHER VERBS Helping verbs and the verb they help: 1. ___________________

(helping verb/verbs)

Action verb: 1.________________ 2.________________ 3.________________

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3. ________________ TYPES of SENTENCES

2. ___________________

(helping verb/verbs) (helping verb/verbs)

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(verb) (verb) (verb)

_________________ _________________ _________________

3. ___________________

PREPOSITIONS and PHRASES Prepositional phrases: 1. ______________________________________

(preposition ) (noun) (noun)

IMPERATIVE

DECLARATIVE

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EXCLAMATORY

2. ______________________________________

(preposition )

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(preposition )

3. ______________________________________

INTERROGATIVE (noun)

UPPER LEVEL GRAMMAR WORKSHEETS­ Teaching Guide

DIRECT OBJECTS A direct object always refers to something different than the subject of the sentence (unless it is a ­self pronoun). Find the verb in the sentence and ask WHAT? The answer to your question is the direct object. Example:

That girl broke her arm. Broke WHAT? Her arm. Arm is the D.O. Frank ate donuts. Ate WHAT? Donuts. Donuts are the D. O. Mary stayed in the hospital. Stayed WHAT? There is no D.O.

INDIRECT OBJECTS To have an indirect object, you must have a direct object. Once you find the direct object (see previous box), ask to or for to find the indirect object. Example:

Mary bought Bill a candy bar. Bought WHAT? (D.O) FOR who? (I.O.) Clark fixed the tractor for Grandpa. Fixed WHAT? (D.O.) FOR who? (I.O.) Joe made the neighbors new keys. Made WHAT? (D.O.) FOR who? (I.O.)

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PRONOUNS

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PRONOUNS

Reflexive pronouns: end with self or selves. It reflects back to

another noun.

Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those

(if used WITH a noun, it will be an adjective- example: That is cool. (pronoun) That car is cool. (adjective))

Interrogative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, what

(pronouns if used alone, if used WITH a noun, then it is an adjective)

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LINKING VERBS

Possessive Pronouns: my, mine, his, her, hers, your, yours, its, our, ours, their, theirs, and whose ( the pronouns underlined are not placed

before nouns or other pronouns-usually.) Possessive pronouns refer back to a word. THAT word is called and ANTECEDENT. Example: Fred gave his dog a bone. His refers to Bill. Bill is the antecedent.

Indefinite pronouns: anyone, everybody, everyone, nobody,

none, somebody, and someone. Also any, both, each, either, few, many, neither, and no. These words MUST stand alone to be a pronoun. When used with another noun, these words will act as adjectives.

Nominative Pronouns: a pronoun used as the subject of the sentence or as a predicate nominative (pronoun after the verb). Objective Pronoun: serve as the object of a preposition, a direct object, or an indirect object. OTHER VERBS Transitive Verbs have direct objects. (A direct object comes after a verb and received the action.) You can ask "What?" after this verb and you should be able to answer. Example: I bounced a ball. Bounced what? Bounced is a transitive verb. Intransitive Verbs do not have direct objects. Example: Tom sleeps in the car. Sleeps what? This does not make sense. Sleeps is an intransitive verb.

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Linking verbs do not show action. They make a statement.

to feel to smell to look to remain

Some verbs can be used as a linking verb OR an action verb. Here is how to test for linking verbs:

Replace the verb in the sentence with a being verb. Does it change the meaning of the sentence? If not, then it is LINKING the subject to an adjective. Example: Her mother seemed nice. Replace seemed with is. Does it mean the same thing? Yes. Seemed is a LINKING verb. The woman smelled the flower. Is smelled a linking or action verb? Reread the sentence with the being verb is. Does it still mean the same thing? No. It is not a linking verb in this sentence.

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ADVERBS

to grow to appear

to stay to taste to become to sound to seem to be ( is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been)

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ADVERBS

Adverbs have the word VERBS in them. Mostly, adverbs describe verbs. They tell HOW, WHEN, WHERE, and TO WHAT EXTENT (not, so very, too, quite, rather, and somewhat). Most adverbs end in ­ly.

The sloth moved slowly. (how?) slowly I washed the dishes earlier. (when?) earlier He threw the ball up in the air. (where?) up That was so funny! (to what extent was it funny? ) so

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Adverbs can modify a verb, an adjective, or even another adverb. She did not go. (modifies the verb phrase did go) The car was very fast. (modifies the adjective fast) The sloth moved very slowly in the tree. (modifies the adverb slowly)

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UPPER LEVEL GRAMMAR WORKSHEETS­ Student Sheet

DIRECT OBJECT Find two sentences with a direct object in them. First find the verb then ask what. 1.___________________________________________ ______________________________________. p.___ 2.___________________________________________ ______________________________________. p.___ INDIRECT OBJECTS Find one sentence with an indirect object in it. Find the verb, ask what to find the D.O., then ask to or for to find the indirect object. 1.____________________________________________ _______________________________________. p.____

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PRONOUNS

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PRONOUNS

Write the page number and the paragraph number where you find each type of pronoun.

Find the page number and the paragraph where you find these pronouns:

Possessive­ page:_____________________ paragraph:________ Nominative­ page:____________________ paragraph:________ Objective­ page:_____________________paragraph:_________

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LINKING VERBS

Reflexive­ page:___________ paragraph:_________ Demonstrative­ page:_______paragraph:_________ Interrogative­ page:________ paragraph:_________ Indefinite­ page:_____ paragraph:__________

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OTHER VERBS

Write the page number and the paragraph number where you find three linking verbs. 1. page:___________________ paragraph:_________ 2. page:___________________ paragraph:_________ 3. page:___________________ paragraph:_________

Find a Transitive and an Intransitive verb. Transitive­

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ADVERBS

page:_____________________paragraph:_____ Intransitivepage:_____________________paragraph:_____

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ADVERBS

HOW WHEN

Adverb that:

Modifies a verb or verb phrase: p.________ paragraph:___ Modifies an adjective: p.____________ paragraph:____ Modifies an adverb: p.____________ paragraph:_____

WHERE

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TO WHAT EXTENT

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