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saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro niko berZeniSvilis instituti

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF GEORGIA NIKO BERDZENISHVILI INSTITUTE

istoriis ganyofileba

Department of History

baTumi

warsuli da Tanamedroveoba

I

BATUMI

THE PAST AND MODERNITY

saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia

International scientific conference

gamomcemloba `SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti~ baTumi ­ 2009

UDC (uak) 908 (479.22-21) (063) b-179

redaqtori saredaqcio kolegia: malxaz sioriZe (mTavari redaqtori), kolegia sioriZe sulxan aleqsaia, ruslan baramiZe, devid braundi (eqseteris universiteti, didi britaneTi), simon gogitiZe, biWiko diasamiZe, aleqsandre TvalWreliZe, oTar TurmaniZe, nino inaiSvili, domenik kasabTezgori (bilkentis universiteti, ankara, TurqeTi), amiran kaxiZe, roin malaymaZe (mTavari redaqtoris momala laymaZe redaqtoris moadgi gile) adgile), uCa oqropiriZe, murman papaSvili, avTandil sonRulaSvili, kaxaber surgulaZe, mamia faRava, vaxtang SamilaZe, vaJa SubiTiZe, guram Caganava, tariel WiRvaria, nana xaxutaiSvili, oleg jibaSvili (pasu(pasuxismgebeli redaqtori). daqtori) xismgebeli redaqtori).

recenzentebi: nodar kaxiZe - ist. mecn. doqtori mixeil qamadaZe - filol. mecn. doqtori Jani miqaSaviZe - ekon. akad. doqtori

EDITORIAL BOARD: Malkhaz Sioridze (Editor-In-Chief), Sulkhan Aleksaia,

Ruslan Baramidze, David Braund (University of Exeter, Great Britain), Simon Gogitidze, Bichiko Diasamidze, Alexsandre Tvalchrelidze, Otar Turmanidze, Nino Inaishvili, Dominique Kassab Tezgor (Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey), Amiran Kakhidze, Roin Malakmadze (Assistant Editor), Ucha Okropiridze, Murman Papashvili, Avtandil Songhulashvili, Kakhaber Surguladze, Mamia Paghava Vakhtang Shamiladze, Vazha Shubithidze, Guram Chaganava, Tariel Chighvaria, Nana Khakhutaishvili, Oleg Jibashvili (Responsible Editor).

Reviewers: Nodar Kakhidze - Doctor of Historical Sciences Mikheil Kamadadze - Doctor of Philological Sciences Zhani Mikashavidze ­ A/Doctor of Economics Sciences

ISSN 1987-8745

© niko berZeniSvilis instituti _ 2009 © `SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti~ _ 2009

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Sesavali

qalaqebi yvela epoqaSi warmoadgendnen politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli cxovrebis centrebs, riTac udidesi roli Seasrules saerTo istoriuli procesis ganviTarebaSi. amitom qalaqTa istoriis Seswavla mniSvnelovani da sapatio saqmea. saqarTveloSi qalaqebis istoriisadmi interesi XIX saukunis II naxevarSi gaCnda, aqtiuri mecnieruli kvleva ki XX saukunis Suaxanebidan daiwyo. avtorTa jgufis mier Seiqmna Tbilisis istoriis samtomeuli. gamoica monografiebi saqarTvelos sxva qalaqebis, maT Soris, baTumis Sesaxebac (v. siWinava _ 1958 w., ab. surgulaZe, m. sioriZe _ 1996 w., r. uzunaZe _ 1997 w.). am naSromebs udavod gaaCniaT saTanado mecnieruli Rirebuleba, magram maTSi baTumis istoriis mxolod calkeuli monakveTebia gaSuqebuli da mTlianobaSi ver asaxaven saqalaqo cxovrebis ganviTarebis erTian suraTs. baTums saqarTvelos qalaqebs Soris sapatio adgili ukavia. amitom misi warsulis da dRevandelobis safuZvliani Seswavla gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs. es, pirvel yovlisa, unda gamoixatos misi mTliani istoriis SeqmniT, rac, samwuxarod, dRemde ar dawerila. praqtikulad, aseve Seuswavlelia baTumis qalaquri folklori da eTnografia, xelosnoba, rewva, arqiteqtura, safortifikacio nagebobebi, qalaqis ubnebi da sxva sakiTxebi. swored maTi kompleqsuri Seswavla mogvcems saSualebas baTumis Sesaxeb Seiqmnas srulyofili mecnieruli gamokvleva, romelSic sruliad iqneba gadmocemuli qalaqis warsuli da uaxlesi istoria. aRniSnuli xarvezis Sevsebis erT-erTi warmatebuli cdaa winamdebare krebuli, romelSic Sevida 2009 wlis 23-24 oqtombers qalaq baTumSi, niko berZeniSvilis samecniero-kvleviT institutSi istoriis ganyofilebis iniciativiT Catarebul pirvel saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciaze: "baTumi _ warsuli da Tanamedroveoba" warmodgenili moxsenebebi.

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krebulis Tematika mravalferovania. statiebi exeba da Seiswavlis rogorc baTumis warsul istorias, arqeologias, eTnologias, arqiteqturas, da toponimias, ise qalaqis Tanamedrove kvleva aseve yofis, kulturis, amaRlebs krebulis centrSia turizmis, konfesiuri viTarebisa da demografiis sakiTxebs. warsulisa Tanamedroveobis aRniSnuli kompleqsuri konferenciis, kidev ufro rogorc winamdebare yuradRebis

mniSvnelobas. miT umetes, rom ukanasknel wlebSi qalaqi baTumi saqarTvelos mTavrobis gansakuTrebuli moqceuli. aseTi aRmSeneblobis pirobebSi baTumis istoriis Seswavlas TeoriulTan erTad eniWeba praqtikuli daniSnulebac. kerZod, es xels Seuwyobs qalaqis momaval urbanul ganviTarebas, patriotuli qalaquri cnobierebis gafarToebas, istoriis dazustebasa da dRevandelobisaTvis aucilebeli ideebis momwifebas, damuSavebasa da gavrcelebas. aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis mTavrobam gaiTvaliswina zemoaRniSnuli garemoebebi da mizanSewonilad miiCnia, rom yovelwliurad Catardes baTumis problematikisadmi miZRvnili samecniero-praqtikuli konferencia da am process gaewios saTanado finansuri da moraluri mxardaWera. vimedovnebT, momaval konferenciebze kidev bevr kiTxvas gaecema pasuxi, gairkveva da sabolood dadgindeba baTumis istoriis aqamde burusiT moculi mravali sakiTxi. vfiqrobT, Catarebuli kvlevebis bazaze sabolood Seiqmneba dasrulebuli Semajamebeli naSromi qalaq baTumis istoriis Sesaxeb, rac Rirseuli dagvirgvineba iqneba Cveni erToblivi Zalisxmevisa.

malxaz sioriZe

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wyaroTmcodneoba da istoriografia SOURCE STUDIES AND HISTORIOGRAPHY

gogitiZe, simon gogitiZe, emzar kaxiZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumi antikuri xanis werilobiT wyaroebSi

kolxeTis qalaqebi samefos dasustebis xanidan (Zv. w. III s.) iwyeben dakninebas da Zv. w. II-I saukuneebSi wyveten TavianTYarsebobas: kirkeumi, dioskuria, tindarida, kiknumi, aia [Plin, NH, VI, 13]. Tavisi ganviTarebisa da dasasrulis aseTive gza ganvles aWaris teritoriaze mdebare qalaqebmac, magaliTad, kiknosma (fiWvnari) [a. kaxiZe, 1971; misive, 1975] . saqalaqo cxovrebis aRmavlobaSi axali etapi iwyeba ax. w. I-II saukuneebSi [n. lomouri, 1968: 49]. am droidan moyolebuli, aWaris zRvispireTSi Cndeba qalaqebi _ afsarunti, matiumi (madia), sebastopoli (cixisZiris cixis Semogareni) da afasidami (cixisZiris CrdiloeTiT) [flavius ariane, 1961; n. lomouri, 1955; misive, 1958; misive, 1957: 107-110]. cixe-qalaqebis warmoqmna mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli romaelTa politikur da ekonomikur ZlierebasTan kolxeTSi da politikasTan, mimarTuls aqauri qalaqebis sakuTar cixe-simagreebad gadaqcevisaken da kolonistTa Zlieri fenis Seqmnisaken [ ., 1968: 248]. baTumi Zvel saistorio wyaroebSi mravaljeraa moxseniebuli. aqve zogjer dasaxelebulia romeliRac dasaxlebuli punqtebi, fonetikurad axlos mdgomi Tanamedrove baTumis saxelTan, magram maTi lokalizacia dResac daudgenelia. T. yauxCiSvilis gamokvleviT, baTumis Sesaxeb uZvelesi cnoba aristoteles (Zv. w. IV s.) ekuTvnis. masTan moxseniebuli `siRrmeebi~ (berZnulad baTea) baTums unda Seesatyvisebodes [ ., 1988: 243-249]. baTumi rom cnobili iyo TiTqos Zv. w.-mde 400 wlis uwinares, _ Jan muriec miuTiTebda [J. murie, 1962: 22]. Tu davimowmebT imas, rom am `siRrmeebis~ win dasaxelebuli koraqsebi kolxeTis CrdiloeT monakveTze mosaxleoben, maSin, Cveni azriT, ar iqneboda umarTebulo, am baTeas Tu strabonis mier moxseniebul batasTan (novorosiskis maxloblad) gavaigivebdiT [ , 1960: 65; s. gogitiZe, 1996, #6]. Tumcaarc imas gamovricxavdiT, rom aRniSnul `siRrmeeb5

Si~ (baTea) zRvis Rrma adgili igulisxmebodes da ara geografiuli punqti. aseTi daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas iZleva pliniusisa da strabonis monacenebi. pliniusis cnobiT, pontosSi, koraqsTa tomis gaswvriv, xmeleTidan 300 stadionis (daaxl. 53 km.) manZilze zRva ganuzomeli siRrmisaa [Plin, NH, I, II, 224]. strabonis gadmocemiT ki is ube, romelSic dioskuriada (soxumi) mdebareobs, iTvleba evqsinis pontos (Savi zRvis) `siRrmeebad~ [, 1964: 472]. aseve, cdeba is, vinc strabonis batasa da korokondamas, Sesabamisad, baTumTan da yoroliswyalTan aigiveben [S. varSaniZe, 1974: 23]. SesaZlebelia baTumis pirveli moxsenieba pliniuss (ax. w. I s.) ekuTvnodes. masTan cixe-qalaq afsarossa (gonio) da mdinare afsarosis (Woroxi) Semdeg, sadRac axlos dasaxlebulia qalaqi matiumi [a. gamyreliZe, 1973: 31]. am punqtis lokalizacia aravis mouxdenia, mxolod aris cda misi klavdios ptolemaiosis (ax. w. II s.) madiasTan gaigivebisa [ ., 1957: 108]. Cven gamovTqviT varaudi, rom matiumi-madia-mente baTums unda ukavSirdebodes [s. gogitiZe, gaz. `baTumi~, 1998]. meore romaeli avtori ariane (ax. w. II s.), romelmac pliniusis msgavsad kolxeTisa da qarTlis sanapiroebi mimoiara, afsarunts garda arc erT qalaqs ar asaxelebs aWaris teritoriaze. masTan moixsenieba mdinare saxeliT `baTisi~ [flavius ariane, 1961: 37], romelic fonetikurad axlos dgas baTumis Zvel da Tanamedrove saxelebTan. tomeSeki werda, rom baTisi mdinarea da iqve mis SesarTavTan navsadguri baTisia [Tomascheck, 1897: 5. 139, 5. V]. aRsaniSnavia, rom amave saxelis punqts pliniusic moixseniebs [Plin. NH, II, II, 224]. f. uspenski mas baTumTan aigivebda [ ., 1917: 164]. Cven viziarebT Sexedulebas, rom baTisi yoroliswylis SesarTavTan baTumis cixis (Tamara) midamoebSia saZebari. ratom ar moixsenia arianem q. baTisi, Tuki igi arsebobda. Cveni azriT, gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi garemoebebi: 1. arianem istoriuli aWaris sanapiros gaswvriv RamiT Caiara da ueWvelia man md. baTisis SesarTavTan dasaxlebuli punqti ver SeamCnia; 2. SesaZlebelia, am qalaqiT imis gamo ar dainteresda mogzauri, rom igi romis imperiisadmi daqvemdebarebul kolxeTSi (lazika, egrisi) ki ar Sedioda, aramed qarTlis (iberiis) samefos SemadgenlobaSi; 3. arianes baTisiT dauntereseblobis erT-erT mizezad SeiZleba is davasaxeloT, rom aq romauli garnizoni ar idga. Cvens am SexedulebasTan dakavSirebiT gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom Tuki baTumis midamoebi am dros qarTlis samefoSi

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Sedioda, miT ufro unda dainteresebuliyo flavius ariane, rogorc romis imperiis moxele [e. kaxiZe, 2002]. SevniSnavT, rom romaeli mogzauri aseve ar dainteresebula rizes, axali banakebis, kordilesa da baTumis gverdiT mdebare sebastopolis (cixisZiri), afasadamisa da sxvaTa Sesaxebac. Cven vfiqrobT, rom s. gogitiZis mier wamoyenebuli argumentebi sruliad Seesabamebian im realur viTarebas, romelic im periodSi sufevda aWarisa da mis mezoblad ganlagebul raionebSi. ptolemaiosi kolxeTis aRweraSi asaxelebs qalaq madias [ , 1948: 251]. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom berZeni avtori `mefeTa cxovrebis~ msgavsad kolxeTis (egrisi) samxreT mijnebs fasis-rioniT sazRvravs [qc, 1955: 24]. am cnobis sandoobaSi Cven eWvi ar gvepareba, radgan sxva wyaroebis (amiane marcelini, blenidi...) mixedviT rions qvemoT (samxreTiT) biZerebi (Zidritebi) mosaxleoben [s. gogitiZe, 2002: 33-34]. `farnavazianis~ avtoris cnobiT, es teritoria aWarisaa, romelic oZrxes saerisTavoSi Sedioda [qc, 1955: 24; s. gogitiZe, 1999: 150]. aseT SemTxvevaSi Cven migvaCnia, rom madia Tu marTlac Seesatyviseba baTums, maSin es cnoba ptolemaioss amoRebuli unda hqondes iseTi wyaroebidan, rodesac baTumi kolxeTis samefoSi Sedioda. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi madia Tanamedrove samegrelos (istoriuli egrisi) teritoriazea saZebari. berZeni avtoris mier naCveneb koordinatebs Tu davemyarebiT, maSin is ufro axlosaa ganlagebuli mexlesosTan, vidre momdevno punqti sarake (saCxeresTan) [g. lorTqifaniZe, 2000]. romaul sagzao rukaze -ze (IV s.) daaxloebiT Tanamedrove baTumis adgilas datanilia `portus altus~ [n. lomouri, 1958: X-XI]. s. yauxCiSvils igi berZnuli baTisis (Rrma) laTinur formad miaCnia - `portus altusi~ niSnavs `Rrma navsadgurs~ [s. yauxCiSvili, 1964: 56-57]. aseT gaigivebas iziareben i. sixaruliZe, d. braundi da sxvebi [i. sixaruliZe, 1959: 82; Braund D., 199: 185]. ab. surgulaZis azriT, baTumi werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT yalibdeba II-IV saukuneebSi [a. surgulaZe, 1983: 78]. i. sixaruliZe wers, rom II s. meore naxevarze adre baTumi ar arsebobda [i. sixaruliZe, 1959: 81]. d. xaxutaiSvilma da a. kaxiZem baTumis istoriasa da arqeologias erToblivi monografia miuZRvnes. aq aRniSnulia, rom `romelime mkvlevaris avtoriteti ar gamodgeba imis sabuTad, rom baTumi ax. w. I-II saukuneebSi arsebobda, rogorc qalaqi da navsadguri [a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, 1989]. Cveni azriT, marTebuli SeniSvnaa, radgan arc erT Zvel wyaroSi baTumi da Tundac matiumi-baTi7

si-madia-mente mniSvnelovan qalaqad da navsadgurad arcaa moxseniebuli. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi romisa da bizantiis xangrZlivi batonobis dros Cvens mxareSi igi aucileblad gamoyenebuli iqneboda. aq arc romaelTa garnizoni mdgara. pasqalur qronikaSi (VII s.) moxseniebulia `megale polisi~ (`didi qalaqi~). mas s. yauxCiSvili baTumTan aigivebs, i. sixaruliZe da d. xaxutaiSvili _ afsaros-goniosTan. cnobil romael mwerals evsebi kesariels (260-340 ww.) Tavis TxzulebaSi `saeklesio istoria~ daucavs Semdegi saxis cnoba: `meoTxe TaobaSi, rodesac asureTSi paninosi batonobda, argonavtebma saomari xomaldebi Seacures mdinare fazisisaken da kolxuri mentesken~ [georgika, 1961: 31; ., 1948: 220]. rogorc vxedavT, argonavtebi aietTan misulan md. fazisTan, sadac, romeliRac kolxuri dasaxlebuli punqti yofila. es punqti evsebis moRvaweobis xanaze adrec iyo cnobili (radgan is imowmebs kefalions). am cnobis mixedviT, CvenTvis gaurkvevelia Tu romel qalaqsa da mdinares gulisxmobs romaeli mwerali. aRniSnuli qalaqis lokalizacia aravis ucdia, xolo saxeli fazisi antikur xanaSi erqva kolxeTis or did mdinares _ Woroxsa da rions. Cven migvaCnia, rom am teqstis mente da pliniusTan (23-79 ww.) moxseniebuli matiumi [T. yauxCiSvili, 1969: 12] erTidaigive qalaqi unda iyos (SeadareT me(n)te mati-umi. pliniusi aseTive sufiqsiT `umi~ ixseniebs q. `suri-umi~-sac. (klavdios ptolemaiosTan damowmebulia `suris~-s saxiT) [ ., 1968: 94]. saqme isaa, rom arc pliniusis matiumis Sesaxeb arsebobs erTiani azri. aris cda misi gaigivebisa ptolemaiosis madiasTan [T. yauxCiSvili, 1969: 12, Sen. 8; misive, 1968: 11, Sen. 9; n. lomouri, 1955: 57,Sen. 18; misive, 1957: 108]. T. yauxCiSvili mimoixilavs ra arsebul Zvel berZnul-romaul wyaroebs da literaturas, miiCnevs, rom matiumi igive baTumi unda iyos [T. yauxCiSvili, 1969: 12-14]. aRniSnuli azri kidev ufro daakonkreta specialur naSromSi [T. yauxCiSvili, 1987: 109-116]. pliniusi matiums aseT konteqstSi moixseniebs: `140 000 nabijis manZilze trapezuntidan md. absarosia da imave saxeli mqone cixe SesarTavTan. am adgilebSi mTebis gadaRma iberiaa, xolo napiris gaswvriv mosaxleoben henioxebi, amprevtebi, lazebi. mdinareebia: akamfsisi, isisi, mogrosi, baTisi, kolxTa tomebia aq. qalaqi matiumi~[iqve]. s. gogitiZis azriT, romaeli mwerlis cnobidan Cans: 1. qalaqi matiumi unda iyos sadRac afsarosidan (gonio) axlo manZilze. is yvelaze ukeT am SemTxvevaSi afsarosis midamoebs axasiaTebs. 2. q. matiumi ar igulisxmeba rion-fasisTan, radgan

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fasisi (rioni) mxolod matiumis dasaxelebis Semdegaa warmodgenili. 3. md. rion-fasisTan Cven ar viciT msgavsi saxelwodebis mqone qalaqi, miuxedavad imisa, Zveli wyaroebiT misi zRvasTan SeerTebis adgilas cnobilia qalaqi fasisi [ , 1947: 242]. 4. q. matiumis Woroxis SesarTavSi lokalizacias eniWeba upiratesoba, radgan Zvel dros (pliniusi, ariane, V s. berZeni anonimi) [flavius ariane, 1961: 37, 67, 85] sagulvebel adgilas moedineboda msgavsi saxelis mqone mdinare (baTisi) da yovlad msgavsi saxelis mqone qalaqi. 5. Tu matiumi pliniusis mier misi dgomis adgilidan (afsari) Sors igulisxmeba, e.i. rionis SesarTavTan, maSin is aucileblad daasaxelebda mis gverdiT sinamdvileSi arsebul sxva qalaqebsac - faziss, sebastopoliss da iqneb portus altussac (am ukanasknels aigiveben baTumTan), radgan aRniSnuli qalaqebi araa dasaxelebuli, amitom pliniusis cnoba imis damadasturebelia, rom matiumi afrosidan sadRac am qalaqebTan misvlamde mdebared unda viguloT. 6. matium-baTeas saxelis msgavsi qalaqi dResac arsebobs (Seadar. matiumi (mente) madiamaTia, baTusi-baTumi). amitom cxadia im qalaq menteSi, romelsac argonavtebma gverdi auares q. baTumi unda vigulsxmoT, xolo im mdinare fazisSi, romelSic argonavtebma xomaldebi Seacures Woroxi [s. gogitiZe, 2002: 90-93]. Zvelad md. Woroxs fasisi rom erqva Cans antikuri wyaroebidan, ase magaliTad: eratosTeniT (285-105 ww.) fasisi moedineba armeniis mTebidan. rogorc Cans, Woroxi igulisxmeba apolonios rodoselTan (Zv. w. III s.), roca ambobs, rom araqss Sordeba lika da uerTdeba fasiss. -is komentatori SeniSnavs, rom lika SesaZlebelia iyos rionis Senakadi yvirila an Zirula. aseT SeniSvnas ewinaaRmdegeba strabonis (Zv. w. I s. -ax. w. I s.) monacemi. misi cnobiT, fazisi da likosi somxeTis mdinareebia da pontos (Savi zRva) erTvian. meore adgilas naTqvamia: faziss, rogorc kolxeTis mdinares, saTave somxeTidan aqvs, romelic Rebulobs glavkossa da hiposs, masSi aRma curva SeiZleba Sorapnamde. aq, rogorc Cans, fasis-rionisa da fasis-Woroxis aRreva unda iyos. berZeni dionises (ax. w. II s.) cnobiTac fasisi saTaves iRebs armeniis (somxeTis) mTebidan. laTini istorikosis solinis (ax. w. III s.) cnobiT, `henioxuri mTebi araqss gadmoRvrian, mosxuri ki fasiss. berZeni anonimis (ax. w. V s.) mixedviT, fasisi moedineba armeniidan. Tumca iqve miuTiTebs: `mdinareSi rom SedixarT, fazisis marcxniT mdebareobs miletelTa elinuri qalaqi, romelsac fazisi ewodeba. laTini gramatikosi priscianic (V s. II nax. - VI s. dasawy.) gvamcnobs, rom fasisi saTaves iRebs armeniis mTebis mwvervalidan. aseve iq, sadac bizantieli istorikosi prokopi kesa9

rieli (ax. w. VI s.) fasisze laparakobs, Woroxi unda igulisxmebodes (am fasiss saTave WaneTis mTebis maxloblad aqvs. magram naSromis sxva adgilas fasisSi ueWvelad rioni unda igulisxmebodes, radgan mas saTave kavkasiis mTebSi aqvs. rogorc vxedavT, berZnul-romauli wyaroebis garkveuli nawili fasisis saTaves somxeTis samefos farglebSi an zogjer somxeTis mTebSi gulisxmobs. ueWvelia, am fasisSi Woroxi igulisxmeba, radgan Woroxi saTaves speris olqSi (sasperebis, igive iberebis tomis teritoriaze) Rebulobs. es mxare Zv. w. 189 wels qarTlis samefos CamoaWra somxeTma da mas flobda garkveuli drois monakveTSi. rogorc aRiniSna, zogierTi avtori fasisis saTaves mosxur mTebSi an WaneTis mTebis maxloblad miuTiTebs. speris mxare erT dros `mosxikes~ (mesxeTi) qveyanaSi Sedioda, xolo WaneTis mTebi am ukanasknelis dasavleTis mimarTulebiT gagrZelebas warmoadgens. antikuri xanis zogierTi mwerali fasisis saTaves amarantis mTebSi an amarantis tomis teritoriaze miuTiTebs. am fasisSi rioni unda igulisxmebodes. amaranti SesaZlebelia amiranis mTebis damaxinjebuli forma iyos. legendis mixedviT xom sadRac aq kavkasionis erT-erTi mTis mwvervalze mijaWvuli iyo amirani. rogorc Cans, am midamoebSi mosaxle toms amarantebs uwodebdnen. vTvliT, rom amarantebi (amar-an-tiamaraTi-imereTi) imerelTa winaprebi arian. amrigad, sruliad dasaSvebia, rom evsebi kesarielis `saeklesio matianeSi~ moxseniebuli `mente~ pliniusis matiumTan, ptolemaiosis madiasTan gaigivdes da Tanamedrove baTums daukavSirdes. Tumca daaxloebiT amgvari saxelwodebis toponimebi dadastirebulia rogorc Woroxis, ise rionis SeerTebis adgilas. gambas gadmocemiT fasisis gadmomyure cixes hqvia minda. aseTive saxelis mqone ubani dResac arsebobs baTumis siaxloves, md. Woroxis zRvasTan SeerTebis raionSi. Sua saukuneebis evropel mogzaurebTan baTumi moxseniebulia ramdenime saxecvlili formiT, SiltbergesTan: vaTan, loaTon, katan, botan, kotan formebiT. iosifa barbaro vatis eZaxis kontarini - vatis, liatisa da vartis; franCesko lovarisa da lovatis [15 saukunis italiel... 1981: 64,Sen. 9]. XIV-XV saukuneebis italiur rukebze baTumi aRniSnulia Semdegi saxebiT; veskontesTan da benikazasTan - vati, piciganisTan - varu, ankonelisgan - lovar, XV saukunis ucnobi avtoris rukaze - lovati. luksoroc lovatis eZaxis. amrigad, dasaSvebad migvaCnia, rom ax. w. I-II saukuneebSi baTums romaeli da berZeni avtorebi baTusi-matiumi-madia-mentus saxeliT icnobdnen.

10

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. a. gamyreliZe, tacitusis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tb., 1973. 2. georgika I, Tb., 1961. 3. s. gogitiZe, aWaris teritoriaze mosaxle tomis vinaobis sakiTxisaTvis, baT., 2002. 4. s. gogitiZe, baTumi Zvel saistorio wyaroebSi, Jurn. `literaturuli aWara~, 1996, #6. 5. s. gogitiZe, evsebi kesarielis erTi cnobis gagebisaTvis, gaz. `baTumi~, 1998, 28 Tebervali; 6. s. gogitiZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos saistorio geografia (Zv. w. XII-IV ss.), baT., 2002. 7. s. gogitiZe, aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis Zveli istoriis damaxinjebis kidev erTi cda, Jurn. `literaturuli aWara~, 1999, #3. 8. S. varSaniZe, narkvevebi Sua saukuneebis aWaris istoriidan, baT., 1974. 9. a. kaxiZe, saqarTvelos zRvispireTis antikuri xanis qalaqebi, Tb., 1971. 10. a. kaxiZe, aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis antikuri Zeglebi, baT., 1975. 11. a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis, ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XVIII, Tb., 1989. 12. n. lomouri, klavdios ptolemaiosis `geografiuli saxelmZRvanelo~, - masalebi saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis istoriisaTvis, nakv. 32, Tb., 1955. 13. n. lomouri, egrisis samefos istoria, Tb., 1968. 14. n. lomouri, Zveli saqarTvelos savaWro gzebis sakiTxisaTvis, - iiS, t. IV, 1958. 15. g. lorTqifaniZe, kolxeTis qalaqebi ptolemaiosis `geografiul saxelmZRvaneloSi~ (lokalizaciis problemebi) - qalaqebi da saqalaqo cxovreba, samecniero konferencia, baTumis arqeologiuri muzeumi, baT., 2000. 16. 15 saukunis italiel mogzaurTa cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, italiuridan Targmna, Sesavali, SeniSvnebi da gamokvleva daurTo e. mamisTvaliSvilma, Tb., 1981. 17. Jan murie, baTumi da Woroxis auzi, frangulidan Targmna iza lorTqifaniZem, baT., 1962. 18. i. sixaruliZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos toponimika (aWaris assr), t. 2, baT., 1959. 19. a. surgulaZe, qalaq baTumis istoriidan, Jurn. `Woroxi~. 1883, #4. 20. flavius ariane, mogzauroba Savi zRvis garSemo, Tb., 1961. 21. qarTlis cxovreba, t. I, Tb., 1955. 22. T. yauxCiSvili, antikuri wyaroebi q. baTumis istoriisaTvis. ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XVI, Tb., 1987. 23. T. yauxCiSvili, aristoteles zogierTi cnobisaTvis. ­ qwa, II, Tb., 1968.

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24. T. yauxCiSvili, berZeni mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, t. II, Tb., 1969. 25. s. yauxCiSvili, Zveli berZeni avtorebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tb., 1964. 26. . ., , ., 1968. 27. . ., , , ., 1988. 28. . , ­ , 1948, 2. 29. .., . ­ , 1948, 3. 30. . ., , ­ , 1957, 4. 31. , I, . ., ., 1960. 32. , , ­ , 1947, 3. 33. , , , ., 1964. 34. . ., , ­ , 2, ., 1917. 35. Braund D., Georgian in Antiquity, Oxford, 1994. 36. Tomascheck, Pauly-Wissowa, Kroll, RealenzikIopadie des Altertumswissenschaft, Stuttgart, 1897.

Simon Gogitidze, Emzar Kakhidze (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi in Antique literaru Sources Summaru Matiumi (Madia), Apsarunti (Gonio) and Sebastopol (Tshikhisdziri) were the significant residental points of Adjara at the I-III centuries A.D. Plinius mentioned Bata, in the form of Matium, Klavdious Ptolemaios mondioned Madia and Ariane mentioned the river Batus at the place where possible was situated Batumi Pseudo Aristotele in his `Meteorologu~ mentioning so called `Depthes~ (Batea) that we are able to suppose is not Batumi. The Auther is speaking about immeasurable depthes and did not about point of residence. The same we can think about the informarion which we find at Strabon and Plinius.

12

Tamaz beraZe

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

XIIIXIII-XV saukuneebis baTumis sakiTxi istoriografiaSi evropul istoriografiaSi

XIII-XV saukuneebis baTums evropeli istorikosebi ZiriTadad saqarTvelo-trapizonis sazRvrebTan dakavSirebiT exebian. germaneli mecnieri, iakob falmeraieri, romelmac trapizonis imperiis istoria monografiulad pirvelma Seiswavla, am imperiis daarsebis Sesaxeb werda: im dros, rodesac jvarosnebma konstantinopoli daikaves, "aleqsi komnenosma misi winaprebis gvirgvini aziaSi isev daibruna. is saTaveSi Caudga laSqars, romelic kolxeTis fazisSi Seqmna da win miiwevda trapizonelTa qveynisaken. trapizonis dedaqalaqi, tripolisi, kerasunti, mesoxaldia, yvela cixe-darbazi mTaSi, yvela qalaqi zRvis piras amisomde, xiliT, RviniT, zeTiT mdidari mxare axal mbrZanebels daemorCila" [F a l l m e r ay e r, 1827: 46]. germaneli mecnieris naSromidan motanili am amonarididan mkafiod ar Cans, Tu sad gayavs mas axlad daarsebuli trapizonis imperiis Crdilo-aRmosavleTi sazRvari. amisda miuxedavad, trapizonis imperiis istoriis misi momdevno mkvlevrebis umetesoba, am amonaridze dayrdnobiT, am imperiasa da saqarTvelos Soris sazRvrad mdinare faziss anu rions miiCnevs. ase magaliTad, cnobili qarTveli istorikosi a. xaxanaSvili, romelmac trapizonis istoriis erT-erTi umTavresi pirvelwyaro, miqel panaretosis "trapizonis qronika," berZnulidan rusulad Targmna, am Targmanis Sesaval werilSi saqarTvelosa da trapizonis imperiis Soris sazRvrad mdinare rions miiCnevs: "dasawyisSi aleqsis (igulisxmeba trapizonis pirveli imperatori aleqsi komnenosi) dapyrobebs brwyinvale warmatebebi xvda. man Seqmna saxelmwifo sinopidan fazisamde" [, 1905: XI]. trapizonis istoriis iseTi cnobili mkvlevari, rogoric T. uspenski iyo, aleqsi I komnenosis (1204-1222) da misi Zmis daviTis 1204 wlis erTobliv laSqobasTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnavda: "trapizonSi misi xelisuflebis cnobam, ufliswuli aleqsis uaxloes mxareebSi warmateba uzrunvelyo, romlebic am centraluri da umniSvnelovanesi savaWro-ekonomikuri qalaqis gavlenis qveS imyofebodnen. imperiis centraluri nawili, iyo ra mWidrod dakavSirebuli trapizonTan, rogorc Cans yovelgvar Zaldatanebis gareSe Sevida mis SemadgenlobaSi da sana13

piro olqi Termodonidan fazisamde moeqca aleqsis da daviTis srul mflobelobaSi" [ ., 2003: 71]. T. uspenskis es mosazreba faqtobrivad ucvlelad aris gameorebuli a. kaJdanis redaqtorobiT oqsfordis universitetis mier gamocemul bizantiis enciklopediur leqsikonSi. am leqsikonis pirvel tomSi, aleqsi I komnenosisadmi miZRvnil statiaSi vkiTxulobT: "aleqsi III-is gadayenebam (igulisxmeba aleqsi III angelosi) 1203 wlis ivlisSi sababi misca Tamars (Tamar mefes) qarTvelebis eqspedicia gaegzavna trapizonis winaaRmdeg, aleqsisa da daviTis formaluri xelmZRvanelobiT. erTbaSad mTeli mxare fazisidan sinopis CaTvliT iqna dakavebuli" [The Oxford Dictionary, 1991: 66]. bolo xanebSi saqarTvelosa da trapizonis imperiis Soris sazRvris sakiTxs ucxoel avtorTagan s. karpovi da a. braieri Seexnen. s. karpovi 1981 wels gamocemul wignSi, romelic XIII-XV saukuneebSi trapizonis imperiis dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobas Seexeba, trapizonis imperiis sazRvrebTan dakavSirebiT werda: "trapizonis imperiis birTvs pontos mxare Seadgenda, romelic samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi baTumidan sinopamde vrceldeboda" [ .., 1981: 7]. am amonaridis mixedviT rus mkvlevars baTumi TiTqos trapizonis imperiiis sazRvrebSi ar Seyavs, miT ufro, rom is cota qvemoT saqarTvelosa da am imperiis sasazRvro mijnad mdinare Woroxs asaxelebs. Tumca, rodesac s. karpovi XIII saukunis meore naxevarSi genuelTa mier trapizinis imperiis qalaqebSi daarsebul savaWro koloniebs CamoTvlis, aseT qalaqad baTumsac miiCnevs: "trapizonSi genuelTa faqtorebis warmoSoba vaWrobis ganviTarebis Sedegi iyo. trapizonis imperiis sazRvrebSi kolonia vatatSi 1277 wlamde, somisoSi daaxloebiT 1285, xolo lovatSi (vatis, lovatis XIII-XV saukuneebSi baTums uwodebdnen) 1290 wlamde warmoiSva" [ .., 1981: 91]. 2007 wels gamovida s. karpovis vrceli monografia trapizonis imperiis Sesaxeb. am naSromis Sesaval nawilSi, sadac "pontos", rogorc erTiani regionis fizikur-geografiul da klimatur pirobebs mimoixilavs, is calke gamoyofs sanapiro zonas da masSi trapizonTan erTad baTumic Seyavs. amave naSromis IX TavSi s. karpovi ucvlelad imeorebs Tavis zemoT ukve moyvanil mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom genuelebma TavianTi savaWro faqtoria baTumSi, rogorc trapizonis qalaqSi daaarses [ .., 2007: 257]. s. karpovi saqarTvelo-trapizonis imperiis urTierTobas sagangebod Tavisi monografiis mecamete TavSi _ "trapizonis

14

imperia da kavkasia" _ ganixilavs. rusi istorikosi aq, TiTqos sagangebod, cdilobs yovelnairad daamciros qarTuli saxelmwifos roli ukanaskneli berZnuli imperiis cxovrebaSi. "didi komnenosebi ar yofilan saqarTvelos vasalebi an moxarkeebi, _ vkiTxulobT s. karpovis monografiis mecamete TavSi, _ al-umaris azriT, romelic safiqrebelia genuel imformatorebs eyrdnoboda, trapizonis imperia ufro didi da mniSvnelovani iyo, vidre saqarTvelo... ase rom XIV-XV saukuneebis saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa ierarqiaSi trapizonis imperias ufro maRali adgili ekava, vidre saqarTvelos. is (igulisxmeba trapizonis imperia) mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli dasavleT saqarTvelos mxareebTan, gansakuTrebiT samcxesTan da SezRuduli suverenitetiT sargeblobda zogierT maTganze, mag. guriaze, iyofda ra mas bagrationTa samefo dinastiis mefeebTan... didi komnenosebis metrimonialuri kavSirebi bagratidebTan XIV saukunis meore naxevarSi damyarda. am qorwinebiT naTesaoba, sxvaTa Soris, myardeboda ara marto saqarTvelos samefo dinastiasTan, aramed samcxis jayelTa sagvareulosTanac, radgan bagrati iyo daviT VII-sa da ivane I jayelis qaliSvilis, sinduxtaris Svili. am qorwinebis dasamyareblad trapizonis basilevsi saqarTvelos sazRvrisaken gaemarTa makrialSi laSqriT da flotiT. ara marto qorwinebiTi, aramed samxedro kavSiric damyarda. es gamyarda 1372 wels imperatoris axali vizitiT... am vizitis dros imperatori flotisa da jaris TanxlebiT mivida vatSi (baTumSi), sadac masTan mivida guriis mTavari proskinezisaTvis, anu imisaTvis, rom gamoexata Tavisi, rogorc vasalis pativiscema, misi, rogorc siuzerenis winaSe. gurieli SesaZlebelia im dros ormag, trapizonis imperatorisa da saqarTvelos mefis uzenaesobas aRiarebda"[ .., 2007: 407-409]. me-20 saukunis samociani wlebidan trapizonis imperiis istorias da istoriul geografias cnobilma ingliselma mkvlevarma anton braierma ara erTi naSromi miuZRvna. man Tavisi xangrZlivi kvlevis Sedegebi vrcel naSromSi ganazogada, romelic meore ingliseli mkvlevris, devid monfildis TanaavtorobiT gamoaqveyna [Antony Bryer and David Winfield, Washington, D.C]. a. braieri am naSromSi, trapizonis imperiasTan dakavSirebiT, did adgils uTmobs samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istorias da istoriul geografias. ingliseli avtoris daskvnebSi imdeni Secdoma da uzustobaa, rom maTi CamoTvla calke naSromis Temaa. amjerad Cven yuradRebas mxolod anton braieris mier baTumis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmul mosazrebebs ganvixilavT. inglisel mecniers, rogorc misi naSromidan Cans, didi survili aqvs guriis saerisTavo, romlis

15

sazRvrebSi XIII-XIV saukuneebSi baTumi Sedioda, trapizonis imperatoris vasalur politikur erTeulad miiCnios. aseTi mosazrebis gasamtkiceblad a. braieri naSromSi uTiTebs zemoT ukve moxseniebuli trapizonis imperatoris 1372 wlis vizitze baTumSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT inglisel avtors damatebiT moyavs cnoba 1437 wels trapizonis samxedro flotis aqtiurobis Sesaxeb baTumis navsadgurSi. Tumca a. braieri bolomde gadaWriT ver miiCnevs XIII-XV saukuneebSi baTumsa da, saerTod, guriis saerisTaos trapizonis imperiis sazRvrebSi da am sakiTxze saboloo daskvnis gamotanas erideba. rogorc davinaxeT, evropul istoriografiaSi gabatonebuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, XIII-XV saukuneebSi baTumi da, saerTod, guria faqtobrivad trapizonis imperiis sazRvrebSi Sedioda. Tanac baTumSi, rogorc am imperiis qalaqSi, genuelTa savaWro kolonia arsebobda. ase rom, Tu qarTul istoriografiaSi 1204 wels trapizonis imperiis daarseba qarTuli samxedro Zalisa da diplomatiis did warmatebad iTvleba, evropel mecnierTa aseT mosazrebaTa gaziarebis SemTxvevaSi qarTuli saxelmwifos did marcxad unda CaiTvalos, radgan mas Savi zRvis sanapiros daaxloebiT 120-kilometriani monakveTi daukargavs, romelic, rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, trapizonis imperiis daarsebamde saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi iyo. upirveles yovlisa SevexoT baTumSi genuelTa savaWro faqtoris arsebobis sakiTxs. dRes ukve kargad aris garkveuli, rom italiuri savaWro faqtoriis arseboba, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs ama Tu im qalaqSi italielTa TviTmarTvelobas da konsulTa institutis arsebobas. aseTi ram italielebs (genuelebs) mxolod cxumSi (soxumSi) gaaCndaT, sadac arsebobda maTi erTaderTi savaWro faqtoria saqarTveloSi [ ., 1989: 89-92]. eWvis gareSea, rom a. xaxanaSvili kargad icnobda qarTul saistorio wyaroebs. s. karpovic, a. braieric Tavisi ama Tu im mosazrebis dasamtkiceblad xSirad iSvelieben "qarTlis cxovrebas." miuxedavad amisa, maT ar ician, an ar undaT icodnen, qarTuli saistorio wyaroebis is monacemebi, romlebic V-XV saukuneebSi samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi saqarTvelos sazRvrebis cvalebadobas asaxavs. qarTuli da bizantiuri saistorio wyaroebis SejerebiT irkveva, rom V saukunis samocian wlebamde egrisis (lazikis) sazRvari bizantiasTan zRvis piras qalaq rizesTan gadioda. mxolod 465 wels gaxda lazikis mefe gubaz pirveli iZulebuli Savi zRvis sanapiro zoli qalaq rizedan qalaq xufaTamde bizantiisTvis gadaeca. Tumca es teritoria iustiniane I xanaSic (527-565) ar emorCileboda bizantiis xelisuflebas.

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VIII saukunis 70-ian wlebSi, rodesac dasavleT saqarTvelo bizantiis qveSevrdom afxazTa samTavroSi iyo gaerTianebuli, saqarTvelos sazRvari samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi trapizonis midamoebTan gadioda. mxolod VIII-IX saukuneTa mijnaze, rodesac dasavleT saqarTvelo damoukidebel afxazTa, anu egris-afxazeTis samefod Camoyalibda, am or saxelmwifos Soris sasazRvro xazi Savi zRvis piras mdinare Woroxze gavida. 1046 wels gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos samefos mefe bagrat IV am seqtorSi sasazRvro xazis mdinare Woroxidan qalaq xufaTamde gadatanas Seecada [qarTlis cxovreba, 1955: 299]. am mcdelobas warmateba moyva, radganac 1057 wels, rodesac bagrat IV konstantinopolidan zRviT dabrunda, saqarTvelos laSqari mefes xufaTSi Seegeba. "miegeba yoveli laSqari afxazeTisa zRvis pirsa, xufaTs da iyo sixaruli da RmrTis madloba didi" _ vkiTxulobT "qarTlis cxovrebaSi" [qarTlis cxovreba, 1955: 304]. selCukebis Semosevebis miuxedavad xufaTi saqarTvelos sazRvrebSia daviT IV aRmaSeneblis xanaSic, rasac daviTis istorikosis Txzulebis Sesabamisi adgilebi mowmobs [qarTlis cxovreba, 1955: 333, 338]. daviT aRmaSeneblis Semdeg samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi ar gamoCenila iseTi Zala, romelic am regionSi saqarTvelos SavizRvis sanapiros Seecileboda. amitomac eWvis gareSea, rom 1203 wels qarTvelTa cnobili laSqroba, romelsac trapizonis imperiis daarseba moyva, qalaq xufaTidan daiwyo. ratomRac, warmatebis miuxedavad, amjerad saqarTvelos sazRvari am regionSi Savi zRvis piras ucvleli darCa. is mxolod daaxloebiT 100 wlis Semdeg, XIII saukunis dasasruls Seicvala. amis Sesaxeb cnoba XIV saukunis anonimi qarTveli istorikosis TxzulebaSi moipoveba: "xolo WaneTi sruliad mosca berZenTa mefeman komninosma kir mixail, da asuli beqasa colad moiyvana" [qarTlis cxovreba, 1959: 304]. vaxuSti bagrations JamTaaRmwerelis es cnoba moyvanili aqvs trapizonis keisris saxelis aRuniSnavad: "rame Tu SeirTo asuli misi berZenTa mefeman (igulisxmeba trapizoni imperatori) da man mosca beqas trapizons aqaTi WaneTiTurT" [batoniSvili vaxuSti, 1973: 701]. Zvel qarTvel istorikoss berZenTa mefis anu trapizonis imperatoris saxeli SecdomiT aqvs mocemuli. amas mowmobs trapizoneli istorikosebis giorgi paximeresa da miqel panaretosis Txzulebebi. giorgi paximere trapizonis imperatoris qarTveli meuRlis mamis saxels ar asaxelebs da aRniSnavs, rom aleqsi II komnenosma "iberTa erTi warCinebulis asuli moiyvana colad" [georgika, 1967: 82]. miqel panaretosi am

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qorwinebasTan dakavSirebiT wers: "gamefda ufali aleqsi, didi komnenosi da colad moiyvana beqas asuli iberiidan" [georgika, 1967: 172]. rogorc vxedavT, qarTveli mematianis cnoba trapizonis imperatoris beqa jayelis asulze daqorwinebis Sesaxeb sinamdviles Seesabameba. es qorwineba CvenTvis ucnobi diplomatiuri molaparakebis Sedegi unda iyos, romlis drosac beqa aTabagma aleqsi komnenosisagan WaneTi miiRo. WaneTi anu lazeTi vaxuSti bagrationis mixedviT "ars ese Savi zRvis kidis wadevnebiT, goniidam trapizonis samzRvramde". am mxareSi is TanmimdevrobiT asaxelebs xofjas (xofa, Zveli xufaTi) da rizas (rize) da umatebs "amis dasavliT Camovardebis mcire mTa, kninRa zRuamde, WaneTis mTidam. da ese ars sazRvari saqarTvelosi da saberZneTisa" [batoniSvili vaxuSti, 1973: 689]. WaneTis sazRvrebSi rizes Cveneba ar unda iyos swori. "rkinis palo" cocxali toponimi iyo jer kidev gasul saukuneSi, is mdebareobda rizes Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT da ara samxreTiT. guriis samTavros saxlis 1804 wels ruseTis imperatoris saxelze gagzavnil mimarTvaSi, sadac guriis samTavros Zvel sazRvrebze iyo saubari, aRniSnulia Semdegi: "pirvel sazRvari romelsac osmalni qemers uxmoben da Cuenc guriulni rkinis palod". qemeri sofelia Savi zRvis piras, rizedan CrdiloeTiT 20 km-is daSorebiT. am sofelSi aris koncxi "qemer burun", romlis Zveli saxelwodeba "rkinis palo" iyo. 1874 w. qemeris koncxze g. yazbegs is adgilic aCvenes, sadac gadmocemiT, Zvelad rkinis sveti idga, romelic saqarTvelosa da "saberZneTs" Soris sasazRvro mijnad iTvleboda. "saberZneTSi" am SemTxvevaSi trapizonis imperia unda vigulisxmoT [ ., 1989: 49]. rogorc vxedavT, "rkinis palo" rizes CrdiloeTiT mdebareobda da es qalaqi, amis Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT iyo. WaneTi, igive "lazia", rogorc am mxares XIII-XIV ssSi uwodebdnen [qarTlis cxovreba, 1959: 142], warmoadgenda samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis erT nawils rizesa da gonias Soris. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, IX s-idan es teritoria, egrisafxazeTis samefos Camoyalibebis Semdeg, bizantiis imperiis sazRvrebSia. XI s-is 50-ian ww-Si misi erTi nawili, qalaq xufaTis CaTvliT, saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi Sevida, ufro didi nawili ki bizantias darCa da 1204 wlidan trapizonis imperias daemorCila. ra uZRoda beqa aTabagisaTvis WaneTis (lazias) im nawilis gadacemas, romelic trapizonis imperias ekuTvnoda, Cven dRes

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ar viciT. erTi ki cxadia: samcxis aTabagma isargebla am dros dasavleT saqarTveloSi gaCaRebuli SinaomiT da WaneTis is nawilic SeierTa, romelic dasavleT saqarTvelos samefos ekuTvnoda. 1329-1334 ww-Si giorgi V brwyinvalem (1314-1346) saqarTvelos samefos erTianoba aRadgina. am droidan zRvispireTic am erTiani qarTuli monarqiis SemadgenlobaSi Sevida. im mosazrebis dasamtkiceblad, rom guria trapizonis imperatoris vasaluri samflobelo iyo, zemoT dasaxelebul evropel avtorebs moyavT Semdegi adgili miqel panaretosis Txzulebidan: "6 agvistos wavediT lazikeTSi da Tvis bolos, 6881 wlis dasawyisSi, SevxvdiT bagrat mefes. mas Semdeg mivediT baTumSi, karvebi gareT, cis qveS davdgiT. gvqonda 2 katarRa da 40-mde navi. iq vebaaseT guriels, romelic mefis pativsacemad ("proskinion") movida. davrCiT eqvs dRes da ukan davbrundiT me-11 indiqtions" [georgika, 1967: 205]. "proskinesi" berZnulSi siuzerenis mimarT vasalis pativiscemas aRniSnavs. berZnul dedanSi miqel panaretosi, rogorc saqarTvelos mefes, ise trapizonis keisars "basilevss" uwodebs. amitom teqstis mixedviT SeuZlebelia imis dadgena, Tu romeli mbrZaneblisadmi pativis gamosaxatavad mivida guriis erisTavi baTumSi. ufro upriania, am SemTxvevaSi bagrat V vigulisxmoT, miT ufro, rom ar mogvepoveba arc erTi damadasturebeli sabuTi, romelic guriis erisTavis trapizonis imperatorisagan raime damokidebulebis damamtkiceblad gamodgeboda. Sesabamisad, guriis mTavris trapizonis imperatorisadmi vasaluri damokidebuleba gamoricxulad gveCveneba. erTaderTi cnoba, romelic TiTqosda safuZvels gvaZlevs imis dasamtkiceblad, rom baTumi trapizonis imperators emorCileboda, aris saCivari, romliTac nikoloz spinolam genuis uxucesTa sabWos mimarTa. saCivarSi italieli gemis mflobelis memkvidre Txoulobs kompensacias im zaralze, romelic misma mamam mervaldo spinolam "lo vatSi (baTumSi) trapizonis imperiis navsadgurSi" trapizonis samxedro gemebis Tavdasxmisgan ganicada [ .., 1998: 49]. sruliad gaugebaria, Tu ratom unda dasxmoda sakuTar navsadgurSi trapizonis samxedro gemebi italiur savaWro xomalds. miT ufro, rom italielis momdevno saCivarSi baTumi trapizonis imperiis navsadgurad aRar moixsenieba [ .., 1998: 63]. trapizonis imperiisadmi guriis erisTavis vasaluri damokidebulebis dasamtkiceblad iSvelieben im incidents, romelic 1445 wels burgundielTa samxedro flotis erT-erT mxedarTmTavars, Jofre de tuas baTumSi SeemTxva.

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1445 wlis gazafxulze burgundielTa floti, romelic balkaneTSi jvarosnebis dasaxmareblad miemarTeboda, Sav zRvaSi Semovida. am flotis erTi nawili mdinare dunais SesarTavisken gaemarTa, meore nawilma ki gezi trapizonisken aiRo. aqedan, erTi qronikis mixedviT, burgundielTa erTi katarRa (galera) "Jofre de tuazis" meTaurobiT "trapizonis imperatoris samarcxvinod saqarTvelos napirisken gaemarTa, radgan man gaigo, rom iq Zvirfasi saqonliT datvirTuli didi xomaldi idga... magram trapizonelma berZnebma es acnobes adgilobrivebs (igulisxmeba qarTvelebs). ase rom, Seityves ra galeris mosalodneli Tavdasxmis Sesaxeb, isini SeiaraRdnen da Causafrdnen. saSualeba misces mesir Jofres gadasuliyo napirze baTumis navsadgurSi... da rodesac is miuaxlovda Casafrebulebs, daesxnen Tavs, misi mravali TanamebrZoli daxoces, TviTon ki tyved Caigdes" [Warvin V., 1859: 96]. meore evropul qronikaSi amasTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnulia, rom, rodesac burgundielebi baTums Tavs daesxnen, iq movida "patoni" gurieli 600-kaciani razmiT... Jofre de tuazi tyved Cavarda da tyeobaSi erTi Tve gaatara". amave qronikis mixedviT burgundieli mekobre qarTvelebma trapizonis imperatoris SuamdgomlobiT gaanTavisuples "im pirobiT, rom burgundielTa galerebi ar dauwyeben brZolas aRniSnul qveyanas" [Warvin V., 1863: 156-157]. rogorc vxedavT, baTumSi burgundielTa incidenti srulebiTac ar mowmobs guriis erisTavis raime daqvemdebarebas trapizonis imperiisadmi. amrigad, evropuli istoriografiis mixedviT, 1204-1461 wlebSi Savi zRvis piras saqarTvelosa da trapizonis imperiis sazRvari mdinare rionze gadioda. baTumi da, saerTod, guriis saerisTao ki raRac formiT trapizonis imperators eqvemdebareboda. evropuli istoriografiis es mosazreba ar Seesabameba sinamdviles.

miTiTebuli literatura

1. batoniSvili vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTveloisa, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, _ qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV, Tb., 1973. 2. qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, t. I, Tb., 1955. 3. qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, t. II, Tb., 1959.

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4. georgika, bizanteli mwerlebis cnobebi saqarvelos Sesaxeb, t. VII, teqstebi qarTuli TargmniTurT gamosca da ganmartebebi daurTo s. yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1967. 5. ., , ., 1989. 6. .., XIII-XV ., ., 1981. 7. .., DIVERSORUM FILZE , - , -., 1998. 8. .., , -., 2007. 9. ., , ., ., 1905. 10. ., , -., 2003. 11. Antony Bryer and David Winfield, The Byzantine monuments and topography of the Pontos, Washington, D.C. 12. The Oxford Dictionary of Bizantium, Alexander P. Kazhdan, Editor in chief New York ­ Oxford, 1991. 13. F a l l m e r a y e r, J. Geschichte des Keisertums von Trapezund. Munchen, 1827. 14. Warvin V., Anciennes croniques d'Angleterre, T. II, Paris, 1859. 15. Warvin V., Anciennes croniques d'Angleterre, T. III, Paris, 1863.

Tamaz Beradze (Tbilisi, Georgia) European Historiography on Batumi in XIII ­XV cc Summary European historians of the Empire of Trebizond have a strong belief that Batumi was part of the Empire of Trebizond in 1204-1461 and that the borderline along the Black Sea between Georgia and the Empire of Trebizond passed along the Rioni River. The above-mentioned assertion is far from the truth. Research has shown that in 1204 the borderline between the Kingdom of Georgia and the newlyformed Empire of Trebizond was South of Khupati, and in the end of XIII c. moved farther South, till the cope of "Rkinis Palo" (Kerem-Burun).

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zaza SaSikaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

sbaTumi XVI s-is meore naxevarSi

osmaleTis imperiis mier samxreT da samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriebis dapyrobis Semdeg qarTuli wyaroebi maT Sesaxeb TiTqmis aranair informacias ar gvawvdian. aqedan gamomdinare, Zalze didi mniSvneloba aqvs osmalur dokumentur Tu naratiul wyaroebs, romelTa daxmarebiTac xdeba am sicarielis Sevseba. sainteresoa am mxriv Tanamedrove Turquli istoriografiac. miuxedavad imisa, rom igi metwilad tendenciuria, mainc gvawvdis Zalian bevr CvenTvis saintereso cnobas. aqve, isic unda iTqvas, rom istoriuli samxreT da samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoria uwyvetad arc Tanamedrove Turqul istoriografiaSia Seswavlili. aRniSnuli regionebis XVI-XIX ss-is gabmuli istoriis Seswavlis saSualebas arc osmaluri dokumentebis is raodenoba gvaZlevs, rac dRemdea mopovebuli da naTargmni qarTul enaze. ase rom, es umniSvnelovanesi saqme kvlav momavlis samuSaod rCeba. erT-erTi upirvelesi, rac yvelaze did interess iwvevs XVI s-is baTumis istoriaSi, es aris TariRi, Tu rodis gadavida baTumi da mimdebare teritoriebi osmaleTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi. qarTul istoriografiaSi amasTan dakavSirebiT sarwmuno wyaro ar gagvaCnia, Tumca arsebobs sxvadasxva versia. sainteresoa am mxriv Turquli istoriografiuli monacemebi. Tanamedrove Turq istorikosTa nawili Tvlis, rom osmalebma baTumi pirvelad 1479 wels daipyres [Kirziolu, 1998: 43]. Tumca, igive osmalur wyaroebze dayrdnobiT Cven vTvliT, rom es mosazreba ar Seesabameba simarTles [javeliZe, 1990: 116; SaSikaZe, 2004: 419]. sulTan mehmed II-is (1451-1481 ww.) brZanebiT, misma Svilma, osmaleTis momavalma sulTanma baiazidma mis lalasTan (aRmzrdelTan) raka sinan faSasTan erTad Toruli (amJamad rizes maxloblad mdebare ardaSenis kazas mimdebare teritoriebi _ z.S.) daipyro. im dros Toruli erT mcire samTavros warmoadgenda, romlis mmarTvelic osmalo sulTanma TeTrbatknianTa saxelmwifos gamgeblis uzun hasanisadmi (1423-1478 ww.) mxardaWeris gamo dasaja [Kirziolu, 1998: 43].

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osmalTa laSqarma aiRo sami cixesimagre: Toruli, jezre da jenexaxi. amis Semdgom osmalebma dalaSqres baTumi da maWaxlis xeoba [javeliZe, 1990: 116; SaSikaZe, 2004: 419]. gaurkvevelia, Tu ramden xans gaCerdnen osmalebi am qarTul teritoriebze, magram faqtia, rom garkveuli periodis Semdeg isini aq aRar Canan. cxadia, rom es faqti simarTles Seesabameba, magram wyaroebis analizis safuZvelze irkveva, rom aRniSnuli laSqroba am teritoriebis xelSi Casagdebad ar yofila gamiznuli. igi mxolod da mxolod marbieli laSqrobis xasiaTs atarebda. baiazidma da raka sinan faSam moawyves laSqroba, ufro zustad rom vTqvaT _ sadamsjelo operacia osmalo vaWrebis TxovniT, romlebic aqaur mosaxleobas uCiodnen yaCaRobisa da savaWro mimosvlaSi xelis SeSlis gamo. amas mowmobs osmalo istorikosis ibn qemalis cnobebi, romelic pirdapir mogviTxrobs aRniSnuli faqtis Sesaxeb. aRniSnul mosazrebas amyarebs is garemoebac, rom osmalebi aq ar gaCerebulan da maleve datoves aqauroba [javeliZe, 1990: 116]. Tu davakvirdebiT qarTul-osmalur urTirTobebs XVI s-is pirvel naxevarSi, irkveva, rom 30-ian wlebamde samxreT da samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriebi ZiriTadad (speris gamoklebiT) osmaleTisadmi vasalur damokidebulebaSi iyvnen da damoukideblobas garkveulwilad inarCunebdnen. qarTuli teritoriebis permanentuli dapyroba-inkorporacia osmalTa imperiis mier mxolod XVI s-is 30 wlebis meore naxevarSi daiwyo, mas Semdeg, rac sulTanma suleiman I-ma aRmosavluri politikis xelaxali gaZliereba gadawyvita. samxreT da samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriebis osmaleTis imperiisadmi daqvemdebarebis procesi wyaroebis simwiris gamo qarTul istoriografiaSi garkveulwilad varaudis donezea Seswavlili da am mizeziT xSirad uzustobebs vxvdebiT. cnobilia, rom soxoistas omis (1545 w.) Semdeg osmalebi Tavs daesxnen gurias. gurielma martom moaxerxa maTi Zleva, ris Semdgomac mteri gadavida Woroxs gaRma da gonios cixeSi gamagrda. viciT agreTve, rom osmalebma baTumi 1547 wels aiRes [iaSvili, 1948: 18]. yvelaze adreuli osmaluri wyaro, romelSic baTumi osmaleTis imperiis teritoriul erTeulad (sanjayad) saxeldeba, 1549 wliT aris daTariRebuli [BOA, KKT. RD 209, s. 78, 80, 154]. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom es aris periodi, roca ormxrivi brZolebis Sedegad teritoriebi xelidan xelSi gadadis da dapyrobis konkretuli TariRis dasaxeleba rTuli iqneba. amasTan dakavSirebiT saintereso unda iyos 1550 wliT daTa23

riRebuli cnoba, romelSic mocemulia, rom WaneTis (Canik) sanjayi misi 200 000 axCis SemosavliT gadaeca baTumis yofil sanjaybegs emirs [BOA, KKT. RD 209, s. 80]. Tu romel wlebSi marTavda baTums emir begi konkretulad, jerjerobiT amis dadgena ar xerxdeba, Tumca erT-erTi cnobis mixedviT, 1549 wlis dekemberSi igi baTumis sanjaybegad moixsenieba. amave dokumentSi naTqvamia, rom suheil da sinan begebis Semdgom 1556 wlis agvistoSi baTumis sanjaybegad suleiman begi dainiSna [BOA, MD. II. s. 138]. amas ukavSirdeba kidev erTi dokumenti, romelSic aRniSnulia, rom arzrumis davTardari suheil begi 1549 wlis 15 dekembers baTumis sanjaybegad dainiSna [BOA maliye, 17879, s. 1]. sxva cnobis mixedviT ki 1550 wlis 9 dekembers baTumis sanjaybegad Sarqi (anu aRmosavleT) yarahisaridan ganTavisuflebis Semdeg sinan begi dainiSna [BOA, KKT. RD 209, s. 141]. aqve cnobili xdeba, rom am periodSi baTumis sanjaybegebis rezidencias gonios cixe warmoadgenda [BOA, MD. II. s. 161]. aqve, unda vicodeT, rom xSirad baTums da gonios aigiveben istorikosebi. baTumis cixe da gonios cixe osmalur istoriul wyaroebSic calcalke moixsenieba da naTlad imijneba erTmaneTisagan. cnobilia, rom 1564 wels rostom gurielma moaxerxa baTumis dabruneba, magram Zalze mcire xniT [Aydin, 1998: 258]. arsebobs XVI s-is 60-ian wlebSi Sedgenili davTari aRmosavleTis laSqrobebSi (XVI s-is 70-iani wlebi) monawileTaTvis miwebis gadacemis Sesaxeb, romelic damuSavdeba da Targmnis Semdeg Semova qarTul samecniero literaturaSi [BOA, TD 1035]. osmaluri wyaroebis SeswavliT naTlad Cans, rom baTumis vilaeTi daarsebis Semdeg dasavleTiT iwyebs gavrcelebas. 1565-1566 wlebis dokumentebSi (hijriT 972-973 ww.) gonios, arxavis da aTinasac (dRevandeli fazari) moicavs. unda aRiniSnos, rom dRevandeli aWaris teritoria osmaleTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi sami _ baTumis, aWaris da maWaxlis sanjayebis saxiT iyo gaerTianebuli. im faqtma, rom 1595 wliT daTariRebul ,,gurjistanis vilaeTis did davTarSi" baTumi, aWariswylis xeoba, maWaxeli, SavSeT-imerxevi da samxreTdasavleT saqarTvelos zogierTi sxva regioni ar aris registrirebuli, agreTve, sxva damatebiTi wyaros uqonlobam, qarTveli istorikosebi SecdomaSi Seiyvana da qarTul istoriografiaSi damkvidrda azri, rom XVI s-is bolosaTvis es teritoriebi ar iyo dapyrobili osmalTa mier. bolo wlebSi mopovebuli dokumenturi masala da aqamde CvenTvis ucnobi Turquli saistorio literatura cxadyofs, rom aRniSnuli teritoriebi ufro adre SeuerTda osmaleTis

24

imperias, magram ,,gurjistanis vilaeTis didi davTris" Sedgenis dros isini ubralod administraciulad ar eqvemdebarebodnen mas. isini calkeuli sanjayebis saxiT arzrumis sabeglarbegoSi Sediodnen. XVI s-is meore naxevarSi osmaleTis imperiis calke sanjayad moixsenieba foTic (Fa) [Aydin, 1998: 296]. amasTan dakavSirebiT Cven calke mosazreba gvaqvs da vfiqrobT, rom aq osmalTa xelisufleba mxolod nominalurad vrceldeboda. 1578 wels iran-osmaleTis omebis periodSi administraciuli cvlilebebis Sedegad baTumi arzrumis sabeglarbegos gamoeyo da calke sabeglarbegod (vilaeTad) Camoyalibda. 1580 wels igive arzrumis sabeglarbegoSi Semavali foTis sanjayic administraciulad baTumis vilaeTs daeqvemdebara. baTumis vilaeTSi Sedioda trapizonis sanjayic da unda iTqvas, rom sabeglarbegos centri am or qalaqs Soris xSirad monacvleobda. centris SecvlasTan erTad icvleboda sabeglarbegos saxelwodebac. amitomacaa, rom XVI s-is meore naxevarSi periodulad vxvdebiT saxelwodebebs baTumis an trapizonis vilaeTis saxiT, rac erTidaigive teritorias warmoadgenda.

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. v. iaSvili, aWara osmalTa batonobis perodSi, baT., 1948. 2. z. SaSikaZe, osmalTa mier maWaxlis xeobis dapyrobis TariRis dadgenisaTvis, Tsu aRmosavleTmcodneobis krebuli, Tb., 2004. 3. n. javeliZe, cnoba XV saukunis saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, `macne~, istoris seria, #2, Tb., 1990. 4. Babakanlik Osmanli Arivi (BOA), Kamil Kepeci Tasnifi. Rüznamçe Defteri (KKT.RD) c. 209. 5. BOA, Mühimme Defteri (MD) II. 6. BOA maliye, 17879. 7. BOA, Tahrir Defteri (TD) 1035. 8. Aydin Dündar, Erzurum Beylerbeyilii ve Tekilati, Kurulu ve Genileme Devri (1535-1566 yy.), Ankara 1998 yil. 9. Kirziolu F. Osmanlilar'in Kafkas-Elleri'ni Fethi (1451-1590 yy.), Ankara 1998 y.

25

Zaza Shashikadze (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi in the second half of XVI century Summary The middle ages and the second half of XVI century is interesting for Batumi for the reason that in this particular period south-west Georgia with other territories, Batumi was conquered and settled by Ottomans. There are very poor sources in Georgian historiography about history and current events of Batumi in that particular time. Hence it is very important Ottoman sources to enrich this lack. It is represented in this Study the mentioned part of the history of Batumi according Georgian and Turkish historiography. We tried to identify the precise date of the Batumi occupation by Ottomans. It is illustrated in the study the ways how the Ottoman administration was inculcated in the city.

26

nebi gumuSi

(rize, TurqeTi)

rizesocialuri urTierTobebi rize-baTums meSoris me-19 saukunis dasasrulsa da medasawyisSi me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi

(rizes SariaTis reestrebis mixedviT)

sasamarTlo aRricxva socialuri istoriis wyaroebs Soris erT-erTi mniSvnelovanTagania. osmaleTis imperiaSi kazebsa da ufro msxvil administraciul erTeulebSi sakanonmdeblo da sasamarTlo saqmianobas yadebi awarmoebdnen. rizes SariaTis reestrebi (sasamarTlo aRricxvis Canawerebi) mniSvnelovania rogorc konkretulad rizes, ise mTlianad am mxaris istoriisaTvis. Cvens mokle mimoxilvaSi SevecdebiT me-19 saukunis dasasrulsa da me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi rize-baTums Soris arsebuli socialuri urTierTobebis gamoklevas. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sami reestris wigni iqna Seswavlili. amaTgan pirveli _ 1869-1870 wlebis, anu baTumis osmaleTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi yofnis droindelia, xolo meore da mesame, Sesabamisad _ 1892-1894 da 1912-1914 wlebisa, baTumis ruseTis imperiaSi yofnis periods miekuTvneba. b) rizeSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi sxvadasxva davTris masalebi gvamcnobs, rom rizes zogierT sofelSi qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen. magaliTad, sofel heiTefSi qarTveliSvili axmedi1 da mafavris sofel latumSi qarTveliSvili qasimi2 cxovrobdnen. amasTan, 1850 wliT daTariRebul uSris sagadasaxado aRweraSi3 (Tahrir-i Öür Envanter) vawydebiT qarTveliSvilis gvaris ojaxebis yofnis faqts sxva soflebSic. magaliTad, qarTveliSvilis gvaris warmomadgenelebi osmani da omeri cxovrobdnen iqizderes sofel eThoneSi. kalkanderes sofel silianSi cxovrobda xuseini, sofel fulihoz qaluharafSi _ ali, guneisus sofel gurgenSi _ mehmedi, aseve, Caielis soflebSi asrifossa da havraSi _ mehmedis saxeliT cnobili qarTvelebi, xolo sofel fulihozSi qarTveli axmedis Svilebi _ omeri, jevaxiri, axmedi da mustafa.

1 2

Rize er'iyye Sicilleri, 1495, 103 b RS 1495, 18a 3 Rize Tahrir-i Öür Envanteri, haz. Muhammet Safi, stanbul 2007, s. 94, 98, 132, 135, 163, 164

27

amaT unda davumatoT 1870 wlis 2 oqtombris CanawerSi4 moxseniebuli rizes haldozis ubnis mcxovrebi qalbatoni firdevs abdullahis asuli da misi Zmiswuli Curuqsudan Tahir aRa. osmaleTis mmarTvelobis periodSi qobuleTi ,,Curuqsu"-d iwodeboda. aqedan naTlad Cans, rom Tahir aRa baTumeli iyo. ruseTis imperiasTan baTumis SeerTebis Semdeg rizeSi baTumeli muhajirebic aRmoCndnen. 1892 wlis 12 maisis Canawerebis mixedviT, abdulyadiri, romelmac memkvidreobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze sasamarTlos mimarTa muhajirma abdulkadirma. irkveva, rom igi is haji abdulahis asul zeinebis RviZli Zma iyo da isini baTumSi iyvnen dabadebulni. g) baTumSi mcxovrebi rizeelebi istoriuli wyaroebis mixedviT irkveva, rom yofilan baTumSi mcxovrebi rizeelebic. 1869 wlis 19 noemberis Canaweris5 mixedviT, sariahmedoRlu Tahir reis bin el-haj axmed bin osmani, warmoSobiT rizes cixis dasaxlebidan iyo, jer kidev baTumSi cxovrobda. irkveva, rom warmoSobiT rizeeli osmaleTis moqalaqeebi baTumSi cxovrobdnen, rogorc osmalTa imperiis periodSi, aseve ruseTis imperiis drosac. 1914 wlis 3 Tebervlis Canaweri6 mogviTxrobs, rom rizes sofel xanisidan muSTununoRlu osman mehmedis Ze da sofel filarRanozidan injeninoRlus gogo hafize mehmedis asuli 8 wlis SeuRlebuli arian da baTumSi cxovrobdneno. osmani cols _ hafizes 1912 wlis 10 agvistos gacilebula da rizeSi gaugzavnia. radganac mowmeebi baTumSi iyvnen, qalma sasamarTloze misi ganqorwinebis faqti ver daamtkica. dgindeba, rom rizedan baTumSi Camomsvlelebi sxva mizezebiTac yofilan. 1870 wlis 12 aprilis Canawerebis7 mixedviT, mafavris raionis sofel kuvaliozidan CamoRlu salih ibrahimis Ze sanadirod baTumSi Camosula. 1870 wlis 5 ivlisis Canawerebis8 mixedviT, baTumSi gemiT mgzavrobisas biiqoRlu xasans fuli daukargavs da amis gamo sasamarTlosTvis miumarTavs. aqedan naTlad Cans rom, rizeelebi sazRvao gziTac Camodiodnen. ori qalaqis mcxovreblebi erTmaneTs sesxiTac exmarebodnen. 1870 wlis 11 martis Canaweris9 mixedviT, baTumis

4 5

RS 1495, 103a RS 1495, 18a 6 RS 1509, B 24 7 RS 1495, 58b 8 RS 1495, 82b 9 RS 1495, 46a

28

sofel CaqvSi mcxovreb memiS bairaqTaroRlu memiSs, rizes sofel filandozis mcxovreb xasan alis Zis vali hqonia. ruseTis d) baTumSi ruseTis imperiis mmarTvelobis periodi baTumis ruseTTan SeerTebis Semdegac or qalaqs Soris socialuri urTierTobebi grZeldeboda. rogorc qarTvelebi rizeSi, ise cxovrobdnen rizeeli moqalaqeebi baTumSi da savaWro urTierTobebs agrZelebdnen. SariaTis davTarTa CanawerebSi Cven amis ramdenime magaliTs wavawydiT. wyaroebis erTi nawili 1892-1893 wlebs, meore nawili ki 1912-1914 wlebs miekuTvneba. 18921. 1892-1893 wliT daTariRebuli Canawerebi rizeelebs baTumSi am ukanasknelis ruseTis imperiisadmi daqvemdebarebidan 15 wlis Semdegac vxvdebiT. erT-erT CanawerSi saubaria imis Sesaxeb, rom ramodenime rizeeli sasamarTloSi mowmed unda mosuliyo, magram avadmyofobis gamo isini ver gamocxaddnen.10. vxvdebiT cnobebs baTumSi gardacvlili rizeelebis Sesaxebac. rizes xortozis ubnSi mcxovrebi CinilioRlu osman reis bin memiS reiss, sasamarTlosTvis miumarTavs imis gamo, rom baTumSi gardacvlili mamis huseinoRlu axmed reis bin abdullahis memkvidreoba STamomavlobiT mis cols da Svils gadascemoda11. warmoSobiT trapizonis fazarkafus ubneli mikdad aRazade omer nadim efendis baTumSi gardacvaleba12, mowmobs, rom baTumSi osmaleTis moqalaqeebi ara mxolod rizedan iyvnen Camosuli, aramed sxvadasxva adgilebidan. saqarTveloSi gardacvlili rizeelebis Sesaxeb sayuradReboa 1893 wlis 7 Tebervlis Canaweri. aq naTqvamia, rizes emineddinis ubnis mcxovrebTagan berZeni marupolioRlu ianboli nikolas Ze quTaisSi gardacvlila da misi qoneba sasamarTlos colisTvis dumeSie nikolas asulisTvis da SvilebisTvis nikola da lazariesTvis miukuTvnebia13. vxvdebiT iseT faqtebsac, rodesac ruseTis imperiisadmi daqvemdebarebis Semdeg baTumidan rizeSi muhajirebi gadavidnen. 1892 welis 17 maisis Canawerebis14 mixedviT, gardacvlili TimarlioRlu abdulyadir bin abdullah bin abdulveli warmoSobiT baTumeli yofila. 1912Canawerebi 2. 1912-1914 wliT daTariRebuli Canawerebi rogorc Canawerebidan Cans, aWaris ruseTis imperiasTan mierTebidan 30 welze meti iyo gasuli da baTumSi rizeelebi

10 11

RS 1501, 618 RS 1501, 429 12 RS 1501, 549 13 RS 1501, 400 14 RS 1501, 200

29

kvlav uZrav qonebas flobdnen. 1913 wlis noembriT daTariRebuli CanaweriT irkveva, rom rizes roSis ubanSi mcxovreb, aw gardacvlil haji omerzades Svils haji zeqeria efendis rizesa da baTumis raionebSi uZravi qoneba, miwa da sxva Semosavlebi hqonda15. Cans, rom baTumSi uZravi qoneba hqoniaT ara mxolod rizeelebs, aramed osmaleTis sxva moqalaqeebsac. magaliTad 1914 wlis 4 maisiT daTariRebuli Canaweris16 mixedviT, aRiniSneba, rom xofis raionis, arhavis sakrebulos sofel ozjubaSqois mcxovreblebidan mehmed xalidis Zes baTumSi uZravi qoneba, miwis nakveTebi da angariSebi hqonia. rizeelebi baTumSi ZiriTadad vaWrobiT iyvnen dakavebulni. amasTan dakavSirebiT SegviZlia ramdenime magaliTi moviyvanoT. 1912 wlis 16 noembriT daTariRebul Canaweris17 mixedviT, rizes sofel faTlas mcxovreb muhieddins mewile iunusTan erTad baTumSi yavaxana hqonda. rodesac muhieddini gardaicvala, mas saerTo wilidan 90 rubli darCa asaRebi. muhieddinis mamas rizeSi sasamarTlosTvis miumarTavs da 90 rublis Sesabamisi 1125 yuruSi mouTxovnia. sasamarTlos iunusisaTvis 80 rublis, anu 1000 yuruSis gadaxda daukisrebia. am Canaweris mixedviT SegviZlia vTqvaT, am periodisTvis rizeSi 1 rublis Rirebuleba 12,5 yuruSi iyo. 1914 wlis 18 maisiT daTariRebuli Canaweris18 mixedviT, rizes kamaSinozis ubnis mcxovrebi sari axmedzade ismail efendi osmanis Ze baTumSi meihanes (duqani, Rvinis saxli) amuSavebda. amasTan naTqvamia, rom mas ramdenime adgilze uZravi qoneba da miwa hqonda. sasamarTlosgan igi ruseTis xelisuflebasTan molaparakebebis gziT am qonebis mis STamomavlobaze gadacemas moiTxovs. msgavsi Sinaarsis mqone sxvadasxva Canaweris19 mixedviT vgebulobT, rom aseTi sakiTxebi xSirad SeiZleboda ruseT-osmaleTs Soris mimoweris gziT wydeboda. 1914 wlis 22 maisiT daTariRebuli Canaweri20 gvauwyebs, rom erT-erT rizeels baTumSi sakuTari uZravi qonebis gasayidad aq mcxovrebi sxva rizeeli vaWrisaTvis mindobiloba miucia. agreTve rizes firiCelebis ubnis mcxovreb yuveloRlu haji mustafa haji alis Zes baTumSi misi kuTvnili miwis wilis gayidvasTan da Tanxis miRebasTan dakavSirebiT mindo15 16

RS 1509, 298 RS 1509, B89 17 RS 1509, 7 18 RS 1509, B 99. 19 RS 1509, B 100, B 101. 20 RS 1509, B 106.

30

biloba baTumSi mcxovreb rizeel guzel osmanzade mahmud nedim efendi osman efendis ZisaTvis gaucia. 1893 wlis 6 ivnisiT daTariRebuli Canaweris21 mixedviT, erT-erT rizel vaWars daaxloebiT 21 weli baTumSi ucxovria da misi saqmianoba mindobilobiT uwarmoebia. trapizonSi fazarqafus ubnis mcxovreb mihdaT aRazade husein efendis, baTumSi mcxovrebi Svili omer nedim efendi gardacvlia. es ukanaskneli osmaluri dokumentiT flobda miwasa da Senoba-nagebobas baTumSi azizies ubanSi. mihdaT aRazade husein efendis Senobanagebobebis qiris aRebisa da gankargvis uflebis mindobilobiT baTumSi mcxovreb osmaleTis moqalaqe rizel vaWar guzel osman aRazade mahmud efendize gadasacemad rizes sasamarTlosTvis miumarTavs. aqve naTqvamia, rom zemoT aRniSnuli adgilis erT mxares gza, erT mxares ali efendis miwa, erT mxares haji ismailefendis miwa da meoTxe mxares ki nuredlinis miwa esazRvreba. daskvna amrigad, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom Cvens mier ganxilul periodSi xSiri iyo SemTxveva, rodesac rizeSi baTumelebi cxovrobdnen da piriqiT _ rizeelebi cxovrobdnen baTumSi. rizeelTa umetesoba baTumSi savaWrod imyofeboda. am naSromSi sami sasamarTlo aRricxvis reestris amonaweria ganxiluli. am mcire nawilis ganxilviT zog daskvnamde misvla vcadeT. Tu rizes sasamarTlo aRricxvis Canawerebs gamovikvlevT, baTumis istoriis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba sxva Sedegebsac mivaRwioT, gamomdinare iqidan, rom sasamarTlo aRricxva socialuri istoriis mniSvnelovani nawilia. rizes sasamarTlo aRricxvaSi mTlianobaSi 30-mde davTaria cnobili. mokvlevis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia ufro metic aRmoCndes. rogorc cnobilia osmaleTis mmarTvelobis periodSi baTumSi SariaTis sasamarTlo da yadi iyo. magram 1878 wlidan, baTumis ruseTis imperiaSi gadasvlis Semdeg, aqauri sasamarTlo Canawerebis bedi CvenTvis ucnobia. amis Semdeg ruseTma daipyro arzrumic da iqauri sasamarTlo Canawerebic gaqra. aqedan gamomdinare im Canawerebis Sesaxebac araferi viciT. baTumisa da arzrumis sasamarTlo Canawerebis baTumis, Tbilisis, an ruseTis romelime qalaqis biblioTekaSi aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi, am mxaris socialuri istoriis mniSvnelovan da farTo cnobebs movipovebT. ufleba gvaqvs, rom amis imedi gvqondes, xolo ganxorcielebisaTvis Sromaa saWiro, rac Cveni pirdapiri movaleobaa.

21

RS 1501, 549.

31

Nebi Gumushi (Rize,Turkey) Social relations between Rize and Batumi in the end of 19th century and beginnings of 20th century (in the light of the muslim court recordds of Rize) Summary Sheriyye Registry records are important sources for social history as well as for region history. In this paper we will try to make some decisions about the social relations between Rize end Batumi in the ends of 19th century and beginnings of 20th century, using Muslim Court Records of Rize. Records indicate that some Georgians have been living in the villages of Rize for many long times. surnames such as Gurcuoglu also show this fact. On the other hand, many people from Rize have beenin living in Batumi too. This situation can be valid for Batumi in the period of Russian domination as well as in its period of Ottoman rule. Rize residents had been in Batumi for hunting, shipping, trade and similar things. In case of the discovery of the lost Registry of Batumi and of Erzurum Sheriyye Registery, the access to important information about the much more comprehensive social history of the region can be quite possible. Keywords: Rize, Batumi, social relations, Sheriyye Registery

Doç. Dr. Nebi GÜMÜ 19 - yüzyil sonu ve 20 - yüzyil balarinda rize ile batum arasinda sosyal ilikiler (rize eriyye sicillerine göre) Özet er'iyye Sicilleri sosyal tarih için olduu kadar bölge tarihleri için de önemli kaynaklardir. Bu teblide Rize eriyye Sicillerinden yararlanarak 19. yüzyilin sonu ve 20. yüzyilin bainda Rize ve Batum arasindaki sosyal ilikiler hakkinda bazi tespitlerde bulunmaya çaliacaiz. Kayitlardan Rize'nin bazi köylerinde Gürcülerin uzun zamandir yaadiklari anlailmaktadir. Gürcüolu soyadlari bunu göstermektedir. Buna mukabil çok sayida Rizeli Batum'da oturmaktadir. Bu durum Batum'un Osmanli hakimiyetinde olduu dönem için olduu kadar Rus hakimiyeti dönemi için de geçerlidir. Rizelilerin avcilik, gemicilik ve ticaret gibi çeitli sebeplerle Batum'da bulunduklari anlailmaktadir. Kayip bulunan Batum ve Erzurum er'iyye Sicilleri'nin de bulunmasi halinde bölgenin sosyal tarihi ile ilgili çok daha kapsamli ve önemli bilgilere ulaabiliriz. Anahtar kelimeler: Rize, Batum, sosyal ilikiler, er'iyye Sicilleri

Rize Üniversitesi lahiyat Fakültesi slam Tarihi Öretim Üyesi

32

goCa saiTiZe, iza aRlaZe

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

avstrieli mecnieri da mogzauri Svaigeramand fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldi baTumisa da aWarlebis Sesaxeb

80(XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebi)

ruseT-osmaleTis 1877-1878 wlebis omis Semdeg, san-stefanos droebiTi zavisa da berlinis kongresis Sedegebis safuZvelze, osmalTa mier XVI-XVII ss-Si mitacebuli saqarTvelos erT-erTi ZirZveli kuTxe _ aWara ruseTs gadaeca. XIX s-is 70-iani wlebis miwurulidan mkveTrad moimata qarTul periodul gamocemebSi gamoqveynebuli publikaciebis ricxvma baTumis, zogadad, aWaris Sesaxeb. qarTveli avtorebis paralelurad, XIX s-is 70-80-iani wlebis aWaris Sesaxeb saintereso cnobebs vpoulobT am periodis zogierTi dasavleTevropeli mecnieris naSromebSic. maTgan sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsia avstrieli mwerlis, mecnieris, mogzaurisa da samxedro moRvawis _ amand fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldis monografia "Zwischen Donau und Kaukasus (Land- und Seefahrten im Bereiche des Schwarzen Meeres)" ("dunaisa da kavkasias Soris (saxmeleTo da sazRvao mimosvla Savi zRvis regionSi)"), romelic 1887 wels vena-peSt-laifcigSi gamoica. TviTon amand fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb SedarebiT mcirericxovani cnobebi gagvaCnia. igi daibada 1846 wlis 17 maiss venaSi; aqve gardaicvala 1910 wlis 24 agvistos, 64 wlis asakSi [Biographisches Jahrbuch..., 1913; Deutscher Biographischer..., 1998]. rac Seexeba zemoT dasaxelebul monografias _ "dunaisa da kavkasias Soris (saxmeleTo da sazRvao mimosvla Savi zRvis regionSi)", igi Cven aRmovaCineT 2005 wels germaniaSi, zaarlandis universitetSi, samecniero mivlinebis dros. wigni Sedgeba 778 gverdisagan, darTuli aqvs 215 ilustracia da 11 ruka.Mmetad farToa monografiaSi ganxiluli sakiTxebis speqtri _ avtori ikvlevs Savi da kaspiis zRvebis auzebis qveynebis warsuls (saTanado wyaroebze dayrdnobiT) da maT Tanamedrove viTarebas. wigni dayofilia Semdeg Tavebad: "Sesavali (istoriuli da geografiuli mimoxilva)", "dunais qvemo welze mdebare qveynebi", "samxreT ruseTi", "yirimi", "samxreT-aRmosavleTi ruseTi", "Crdilo kavkasia", "amierkavkasia", "kaspiis

33

zRvis samxreTSi", "somxur-pontouri regioni", "trapizonidan stambulisaken", "konstantinopoli", "bulgareTi". monografiaSi Cvens gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs Tavi saxelwodebiT "amierkavkasia" (gv. 389-448). masSi somxeTsa da azerbaijanTan erTad, ganxilulia saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, kerZod: "saqarTvelos geografiuli mimoxilva", "sarwyavi sistema", "Zveli kolxebi", "Rvinis kultura", "iberebi da albanelebi", "bagrationebi", "qarTvelebi", "amierkavkasiis dapyroba osmalTa mier 1549 wels", "foTi da rionifazisi", "guria", "petra", "baTumi", "aWarlebi", "tiflisi", "tiflisis Semogareni", "duxoborebi", "moloknebi". garda amisa, TavSi saxelwodebiT "somxur-pontouri regioni" aris qveTavi "lazistani da lazebi" (gv. 589-590). naSromidan Cans, rom a. fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldma piradad imogzaura samecniero mizniT Savi zRvis regionis qveynebSi, maT Soris, saqarTveloSi. monografiis winasityvaobaSi avtori aRniSnavda: "SavizRvispireTis qveynebi momavals ekuTvnian. isini evropis xalxebisa da saxelmwifoebis cxovrebis amosaval punqts warmoadgenen. sarmatiis dablobidan da Trakiis sruteebidan (bosfori da dardaneli) iwyeboda xalxTa yoveli Semoteva, romelTac Cveni kontinentis ruka araerTgzis Secvales. mas Semdeg, rac osmaleTis agresiuli Zalaufleba daimsxvra _ da es TiTqmis ukve erT saukunes iTvlis _ dasavleTis interesebi da ideebi iq brundeba, sadac odesRac Caisaxa. aziasa da evropas Soris saukuneebis manZilze arsebuli mravalferovani urTierTobebi rom meCvenebina, Sevecade gamevlo burusiT moculi biliki kacobriobis uZveles, miTebsa da legendebSi gabneul mogonebebamde. kimerielebi homerosTan, argonavtebis laSqroba, kavkasiis qedze mijaWvuli promeTe _ es calkeuli magaliTebia Cveni arsebobis sawyisi periodidan, gadmocemebis meSveobiT motanili. gadamwyveti mniSvnelobisaa, ra Tqma unda, uZvelesi istoriuli cnobebi. ver warmomidgenia, rogor SeiZleba vinmem sworad imsjelos qveynebisa da xalxebis dRevandel mdgomareobaze, Tu warsulis codna ar gaaCnia. amitom miznad davisaxe, awmyos metyveli xati mravali aTwleulis, zogjer saukunis, materialuri garsidan gamomecalkevebina, raTa mkiTxvelisaTvis meCvenebina, ra iyo manamde da rogor movida yvelaferi, rac amJamad arsebobs... TavisTavad cxadia, wignSi mniSvnelovani adgili eTmoba da udidesi interesis sagans warmoadgens SavizRvispireTis qveynebis urTierTobebi _ "rkinis WiSkridan" dawyebuli kaspiis zRvis sanapiroebamde. dRevandelobis realuri sagnebi sayovelTaod TvalsaCino rom gagvexada, sailustracio masalas didi guldasmiT movekideT da safuZvlad TiTqmis yvelgan ilustraciebi davu34

deT, romelTa moZieba xandaxan arcTu ioli iyo. didi mimoxilviTi rukebi Zvirfasi danarTebia, romelTa msgavsic iSviaTad rgebia wilad am saxis publikaciebs". marTlac, sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsia wignSi daculi ilustraciebi _ esaa CvenTvis ucnobi, sakmaod maRali donis, mxatvris Canaxatebi, romelTa saerTo raodenoba, rogorc mivuTiTeT, 215 calia. amaTgan saqarTvelos da kavkasiis Tematikas ramdenime aTeuli ilustracia eZRvneba. isini jerjerobiT ucnobia qarTveli mkvlevrebisa da sazogadoebis farTo wreebisTvis. Canaxatebis ubralo CamonaTvalic ki gviCvenebs, raoden Zvirfas wyarosTan gvaqvs saqme: "guruli mamakaci", "svanebi", "xevsuri qali", "soxumis cixe", "megreli mamakaci", "megreli qali", "qarTvelebi", "baTumi", "qarTveli qalebi", "cixesimagris nangrevebi saqarTveloSi", "tfilisis xedi", "tfilisis quCa", "kurorti borjomi", "moloknebi", "duxoborebi", "lazistanis landSafti", "lazi glexebi" da sxv. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom aRniSnuli periodis saqarTvelos Sesaxeb SedarebiT mcire raodenobis ilustraciebi (fotoebi, naxatebi) mogvepoveba, a. fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldis naSromisadmi interesi da misi mniSvneloba kidev ufro gaizrdeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom "dunaisa da kavkasias Soris (saxmeleTo da sazRvao mimosvla Savi zRvis regionSi)" ar aris erTaderTi naSromi, romelic a. fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldma qarTul Tematikas miuZRvna. 1877 wels avstriulma Jurnalma "Oesterreichische Monatschrift fuer den Orient" (# 3, gv. 121-123) dastamba misi statia "Lazistan und die Lazen" ("lazistani da lazebi"). Cven isic moviZieT, davamuSaveT da uaxloes xanebSi saTanado samecniero aparatis darTviT gamovaqveynebT weliwdeulis _ "qarTuli diplomatia" morig tomSi. rac Seexeba a. fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldis umTavres naSroms _ "dunaisa da kavkasias Soris (saxmeleTo da sazRvao mimosvla Savi zRvis regionSi)", Cven uaxloes momavalSi vgegmavT saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebuli monakveTis srulad Targmnas da saTanado sakvlevi aparatiTurT mis samecniero mimoqcevaSi Semotanas, winamdebare publikaciaSi ki vaqveynebT avstrieli mkvlevris cnobebs XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebis baTumisa da aWarlebis Sesaxeb. a. fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldi mimoixilavs baTumSi arsebul viTarebas ruseT-osmaleTis 1877-1878 wlebis omamde da omis Semdeg; yuradRebas amaxvilebs imaze, rom omis Semdgom baTumi, romelic manamde "Zalze umniSvnelo punqti iyo. is ramdenime aseuli xis saxlis, barakisa da sabrZolo masalis sawyobebisgan Sedgeboda", swrafi tempebiT ganviTarda, rac ganapiroba misma xelsayrelma saporto adgilmdebareobam; avtoris TqmiT,

35

"xis barakebi qvis Senobebma Secvala, sanapiroebi moewyo da gamSvenda, gaixsna maRaziebi da, rac mTavaria, simagreebi aSenda". garda amisa, mkvlevari gvawvdis cnobebs petras da gonios cixeebis, md. Woroxis, masze mimdinare naosnobis, baTumis Semogarenis topografiuli suraTis da a. S. Taobaze. a. fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldi mogviTxrobs aWarelTa zne-Cveulebebis, sacxovrisebis, saojaxo meurneobebis, religiis, sulTnis centralur xelisuflebasTan maTi damokidebulebis da sxv. sakiTxebis Sesaxeb. aqve gTavazobT baTumisa da aWarlebis Sesaxeb a. fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldis cnobebis qarTul Targmans; publikacias boloSi davurTeT komentarebi.

SvaigerbaTumisa amand fon Svaiger-lerxenfeldi baTumisa da aWarlebis Sesaxeb

mdinare Coloqsa da Woroxs Soris Sua gzaze waawydebiT sakmaod mozrdili cixis nangrevebs, romlebic qarTuli warmoSobisa ar unda iyos. savaraudod, es nangrevebi berZnul petras unda ekuTvnodes, romelic sadRac am sanapiroze mdebareobda da araviTar SemTxvevaSi ozurgeTTan, rogorc amas diubua de monpere (1) miiCnevda. am punqtidan odnav moSorebiT mTebs ukan moitoveb da mdinare Woroxis farTo xeobaSi Sedixar, pontos boboqari mTis mdinarisa, romlis saTavec Soreul somxeTSia. baTumi mis SesarTavTan axlos mdebareobs, rac mis mniSvnelovan mdebareobas ganapirobebs. ruseT-osmaleTis yvela omis dros baTumi, marTlac, metad mniSvnelovan sabaziso punqts warmoadgenda osmalTaTvis amierkavkasiaSi ruseTis winaaRmdeg Catarebul operaciebSi. baTumma ruseT-osmaleTis ukanasknel omSic (2) didi roli Seasrula. axla igi, Woroxis saTavemde arsebuli teritoriis CaTvliT, rusuli regionia, riTac am ukanasknelma pontodan somxeTis maRalmTianeTis centramde axali gasasvleli miiRo. samwuxarod, Zlieri daqanebisa da mravali Cqeris gamo, mdinare Woroxi naosnobisaTvis gamousadegaria; TumcaRa, mis qvemo welSi dacuraven tivebi, romlebic nawilobriv xels uwyoben vaWrobas regionis Sida nawilidan sanapirosken (da ara piriqiT). Woroxis SesarTavis mopirdapire mxares, romelic, sxvaTa Soris, sam totad Caedineba zRvaSi, mdebareobs gonio, umniSvnelo adgili, romelic TurqTa batonobis dros sustad iyo gamagrebuli. wina xanebSi baTumic Zalze umniSvnelo punqti

36

iyo. is ramdenime aseuli xis saxlis, barakisa da sabrZolo masalis sawyobebisgan Sedgeboda. baTumis irgvliv saSiSi Waobebia, romlebsac buRi asdiT, da mxolod borcvebis mwkrivi arRvevs erTferovan dablobs. ruseTis batonobis dros baTumma swrafi aRmavloba ganicada, imis gamo, rom foTs _ amierkavkasiis WiSkars, ara navsadguri, aramed meCxeri, qariSxlebis saTareSod gamxdari Ria reidi gaaCnia, baTumi ki nawilobriv mainc daculi yuris miRma mdebareobs. ukanasknel omSi ruseTma, rogorc iqna, didi xnis natvra aisrula da Tavisi amierkavkasiuri provinciebisaTvis Sav zRvaze mniSvnelovani porti moipova. TandaTanobiT, xis barakebi qvis Senobebma Secvala, sanapiroebi moewyo da gamSvenda, gaixsna maRaziebi da, rac mTavaria, simagreebi aSenda. dagegmilia, agreTve, rom foTidan TbilisSi, Sesabamisad, baqoSi mimavali rkinigza, romelime xelsayreli punqtidan baTumamde _ rusebis momaval samxedro navsadguramde _ gaiyvanon... (gv. 407-408). baTumis Semogarenis topografiuli suraTis dasafiqsireblad maRali mTisken mivemarTebiT, romelic daaxloebiT erTi germanuli milis (3) daSorebiT aCukuas dasavleT sanapiros dahyurebs. weliwadis civ dros misi Ziri da kalTebi xSiri mcenareuli safariTaa Semosili, zafxulSi ki yvelaferi gadamwvaria. mwvervalze ramdenime uZvelesi jiSis nekerCxali dgas ZvelisZveli qristianuli eklesiis nangrevebis gverdiT. aqedan Crdilo-dasavleTis mimarTulebiT zRvisken Tu gavixedavT, Sors xSiri tyiT dafarul saSualo simaRlis ramdenime paralelur mTagrexils movkravT Tvals. misi erT-erTi gantotebis ferdobze bolo omis dros Zalze gamagrebuli Turquli sawyobi idga. mis ukana mxares, TvalisaTvis miuwvdomel adgilze, imdroindeli Turquli forti cixisZiri mdebareobda. mTebs Soris Cvens Tvalsawierze Tavis farTo kalapotSi vercxlis ZafiviT patara mdinare kintriSi miiklakneba. misi xeoba maraoseburad iSleba da Waobian dablobSi gadadis, romelic zed zRvis napirze norCi tyiTa da gvimriTaa dafaruli. misi SesarTavi patara qalaq Worox-sus samxreTiT 3-4 kilometris manZilze _ qvemo qobuleTSi imyofeba. mopirdapire mxares gadaWimul borcvebze Sefenili tyeebidan wiTeli kramitiT gadaxuruli saxlebi imzireba... bolo omis dros baTumisTvis mimdinare gaafTrebuli brZolebis dawyebamde iq rusuli mowinave razmebi idga. axla im xalxis Sesaxebac unda vilaparakoT, romelic dasavleT amierkavkasiaSi, maT Soris, pontos mTianeTSi cxovrobs. eseni arian qarTvelebi... (gv. 410).

37

qarTveluri tomis xalxi, romelic aqamde Turqebis uRelqveS imyofeboda, xolo bolo omidan moyolebuli, ruseTis Zalauflebis gafarToebis Semdeg, mas emorCileba, aWarlebia. isini lazebis uaxloesi mezoblebi arian, romlebze saubaric sxva adgilas gveqneba, ramdenadac isini ponto-somxeTis zRvispira mTebSi, baTumsa da trapizons Soris cxovroben. aWarlebi rainduli modgmaa, ara marto imitom, rom kargi cxenebi hyavT da kargad arian SeiaraRebulni; arc mxolod imitom, rom mZarcveli raindebis msgavsad, TavianTi mTebis mwvervalebidan qvemoT Camodian da gzebs xifaTs uqmnian, aramed imitomac, rom Tavi raindulad uWiravT da raindulad iqcevian; metwilad keTilSobilur Tvisebebs atareben, Zveli drois didgvarovani frangebisa da germanelebis msgavsad, micemul sityvas arasodes gatexen da megobars bedis anabara arasdros miatoveben. TavianTi ojaxuri cxovrebisa da monastrul ganmartoebaSi mcxovrebi colebis mimarT aWarlebi did pativiscemas amJRavneben da maTi ojaxuri Rirsebis SelaxvisaTvis Surs mkvlelobiT iZieben xolme. isini muslimebi, Tumca warmoSobiT qarTvelebi arian da maT enaze laparakoben. aWarelTa sacxovreblebi mdinare aWariswylis saTavesa da xeobaSi, nawilobriv, agreTve, Woroxze mdebareobs. Aam ukanasknelis binadrebi mniSvnelovnad, magram arcTu maT sasargeblod, gansxvavdebian aWariswylis xeobaSi mcxovrebi TavianTi TanamoZmeebisgan. maTze amboben, rom zarmacebi da qurdebi arian. danarCeni aWarlebi aRiareben, rom maT yvela aWarels gautexes saxeli, TviTon ki patiosanni da bejiTni arian. "Cven maZRrebi varT, tye da patara simindis yana gvarCens, cxovreba ar gviWirs" _ uTxra erTma aWarelma kavkasiis mkvlevar gustav rades (4), _ "magram, aba, TviTon gansajeT: iq, qvemoT, baTumis gzaze, bevri ojaxia, romelTa erTaderT qonebasac saxedari warmoadgens. aba, rogor ar iSimSileben? vinc SimSilobs, kidevac iparavs". igive gustav rade aRniSnavs, rom samxreTis zeganis ubadruk binebTan SedarebiT, sadac adamiani, am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT, gamoqvabulis binadariviT cxovrobs, aWaraSi namdvili sasaxleebia wamoWimuli. es sacxovrebeli saxlebi, romelTa qveda sarTuli qviTaa nagebi, zeda ki _ ficrulia, maT binadarTa silamazis SegrZnebaze miuTiTebs. miuxedavad yvelafrisa da, gansakuTrebiT, rainduli suliskveTebisa, aWarlebi arc portas erTguli qveSevrdomebi da arc ruseTis mSvidobiani mezoblebi ar yofilan. sxvaTa Soris, aWarlebs etyobaT, rom maT ZiriTadad brwyinvale portas saqcieli aRizianebdaT da drodadro dau38

morCileblobisaken ubiZgebdaT. maT mudam sakuTari kanonebi da adaT-wesebi hqondaT da ar surdaT isini msxverplad SeewiraT osmaluri administraciuli SablonebisaTvis, romlebic, amasTanave, arafrad vargoda. aWarlebi aRiarebdnen sulTnis uzenaesobas, magram xarkis odenobas Tavad awesebdnen. roca vinme SemTxveviT mis gazrdas daapirebda, trapizonis gubernatoris warmomadgenels jiutad pasuxobdnen _ wadi da Sen TviTon akrifeo. es ki SeuZlebeli iyo, radgan tyiT dafaruli maTi mTiani mxaris miudgomloba aWarlebs saSualebas aZlevda, naxevrad damoukidebeli adgili moepovebinaT sulTnis qveSevrdomTa Soris (gv. 419-420).

komentarebi 1. frederik diubua de monpere (1798-1850 ww.) _ Sveicarieli mogzauri, siZveleTa mkvlevari da geologi. 1831-1834 wlebSi imogzaura amierkavkasiaSi. 2. igulisxmeba ruseT-osmaleTis 1877-1878 wlebis omi. 3. Tanamedrove qalaqi qobuleTi. 4. gustav rade (1831-1903 ww.) _ germaneli bunebismetyveli da eTnografi, peterburgis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondenti. XIX saukunis 70-90-ian wlebSi samecniero-kvleviTi mizniT ramdenjerme imogzaura ,,osmalos saqarTveloSi".

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. Biographisches Jahrbuch und Deutscher Nekrolog, Band XV, Berlin, 1913. 2. Deutscher Biographischer Index, Band 2, Muenchen, 1998.

39

Zveli baTumi (ilustracia amand fon Svaiger-linxenfeldis wignidan)

Gocha Saitidze, Iza Agladze (Tbilisi, Georgia) The Austrian Scientist and Traveller Amand von Shveiger-Lerchenfeld about Batumi and the Ajarians (The 80-ies of the 19th Century) Summari In the work is discussed the information about Batumi and the Ajarians (the 80-ies of the 20th Century), saved in the monograph "Between the Danube and the Caucasus (the voyages by land and sea in the Black Sea region)", written by the Austrian writer, scientist, traveller and military person Amand fon ShveigerLerchenfeld (1846-1910), published in Vienna-Pest-Leipzig in 1887. We found the monograph in Zaarland University, Germany in 2005 during our scientific mission. The information about Batumi and the Ajarians together with the appropriate researching apparatus we are carring into scientific circulation for the first time.

40

gia gelaSvili

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

luiji villari 1905 wlis baTumis Sesaxeb

Sesavlis magier

luiji villari (1876-1959) iyo italieli istorikosi, mogzauri da diplomati. igi aris avtori wignebisa `ruseTi didi Crdilis qveS~, `italiis sagareo politika musolinis dros~, `italiis ganTavisufleba. 1943-1947~ da sxva. 1905 wels inglisurma gazeTma `taimsma~ luiji villari, rogorc sakuTari korespondenti, moavlina saqarTveloSi. man londonSi varlam CerqeziSvilisgan wamoiRo sarekomendacio werilebi ilia WavWavaZesTan, giorgi zdanoviCTan da mixeil wereTelTan. kavkasiaSi is imyofeboda 1905 wlis zafxul-Semodgomaze ramdenime Tve. ukan dabrunebisas gamosca wigni `cecxli da maxvili kavkasiaSi~ (londoni, 1906). am wigns Cven gavecaniT q. oqsfordis bodlis biblioTekis uordropis koleqciaSi. misi erTi didi nawili exeba 1905 wlis ambebs saqarTveloSi. rogorc ingliseli Jurnalisti henri nevinsoni Tavis statiaSi `kavkasiis tvirTi~ wers: `Cemi megobari luiji villari iq (=guriaSi _ g.g.) iyo, roca komunaluri sistema jer kidev arsebobda... is agviwers soflis sasamarTlo garCevas, rasac daeswro...~ [g. gelaSvili, 2008: 433]. guriis ambebTan dakavSirebiT luijis mimowera hqonda lev tolstoisTan. `unda gakeTdes is, rasac zustad gurulebi sCadian _ moawyon cxovreba imnairad, rom saWiro ar gaxdes araviTari xelisufleba...~ _ wers tolstoi villaris [iqve]. rom gavigoT villaris samogzauro miznebi da ganwyoba, davesesxoT mas: `revoluciurma gamosvlebma ruseTi mTlianad moicves bolo 18 Tvis manZilze. Zveli erovnuli idealebi, romlebic TiTqos daimarxnen da miaviwydaT, gamococxldnen. ganapira provinciebi duRan; polonelebi, finelebi, lekebi, qarTvelebi, somxebi _ yvelani moiTxoven uflebebs, romlebic ase didxans hqondaT warTmeuli. ruseTis arc erTi mxare amJamad araa ufro savse mwvave problemebiT da ar iwvevs met interess politikis SemswavlelebSi, vidre kavkasia. iq nacionalisturi moTxovnebis mxardamxar vxedavT social-demokratebis koncefciebis ganxorcielebis cdebs; vxvdebiT adamianebs, romlebic aqtiurad atareben praqtikaSi marqsis Teoriebs. rusi xelisufalni meryeoben uxeS reaqciasa da sust daTmo41

bebs Soris. kavkasiaSi me movinaxule politikuri moZraobis yvela mniSvnelovani centri, vakvirdebodi qveynis Zireul viTarebas. veTaTbirebodi yvela sazogadoebrivi fenis, rasisa da religiis warmomadgenlebs _ rusi mefisnacvlidan dawyebuli, ubralo glexamde, saidumlo policiis ufrosidan, qarTvel revolucioner liderebamde. darwmunebuli var, bolos da bolos miecemaT Tavisufali ganviTarebis saSualeba im erebs, romlebic ase didxans iyvnen istoriuli ukuRmarTobis gerebi. Tu me movaxerxeb sazogadoebis yuradRebis mipyrobas kavkasiaSi mimdinare movlenebisadmi da aRvuZrav mcire simpaTiebs civilizebul dasavleTs aRmosavleTis am mebrZoli da datanjuli xalxebis mimarT, Cemi mizani miRweuli iqneba~. swored villaris aRniSnuli wignidan warmovadgineT Targmani mesame Tavisa `baTumi~, rac ZiriTadad exeba qalaqis 1905 wlis ambebs. samomavlod vapirebT saqarTvelos Sesaxeb villaris mTeli cnobebis Targmnas.

baTumi

SuadRemde Cven davinaxeT baTumi, romelic gvTavazobs ulamazes sanaxaobas. didebul yures gars ertymis gorakebis amfiTeatri, dafaruli umSvenieresi, xaverdovani mwvane feris mdidruli mcenareuliT. CrdiloeTisken vrceldeba rionis Waobiani dablobi, romlis iqiTac SeiZleba Tvali movkraT kavkasions; samxreTiT da aRmosavleTiT aris aWaris veluri mTebi _ mowiTalo, lurji da mkveTri vardisferi, romlebic miemarTebian TurqeTis sazRvramde da Semdegac, sanam burusiani da aramkafio anatoliis mTebi uerTdebian zRvas mravalricxovan kldovan koncxebad. TviT baTumi dablobzea da gaSenebulia navsadguris irgvliv. gemidan is Cans rogorc TeTri da yavisferi saxlebis jgufi, romlebsac mravlad enacvlebian tropikuli mcenareebi. navsadgurSi Zalze cota gemebia, radgan qalaqi martidan moyolebuli imyofeba ganuwyveteli mRelvarebis pirobebSi; aseve vaWrobac TiTqmis Cakvda. yure bunebrivad saukeTeso navsayudelia am sanapiroze da rusebis mier Catarebulma didma samuSaoebma is aqcia namdvil, mSvenier navsadgurad. baTumis mxare yarsTan erTad Seadgens ruseTis bolo SenaZens kavkasiaSi, romelic mas berlinis 1878 wlis xelSekrulebiT gadaeca jildod Zlevamosili, Tumca sxva mxriv uSedego kompaniisa. omis dros rusebis Seteva baTumze Sesustebuli iyo, maSin roca operaciebi evropul TurqeTSi warmatebuli.

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rasac rusebma balkaneTSi miaRwies, CamoarTves berlinSi; samagierod gadaecaT baTumi, oRond garkveuli SezRuduli pirobebiT: baTumi rCeboda rusuli sabaJo gadasaxadebisgan Tavisufal navsadgurad da ar unda gamagrebuliyo. am SezRudvis mizani iyo daecvaT ucxouri komerciuli interesebi Sav zRvaze da Tavidan aecilebinaT safrTxe, romelsac uqadda ruseTi didi sazRvao bazis SeqmniT zed TurqeTis sazRvrebTan. ruseTisTvis baTums hqonda mniSvneloba rogorc erTaderT karg navsadgurs amierkavkasiaSi. saxelmwifoTa mier dakisrebuli pirobebi arabunebrivi iyo da ver gauZlebda daZabul viTarebas. daujerebeli iyo, rom ruseTi ar moisurvebda iseTi mniSvnelovani sasazRvro poziciis gamagrebas, rogoric baTumi iyo. mciredac ki ar iyo dasaSvebi, rom amis gamo TurqeTi an sxva saxelmwifo SeebrZoleboda mas. jer kidev adre, oTxmocian wlebSi, ruseTma daiwyo simagreebis ageba qalaqis siaxloves, oRond Tavisufali portis zonis gareT. Semdeg sxva simagreebic aages ukve im zonis SigniT, Tumca SeiaraRebis gareSe. 1870 wels ruseTis mTavrobam ganacxada, rom aRar daemorCileboda parizis xelSekrulebis pirobebs, rac ukrZalavda mas samxedro flotis yolas Sav zRvaze. axla man gadasca nota saxelmwifoebs berlinis xelSekrulebis sawinaaRmdegod, rom baTums gaamagrebda, ris gamoc is veRar iqneboda Tavisufali navsadguri. amis Semdeg Sida fortebi SeaiaraRes da qalaqi gaxda pirveli mniSvnelobis sayrdeni punqti, romelic omis SemTxvevaSi iqneboda operaciebis baza Sav zRvaze. Cemi pirveli STabeWdileba baTumSi gadmosvlisas iyo is, rom namdvilad viyavi TurqeTSi da ara ruseTSi, Tumca, ra Tqma unda, aris rusuli Senobebi, rusuli warwerebi, rusuli uniformebi. iq aris usufTaoba, uwesrigoba da dausrulebeli warmoCena iseTi faqtebis, rac Cveulebriv damaxasiaTebelia orivesTvis _ ruseTisa da TurqeTisTvis. magram iq aris raRac ufro meti, vidre yovelive es. garemos SegrZneba Turqulia: saocari Tavmoyra muqi aRmosavluri saxeebis, Tvalwarmtaci samosi da wiTeli feskebi gvagoneben Turquli aRmosavleTis navsadgurebs. rusuli uwesrigoba mdgomareobs mouwyobel garemoSi da Sida mowyobisadmi (pirveli daniSnulebis sagnebisadmi) uyuradRebobaSi, maSin roca yuradRebas aqceven garegan mxares. Turquli ki erTnairad uyuradReboa rogorc garegani, ise Sinagani mxarisadmi. mebargulTa brbos xmauri da gaurkvevloba, yvela kolorituli da veluri gamometyvelebiT romaa, aris aseve mTlad Turquli maxasiaTebeli. ruseTSi am saqmes ukeTesad asruleben: roca mgzavrebi Camodian matareblidan Tu gemidan, naklebi faci-fucia da gacilebiT komfortulad

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grZnoben Tavs. kebi, romelmac gadamiyvana sastumroSi, aris rusuli. is nakleb moZvelebulia, vidre Turquli. mas aqvs saxelganTqmuli rezinis salte, rac warmoadgens civilizaciis nimuSs, romelic Rrmad SeiWra kavkasiaSi. amierkavkasiis Soreul qalaqebSi, sadac naklebobaa sufTa sastumroebis, umwero sawolebis, kargi sakvebis, skolebis, gzebis, usafrTxoebis da Tanamedrove cxovrebisTvis saWiro fufunebis, rezinis salte yvelgan yvavis. Cemma sastumrom kvlav TurqeTSi CamZira: frangulad molaparake saeWvo warsulis Tarjimani, mxiaruli feris aRmosavluri noxebi, SeRebili rkinis sawolebi, damtvreuli aveji adre albaT ekuTvnoda iuskiubis an salonikis sastumros. baTumis saxea bulvari. yovel rusul qalaqs, miuxedavad sididisa, aqvs sazogadoebrivi baRi anu parki, bulvarad wodebuli _ an aleqsandrovski sad (aleqsandres baRi), an gorodskoi sad (qalaqis baRi), sadac ukravs orkestri, xalxi ki aRma-daRma daseirnobs. am gasarTob adgilTa umetesoba provinciul qalaqebSi mosawyenia, is SemoRobili, naklebad movlili da mimzidvelia, aqvs uyvavilo kvlebi da avadmyofuri Sesaxedaobis xeebi. baTumis bulvari ki silamazisa da saocrebis gansaxierebaa. es gaxlavT farTe alea orive mxares Camwkrivebuli akaciebiT, palmebiT, kaqtusebiT, bananebiT da sxva tropikuli xeebiT, aseve zomieri sartylebis mcenareulobiT. aqedan tkbebi evqsinis lamazi xediT, misi indigosaviT muqi feris wyliT, romelic dakbilulia zRapruli koncxebis rigiT (jaWviT). mdidruli ferebi _ saocari mwvane, muqi lurji, kaSkaSa wiTeli, da nestiani cxeli (daxuTuli) haeri savsebiT qmnian aRmosavlur atmosferos. aleas Semdgom bulvari gadadis movlil baRSi, sadac vxvdebiT iSviaT xeebs, saocar tropikul yvavilebs da mobibine balaxs. mis boloSi aris patara tba, romelic Ria zRvisgan mowyvetilia xmeleTis viwro zoliT. mzis Casvlisas misi wyali Zalze lamazad cimcimebs oqrosa da vardisfer-wiTlad; misi zedapirisken daxrilan xSirfoTliani xeebi, romlebic Crdilaven tbis metalisebur zedapirs da TiTqos kocnian mas; maT Sesaxvedrad ki mravalgvari formisa Tu feris lerwami wamomarTula. maT ukan maRali, moxdenili palmebi muqad Canan cis fonze; qviSis gamyof xazze ki vxedavT cxenosani kazakebis mwkrivebs, romlebsac cxenebi mihyavT wylisken. mTeli sanaxaoba gvaxsenebs indoeTis an egviptis suraTebs, aranakleb mbrwyinavi ferebiT da daZabuli atmosferoTi. haeri mZimea da nestiani; Sexebisas yvelaferi svelia da webovani. anaorTqli gamoiyofa mcenareebidan, tborebidan da adamiani grZnobs daRlilobas, gamofitulobas da energiis naklebobas. iq dadian cxenosani kazakebi

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_ ruseTis Zalis es simboloebi, maSin roca maTi sasikvdilo mteri kavkasiaSi aris wylis zedapirze mobzuile, ciebis gamavrcelebeli koRoebi. rusulma mTavrobam bevri izruna baTumis klimatis gasaumjobeseblad, Waobebis dasaSrobad, qalaqis gasajansaReblad. janmrTelobis punqtebi daarsda mwvane koncxze da Waobiani zonis maRla mdebare adgilebSi. tonobiT Semoitanes qinaqina, magram baTumi jerac ciebiania da macxovreblebi adre Tu gvian daitanjebian am sawamlaviT. navsadgurTan uberavs aRmosavluri myrali suni; Ria kanalizaciiT saxlebidan zRvaSi Cadis siblante. rusebis okupaciamde baTumi warmoadgenda sacodav sofels, dasaxlebuls ZiriTadad TurqebiT, romlebsac Sereodnen berZnebi da sxva aRmosavlelebi. amJamad is aris qalaqi 30000 macxovrebliT, sadac ufro metia xalxebisa da religiebis narevi. aq darCa 10000-mde Turqi, romelTa umetesoba sulTans emorCileba; aris 10000-mde qarTveli _ gurulebi, megrelebi, imerlebi, mahmadiani aWarlebi, 7000 rusi (ZiriTadad jariskacebi da oficrebi) da 3000-dan 5000-mde sparseli, berZeni, somexi, TaTari da sxva. amasTan macxovrebelTa didi nawili moZraobs. guruli glexebi Camodian qalaqSi, roca samuSao Cndeba sxva da sxva samrewvelo sawarmoebSi da iReben mas, xolo ubrundebian TavianT yanebs mosavlis aRebis (Tibvis) periodSi, anda samuSaos dasrulebisas. cota qalaqSi Tua amdeni gansxvavebuli pirTa jgufebi _ muqi sparselidan dawyebuli, qera rusiT damTavrebuli. aRmosavleTis yvela sazRvao navsadgurSi gvxvdeba xulignuri elementebi; baTums ekuTvnis pirvelobis palma TiTqmis yvela saxis TaRliTobaSi. mkvleloba, qurdoba, waqezeba (gadawva) yovelTvis gavrcelebuli movlena iyo. Zalze saocar ambebs yvebian TviT maRali sazogadoebis wevrTa mier Cadenili danaSaulebebis Sesaxeb; irgvliv qveynis kvadratuli milic ki araa Tavisufali yaCaRobisgan. araa advili aseT xalxSi wesrigis dacva; ruseTma namdvilad ganicada marcxi am mxriv. Turqebis dros uwesobas xsnidnen jarebisa da policiis uunarobiT da administraciis araefeqturobiT. amJamad jaris raodenoba bevria, radgan baTumi warmoadgens pirveli xarisxis simagres artileriiT qalaqis centrSi; policia mravalricxovania da kargad SeiaraRebuli, administracia Tumca korumpirebulia da uunaro, namdvilad ufro srulyofilia Turqebisaze. mainc saxalxo wesrigi sul ufro midioda cudidan uaresisken, sanam axalma politikurma rRvevebma ar miiyvana qalaqi da mxare absolutur qaosamde.

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baTumis keTildReoba damokidebulia mis mdebareobaze, rogorc kavkasiidan eqsportis savaWro centrze da mis mrewvelobaze. es ukanaskneli warmoadgens baqos navTobiT vaWrobas da moicavs mTel rig msxvil navTobgadamamuSavebel qarxnebs. navTobis transportireba baqodan xdeba rkinigziT an milebiT; baTumSi ki mas an gemze tvirTaven, an cisternebs avseben saeqsportod. cisternebis damzadeba Zalze saguldagulo saqmianobaa da importuli vaWrobis sagania. udidesi qarxnebi (sawarmoebi) aris b-ni rotSildis, romelsac baqoSi ekuTvnis navTobis didi sarewebi da, ra Tqma unda, didad aris dainteresebuli saeqsporto biznesiT. mis qarxanaSi, romelic baTums gareTaa, dasaqmebulia ramdenime aTasi adamiani. muSebi, rogorc zemoTac vTqvi, ZiriTadad arian gurulebi ozurgeTis okrugidan; aseve iyvnen qarTvelTa sxva jgufebic. ukanasknel wlebSi social-demokratiulma partiam Zalze aqtiurad warmarTa Tavisi propaganda da baTumis muSaTa klasSi bevri momxre gaiCina. mas Semdeg, rac saerTo mRelvareba ruseTSi kavkasiamde gavrcelda, baTumi iqca ajanyebis namdvil kerad. 1905 wlis adre gazafxulze portisa da qarxnebis muSebi gaificnen maRali xelfasisa da mokle samuSao dRis moTxovniT. sinamdvileSi xelfasebi navTobis qarxnebSi uCveulod maRalia; dReSi gamoimuSaveben 2-3 maneTs, rac aRemateba sxva romelime kategoriis muSaTa xelfass ruseTSi. st.-peterburgis pirveli gaficvebis msgavsad es iyo namdvili gamovlineba saerTo mRelvarebisa qveyanaSi da gaficulTa moTxovnebs hqonda politikuri xasiaTi. magram, st.-peterburgis gaficvebisgan gansxvavebiT, baTumisam erTbaSad miiRo didi masStabebi da im dRidan aqamde qalaqs erTi wuTiTac namdvilad ar mousvenia. Cemi Camosvlisas garegnulad sakmao simSvide Canda, Tumca saalyo mdgomareoba ZalaSi rCeboda; TiTqmis ar Canda patruli da policia. axla dRe ar Caivlis quCaSi mkvlelobis gareSe, xolo mkvlelebs ver iWeren. arsebobda teroristuli komiteti, romelic arc erT konkretul partias ar ekuTvnoda, magram met-naklebad ukavSirdeboda socialistebs da social-revolucionerebs; maTSi Sediodnen xalxis naZiralebi, romlebic mkvlelobebiT asrulebdnen brZanebebs. baTumis erT gareubanSi, sadac yvelaze metad aulagmavi elementebi cxovroben, daasaxeles pirovneba, rogorc baTumis namdvili gubernatori. gansxvavebiT oficialuri rusi gubernatorisagan, Canda misi didi avtoriteti, radgan mis sityvas kanonis fasi hqonda. teroristTa moqmedebis meTodebi Zalze ubraloa. brZaneba, rom ama da am fabrikis muSebi unda gaificon, ucbad sruldeba; isini unda damorCildnen buzRunis gareSe da Tu romelime mmarTveli an momsaxure ecdeba moZraobis Se46

ferxebas, mas moklaven. TavzexelaRebulebi ramdenjerme avidnen gemze navsadgurSi da ubrZanes dokis muSebs SeewyvitaT samuSao dRis 3 saaTze; miuxedavad imisa, rom maT ar gaaCndaT amis rwmuneba, veravin gabeda SewinaaRmdegeba. TviT qalaqSi terori ise Zlieri iyo, rom mcire xmauri an simSvidis darRveva iwvevda uecar panikas. erT naSuadRevs wamiyvanes baTums gareT rotSildis navTobis qarxnebis sanaxavad. sanavTobe naviT (barkasiT) gavemarTeT zRvis yuris gavliT, radgan es ufro uxifaTo iyo, vidre saetle gza. sarewebi gaCerebuli iyo ramdenime Tve da axlo momavalSic ar Canda maTi xelaxali amuSavebis perspeqtiva. yvela axali danadgari da saukeTeso mowyobiloba damontaJebuli iyo, magram idga Cumad da uqmad. kazaki guSagebi dabanakebuli iyvnen SemoRobilSi, magram esec ar warmoadgenda sakmao dacvas. firmam rusuli mTavrobis sruli nebarTviT moawyo da SeaiaraRa sakuTari kerZo dacva. es daTmoba, rac {qarxnis} mmarTvelma mamcno, TavisTavad amtkicebda biurokratiis srul uZlurebas. yvela SesasvlelebSi idgnen maRali tanis adgilobrivebi, metwilad aWareli mahmadianebi, SeiaraRebuli revolverebiT da xanjlebiT (kavkasiuri danebi), xolo kazakTa jgufi, usufTao tanisamosSi, Cacucqulebi miwaze TamaSobdnen banqos sajinibos win, sadac maTi cxenebi idgnen. aqa-iq Candnen mcire raodenobiT muSebi, romlebic meTvalyureobdnen danadgarebsa da sawyobebs. miuxedavad am yovelive sifrTxilisa, Tvrameti muSa mokles gasuli ramdenime Tvis manZilze, cocxlad darCenilebs daemuqrnen da xSirad mkvlelobis mcdelobac hqondaT. yofil muSebs an ar surdaT samuSaoze dabruneba, an ver bedavdnen, radgan teroristTa komiteti ar moerideboda dawesebulebis gadawvas, an dinamitiT mis afeTqebas. ar aris advili gaigo revoluciuri partiebis mizani, garda imisa, rom qveynis xelisufleba gaxadon gausaZlisi reformebis gatarebamde. sanam liderebs, gansakuTrebiT ruseTis did qalaqebSi, gauCndebaT met-naklebad zusti azri, masebs araferi esmiT, garda teroristebis SiSisa da dayaCaRebis SesaZleblobisa. disciplina mTlianad Sesustda, mTeli xelisufleba (avtoritetoba) sZulT. mTavrobas sruliad araferi gaukeTebia, garda saocrad suleluri qmedebiT an mavne dapirebebiT xalxis gaRizianebisa. daujerebeli iyo, rom baTumiviT gamagrebul qalaqSi, romelsac gars ertya qvemexebi, mravlad hqondaT Tofebi da hyavdaT jaris didi razmebi, ase ioli iqneboda mkvleloba da Zaladoba. araferi ucdiaT damnaSaveTa dapatimrebisTvis; Cans, TiTqos gaica brZaneba, rom revolucionerebisTvis Tavi daenebebinaT.

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mTavrobis poziciis uvargisobis Sesaxeb saocari magaliTi moaqvs adgilobriv gazeTs _ `Cernomorski vestnik~. es organo, vinme m. palmis redaqtorobiT, iyo mTlad reaqcioneruli [1]. roca daiwyo mRelvareba, revolucionerebma daaweses masze kontroli, aiZules redaqtori gaqceuliyo da TanamSromlebi Secvales TavisianebiT. mas Semdeg gazeTi propagandas uwevs ultra-radikalur, rom ar vTqvaT teroristul, azrebs. gasul wels qalaqSi Sedga socialistTa mniSvnelovani yriloba samxedro general-gubernatoris, general orbelianis sagangebo nebarTviT, romelmac mosTxova Tavmjdomares, rom yofiliyo pasuxismgebeli Tavis qmedebebsa da sityvebze. magram, rogorc ki gaisma sityvebi mTavrobis winaaRmdeg (Znelad iyo dasajerebeli, rom msgavs mitingze Seikribebodnen autokratiisa da biurokratiis dalocvis mizniT), zemodasaxelebuli Tavmjdomare saswrafod daapatimres da ramdenime TviT Casves cixeSi. roca is gaanTavisufles, daniSnes tfilisis saqonlis sasaklaos veterinar eqimad (qirurgad). amasobaSi namdvilad saSiSi anarqistebi ar SeuwuxebiaT. mTeli anarqistuli da teroristuli moZraobis ukan idgnen sxvadasxva Sexedulebebis qarTveli nacionalistebi, romlebsac mravlad uWerda mxars aristokratia. am klasis moqcevas rusuli xelisuflebis xelSi ar gauZlierebia maTi loialoba; isargebles sayovelTao mRelvarebis xelsayreli momentiT, raTa wamoeyenebinaT moTxovnebi qarTuli nacionalizmis dasacavad. maT gamoiyenes teroristebi, farulad exmarebodnen da afinansebdnen kidec agitaciisa da gaficvisTvis. es warCinebulebi xSirad karg urTierTobaSi arian rus moxeleebTan (oficialur pirebTan), xvdebian maT rogorc amxanagebsa da megobrebs. vice-gubernatorma erT ucxoel konsuls uTxra (roca msjelobdnen zogierT uaxles Zaladobaze): `rom SegveZlos ramdenime namdvilad mniSvnelovani lideris daWera, yvela ubedureba dasruldeboda; magram warmodgena ar gvaqvs, sad veZioT isini~. konsulma upasuxa: `Tqven unda moZebnoT isini Tqvens klubebSi banqos kompanionebs, an Tqvens sufris stumrebs Soris~. aqtiurobis erTaderTi gamovlineba xelisuflebis mxriv moxda portsmutis zavis oficialurad gamocxadebis wina dRes, roca misi gaformeba ukve gadawyvetili iyo; adgilobrivma samxedro komendantebma gasces brZaneba, rom fortebi gadaeyvanaT Tavdacvis mdgomareobaSi iaponelTa mxriv mosalodneli Setevis gamo! gaurkvevlobis damatebiT elements qmnidnen Turqebi da mahmadiani aWarlebi. es ukanasknelebi arian qarTvelebi, magram, rogorc pomakebi da sxva axlad gamahmadianebulebi, gansakuTrebul fanatikosebs warmoadgenen; maT Zalze ejavrebaT qris48

tiani qarTvelebi. isini ar monawileoben gaficvebSi da TaTrebiviT surT iyvnen karg urTierTobaSi xelisuflebasTan, magram ucdian Sesaferis dros, rom Sevardnen baTumSi da adgilobriv mahmadianTa daxmarebiT xeli mihyon qristianebis sayovelTao Jletas. aWarlebi saTanadod kargad arian SeiaraRebuli. bevri maTgani Sevida araregularul adgilobriv miliciaSi, an sasazRvro policiaSi. amboben, rom mTavroba cdilobs waaqezon isini gurulebisa da sxva qristianebis winaaRmdeg, iseve, rogorc xels uwyobda TaTrebs somxebis winaaRmdeg aRmosavleTis provinciebSi. magram aqamde qristianul-mahmadianuri afeTqeba ar momxdara. aWarlebi cdilobdnen Tavis xelSi aeRoT navTobis mrewvelobis qarxnebi da dokebi, magram xelisufleba ver bedavda, rac baTums aucileblad daaqcevda. aq mravladaa ucxouri daintereseba qalaqiT da mTavrobas aSinebda saerTaSoriso garTulebebi, rac aucileblad moxdeboda. baTumSi Cemi pirveli Sexvedra (interviu) mqonda kavkasiel revolucionerTan mis qveyanaSi. es gaxldaT vinme doqtori v.[2], romelic Tumca ar iyo dabadebiT qarTveli, magram savsebiT uTanagrZnobda qarTul nacionalistur moZraobas; is ewinaaRmdegeboda social-demokratebs, romlebic ugulvebelhyofdnen qarTvelTa erovnul swrafvas. garda imisa, rom is iyo eqimi, iyo qalaqis sabWos (municipalitetis) cnobili wevri da qalaqis meris _ Tavad andronikovis [3] marjvena xeli. Zalian msurda masTan saubari da mivaRwie Sexvedras megobris saSualebiT. imitom ki ara, rom Sexvedra aucilebeli iyo, radgan kavkasiaSi yvela mzadaa umaspinZlos ucxoels, gansakuTrebiT, Tu es ukanaskneli Jurnalistia, an mwerali; yvelas surs Tavisi sakuTari dakvirveba gaacnos evropelebs. im dros qveynisaTvis me viyavi ucnobi da vifiqre, rom wardgenis gareSe eWvis TvaliT Semxedavdnen. d-ri v. aris dabali, gamsWvalavi mzeriT, Sua xnis kaci, Zalze emociuri, magram inteligenturi da enTuziazmiT savse. radgan man ar icoda arc germanuli da arc franguli, xolo me rusuli daviwyebuli mqonda, man moixmo Tarjimani _ muqi feris kanis mqone, SavTvaleba italielberZen-levantinel-Turqi, profesiiT gemebis momaragebis agenti. is aris (Tu iyo im dros) Turquli subieqti, magram Tavs italiels eZaxda da saubrobda Zalze saocari italiuriT, rogoric ki odesme msmenia. ecva aRmosavluri (levantinuri) butaforuli samosi, hqonda Savi Tma da ulvaSi, priala yelsaxvevi da patara vercxlis bunikiani xel-joxi. dr. v-m da Tarjimanma momakiTxes sastumroSi. Cems ramdenime SekiTxvaze revoluciuri moZraobisa da miswrafebebis Sesaxeb, doqtoridan amofeTqa mWevrmetyvelebis nakadma, romelSic CarTo sa49

qarTvelos istoria dasabamidan mTeli misi eTnologiuri, geografiuli simdidriTa da filosofiuri gadaxrebiT. karga xani gavida, sanam miadga ruseTis mier dapyrobas da, ueWvelia, mTeli Rame rom darCeniliyo, dRevandel viTarebamde movidoda. mas ubralod dro ar eyo, rom mokled moeTxro detalebis gareSe, radgan hqonda sxva Sexvedra. es iyo Cemi pirveli STabeWdileba abstraqciebisa da Teoriebisadmi im siyvarulisgan miRebuli, rac asea gavrcelebuli kavkasiaSi; aseve Cveuleba sagnis bundovan sawyisamde ukan svlisa, sanam saboloo miznamde mivlen. me ver vityvi, rom sakmaod gavnaTldi Cemi interviuTi, radgan dr. v. ise Cqara laparakobda da didxans ar Cerdeboda, rom pauzebis dros sawyali Tarjimani ver imaxsovrebda naTqvamis meoTxeds; xolo rasac ixsomebda, misi italiuri Zalzed gaubedavi iyo, rom SeZleboda eTargmna. faqtobrivad, me ufro mets vigebdi an vxvdebodi dr. v.-s rusulidan da Jestebidan, vidre pativcemuli gemis momaragebis agentis italiuridan. amis miuxedavad, momeca saSualeba Cavwvdomodi qarTul azrs (suls) da is arasruli informacia, rac Sevkribe, damexmara Semevso danarCeni, rac unda mimeRo Cemi mogzaurobisas. baTumSi dReebi sakmaod sasiamovnod gavatare; movinaxule qalaqi da misi mSvenieri Semogareni; ar gamovtove Caqvis saimperatoro mamuli, sadac aris Cais vrceli plantacia, romelsac marTavs Cineli pirovneba. yovel diliT viRebdi mSvenier abazanebs Tbil zRvaSi. saRamoTi samxedro orkestri ukravda bulvarze. miuxedavad mkvlelobebisa da Zaladobis Zlieri gancdisa, miuxedavad eWvisa, rom yovel wuTs SeiZleboda bombi afeTqebuliyo, xalxi midi-modioda da usmenda `karmenisa~ da `trubaduris~ melodiebs. eseni iyvnen Wreli jgufebi qarTvelebisa grZel `CerkeskebSi~ (esaa erTgvari serTuki Sekruli welze, Semkuli samasre jibeebiT) da Tavze `baSlikiT~ (=yabalaxi _ g.g.), muqkaniani sparselebi maRali Savi fesiT, lurjmundiriani Jandarmebi, velurad mzeri kazakebi, lamazi aWarlebi indigos feri (lurji-iisferi) mWidrod momjdari tansacmliT, mcire raodenobiT kacebi da qalebi evropul samosSi _ rusebi an ucxoelebi. yvela es gansxvavebuli arsebebi garegnulad erTmaneTTan megobrulad iyvnen ganwyobili; dRes isini mzad iyvnen mSvidad esaubraT, xolo xval erTmaneTisTvis yeli gamoeWraT.

50

mcire komentarebi

[1] `Cernomorski vestnikis~ redaqtori iyo Savrazmeli palmi, romelic, dekanoz ralceviCTan da notarius grielskisTan erTad, yvelanairad xels uSlida qarTveli inteligenciis saqmianobas baTumSi da aRvivebda SuRls erovnebebs Soris. sastikad ebrZoda qarTvelebis gasvlas qalaqis TviTmmarTvelobaSi. misi qmedeba mkacrad dagmo da amxila grigol volskim. [2] doqtori v. aris cnobili poeti, publicisti, literaturuli kritikosi, mTargmneli, eqimi grigol iosebis Ze volski (1860 quTaisi _ 1909 Tbilisi). quTaisis gimnaziis damTavrebis Semdeg swavlobda moskovis universitetis samedicino fakultetze. 80-iani wlebis damdegs monawileobda studentTa moZraobaSi da Seqmna qarTvelTa saTvistomo organizacia. samSobloSi dabrunebis Semdeg muSaobda baTumSi jer rkinigzis eqimad, mere rotSildis qarxnis eqimad. artur laistis pirveli nacnobi baTumSi 1895 wels yofnisas iyo grigol volski. maSin roca begebi, molebi TurqofilobiT da islamis reaqciuli SexedulebebiT unergavdnen aWarlebs saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebis mosaxleobisadmi siZulvils, grigol volski daviT kldiaSvilTan da ivane mesxTan erTad icavda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis erovnul interesebs. igi dauRlelad ibrZoda, rom qalaqis TviTmmarTveloba ar Cavardnoda xelSi imaT, vinc qarTvelTa interesebs fexqveS Telavda. qarTvelebs surdaT TviTmmarTvelobis saTaveSi moqceva, baTumis qarTul qalaqad qceva. am brZolis Sedegi iyo qalaqis Tavad jer luka asaTianis, xolo cota mogvianebiT _ ivane andronikaSvilis arCeva, xolo grigol volskisa _ gamgeobis wevrad. 1902 wels volski daiTxoves TviTmmarTvelobidan; 1905 wels isev TviTmmarTvelobaSia. 1907 wels iZulebiT gaecala baTums da TbilisSi saTavadaznauro gimnaziaSi qarTulis maswavlebladaa. baTumSi is iyo yvela kulturuli wamowyebis moTave, iqneboda es skolebis, gimnaziis gaxsna, Tu gzebis gayvana, baRebis, bazris mowyoba, Waobebis amoSroba, saRamo-warmodgenebis mowyoba. mTel Tavis sicocxles ukavSirebda sazogadoebriv interesebs, qveynis samsaxurs. ai, rogor axasiaTeben mas gamoCenili qarTveli moRvaweebi: `igi iyo Rrmad nakiTxi, codniT aRWurvili, mSvenieri molaparake, oxunji, sasiamovno mosaubre, gulkeTili, Rrmad mgrZnobiare, xalisiani... mebrZoli xasiaTis, gabeduli, Seudrekeli~ (daviT kldiaSvili); iyo `azriani, Wkviani da kiloiani metyveli~ (iakob gogebaSvili); `baTumSi Cveni far-xmali Sena xar~ (giorgi wereTeli).

51

gardaicvala 1909 wels. Semdeg gadaasvenes baTumSi.

daasaflaves

TbilisSi,

xolo

[3] qalaqis Tavad luka asaTianis Semdeg, ivanovis Tavidan mocilebis mere, iyo ivane andronikaSvili, patrioti moRvawe. misi da volskis mokvlac ki iyo gadawyvetili, rac amcno vinme oficerma ioselianma.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. g. gelaSvili, ingliseli Jurnalisti henri nevinsoni saqarTvelos Sesaxeb (1906), _ axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi, t. 4, naw. II, 2008.

Gia Gelashvili (Tbilisi, Georgia) Luigi Villari about Batumi in 1905 Summary Luigi Villari (1876-1959) an Italian historian, traveler and diplomat. Author of number of books including works about Russia, Italian Foreign Policy, Caucasus etc. In summer and autumn 1905 he traveled in Caucasus (Georgia and Armenia). It was the time of the first Russian revolution.In 1906 in London he published his work ,,Fire and Sward in the Caucasus ". In the following article there is given the Georgian translation and comments to Luigi Villari`s material about Batumi. He describes everything he saw himself and felt personally ­ social-economic and political situation, life of the several races, their religion, relations with each other. He speaks about importance of Batumi, about Rothschild oil works,about revolutionary parties. The author describes sights of the town, its boulevard, tea plantation of Chakva etc.

52

istoria

HISTORY

biWiko diasamiZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

XVIIIbaTumis adgili XVIII-XIX saukuneebis ruseTis samxedro-politikur gegmebSi samxedroXV saukunis Sua xanebidan, osmalTa mier konstantinepolis aRebis (1453 w.) Semdeg, saqarTvelo erTaderTi qristianuli qveyana darCa axlo aRmosavleTSi iraneli da osmalo dampyroblebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi, romelTa mizans amierkavkasiaSi gabatoneba warmoadgenda. XVIII saukunis dasawyisidan am brZolaSi ruseTic Caeba. samefo-samTavroebad dayofili da iran-osmalebTan brZolebSi dauZlurebuli saqarTvelo erTmorwmune ruseTTan urTierTobiT gegmavda muslim dampyrobelTa ara marto SeCerebas, aramed adre dakarguli miwebis dabrunebasac. erekle II da solomon I ruseTze mxardaWeriT cdilobdnen ,,gamoxsna-aRdgomis" gegmis ganxorcielebas. am gegmaSi Sedioda osmalTagan samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriebis, kerZod, aWaris da, Sesabamisad, baTumis gaTavisuflebac. 1768-1774 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omis msvlelobisas, solomon I-is mier totlebenis rusul ZalebTan erTad osmalTagan Sorapnisa da, baRdadis, agreTve 1770 wlis agvistoSi quTaisis gaTavisuflebis Semdeg, gaTvaliswinebuli iyo baTumze laSqrobac, magram totlebenTan verc solomonma naxa saerTo ena erekle meores msgavsad da laSqroba CaiSala [S. megreliZe, 1963: 14]. arada, saamisod xelsayreli situacia baTumsa da aWariswylis xeobaSi Seqmnili iyo. 1770 wels aWarlebs uari uTqvamT aspinZasTan brZolaSi monawileobaze axalcixis faSis mxareze, ris gamoc 1774 wels damsjeli razmebi gagzavnes osmalebma aWarelTa dasasjelad. totlebenis saqmeTa Sesaswavlad ruseTidan gamogzavnili kapitani iazikovi centrs atyobinebda: ,,aWarlebi, romlebadac Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sana-

pirodan guriasa da TurqeTs Soris mTebSi dasaxlebuli xalxi iwodeba, osmalTa qveSevrdomobas mTlianad ganudga; rodesac axalcixis faSa maT dasawynareblad TurqTa jariT aWaraSi Sevida, am xalxma faSa daamarcxa da aWaridan gandevna [S.

megreliZe, 1963: 15].

53

mefe erekle meores moTxovniT, 1783 wlis traqtatis erTerTi muxliT, ruseTs evaleboda ezruna saqarTvelos dakarguli teritoriebis dasabruneblad. am moTxovnas kanonierebas aniWebda isic, rom xelSekrulebis teqstSi erekle II iwodeba

,,mefe qarTlisa, mefe kaxeTisa, memkvidre mflobeli samcxe-saaTabagosi [saerTaSoriso samarTlis.., 1949: 32].

1788 wels, ruseT-TurqeTis (1787-1791) omis msvlelobisas, erekle meore ekaterine II-s sTxovda, rom ,,saqarTvelos Seer-

Teboda axalcixis provincia, xolo aWara ki imereTs, rogorc ZvelTagan misi kuTvnili."

1801 wlidan, roca aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mefoba gauqmda da rusuli mmarTveloba damyarda, kidev ufro gaizarda ruseTis interesebi saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTSi. maT samxedro-politikur gegmebSi gansakuTrebuli adgili daikava SavizRvispira navsadgurebma, kerZod, baTumma. 1804 w. generali pavle cicianovi sagareo saqmeTa ministrs (Cortorocki) werda: baTumi da anaklia ,,yovelgvari winaaRmdegobis gareSe unda gvekuTvnodes Cven da igi Cvens xelSi unda iyoso" [S. megreliZe, 1956: 22]. ase rom baTumis osmalTagan gaTavisuflebis sakiTxi dRis wesrigSi idga 1806-1812 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omis wlebSic. am miznis ganxorcielebisaTvis Catarda sazRvao flotis operacia, romelic iTvaliswinebda ruseTis armiis mier Coloqidan trapizonamde teritoriis dakavebas, magram 30 oqtombers floti uSedegod dabrunda sevastopolSi. ruseTi sxva gziTac cdilobda baTumis xelSi Cagdebas. kerZod, 1810 wels gardaicvala baTumis mmarTveli quCuk bei SarvaSiZe (afxazuri Stos warmomadgeneli). Semcvlelad moiazreboda afxazeTis mmarTvelis _ sefer ali beis umcrosi Zma soslan bei SarvaSiZe, oRond quCukbeis qvrivze daqorwinebiT. rusebs soslan bei SeuTanxmda baTumis Cabarebaze, Tu ruseTis floti Sevidoda baTumis yureSi (S.megreliZe, 1956, 23), magram vidre sardloba amas ganaxorcielebda, zavi buqarestSi daido Zvel sazRvrebSi. rusebis mier dakavebuli foTi da axalqalaqi daubrunda Turqebs. ase rom, sazavo molaparakebisas baTumis sakiTxi saerTod arc dasmula. praqtikuli nabijebi baTumis osmalTagan gasaTavisufleblad 1828-1829 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omis wlebSi gadaidga. omis dawyebamde moisinja axalcixis faSisa da aWaris mmarTvelis ­ axmed faSa ximSiaSvilis poziciac, romelic mzad iyo samxreT saqarTvelos calke gamoyofisaTvis ruseTTan eTanamSromla, Tu Semdeg ruseTi mas daamtkicebda gubernatorad, samemkvidreod aqcevda am Tanamdebobas, miscemda mas generlis Cins da ar Seexeboda aqaurTa religias. ruseTisaTvis es piro54

bebi omis dasawyisSi, roca jer kidev gaurkveveli situacia iyo, misaRebi Canda da generali bebuTovi agrZelebda molaparakebas ximSiaSvilTan, magram Semdeg, am ukanasknelis (axmed faSa) meryevma poziciam, omSi ruseTis warmatebebma da bebuTovis adgilze daniSnuli generlis osten-sakenis provokaciulma laSqrobam aWaraSi (1929 w. agvisto) da mosaxleobis aklebam, axmed faSas sabolood abrunebina piri osmalebisaken. sazavo molaparakebisas baTumze saerTod araferi Tqmula, miuxedavad imisa, rom jer kidev 1828 wlis 26 ivliss kavkasiis korpusis ufrosi paskeviCi sagareo saqmeTa ministrs werda, rom ,,ixmareT Tqveni gavlena, rom sazao xelSekrulebis da-

debisas, Tundac axalcixis erTi safaSo Tavis sazRvrebSi da TurqeTis saqarTvelos erTi nawili qalaq baTumiT SemouerTdes ruseTso," xolo nikoloz pirvelis winadadeba yofila,

rom TurqeTis mier gadasaxadi kontribuciis nawili SeecvalaT teritoriuli daTmobiT aziaSi. ,,baTumi da yarsi, _ uTqvams mefes, _ Rirs imad, rom maTTvis gavwiroT ramdenime milioni" ( ., 1908: 43]. aWarisa da baTumis gaTavisuflebis sakiTxi aqtiurad iyo dasmuli 1853-1856 wlebis yirimis omis drosac. iTvaliswinebda ra baTumis geografiul mdebareobas, kavkasiis mefisnacvali voroncovi Tvlida, rom baTumis asaRebad saWiro iyo Seteva zRvidan da xmeleTidan erTdroulad. adgilobrivi mosaxleobis poziciis Sesaxeb ki werda, rom ,,aWarlebi da umetesi

nawili zRvispiras mosaxle mcxovreblebisa, omis SemTxvevaSi, Cven gveyoleba winamZRolebad da gvTavazoben Cvens avangardSi samsaxurso" [S. megreliZe, 1963: 95].

marTalia, omi 1853 wlis 14 ivliss daiwyo balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze, magram aqtiuri moqmedebebi gvian ganxorcielda da pirveli Setakebac mterTan ara balkaneTSi, aramed sofel SekveTilTan moxda 1853 wlis noembris Sua ricxvebSi. rusqarTvelTa mamacobis miuxedavad, osmalTa simravlem Tavisi gaitana. samagierod, 14 noembers generalma adronikovma Turqebis didi jari gaanadgura axalcixesTan, xolo 19 noembers gen. bebuTovma TurqTa 35 aTasiani korpusi daamarcxa baSkidiklarTan. erTi dRiT adre admiralma naxamovma sinopTan sastikad gaanadgura TurqTa floti. ase rom 1853 wlis Semodgoma warmatebuli gamodga ruseTisaTvis. nikoloz I saWirod Tvlida baTumis, yarsisa, erzrumis da artaanis mimarTulebiT Setevas, magram mefisnacvali voroncovi saamiso Zalebs ar flobda da sabrZolo moqmedebis 1854 wlis zafxulisaTvis gadatana moiTxova. ruseTis sardlobam kvlav gaimeora 25 wlis winandeli Secdoma, roca generali osten-sakeni gagzavna mTian aWaraSi

55

iqauri mosaxleobis dasasjelad. amjeradac, ruseTis sardlobam, daabrala ra aWaris mosaxleobas 1853-54 wlebis zamTarSi TurqTa mier aWaris mxridan calkeuli Tavdasxmebis organizacia da masSi monawileoba, general-leitenant kovalevskis daavala maTi dasja. 30 maiss, Stabis ufrosma cimermanma gadawva zeda da qveda Txilvana, polkovnikma davidovma sof. mumsu (mTisubani), kovalevskim _ sof. bako. aseve gadawves focxovis sasazRvro soflebic. aman, ra Tqma unda, mosaxleobis ukmayofileba gamoiwvia. 1855 wlis zafxulSi ruseTis armiisaTvis mTavari yarsis aReba iyo. warmatebulad moqmedebda guriis razmic. man 24 maiss qobuleTi daikava. 1855 w. noemberSi yarsis osmalma damcvelebma iaraRi dayares. axla SeiZleboda Setevis ganxorcieleba baTumis mimarTulebiT, magram male zavi daido. marTalia, es omi ruseTis marcxiT dasrulda, magram kavkasiis frontze miRweulma gamarjvebebma xeli Seuwyo ruseTs parizis sazavo molaparakebisas, rom aq sazRvrebi ucvleli darCeniliyo. Turqebs daubrundaT rusTa mier dakavebuli teritoriebi, maT Soris qobuleTis sanjayic. parizis sazavo xelSekrulebis 30-e muxliT dadginda ruseTTurqeTis sazRvaric _ md. Coloqze. ase rom, miuxedavad didi survilisa, yirimis omSic ver gadawyda baTumis gaTavisufleba-dabrunebis sakiTxi. yirimis omSi ruseTis damarcxebam aSkara gaxada axali omisaTvis mzadebis aucilebloba. saamisod orive mxare Tadarigs iWerda, rogorc samxedro-politikuri TvalsazrisiT, aseve adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mxardaWeris uzrunvelsayofad. ruseTis mxriv, am mizans isaxavda ,,osmalos saqarTveloSi" cnobili qarTveli moRvaweebis mogzauroba 1877-78 wlebis omis win (iv. kereseliZe, d. baqraze, g. yazbegi...). mzaddeboda sazogadoebrivi azri TanamemamuleTa osmalTagan gaTavisuflebaSi aqtiuri monawileobis misaRebad. es procesi 1876 wels daiwyo da omis dawyebisas Seqmnili iyo 12 samxedro SenaerTi 10000 kacis raodenobiT (miliciis jaris saxiT). sul omSi monawileTa raodenoba 30 000-s aWarbebda [S. megreliZe, 1956: 51]. omi daiwyo 1877 wlis 22 aprils da igi or frontze mimdinareobda: balkaneTsa da kavkasiaSi. kavkasiis fronts, romelsac ruseTis sardloba meore xarisxovan rols akisrebda, aWara-guriis mTebi brZolis or asparezad hyofda: samxreTis, sadac loris meliqovis korpusi (50 000 kaci) ibrZoda da rionispireT-ozurgeTis, sadac oklobJios 25 000 kaciani jari axorcielebda Setevas (Semdeg qobuleTis razmi). rusul samxedro nawilebTan erTad ibrZodnen qarTvel milicielTa nawilebic (saxalxo laSqari).

56

ruseTis armiis warmatebebma balkaneTSi da kavkasiis samxreT asparezze (yarsi, artaani, arzrumi), adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mxardaWeram da Serif ximSiaSvilis (zemo aWaris mmarTveli) erovnulma poziciam, bevrad gansazRvra aWarisa da q. baTumis bedi. radgan omis damTavrebis drosac qobuleTis razmis jarebi kvlav cixisZirTan idgnen, baTumis gaTavisufleba iaraRiT ar moxerxda. amitom iyo, rom miuxedavad sanstefanos 1878 wlis 3 martis xelSekrulebiT ruseTze samxreTsaqarTvelos da dasavleT somxeTis teritoriebis (qalaqebi _ artaani, yarsi, baTumi) mikuTvnebisa, TurqeTi, evropis kongresis gadawyvetilebis miRebamde, ar aTavisuflebda baTums. saqme imaSia, rom evropis qveynebi (inglisi, safrangeTi, avstria, italia, germania) SeaSfoTa ruseTis warmatebebma omSi da miaRwies imas, rom zavis pirobebi ZalaSi Sesuliyo evropis kongresze ganxilvis Semdeg. inglisis ministrTa sabWos sxdomaze naTqvami _ ,,ingliss ar SeuZlia dauSvas calmxrivi xelSekrulebis dadeba ruseTsa da osmaleTs Soris" _ miRweul iqna. aSkara iyo, rom ruseTi an daTmobebze unda wasuliyo, an Cabmuliyo axal omSi koaliciur ZalebTan. igi mzad iyo rig daTmobebze wasuliyo axali omis Tavidan asacileblad (1878 w. maisSi inglis-ruseTis saidumlo molaparakeba). aseT pirobebSi 1878 wlis ivnisSi berlinSi Seikriba evropis saxelmwifoTa kongresi. kongresze gamoikveTa baTumis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba am omSi. solsberi (inglisis sagareo saqmeTa ministri) acxadebda: ,,inglisi ukanasknel pirobad ruseTs ganucxadebs, rom man uari sTqvas baTumzeo" [ ..., 1906: 92]. ruseTis warmomadgenels davalebuli hqonda, Tu osmalebi uars ityodnen baTumis nebayofilebiT daclaze, ganecxadebina:

,,kongresis yvela dadgenilebas ruseTi sisruleSi maSin moiyvanda, rodesac sulTani baTums ruseTs gadascemda [S.

megreliZe, 1963: 158]. marTlac, baTumis sakiTxma kongresze mwvave diskusia da Sexla-Semoxla gamoiwvia da igi dasrulda imiT, rom inglisis mTavrobis meTauris _ bikonsfildis moTxovniT, baTumi gadaeca ruseTs porto-frankos, anu saerTaSoriso vaWrobis qalaqis statusiT, xolo osmaleTs daubrunda valaSkerti da baiazeTi. berlinis kongresis gadawyvetilebiT TurqeTma daibruna omis dros ruseTis mier dakavebuli qarTvelebiTa da somxebiT dasaxlebuli teritoriis TiTqmis naxevarze meti. marTalia, kongresis gadawyvetilebiT 3 wlis ganmavlobaSi neba eZleodaT mcxovreblebs (qristianebs, muslimebs) survilisamebr aerCiaT, sad surdaT cxovreba: osmaleTis Tu ruseTis teri57

toriaze, magram sinamdvileSi osmaleTi amis saSualebas ar aZlevda qarTvelebs. kongresis Semdeg karga xans gaWianurda gadawyvetilebaTa praqtikuli Sesruleba. rus-qarTvelTa jari baTumSi mxolod 1878 wlis 25 agvistos Sevida.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. d. baqraZe, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, baT., 1987. 2. o. gogoliSvili, berlinis kongresi, ,,saistorio macne," t. XIV, baT., 2005. 3. m. dumbaZe, dasavleTi saqarTvelo XIX s. pirvel naxevarSi, Tb., 1957. 4. n. zoiZe, ruseT-TurqeTis 1877-78 wlebis omi da saqarTvelo, ,,saistorio macne," XII, baT., 2008. 5. S. megreliZe, aWaris gaTavisufleba TurqTa batonobisagan, baT., 1956. 6. S. megreliZe, samxeT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriidan, baT., 1963. 7. S. megreliZe, saqarTvelo aRmosavleTis omebSi, Tb., 1974. 8. saerTaSoriso samarTlis da saerTaSoriso urTierTobis dokumentebi, Seadgina da komentarebi daurTo d. enuqiZem, Tb., 1949. 9. , 25- . , ., 1906. 10. ., , .IV, II, .,1908.

Bichiko Diasamidze (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi in XVIII-XIX Military plans of Russia Summary besides Iran and Ottoman Empire Russia got involved in struggles for supremacy over Transcaucasia in XVIII centry. Russia was especially interested in Georgian Black Sea ports, particularly in easily accessable and deep harbour of Batumi. Therefore Russia s plan in all wars (in total 6) between Russia and Turkey in the second half of XVIII century, was emancipation of Batumi, but due to different reasons the aim was achieved only affer war that took place in 1877-1878 between Russia and Turkey.

58

revaz uzunaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

Tanamedrove baTumis saqalaqo dasaxlebis formirebaformireba-ganviTarebis pirveli nabijebi

70(XIX s. damdegi - 70-iani wlebi)

adreuli baTumi mdebareobda md. yoroliswylis SesarTavTan [s. yauxCiSvili, 1950-1951: 17-23; a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, 1989; a. kaxiZe, 2007: 247-249; T. yauxCiSvili, 1987: 109-116; a. inaiSvili, 1966: 69-75; vl. siWinava, 1962: 79-85; j. CxeiZe, 1959: 3-15; r. uzunaZe, 2008: ## 13-14,15-16]. igi warmoadgenda aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis mniSvnelovan sazRvao-savaWro punqts, romelic funqcionirebda daaxloebiT XVIII saukunis bolomde. vaxuSti batoniSvilis cnobiT, `baTomi mcire qalaqi~ iyo, romelsac kargi `cixec hqonda~ [qarTlis cxovreba, 1973: 176]. XVIII saukuneSi iwyeba saqalaqo centris TandaTanobiT gadanacvleba samxreTiT, baTumis koncxis mimarTulebiT da mTavrdeba XIX s-is 60-ian wlebSi. aRniSnuli procesi dakavSirebulia baTumis yuris moxerxebul sanavsadguro pirobebTan. osmaluri gemebi swored aq uSvebdnen Ruzas [ ., 1905: 41]. yures garSemo gaSlili vrceli dablobi SesaZleblobas iZleoda axali saqalaqo dasaxlebis gasaSeneblad. XIX saukunis damdegisaTvis ukve ZiriTadad damTavrebuli Cans saqalaqo centris zRvispira yuresTan gadanacvlebis procesi, magram baTumis cixe XIX saukunis 10-ian wlebamde jer kidev funqcionirebda. aRniSnuli periodis baTumis Sesaxeb saintereso cnobebs gvawvdis frangi mogzauri Aadrian diupre. man baTumi moinaxula 1807 wels. igi baTums axasiaTebs, rogorc mozrdil zRvispira dasaxlebas, 2000-mde mcxovrebiT. mogzauri baTumis Sesaxeb werda: `aqa-iq mimofantuli saxlebiT igi ufro vrcel sofels waagavs, vidre qalaqs. baTumi gaSenebulia zRvis sanapiroze. reidi daculi ar aris simagreebiT. bazarSi ormocdaaTiode uxeiro duqania, sadac iaffasiani saqonliT vaWroben. aq Semosul patara da didi zomis xomaldebs ZiriTadad SemoaqvT rkina, marili, saponi da qsovili~ [J. f. gamba, 1987: 262-263]. aRniSnuli cnobidan Cans, rom baTumSi ukve igrZnoba saqalaqo cxovrebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli pirveli niSnebi _ moqmedebs bazari, duqnebi, warmoebs aReb-micemoba, gemebiT SemoaqvT

59

da gaaqvT sxvadasxva saqoneli. qalaqs hyavda komendanti. igi emorCileboda axalcixis faSas. am periodis qalaqi gaSenebuli yofila md. barcxanis samxreTiT, daaxl. yofil xis damamuSavebel kombinatsa da sazRvao banks Soris mdebare teritoriaze [r. uzunaZe, 1997: 9]. baTumis axali ubnebis gaSenebis mizniT 1807 w. osmaleTis xelisuflebam neba darTo Turq da berZen emigrantebs, 1866 wlidan ki afxaz muhajirebs, qalaqis teritoriaze arendiT aeRoT miwis nakveTebi [ ., 1905: 46; ., 1911: 17]. 20-ian wlebSi win wasuli Cans baTumSi saqalaqo cxovrebis ganviTarebis procesi. germaneli mecnierisa da mogzauris k. koxis daxasiaTebiT baTumi (Camosula 1836 w. maisSi) warmoadgenda sakmaod did da stumarTmoyvare qalaqs, sadac `sicocxle Cqefda da qalaqSi Wreli xalxi ireoda~ [k. koxi..., 1981: 194]. k. koxis mogzauroba damTxvevia baTumSi gamarTul bazrobas, romelsac, misi TqmiT, axlo da Soreul adgilebidan didZali xalxi moezida. maT Soris Warbobdnen saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionidan savaWrod Camosuli qarTveli mosaxleoba. ,,isini erTi warmoSobisa iyvnen da erT did xalxs, saxeldobr, qarTvelebs ekuTvnodnen", _ werda igi [k. koxi..., 1981: 184]. rogorc Cans, miuxedavad osmalTa batonobisa, am periodSi saqarTvelos regionebsa da baTums Soris arsebobda sakmaod axlo urTierToba. 30-iani wlebis bolos qalaqis dasaxleba waweulia yures samxreT-dasavleTis mimarTulebiT. igi daaxl. moicavda gogebaSvilis quCis teritorias `Tevzis bazris~ samxreTiT xulos quCamde, maiakovskis, wereTlisa da jorjiaSvilis quCebis gayolebiT [r. uzunaZe, 1997: 15]. rusi oficris, polkovnik i. proskuriakovis cnobiT (1842 w. imyofeboda baTumSi samxedro misiiT), yures sanapiro dablobze gaSlili iyo qalaqis mSenebloba [ ., 1905: 3). baTumi warmoadgenda amave saxelwodebis sanjayis centrs. yures dasavleT nawilSi yofila bazari ramdenime duqniT, baTumis sanjayis ufrosis (sanjaybegis) rezidencia, inglisis konsulis saxli [GVARRACINO F., 1845: 296], meCeTi da sxva. miTiTebuli meCeTi iyo axmed-faSas jame, romelic mdebareobda moqmedi orTajames adgilas. 30-iani wlebis damdegs igi augia axmed-faSa ximSiaSvils. amis Sesaxeb saintereso cnobas gvawvdis i. kalfoRlu. igi, Sesabamis cnobebze dayrdnobiT, miuTiTebs, rom garkveul periodSi lazistanis muTasarifis moadgilis _ `muselimis'' Tanamdeboba ekava axmed-faSa ximSiaSvils, romelic ijda baTumSi. Tavdapirvelad misi saxli mdebareobda baTumgoraze.DSemdeg axmed-faSas Tavisi rezidencia gadautania yures samxreT-dasavleT nawilSi. Aam mizniT man aaSena

60

axmedies meCeTi, e.i. meCeTi axmed-faSas pativsacemad. Aamis Semdeg mosaxleobamac Tavi moiyara am meCeTis garSemo [ ., 1905: 41]. am periodis qalaqi iTvlida 300-ze met saxls da orive sqesis 2000-mde mcxovrebs. mosaxleobis ZiriTad nawils Seadgendnen qarTvelebi. baTumSi saqalaqo cxovrebis ganviTareba SedarebiT intensiur xasiaTs Rebulobs XIX saukunis 60-ian wlebidan. aRniSnul process biZgi misca naosnobis gamococxlebam, rac ganapiroba baTumis uaRresad moxerxebulma bunebrivma sanavsadguro pirobebma. inglisuri gazeTi `deili niusi~ 1878 wels werda: `baTumis navsadguri erTaderTi usafrTxo navsayudelia Savi zRvis mTel samxreT da aRmosavleT sanapiroze yirimamde. aq wyali imdenad Rrmaa, rom yvela did gems SeuZlia CauSvas Ruza napiris axlos~. Tavisi moxerxebuli sanavsadguro pirobebis gamo, foTsa da sxva sazRvao punqtebSi Ria reidze dgomas, gemebi amjobinebdnen baTumis usafrTxo navsadgurSi Sesvlas. gaxSirda gemebis mimosvla baTumSi. Tu adre aq mxolod TurqeTis gemebi Semodiodnen, ukve 60-iani wlebidan sistematurad Semodian naosnobisa da vaWrobis rusuli sazogadoebis, inglisis, norvegiis, avstriis, saberZneTis, safrangeTis, italiis da sxva qveynebis savaWro gemebi. 1859 wels baTumis portSi gemTbrunvam 2100 erTeuls gadaaWarba. yirimis omis Semdeg baTumis gziT mniSvnelovnad izrdeba gemebis mimosvla, tvirTbrunva. Sesabamisad, izrdeba aqedan dasavleTis qveynebsa da SavizRvispireTis aRmosavleT raionebs Soris savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierToba. baTumis navsadguriT gansakuTrebiT intensiuri xdeba amierkavkasiis sagareo vaWroba. vinaidan didi sazRvao gemebi Ria reidis gamo eridebodnen foTis navsadgurSi Sesvlas, aqedan patara gemebiT xdeboda tvirTis gadmotana baTumSi. aq ki did gemebze tvirTavdnen. `amave gziT midioda saqoneli amierkavkasiaSi~. izrdeba baTumis gziT saqarTvelosa da Sesabamisad amierkavkasiis saqonlis tvirTbrunva. 60-ian wlebis bolosaTvis man Seadgina Savi zRvis portebiT amierkavkasiis tvirTbrunvis 41% [r. uzunaZe, 2002: 51-66]. n. nikolaZis TqmiT, baTumi gaxda amierkavkasiis savaWro saqonlis umTavresi sawyobi [n. nikolaZe, 1966: 385]. baTumis saqalaqo cxovrebis formireba-ganviTarebis mniSvnelovan monakveTs warmoadgenda XIX s-is 60-70-iani wlebi. sanaosno da savaWro kavSir-urTierTobis zrdam biZgi misca baTumSi saqalaqo cxovrebis gamococxlebas. `baTumSi yoveldRe sul ufro igrZnoba gamococxleba da zrda, rogorc mosax61

leobis, ise vaWrobis mxriv~, _ werda italiis konsuli baTumSi malmuzi [ ., 1874-1875: 35]. arsebuli viTarebidan gamomdinare, osmaleTis xelisufleba met dainteresebas da yuradRebas iCens baTumis mimarT. mimdinareobs qalaqis centris gadanacvleba yures dasavleT nawilSi da uSualod baTumis koncxze saqalaqo dasaxlebis gaSeneba. am mxriv saintereso cnobas Seicavs sulTan abdul azizis (1861-1876 w.w.) mier 1863 wels gacemuli firmani. masSi vkiTxulobT: `trapizonis vilaieTis valim (gubernatori ­ r.u.), vezirma esed mehmed emin mexlis faSam, Tavis moxsenebaSi dasva sakiTxi baTumis navsadguris Crdilo-dasavleT nawilSi CrdilonawilSi axali qalaqis aSenebis Sesaxeb, romelic iqneboda lazistanis safaSos centri.~ `axali qalaqis~ gasaSeneblad aRniSnul teritoriaze gamoiyo 60 aTasi kvadratuli arSini (daaxloebiT 42 heqtari) nakveTi, `romelic geometriis wesis mixedviT, yvela mimarTulebiT quCebis gayvaniT daiyos nawilebad (ubnebad). sigane quCebis 12 arSini unda iyos da am nakveTis Sua nawilSi moxerxebul adgilas aSendes meCeTi~ [a. avaliani, 1960: 98]. faqtobrivad, es iyo dagegmarebis wesiT (quCebiT, kvartalebiT) qalaqis ganaSenianebis pirveli mcdeloba. SemdgomSi baTumis qalaqgegmarebiT proeqtebs ZiriTadad aRniSnuli gegma daedo safuZvlad. baTumis koncxis teritoriis aTvisebisa da dasaxlebis gaSenebis mizniT dainteresebul kerZo pirebs SeRavaTiT eZleodaT miwis nakveTebi. amis Taobaze sulTani brZanebda: `es miwa gamoeyos kerZo pirebs Semdegi pirobiT: maT yovelwliurad xazinas unda gadauxadon as kvadratul arSin (1 a = 71 sm) miwaze erTi beSliyi mejidie (1 mejidie = 5.67 rubls), raTa kerZo pirebma SeZlon miwebiT sargebloba da sruli sakuTrebis uflebiT flobdnen sakuTari saxsrebiT aSenebul yovelgvar Senobas~ [a. avaliani, 1960: 98-99]. qalaqis centris Crdilo-dasavleTiT gadanacvlebis procesi ZiriTadad damTavrebuli Cans 60-iani wlebis bolosaTvis. j. palgrevis 1867-1868 wlebis cnobiT, qalaqi mdebareobda yures dasavleT nawilSi [ .., 1882 : 46]. yures CrdilodasavleT nawilSi 1868 wels aSenda qvis meCeTi, romelic istoriaSi cnobilia azizies james saxelwodebiT. mdebareobda gogebaSvilis quCaze, yofil teqnikis saxlis midamoebSi [r. uzunaZe, 1977: 33]. Semdeg meCeTis mimdebare sakmaod vrcel teritoriasac ewoda azizies ubani. igi im dros yvelaze ufro centraluri adgili yofila baTumSi. savaWro ekonomikuri urTierTobis ganviTarebis kvalobaze baTumSi gaixsna sakonsuloebi. 1856 wels gaixsna ruseTis sakonsulo. vice-konsulad dainiSna petre nikolozis-Ze judiCi.

62

Semdeg gaixsna sparseTisa da italiis sakonsuloebi. 1862 wels gaixsna safrangeTis sakonsulo. baTumSi gaixsna agreTve savaWro da sanaosno sazogadoebaTa saagentoebi, sabaJo, sakarantino saxli. moqmedebda satelegrafo sadguri, fosta. Sesabamisad, izrdeboda qalaqis mosaxleoba. 60-iani wlebis bolosaTvis qalaqis mosaxleoba udrida 4970 kacs [r. uzunaZe, 1997: 35]. baTumSi cxovrobdnen qarTvelebi, agreTve afxazebi, Cerqezebi, berZnebi, somxebi, Turqebi. 1875 wlisaTvis baTumis mosaxleoba Seadgenda 8730 suls [gaz. `droeba~, 1875: #145]. Sesabamisad, izrdeba qalaqi. 70-iani wlebisaTvis qalaqis sazRvrebi aRwevda nuris (`nurie giol~) tbamde, magram ZiriTadad teritoria dasaxlebuli iyo navsadguris zRvispira zolidan moyolebuli, daaxloebiT, baraTaSvilis quCis CaTvliT. iyofoda ubnebad: azizies ubani, axmedies ubani, nuries ubani, mufties ubani da sari-sus ubani. qalaqi Sedgeboda 20mde quCisagan. 60-iani wlebidan baTumi warmoadgenda lazistanis safaSos mTavar administraciul centrs. aq ganTavsebuli iyo muTasarifis (gubernatoris) rezidencia, mejlisi, sasamarTlo, lazareTi, batalionis Stabsadgomi, sabaJos sammarTvelo da sxva administraciuli dawesebuleba. baTumSi dRiTi-dRe izrdeboda vaWroba. qalaqi mofenili iyo duqnebiT, maRaziebiT. 1873 wlisaTvis baTumSi iTvleboda 800-mde duqani [d. baqraZe, 1987: 24]. SeimCneva qalaqis keTilmowyobis niSnebi. amrigad, Tanamedrove baTumis saqalaqo dasaxlebis formireba-ganviTarebis procesis mniSvnelovani etapia XIX s. damdegi - 70-iani wlebi.

literatura gamoyenebuli literatura

1. d. baqraZe, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, baT., 1987. 2. J. f. gamba, mogzauroba amierkavkasiaSi, Tb., 1987. 3. `droeba~, 1875, @# 145. 4. a. inaiSvili, baTumis istoriisaTvis axali arqeologiuri gaTxrebis safuZvelze, kr. `kavkasiis xalxTa istoriis sakiTxebi~, Tb., 1966. 5. a. kaxiZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTi Zv.w. VIIV saukuneebSi, _ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi (aWara), t. I, baT., 2007. 6. a. kaxiZe, xaxutaiSvili d., masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis (winaantikuri da antikuri xana), _ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XVIII, Tb., 1989.

63

7. k. koxisa da o. spenseris cnobebi saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis Sesaxeb, germanulidan Targmna, Sesavali da komentarebi daurTo l. mamacaSvilma, Tb., 1981. 8. n. nikolaZe, Txz., t. 5, Tb., 1966. 9. vl. siWinava, q.baTumis Zveli istoriidan, _ baTumis ped. institutis Sromebi, t. 9, baT., 1962. 10. r. uzunaZe, baTumis istoriidan, baT., 1997. 11. r. uzunaZe, naosnoba baTumis olqSi, baT., 2002. 12. r. uzunaZe, baTumis warsulis qronikebi, _ gaz. `Tanadgoma~, 2008, ##13-14, 15-16. 13. s. yauxCiSvili, antikuri masalebi baTumis istoriisaTvis, _ quTaisis ped. institutis Sromebi, t. X, quT., 1950-1951. 14. T. yauxCiSvili, q. baTumis istoriis antikuri wyaroebi, _ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XVI., Tb., 1987. 15. j. CxeiZe, baTumi (istoriuli narkvevi), baT., 1959. 16. , . . ., ., 1911. 17. GVARRACINO F., Excuvsion from Batum to Artvin, Jornal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol XV. 18. ., , ­ , .3, 3, ., 1873. 19. ., , ­ , . XVIII, . I, 1906. 20. ., , 1873 ., _ , . 3, 2, ., 1874-1875. 21. , . 1867-1868 1872 , ., 1882. 22. ., , _ , ., , ., 1905.

Revaz Uzunadze First Steps towards Formation and Development of Urban Settlements in Modern Batumi (Early 19th c. ­ 1870es) summary The movement of the modern urban Settlement from the estuary of the river Korolistskali towards Batumi cape begins 18th century and ends in 1960es. This process is connected to the favourable harbor conditions of the Batumi bay. In addition, the vast lowland around the bay gave opportunities to develop new urban Settlements. The 1860-70es is the significant period in the development of urban life in Batumi.

64

malxaz sioriZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

ucxoeTis qveynebis sakonsuloebi baTumSi

bunebrivad kargi da qariSxlisagan daculi navsadguris gamo baTumi jer kidev osmalTa mflobelobis periodSi CaerTo aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis qalaqebs Soris gemebis mimosvlasa da savaWro operaciebSi. aman xeli Seuwyo aq sxvadasxva qveynis sakonsuloebis da warmomadgenlobebis gaxsnas. sakonsuloebis mTavari amocana iyo maTi qveynebis da moqalaqeebis interesebis dacva da miswrafebebis ganxorcielebaSi xelis Sewyoba. me-19 saukunis 40-iani wlebidan baTumSi ukve moqmedebda inglisis sakonsulo da ijda vice-konsuli. amave periodSi ruseTis imperiis maRal eSelonebSic gaCnda azri baTumSi sakonsulos gaxsnis Taobaze. 1846 wels kavkasiis mefisnacvalma vorovcovma es winadadeba dasva imperiis finansTa da sagareo saqmeTa saministroebis winaSe [, .10, ., 1885: 183]. sakiTxi ganxorcielda mxolod yirimis omis (1853-1856 ww.) Semdeg, roca ruseTma baTumSi daaarsa jer StatgareSe vice-sakonsulo, rac 1858 wlis 1 ianvridan gadakeTda Statian vice-sakonsulod [, .12, ., 1904: 565]. ruseTis pirvel vice-konsulad baTumSi dainiSna petre judiCi. man sakonsulos Senoba aago maSindeli qalaqis ganapiras, romelsac erTi mxriT zRva esazRvreboda, xolo meore mxriT tye. sakonsulos orsarTuliani qvis saxli mdebareobda dRevandeli mezRvaurTa samedicino centris midamoebSi. daaxloebiT amave dros baTumSi gaixsna sparseTis sakonsulo, xolo Semdeg _ italiis sakonsulo. Mme-19 saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi baTumSi italiis konsuli iyo malmuzi. is am movaleobas asrulebda 1877-1878 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omamde. malmuzma saintereso cnobebi dagvitova osmalobis periodis baTumis Sesaxeb [m. sioriZe, 2003: 40]. misi naSromis saxelwodebaa _ "qalaq baTumis da portis mdgomareoba" [ ., 1974-1975]. me-19 saukunis 60-iani wlebidan baTumSi moqmedebda safrangeTis sakonsuloc. am dros baTumis muTaserifis (gubernatoris) samsaxurSi myofi evropeli oficeri fr. laionsi asaxelebs konsulis vinaobasac _ steieri. is yofila Zalzed principuli pirovneba da evropelebis interesebis Tavgamodebuli damcveli.

65

frangi konsuli steieri Turme seriozulad wahkidebia ruseTis moaxloebuli Tavdasxmis da misi jaSuSebis momravlebis panikuri SiSiT Sepyrobil baTumis osmalo gubernators imis gamo, rom mas aseve eWvis niadagze, ruseTis jaSuSobis braldebiT, daupatimrebia italieli vaWari. frangi konsuli imdenad mtkice da Semtevi aRmCnda, rom aiZula baTumis muTaserifi usafuZvlod datusaRebuli da stambolSi gasasamarTleblad gagzavnili italieli trapizonidan ukan moebrunebina* [Lyons Fr. A., : 215, 279]. garda sxva saxis interesebisa, baTumSi safrangeTis sakonsulos daarseba agreTve gamouwvevia franguli sanaosno sazogadoebis _ "mesaJer maritimis" gemebis CarTvas baTum-foTs Soris tvirTebis gadatanasa da mgzavrebis gadayvanaSi, rac Zalze Semosavliani xazi yofila. marto 1867 wels am sanaosno sazogadoebis erT-erT gems ("rioni") baTum-foTs Soris gadautania 196 aTasi rublis Rirebulebis sxvadasxva saxis tvirTi. es iyo im wels baTumis gziT amierkavkasiis saqonlis tvirTbrunvis saerTo Rirebulebis (1.5-milionamde rubli) 1/7nawili [r. uzunaZe, 2001: 53-54]. 1872 wlidan, Tbilis-foTis rkinigzis gaxsnis Semdeg, safrangeTis sakonsulo foTSi gadavida, magram baTumis saqarTvelosTan dabrunebis Semdeg, 1878 wlis 31 oqtombers safrangeTis mTavrobam Tavisi sakonsulo foTidan isev baTumSi gadmoitana [i. tabaRua, 1980: 78]. Tavisufali qalaq-navsadguris statusis miRebisTanave baTumi moeqca ucxoeTis komersantTa da gemTmflobelTa yuradRebis centrSi. yovelwliurad matulobda saqmiani ucxoelebis mimosvla. maTi, da aq moqmedi ucxouri savaWro-samrewvelo firmebis interesebis dacvisTvis baTumSi gaixsna araerTi qveynis sakonsulo da warmomadgenloba. 1881 wels baTumSi muSaobda osmaleTis, safrangeTis da inglisis sakonsuloebi [.. 1884: 124], xolo 1884-1885 wlebSi ukve 6 qveynis sakonsulo moqmedebda: osmaleTis, safrangeTis, didi britaneTis, italiis, avstria-ungreTis da aSS-is. amave dros foTSi kvlav 4 qveynis sakonsuloa, xolo kavkasiis samefisnacvlo rezidenciaSi _ q.TbilisSi _ 7 sakonsulo [.. 1885: 126; .. 1886: 120]. porto-frankos moqmedebis periodSi baTumma, rogorc metad xelsayrelma saerTaSoriso qalaq-navsadgurma, imdenad maRali reputacia SeiZina, rom am statusis gauqmebam masze veRar imoqmeda. piriqiT, 1887 wels baTumSi ukve 10 qveynis sakonsulo moqmedebda, amave periodSi foTSi _ 6, xolo TbilisSi _ 8 qveynis generaluri sakonsulo da sakonsulo iyo [.. 1888:

66

226-227]. zemoaRniSnuli, agreTve, Semdgomi wlebis monacemebi, adasturebs, rom me-19 saukunis 80-iani wlebis meore naxevridan _ 1917 wlamde periodSi kavkasiis samefisnacvlos yvelaze mniSvnelovan sanavsadguro da Siga savaWro centrebs Soris, nebismier wels, baTumSi iyo yvelaze meti ucxoeTis qveynis sakonsulo warmomadgenloba. amis sailustraciod movitan cxrils (m. sioriZe, 2003: 114). ucxoeTis saxelmwifoebis sakonsuloebi kavkasiis samefisnacvlos mTavar sanavsadguro da savaWro-samrewvelo centrebSi

sakonsuloebis raodenoba wlebis mixedviT qalaqi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tbilisi baqo baTumi foTi novorosiiski erevani yarsi** 6 1 4 6 1 3 5 7 1 6 6 8 2 10 6 1 6 3 13 6 2 1 1 6 3 13 6 3 1 1 7 5 13 6 4 1 2 7 6 13 6 6 1 2 7 9 15 4 7 1 2 9 9 14 5 9 1 2 11 12 14 5 12 1 2 12 13 14 3 12 1 6 6 10 12 2 8 1 2

1904

1902

1908

1890

1896

1899

1884

1887

1878

1893

#

aRsaniSnavia, rom 1901-1903 wlebSi baTumSi iyo 15 saxelmwifos sakonsulo. gTavazobT maT srul sias Sesabamisi statusisa da konsulTa vinaobis miTiTebiT (sanimuSod viReb 1903 wlis monacemebs): 1. osmaleTis generaluri konsuli _ abdul qerim sabiTbei; 2. saberZneTis konsuli _ aristid pavlidesi; 3. italiis konsuli _ lorenso valeri; 4. niderlandebis vice-konsuli _ henrix blei (misi sakonsulo uflebamosileba garda baTumisa, vrceldeboda mTels kavkasiaze); 5. iaponiis konsuli _ al. vanSeidti; 6. sparseTis konsuli _ mirza aRa xani; 7. daniis konsuli _ varneke; 8. aSS-is vice-konsuli _ hari brigsi; 9. espaneTis StatgareSe vice-konsuli _ spadoro; 10. belgiis vice-konsuli _ deibeli; 11. germaniis vice-konsuli _ fridrix burkgarti;

67

1916

1912

1881

12. avstria-ungreTis konsuli _ stivensi; 13. didi britaneTis vice-konsuli _ stivensi (SeTavsebiT) da uudhauzi; 14. Svecia-norvegiis vice-konsuli _ gustaav haageri; 15. safrangeTis sakonsulo agenti _ delakrua. warmodgenili masala naTlad gviCvenebs, rom sakonsuloTa mateba-kleba damokidebuli iyo maTi mdebareobis punqtebSi komerciasa da mrewvelobaSi Seqmnil viTarebaze. baTumSi ki, pirvel etapze sakonsuloebis mateba, xolo Semdeg stabiluri ricxvis SenarCuneba udavod aris imis mowmoba, rom am qalaq-navsadguris potenciali saerTaSoriso ekonomikur urTierTobebSi saTanadod iyo dafasebuli ucxoeTis saxelmwifoTa mmarTveli wreebis mier. amis sailustraciod gamodgeba Tundac 1916 weli, roca pirveli msoflio omis gamo Caketili iyo Savi zRvis sruteebi da baTumi sagareo saqonelbrunvis operaciebs veRar awarmoebda. ucxoeTis saxelmwifoebis didma nawilma (aSS-ma, belgiam, didma britaneTma, saberZneTma, daniam, espaneTma, italiam, niderlandebma, norvegiam, sparseTma, portugaliam da safrangeTma) baTumSi mainc SeinarCuna Tavisi sakonsulo warmomadgenlobebi. 1918-1920 wlebis periodis baTumSi ucxoeTis qveynebis sakonsuloebis Sesaxeb masalebi metad mwiria, Tu ar CavTvliT general denikinisa da vrangelis warmomadgenlobebs, agreTve, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis sakonsulos. Aamave periodSi baTumSi Tavisi qveynis interesebisaTvis aqtiurad saqmianobda azerbaijanis (konsuli mahmud efendievi) da somxeTis sakonsuloebi [ab. surgulaZe, m. sioriZe, 1996: 75]. sxva qveynebis sakonsuloebis baTumSi saqmianobis Sesaxeb cnobebi ar mogvepoveba. aRsaniSnavia, rom ucxoeTis qveynebis warmomadgenlobebi, sxvadasxva garemoebaTa gamo, araiSviaTad icvlidnen adgilsamyofels.Aamis miuxedavad, SesaZlebelia ZiriTad maTganTa misamarTebis dadgena, rac aseve Semdgomi muSaobis saqmea. 1920 wlis ivlisSi baTumi daubrunda saqarTvelos respublikas. Osaarqivo masalebidan Cans, rom baTumSi ukve moqmedebs didi britaneTis sakonsulo. cnobilia konsulis vinaobac ­ habbardi. baTumSi amoqmedebula litvis diplomatiuri warmomadgenlobac, sadac konsulis movaleobas asrulebda leon zika [scssa, f. 1891, an. 1, s. 416, f. 3-4]. saqarTvelosa da ruseTis bolSevikur mTavrobas Soris 1920 wlis 7 maiss dadebuli xelSekrulebis safuZvelze TbilisSi gaixsna rsfsr saelCo, xolo baTumSi _ amave qveynis sakonsulo. maT didi roli iTamaSes saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis damxobaSi, Tumca es aris calke saubris Tema, raze68

dac sxva dros SevCerdebiT. sabWoTa xelisuflebis wlebSi mimdinare represiebma sazRvargareTidan saqmiani adamianebis da turistTa mimosvla baTumSi TiTqmis nulamde daiyvana. magaliTad, 1928 wels baTumis navsadguriT Semovida da gavida 5250-mde mgzavri [acsa, f. 43, an. 1, s. 48, f. 8], 1935 wels _ 1600, romelTagan 560 iyo sazRvao kruiziT aq erTi dRiT Semosuli ucxoeli turisti, 56 _ sparseTSi mimavali mgzavri, 8 _ diplomati [suicsa, f. 617, an. 1, s. 7870, f. 17]. 1935 wels baTumSi Semosuli 2542 mgzavridan 1800 ucxoeTidan sacxovreblad gadmosuli somexi migranti iyo, xolo 1937 wels baTumis navsadgurSi sul Semovida da gavida mxolod 341 mgzavri [acsa, f. 43, an. 1, s. 65, f. 6]. es mdgomareoba Taviseburad aisaxeboda baTumSi ucxoeTis qveynebis sakonsuloebzec. Tu 1922-1923 wlebisaTvis baTumSi 5 qveynis (sparseTis, TurqeTis, Cexoslovakiis sakonsuloebi, italiis da germaniis sakonsulo agentebi) diplomatiuri warmomadgenloba iyo [suicsa, f. 804, an. 1, s. 19, f. 246], 1936 wels aq mxolod TurqeTis, sparseTis da italiis sakonsuloebi moqmedebda. dReisaTvis baTumSi moqmedebs ramdenime ucxouri qveynis diplomatiuri warmomadgenloba: TurqeTis respublikis generaluri sakonsulo; ukrainis sakonsulo saagento (2004 wlidan); somxeTis respublikis generaluri sakonsulo (2008 wlidan). molaparakebebi midis sxva qveynebis sakonsuloTa gaxsnis Taobazec, rac kidev ufro mimzidvels gaxdis baTums ucxouri safinanso wreebisaTvis da xels Seuwyobs misi saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis Semdgom zrdas.

SeniSvnebi

* im dros baTumsa da stambols Soris sazRvao mimosvla xdeboda trapizonis gavliT. baTum-stambolis pirdapiri xazi SemuSavda da amoqmedda mogvianebiT. ** yarsis da artaanis olqebi 1918 wlamde Sedioda ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi.

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Ggamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi (scssa), fondi 1891, anaweri 2, saqme 416. scssa) 2. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri arqivi (suicsa), fondi 617, anaweri 1, saqme 1810. 3. suicsa, f. 804, an. 1, s. 19. 4. aWaris centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi 43, anaweri 1, saqmeebi 48; 65. 5. (), T. 10, ., 1885; .12, ., 1904. 6. (..) 1884, 1885, 1886, 1888 da a.S. 1917 wlis ,,kavkasiis kalendris" CaTvliT. 7. Lyons Fr. A Illustrated Travels, London-paris-new-york. 8. . , 1873 . ­ , . 3, 2, . 1874-1875. 9. ab. surgulaZe, m. sioriZe, porto-franko baTumSi, baT., 1996. 10. m. sioriZe, baTumis sabaJo, baT., 2003. 11. i. tabaRua, saqarTveloSi safrangeTis konsulebis moRvaweobis istoriidan (1821-1921 ww.), Jurn. ,,macne" (istoriis seria), # 3, 1986. 12. r. uzunaZe, naosnoba baTumis olqSi (samxedro-politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri aspeqtebi), baT., 2001.

Malkhaz Sioridze (Batumi, Georgia) Foreign Countries Consulates in Batumi Summary In 19th century, Batumi joined the international maritime trade. It became a reason of opening the foreign consulates in Batumi. The consulates of Great Britain, Russia, Iran, Italy, and France were opened in it in 40-60-s of 19th century when the town was controlled by Ottoman. After giving the status of Porto-Franco ­ free port to Batumi, town became more attractive for foreign visitors. If in 1884 there were six foreign consulates in Batumi, in 1887 their number reached ten, and in 1901-1913 there were 14-15 consulates in it. It was the highest level among the dominant towns of Caucasus. During the Soviet Regime, the number of consulates of foreign countries was quickly diminished. After the Second World War, there was the single general consulate of Turkish Republic in Batumi. In 2004 the consulate of the Ukraine and in 2008 the general consulate of Republic of Armenia were opened in Batumi.

70

xaTuna qoqraSvili

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

strategiuli giorgi yazbegi baTumis strategiuli mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb

yirimis omis Semdeg ruseT-osmaleTis samxedro-politikur dapirispirebaSi dunaispireTisa da Savi zRvis CrdiloeT sanapiros uzarmazari samxedro strategiuli daniSnuleba mniSvnelovnad dakninda. samagierod, am ori imperiis urTierTWidilSi, gamoikveTa amierkavkasiisa da misi mimdebare provinciebis uzarmazari mniSvneloba. XIX s-is 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi Seqmnili saerTaSoriso viTarebis fonze cxadi gaxda ruseTosmaleTis morigi omis gardauvaloba. amgvar viTarebaSi osmaleTis mier dapyrobili, istoriuli samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoria ruseTisaTvis metad saintereso regionad iqca. 1874 wlis gazafxulze, ruseTis xelisuflebis sagangebo sadazvervo misiiT, am regionSi imogzaura cnobilma samxedro da sazogado moRvawem giorgi yazbegma. misi mogzaurobis STabeWdilebebi 1875 wels rusul enaze gamoqveynda saxelwodebiT: `sami Tve TurqeTis saqarTveloSi~ [g. yazbegi, 1995]. ufro mogvianebiT ki, 1876 wels, kavkasiis samxedro olqis Stabis tipografiam rusul enaze gamosca giorgi yazbegis, imJamad generaluri Stabis podpolkovnikis, metad sayuradRebo naSromi _ `lazistanis sanjayis samxedro-statistikuri da strategiuli narkvevi~ [-..., 1876]. masSi avtorma gadmogvca zemoT xsenebuli mogzaurobis Sedegad mopovebuli informaciis detaluri analizi da viTarebis samxedro-strategiuli Sefaseba. wignis pirveli nawili lazistanis sanjayis samxedro-statistikur aRweras Seexeba. is Seicavs informacias sanjayis geografiuli sazRvrebis, topografiis, klimatis, dasaxlebuli punqtebis, mosaxleobis erovnuli Semadgenlobisa da saqmianobis, misi osmaleTis mTavrobisadmi damokidebulebis, saxelmwifo gadasaxadebisa da samxedro valdebulebebis, Sesaxeb da sxva. Cveni yuradReba, amjerad, daeTmoba naSromis meore nawils _ `strategiul narkvevs~, romelSic umTavresi adgili qalaq baTumis samxedro-strategiuli mniSvnelobis warmoCenasa da analizs eTmoba. giorgi yazbegis Sesaxeb gamocemul samecniero literaturaSi n. naWyebia, m. svaniZe, ramaz surmaniZe, mamia xabazi da sxvebi Zalze sainteresod gadmoscemen am sazogado moRvawis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis amsaxvel manamade ucnob faqtebs [g.

71

yazbegi, 1995; r. surmaniZe, 2006; n. naWyebia, 1960; giorgi yazbegi aWaris.., 1960]. Tumca samecniero literaturaSi naklebad aris xazgasmuli is, rom giorgi yazbegi erT-erTi pirvelTagania, romelmac XIX s-is 70-ian wlebSi realurad Seqmnili saerTaSoriso, istoriul-politikuri viTarebis fonze, win wamowia, baTumis gansakuTrebuli garemo-pirobebisa da geografiuli mdebareobis gamo, am qalaqis mzardi samxedro-strategiuli da politikuri mniSvneloba. Cveni naSromis mizanic, swored, giorgi yazbegis, rogorc sazogado moRvawisa da moazrovnis, am mignebisa da Tvalsazrisis farTo sazogadoebisaTvis Cvenebaa, radgan man udidesi roli Seasrula baTumis saqarTvelos wiaRSi dabrunebis saqmeSi. cnobilia, rom XIX s-is 50-ian wlebSi, mas Semdeg, rac aWara (WaneTTan da qobuleTTan erTad) axlad Seqmnil lazistanis sanjaySi Sevida da baTumis kaimaks daeqvemdebara, qalaqma administraciuli daniSnuleba SeiZina. amave saukunis 60-70-iani wlebidan baTumSi saqalaqo cxovrebis formireba-ganviTareba intensiur xasiaTs iZens [r. uzunaZe, 1997: 68]. Ggiorgi yazbegis lazistanis sanjaySi mogzaurobis dros, baTumi SavizRvipireTis momcro, magram kargad gamagrebuli, SesaniSnavi navmisadgomis mqone qalaqi iyo [g. yazbegi, 1995: 155]. Mmas gaaCnda samxedro saporto qalaqis yvela Tviseba, sadac erTdroulad ramdenime msxvili gemis datvirTva da dacla xerxdeboda. giorgi yazbegis SefasebiT, baTumis sakmaod did manZilze gadaWimuli gemebis reidi saukeTeso iyo Sav zRvaze sevastopolis Semdeg [-..., 1876: 43]. osmalebi rom qalaqs samxedro mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen, giorgi yazbegis dakvirvebiT, kargad CandaBbaTumis reidis dasavleTiT da aRmosavleTiT mSenebare sakmaod mtkice simagreebis mixedviT. giorgi yazbegis, rogorc samxedro specialistis dakvirvebiT, mimdinare samuSaoebis moculobis mixedviT, im etapze, bastionebs navsadguris Sesasvlelebis damcavi funqcia unda hqonodaT. Tumca, misive SefasebiT, ruseT-osmaleTis momavali samxedro dapirispirebis SemTxvevaSi, rac gardauvali Canda, qalaqis mxolod TavdacviTi miznebisTvis gamoyeneba osmaleTis xelisuflebisagan did Secdomad CaiTvleboda. giorgi yazbegis azriT, baTumis samxedro-strategiul mniSvnelobas didad zrdida liganis gzatkecili, romelis gayvana, misi lazistanSi mogzaurobis dros (1874 weli), ukve mimdinareobda. gzatkecili baTums yarsTan akavSirebda. am SemTxvevaSi, yarsi, es pirveli klasis cixesimagre, moipovebda zRvaze gasasvlels, xolo baTumi ki misi navsadguris funqcias SeiZenda [-..., 1876: 44]. amdenad, mosalodneli omis dros lazistanis sanjays da mis centrs _

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baTums geografiuli pirobebisa da mzardi samxedro-strategiuli mniSvnelobis gamo, sxva teritoriebze Setevisa da sabrZolo moqmedebebis gasaSlelad sabaziso roli unda Seesrulebina. cnobilia, rom saomari moqmedebebis warmatebas mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs mowinaaRmdegis samxedro Zalebis winaswari Sefaseba, misi taqtikisa da strategiuli Canafiqris amocnoba da analizi, moqmedebis dagegmva movlenebis ganviTarebis yvela SesaZlo variantis SemTxvevaSi. Cvens mier gansaxilveli wyaro swored amgvari analitikuri xasiaTisaa. ruseT-osmaleTis SesaZlo omis SemTxvevaSi sabrZolo moqmedebebis Teatri, _ giorgi yazbegis daskvniT, _ savaraudod, baiazeTi-yarsi-artaani-baTumis frontis xazze gaiSleboda. somxeTis zeganze brZolebis paralelurad, saomari moqmedebebi amierkavkasiaSi, kerZod, saqarTveloSi unda warmarTuliyo. am mizniT osmaleTi Tavisi armiis ZiriTad Zalebs yarssa da baTumSi mouyrida Tavs. saomari operaciebis dros swored yarsi da baTumi iqneboda osmaleTis samxedro Zalebis sayrdeni punqtebi. am or, erTmaneTisagan sakmaod gancalkevebul, magram erTmaneTTan kavSiris mqone punqtebSi samxedro bazebis ganlageba osmaleTs saSualebas miscemda saomari moqmedebebi ewarmoebina erTdroulad, an brZolebis simZimis centri gadaetana xan yarsi-artaanis, xan baTumis mimarTulebiT. samxedro operaciebis lavireba damokidebuli iqneboda imaze, sabrZolo moqmedebebis ra mimarTulebas airCevda osmaleTis xelisufleba: svlas axalqalaqis, axalcixisa Tu quTaisis mimarTulebiT [-..., 1876: 47]. rogorc vxedavT, baTumis samxedro-strategiuli mniSvneloba giorgi yazbegma yarsis mniSvnelobis paralelurad ganixila [-..., 1876: 43, 46-47, 56], amasTan, aRniSnul naSromSi sakmaod warmatebiT daasabuTa kidec Tavisi mosazreba. giorgi yazbegis daskvnebis siswore mogvianebiT samecniero gamokvlevebmac daadastures. cnobilia, rom CvenTvis saintereso periodSi, amierkavkasiaSi, kerZod saqarTveloSi sabrZolo moqmedebebis gaSlis gegmas osmaleTi da misi mokavSire saxelmwifoebi sakmaod aqtiurad ganixilavdnen [a. CxeiZe, 1974: 11-13, 19-20]. giorgi yazbegis xelT arsebuli informaciis analizi iZleoda Semdegi daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas: osmaleTi realurad flobda yvela SesaZlo saSualebas, drois umokles monakveTSi konstantinopolidan baTumSi gadaesxa samxedro SenaerTebisa da desantis uzarmazari raodenoba, romelic ricxobrivad da aRWurvilobiT mniSvnelovnad aRemateboda dasavleT saqarTveloSi ganlagebul ruseTis kavkasiis frontis samxedro Zalebs.Yyirimis omSi ruseTis samxedro sazRvao

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flotis ganadgureba da osmaleTis Sav zRvaze gabatoneba, TiTqmis sruliad gamoricxavda xelisSemSlel faqtorebs am sakiTxSi [-..., 1876: 45-49] baTumis desantis mTavari strategiuli mizani saqarTvelos samxedro gzebis xelSi Cagdeba da rionis auzis teritoriis gakontroleba unda yofiliyo. am mizniT, baTumidan mosalodneli iyo osmaleTis samxedro Zalebis quTaisis mimarTulebiT gadaadgileba da suramis (rikoTis) uReltexilis dakaveba. bunebrivia, es pozicia osmaleTs aZlevda Tbilisze, borjomis xeobidan gamosasvlelebsa da axalcixeze muqaris saSualebas. giorgi yazbegis azriT, sagangebo rols Seasrulebda osmaleTis mier q. foTis dakavebac, rac saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamavali sarkinigzo magistralis gakontrolebisa da rionis auzSi ioli gadaadgilebis piroba iqneboda [-..., 1876: 54-56]. moqmedebis siswrafes operaciis warmatebiT ganxorcielebisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba hqonda. osmaleTis amocana iqneboda poziciebis dakaveba da gamyareba manmade, sanam regionSi dislocirebul guriis mcirericxovan samxedro garnizons vladikavkazidan rusebis damxmare eSelonebi mieSveleboda. giorgi yazbegis SefasebiT osmaleTi anatoliis armiis savaraudo frontis xazis (baiazeTi-yarsi-artaani-baTumi) ZiriTad punqtTagan yvelaze adre Zalebis mobilizebas swored baTumSi moaxerxebda da saomari moqmedebebic pirvelad SesaZloa aqedan dawyebuliyo [-..., 1876: 55-57]. amgvarad, Ggiorgi yazbegi samxedro statistikuri monacemebisa da informaciis analizis safuZvelze daaskvnis, rom qalaq baTumis strategiul mniSvneloba osmaleTis xelisuflebis mier ganixileboda: 1. rogorc yarsis samxedro navsadguri; 2. rogorc osmaleTis damoukidebeli samxedro SenaerTebis samobilizacio-Semkrebi punqti da amierkavkasiis teritoriaze saomari moqmedebebis sayrdeni baza. am operaciaSi osmaleTis warmatebas ZiriTadad Semdegi faqtorebi gansazRvravda: 1. osmaleTis hegemonoba Sav zRvaze; 2. baTumis metad xelsayreli mdebareoba, rac osmaleTs saSualebas aZlevda ufro adre moeyara Tavi samxedro ZalebisaTvis, vidre rusebis samxedro garnizoni moaswrebda daniSnul adgilze koncentrirebas; 3. Msamxedro moqmedebebis siswrafe rionis auzisa da suramis uReltexilisaken.B bunebrivia, samxedro-sazRvao flotis uqonlobis gamo, ruseTi uZluri iyo, mocemul situaciaSi, Sav zRvaze osmaleTis sazRvao upiratesoba daeZlia an gaeneitralebina; sxva sakiTxi iyo qveynis SigniT osmaleTis samxedro Zalebis Tavisuflad da swrafad gadaadgilebis aRekveTa, rac, bunebrivia, ruseTis mxridan moqmedebebis swor dagegmvas moiTxovda. giorgi yaz74

begis azriT, mowinaaRmdegis dasabrkoleblad ramodenime gza arsebobda: 1) baTumis dakaveba an 2) baTumidan yarsSi da amierkavkasiaSi mimavali gzebis gadaketva; 3) osmalebis jarebis dasavleT saqarTveloSi SeCereba manamde, sanam Seikribeboda mtris mosagerieblad sakmarisi samxedro Zalebi [-..., 1876: 57-58]. am sami operaciis mosalodneli Sedegebis CvenebiT, giorgi yazbegma erT-erTma pirvelma dausabuTa argumentirebulad ruseTis samxedro xelisuflebas qalaq baTumis dakavebis aucilebloba; man uCvena, rom baTumis aReba uzarmazari saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis faqti iyo da ruseTis imperias osmaleTis winaSe gadamwyvet upiratesobas moupovebda [..., 1876: 58]. aRsaniSnavia, rom baTumis dasakaveblad specialuri damoukidebeli samxedro operaciis Catareba aqamde arasodes yofila ruseTis xelisuflebis strategiuli mizani. 1829 wels paskeviCis brZanebiT aWaraSi generlebis hesesa da osten sakenis samxedro laSqroba, ZiriTadad, osmaleTis samxedro Zalebis daqsaqsvisa da axalcixe-yarsidan adgilobrivi mosaxleobis yuradRebis gadasatanad gamiznul eqspedicias warmoadgenda. es brZolebi, rogorc cnobilia, ruseTis sruli marcxiT damTavrda. Yyirimis omis dros (1853-1854 ww.) ki Tavad andronikaSvilis mier Coloqis marcxena sanapiroze osmaleTis jarebis damarcxebis miuxedavad, svla baTumis mimarTulebiT ar yofila. baTumis aReba, sxvadasxva damabrkolebel faqtorTan erTad, maSin sakmaod rTul amocanad iTvleboda osmaleTis sazRvao upiratesobisa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis antirusuli ganwyobilebis gamo [-..., 1876: 5859; j. CxeiZe, 1950: 22-27; n. varSaniZe, 2005: 46-47; v. siWinava, 1958: 38-40]. XIX s-is 70-ian wlebSi Seqmnili viTarebis fonze giorgi yazbegi sagangebod Seexo baTumis warmatebiT aRebis umTavres faqtorebs. am mxriv, misi azriT, umniSvnelovanesi iyo: 1. adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mxardaWera, an ukidures SemTxvevaSi neitraluri damokidebulebis mopoveba. `TurqeTis saqarTveloSi~ arsebobdnen opoziciuri Zalebi, romelTa meSveobiT ruseTs ar gauWirdeboda mosaxleobaSi sasurveli ganwyobis Seqmna. am SemTxvevaSi warmateba gonivruli da gulwrfeli propagandis Sedegad miiRweoda, romelic qveynis warsulisa da awmyos karg codnaze unda yofiliyo dafuZnebuli. @2. saWiro iyo kavkasiis armiis reorganizacia: rionis auzSi misi dislokaciis gaZliereba, amierkavkasiaSi samxedro valdebulebis sakiTxis gadaxedva, mosalodnel brZolebSi adgilobrivi

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mosaxleobisagan dakompleqtebuli, Tanamedrove SeiaraRebiT aRWurvili samxedro SenaerTebis gamoyeneba [-..., 1876: 60-61]. ruseT-osmaleTis dapirispirebis Semdgomi istoria, kerZod, 1877-1878 wlebis omis samxedro operaciebi gviCvenebs, rom giorgi yazbegis uaRresad mniSvnelovanma daskvnebma da rekomendaciebma uSualo zegavlena iqonia ruseTis xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebebze, istoriuli movlenebis ganviTarebaze da samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriuli teritoriebis dabrunebis saqmeSi didi wvlili Seitana. gvinda Cvens mier ganxiluli wyaros mniSvnelobis erT aspeqtsac SevexoT. dRes, saqarTveloSi samxedro Zalebis ganaxlebam da ganviTarebam metad aqtualuri xasiaTi SeiZina. qarTveli oficrebis aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis umniSvnelovanes komponents Tanamedrove uaxlesi samxedro teqnologiebis gacnobasTan erTad, qarTuli sabrZolo xelovnebisa da samxedroanalitikuri azrovnebis Seswavlac Seadgens. albaT, upriani iqneba, rom giorgi yazbegis ganxiluli naSromi, qarTul enaze Targmnis Semdeg, samxedro akademiis Sesabamisi kursis qrestomaTiaSi Sevides, rogorc qarTveli samxedro moRvawis statistikur-strategiuli azrovnebis TvalsaCino da SesaniSnavi nimuSi.

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. g. yazbegi, sami Tve TurqeTis saqarTveloSi, naSromi Targmnes, Sesavali werilebi, komentarebi da saZieblebi daurTes da gamosces ramaz surmaniZem da mamia xarazma, baT., 1995. 2. - , , . . . . .,., 1876. 3. r. uzunaZe, baTumis istoriidan, baT., 1997. 4. r. surmaniZe, general-leitenanti TergdaleulTa Taobidan, baT., 2006. 5. j. CxeiZe, baTumi, istoriuli narkvevi, baT., 1950. 6. a. CxeiZe, baTumi inglisis axloaRmosavlur politikaSi (18751878 ww.), baT., 1974. 7. n. varSaniZe, baTumi saerTaSoriso politikis konteqstSi (XIX s-is bolo meoTxedi), baTumis saxelmwifo universitetis saistorio macne, #14, baT., 2005. 8. v. siWinava, baTumis istoriidan, baT., 1958. 9. n. naWyebia, qarTveli mogzauri giorgi yazbegi, Tb., 1960. 10. giorgi yazbegi aWaris Sesaxeb (krebuli), baT., 1960.

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Khatuna Kokrashvili (Tbilisi, Georgia) Giorgi Kazbegi About the Strategic Importance of Batumi Summary In the 60 - 70es of the 19 century the territory of south-west Georgia, mainly: Ajara, Shavshet - Imerkhevi, Tao -Klarjeti, that were occupied by Ottomans, became a region of Russia's extreme interest. In Spring, 1874 well known military and public figure Giorgi Kazbeki traveled on special intelligence mission of Russian government in this region. His impressions were written in his tow works in Russian: "Three Months in Georgia of Turkey" and "Military-Statistical and Strategic Review of Lazistani Sanjak". The last one gives us military-statistical and strategic analysis of the information that was gained during the travel in Lazistani Sanjak. The author presented it to the headquarters of The Caucasian Military District. In his analysis Giorgi Kazbeki paid his special interest to Batumi. He was one of the first military and public figures who, because of special environment and geographical location of Batumi, put forward and underlined the increasing military and strategic importance of this town on the background of real international, historical and political situation. He showed that if Russian-Turkey war broke, the possible frontier of the military operations would have been on the line of Baiazeti-Karsi-Ardagani-Batumi. To be more precise, Batumi would have been used by the Ottoman government as the main base for the attack operations in the Caucasus, mainly in Georgia. In this case Ottoman's aim would have been to occupy the military roads of Georgia and finally put Tbilisi under threat. Giorgi Kazbegi showed the possible results of this military operation and thus was one of the first who reasonably proved to the military government of Russia the importance of occupying Batumi by Russia and presented its possible plan. He underscored the importance of the attitude of Lazistan population towards Ottoman government for the success of the operation and the great importance of composing Russian military units from native population for military operations carried on by Russia. The further history of Russia - Turkey opposition, mainly military operations of the war in 1877 - 1879 showed that the extremely important conclusions and recommendations that were given in this work straightly effected the development of the events and greatly contributed in returning the territories of south Georgia.

th

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vaJa CoCia

(gori, saqarTvelo)

san1878 wlis san-stefanos zavi da baTumis sakiTxi berlinis kongresze

1877-1878 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omi TurqeTisaTvis warumateblad mimdinareobda. ruseTis jarebi konstantinopols miuaxlovdnen da aRebiT daemuqrnen [11, 357]. kancleri bismarki daJinebiT urCevda peterburgs konstantinopoli daekavebina [18, 181]. bismarks imedi hqonda, rom amiT ingliss CarTavda konfliqtSi, romelsac SeiZleboda venac SeerTeboda [6, 143]. amaze isic metyvelebda, rom inglisis samxedro-sazRvao floti Savi zRvis sruteebTan gaigzavna [2, 115; 4, 147]. omi inglissa da ruseTs Soris gardauvali Canda, Tu ruseTi uars ar ityoda konstantinopolSi Sesvlaze [5, 449]. aseT situaciaSi imperatorma aleqsandre II-m aukrZala mTavarsardals, did Tavad nikoloz nikolozis Zes (ufrosi), konstantinopolSi Sesvla, raTa mizezi ar miecaT inglisisaTvis [1, #21]. amis miuxedavad, omSi warmatebam saSualeba misca ruseTs zavis pirobebi ekarnaxa TurqeTisaTvis [14, 117]. 1878 w. 31 ianvars ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris daido zavi adrianopolSi rianopolSi. is Seicavda TurqeTis Tanxmobas sazavo adrianopolSi xelSekrulebis winaswar SeTavazebul pirobebze [1, #11-12]. avstria-ungreTma moiTxova momavali ruseT-TurqeTis zavis pirobebis gadacema saerTaSoriso konferenciisaTvis gansaxilvelad [13, 397]. dasawyisSi londoni meryeobda, magram male inglisis mTavroba SeuerTda venis moTxovnas saerTaSoriso konferenciis mowvevis Taobaze [15, 246]. 1878 w. 3 marts ruseTsa da TurqeTis Soris daido san-stefanos preliminaruli sazavo xelSekruleba, romelic 21 punqts moicavda [1, #55]. es xelSekruleba mTlianad cvlida balkaneTis politikur saxes [5, 451; 11, 359]. evropul TurqeTs mxolod konstantinopoli rCeboda. zavis Tanaxmad, serbia, Cernogoria da rumineTi damoukideblobas iRebdnen da mniSvnelovnad afarToebdnen Tavis sazRvrebs. bulgareTi, romelic Tavis SemadgenlobaSi makedonias moicavda, avtonomiuri saTavado xdeboda. misi urTierTobani TurqeTTan mxolod xarkis gadaxdiT amoiwureboda. TurqeTis jarebs unda daetovebinaT bulgareTis teritoria [7, 125]. xelSekrulebis pirobebis Sesrulebaze Tvalyuris misadevneblad, saTavadoSi ori wliT Sedioda ruseTis jari 50

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aTasi kacis saerTo raodenobiT. inglisisa da avstria-ungreTisaTvis aseTi pirobebi miuRebeli iyo [16, 514]. londonSi eSinodaT, rom ruseTi Tavisi gavlenis sferoSi moaqcevda bulgareTs da amiT, faqtobrivad, xmelTaSua zRvis saxelmwifo gaxdeboda. amasTanave, bulgareTis axali sazRvrebi imdenad axlos iyo konstantinopolTan, rom sruteebi da TurqeTis dedaqalaqi mudmivi safrTxis winaSe iqneboda. arc venaSi surdaT axali slavuri saxelmwifo wamoSobiliyo balkaneTze da amaSi berlinis mxardaWeris imedi hqondaT. avstria-ungreTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri _ andraSi aRniSnavda kidec, rom berlinsa da venas Soris megobruli urTierTobebi arsebobda [1, #55]. TurqeTis mTavroba valdebulebas iRebda Caetarebina reformebi bosniaSi, hercegovinaSi da sxva teritoriebze, romlebic Sediodnen evropuli TurqeTis SemadgenlobaSi; TurqeTs unda daengria simagreebi dunaize da iqidan gaeyvana samxedro gemebi; ruseTs ubrundeboda samxreT-dasavleTi besarabia, romelic Camoaciles 1856 wlis parizis zaviT, agreTve qalaqebi ­ artaani, yarsi, baiazeTi, baTumi; rumineTs eZleoda dobruja; TesaliaSi, kunZul kretaze da epirSi TurqeTi valdebulebas iRebda SemoeRo reglamenti, romlis SemuSavebaSic dasaxuli iyo adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mizidva. zogierTi reforma unda gatarebuliyo agreTve somxebiT dasaxlebul teritoriebze. TurqeTi valdebulebas iRebda gadaexada 300 milioni maneTis kontribucia. sakiTxi sruteebis Sesaxeb sanstefanoSi ruseTs ar dauyenebia [12, 159-165]. san-stefanos sazavo xelSekrulebis mimarT inglisis damokidebuleba ganisazRvra indoeTis saqmeTa ministris markiz solsberis notaSi ruseTis mTavrobisadmi 1878 w. 14 ianvars, e.i. jer kidev zavze xelmoweramde. notiT ruseTis mTavrobas atyobinebdnen, rom yovelgvar SeTanxmebas, romelic arRvevda 1856 wlis parizis zavs da 1871 wlis londonis konferencias, ar eqneboda kanonieri Zala parizis sazavo xelSekrulebis monawile saxelmwifoebis Tanxmobis gareSe [5, 448]. arsebiTad, inglisma wamoayena moTxovna saerTo-evropuli konferenciis mowvevis aucileblobis Sesaxeb, raTa daemtkicebinaT samSvidobo SeTanxmebis pirobebi ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris. 31 ianvars msgavsi moTxovna gaugzavna ruseTis mTavrobas grafma andraSim. 1 Tebervals ruseTis kanclerma, Tavadma gorCakovma venaSi gaagzavna depeSa ruseTis mTavrobis Tanxmobis Sesaxeb konferenciis mowvevaze, magram im pirobebiT, rom misi Catarebis adgili ar unda yofiliyo londoni an vena [10, 437]. san-stefanos preliminaluri zavis xelmowera niSnavda, rom aRmosavleTis krizisi dasasruls uaxlovdeboda da amitom bolo wertili unda daesva saerTaSoriso konferencias. 1878 w.

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9 marts vena gamovida moTxovniT saswrafod moewviaT berlinSi saerTaSoriso kongresi. aseT situaciaSi, londonma gadawyvita ar daeCqarebina movlenebi, Tumca sulac ar erideboda saerTaSoriso mdgomareobis gamwvavebas. amis Sesaxeb metyvelebda premier-ministr dizraelis (lordi bikosfildi) sityva lordTa palataSi 1878 w. 8 aprils. misi gancxadebiT, Seqmnili saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba gamoricxavda kongresis mowvevas da man mimarTa dedofals TxovniT _ armiaSi namdvili samsaxurisTvis gaewiaT 38 aTasi rezervisti. sainteresoa, rom 17 aprils kalkutidan miiRes depeSa, romelSic ityobinebodnen uprecedento brZanebis Sesaxeb indoeTis mTavrobisadmi ­ gaegzavna jari xmelTaSua zRvis raionSi 7-8 aTasi kacis odenobiT. inglisis uari monawileoba mieRo berlinis kongresis muSaobaSi, ruseTis mier SeTavazebul pirobebze da mis mier ganxorcielebuli samxedro xasiaTis RonisZiebani, realurs xdida omis warmoSobis SesaZleblobas am or qveyanas Soris [11, 359]. ruseTis samxedro da politikuri mdgomareoba am dros rTuli iyo. es imaSi gamoixateboda, rom 1. ruseTis sardlobam aprilis dasawyisSi SeuZleblad miiCnia bosforis srutis droebiT dakavebac ki ruseTis jarebis mier, radgan ar gaaCnda artileriis aucilebeli raodenoba, raTa blokireba moexdina Savi zRvis sruteebisaTvis, rom iq inglisis floti ar Sesuliyo; 2. ruseTSi izrdeboda revoluciuri moZraoba; 3. avstria-ungreTi da germania uars ambobdnen mxari daeWiraT ruseTisaTvis inglisTan SesaZlo konfliqtSi. Seqmnil situaciaSi ruseTi iZulebuli gaxda ukan daexia. maisis dasawyisSi ruseTsa da ingliss Soris miRweul iqna principuli SeTanxmeba saidumlo separatuli molaparakebebis Catarebis Sesaxeb. amasTan dakavSirebiT, 1878 w. 3 maiss, axalma sagareo saqmeTa ministrma solsberim mTavrobaSi gansaxilvelad Seitana memorandumi inglisis poziciis Sesaxeb momaval molaparakebebze. masSi miTiTebuli iyo, rom san-stefanos SeTanxmebis pirobebis Sesruleba gamoiwvevda rigi problemebis da negatiuri situaciis warmoqmnas, rac aiZulebda ingliss mtkiced gamosuliyo mis winaaRmdeg. am problemebis ricxvs ministri akuTvnebda: 1. axali sazRvao saxelmwifos Seqmna egeosis zRvis sanapiroze; 2. balkaneTis naxevarkunZulis araslavuri mosaxleobis gaqrobis safrTxe; 3. TurqeTis mdgomareoba, romelic Zlier iyo damokidebuli ruseTze da mas SeeZlo daekarga SesaZlebloba damoukideblad Seesrulebina politikuri funqciebi, romlebic jer kidev ganekuTvneboda mas da romlebic Zalian ainteresebdaT sxva erebs. amasTan dakavSirebiT, solsberi winadadebas iZleoda: 1. gadaewiaT bulgare80

Tis slavuri saxelmwifo balkaneTis CrdiloeTiT; 2. ar daeSvaT aneqsia aziaSi _ yarsis warTmeviT Seiryeoda TurqeTis mimarT siriisa da makedoniis mosaxleobis erTguleba; 3. naTeli gaexadaT kontribuciis bundovani punqtebi, romelebic SeiZleba gadazrdiliyo Semdgom ,,aneqsiebSi, an iZulebiT kavSirSi" [19, 639]. es moTxovnebi moiwona inglisis mTavrobam da gasacnobad gadaeca ruseTis elCs londonSi Suvalovs. peterburgma mas neba darTo molaparakebeni ewarmoebina, magram araviTari instruqciebi ar miuciaT. amis miuxedavad, molaparakebaTa msvlelobaSi Suvalovma aRniSna, rom ruseTs surda baTumis, yarsis, besarabiis SenarCuneba da antivaris CernogoriisaTvis gadacema. imave dros, Suvalovi winaaRmdegi ar iyo bulgareTis gayofisa [19, 637]. amaze molaparakebani Sewyda da ruseTis elCi mTavrobasTan konsultaciisaTvis peterburgSi gaemarTa. 11 maiss inglisis mTavrobis sxdomaze miiRes premier bikonsfildis winadadeba _ TavdacviTi kavSiri daedoT TurqeTTan. amis sakompensaciod londons unda moeTxova TurqeTisagan kunZuli kviprosi, romelic ingliss Zlier poziciebs Seuqmnida mesopotamiis, siriis da egviptis mimarT. 23 maiss molaparakebani solsberisa da Suvalovs Soris ganaxlda. inglisis mier wamoyenebul pirobebze ruseTis elCma ganacxada, rom ruseTis mTavroba Tanaxma iyo: 1. teritoriul cvlilebebze im mizniT, rom gadaewiaT bulgareTi egeosis zRvidan; 2. dasavleTis sazRvrebis gasworebaze sxva erovnebis mosaxleobis mTliani gamoricxvisaTvis; 3. bulgareTis gayofaze or provinciad, romelTagan erTi _ balkaneTis CrdiloeTSi, aRiWurveba politikuri avtonomiiT, general-gubernatoris mmarTvelobiT, romelic dasaxeldeboda evropis TanxmobiT, xuTi an eqvsi wliT. am Tanxmobis sanacvlod erTi piroba iyo wamoyenebuli ­ samxreT bulgareTidan TurqeTis jari unda gasuliyo. peterburgi Tanaxma iyo agreTve saerTaSoriso kongresze miwvevis formulaze, romelsac winaswar moiwonebdnen bismarki da solsberi. dasasruls, iyo SeTavazeba daewyoT ruseTis jaris gamoyvana konstantinopolis misadgomebidan da inglisis flotisa _ marmarilos zRvidan, erTdroulad, or etapad. inglisis mTavroba Tanaxma iyo TurqeTis jaris gayvanaze bulgareTis samxreTi provinciebidan, magram isic iTqva, rom inglisi itovebda moqmedebis Tavisuflebas kongresze bosforisa da dardanelis sakiTxebSi. am SeniSvnas Suvalovi daeTanxma. molaparakebis dasasruls, solsberi gamovida gancxadebiT, rom ,,aneqsiebi somxeTSi TavisTavad ar aris sasurveli da

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Seicavs muqaras TurqeTis momavali simSvidisaTvis aziaSi, risi ignorirebac SeuZlebeli iqneba" [19, 643-645]. 27 maiss inglisis elCma konstantinopolSi leiardma acnoba mTavrobas, rom sulTanma xeli moawera SeTanxmebas kviprosze inglisis proteqtoratis Sesaxeb. amasTanave, sulTanma iTxova, rom kviprosis okupacia ar momxdariyo manamde, vidre xeli ar moewereboda konvencias, romelic iZleoda aziuri TurqeTis usafrTxoebis garantias. amave dRes eliots, inglisis elCs venaSi, mieca brZaneba, daedo saidumlo konvencia avstria-ungreTTan berlinis kongresze ruseTis winaaRmdeg erToblivi moqmedebis Sesaxeb. elCisadmi gagzavnil depeSaSi gadmocemuli iyo am konvenciis pirobebi [17, 25]. 29 maiss londonSi gaimarTa mTavrobis morigi sxdoma, romelic mieZRvna ruseTis winadadebas cvlilebebis Sesaxeb sanstefanos xelSekrulebaSi da punqtebs, romlebSic gaTvaliswinebuli iyo inglisis pozicia. 1878 w. 30 maiss san-stefanos zavis pirobebSi cvlilebis Sesaxeb saidumlo SeTanxmebas inglissa da ruseTs Soris xeli moaweres solsberim da Suvalovma [5, 456]. am SeTanxmebiT ruseTi sanaxevrod kargavda im warmatebas, romelsac san-stefanos zaviT miaRwia [5, 457]. inglisi Tanaxma iyo gadascemoda ruseTs baTumi da yarsi, agreTve besarabia. baiazeTze ruseTi uars ambobda [7, 128]. 1878 w. 1 ivniss solsberi Sexvda Suvalovs peterburgSi misi gamgzavrebis win. saubrisas solsberim aRniSna, rom inglisis mTavrobam miiRo gadawyvetileba Tavisi flotis marmarilos zRvidan gamoyvanis Sesaxeb, Tu ruseTis jarebi datovebdnen konstantinopolis misadgomebs. 4 ivniss konstantinopolSi xeli moaweres saidumlo konvencias inglissa da TurqeTs Soris, romlis Tanaxmad inglisi iRebda kunZul kviprosis okupaciis da marTvis uflebas imis sanacvlod, rom ruseTis xelyofisagan daculi iqneboda baTumi, artaani da yarsi [8, 39-40]. 6 ivniss ki londonma da venam xeli moaweres aseve saidumlo konvencias berlinis kongresze ruseTis winaaRmdge erToblivi moqmedebis Sesaxeb [17, 25]. axlovdeboda kongresis dawyebis TariRi. 1878 w. 13 ivniss berlinSi bismarkis TavmjdomareobiT oficialurad gaixsna kongresi. eqvsi didi qveynis da TurqeTis warmomadgenlebi Seikribnen raZivilebis yofili sasaxlis samejliso darbazSi. balkaneTis qveynebis warmomadgenlebi Cavidnen berlinSi, magram isini ar monawileobdnen kongresis muSaobaSi [7, 129]. kongresze unda ganexilaT ruseT-TurqeTis omiT gamowveuli cvlilebebi, romlebic daafiqsira san-stefanos zavma. mraval mwvave problemas Soris iyo baTumis sakiTxic. inglisma, Tavisi interesebidan gamomdinare, es gare82

moeba kargad gamoiyena ruseTTan brZolis dros. TurqeTi cdilobda baTumis dabrunebas inglisis daxmarebiT. sxva didi saxelmwifoebi baTumis sakiTxiT dainteresebas ar iCendnen da amdenad, ruseTs martos mouxdeboda brZola baTumis SenarCunebisaTvis. baTumis sakiTxisadmi xelis CaWidebiT, londoni fiqrobda Savi zRvis sruteebisa da kviprosis problema inglisis interesebis Sesabamisad gadaewyvita [17, 102]. es gulisxmobda inglisis samxedro gemebis Tavisuflad gasvlas sruteebSi, im SemTxvevisaTvis, Tu ruseTi baTums SeinarCunebda da amiT TurqeTs garkveul safrTxes Seuqmnida. londonSi varaudobdnen, rom ruseTs SeeZlo ebrZola sruteebisaTvis da xmelTaSua zRvaSi gasvlisaTvis, rac inglisis interesebs Selaxavda. besarabiisa da baTumis miRebiT ruseTi Zlier poziciebs Seiqmnida Sav zRvaze. inglisis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma solsberim 16 ivniss kancler bismarkTan saubrisas ganacxada, rom baTumis ruseTis xelSi darCenis SemTxvevaSi, safrTxe Seeqmneboda Savi zRvis samxreT sanapiroebs da TviT bosforis srutes. inglisi Tanaxma iyo sruteebi TurqeTis gamgeblobaSi darCeniliyo, magram ruseTisagan TurqeTis dacvis mizniT ingliss unda hqonoda sruteebSi flotis Seyvanis ufleba. bismarks am gancxadebaze pasuxi ar miucia, Tumca uTxra solsberis, rom kongresze am sakiTxs daayenebda ganxilvis mizniT [17, 103-104]. inglisis premieri bikonsfildi da solsberi baTumis sakiTxze yuradRebis gamaxvilebiT cdilobdnen mieRoT Savi zRvis sruteebSi Tavisuflad gavlis ufleba. solsberis mTavari argumenti is iyo, rom inglisi yvelaze mZlavri sazRvao saxelmwifo iyo, amitom mas Sav zRvaSic unda hqonoda upiratesoba [17, 104]. es ar iyo sakmarisi argumenti da sxva did saxelmwifoebsac aRizianebda, amitom londons ar gaaCnda warmatebis miRwevis perspeqtiva, radgan didi saxelmwifoebi ar dauSvebdnen, rom sruteebSi Tavisuflad gasvlis ufleba mxolod ingliss hqonda. bikonsfildi mixvda, rom mxolod baTumis sakiTxi argumentad ar gamodgeboda da uari Tqva masze. samagierod wamoayena winadadeba _ baTumi Tavisufal qalaqad gamoecxadebinaT [3, 67]. es ar niSnavda, rom londoni xels iRebda mcdelobaze baTumi TurqeTis SemadgenlobaSi darCeniliyo. ubralod, londoni diplomatiuri lavirebis politikas atarebda da cdilobda situaciis gamoyenebas. baTumisa da mcire aziis sxva teritoriebis bedis saboloo gadawyvetis saqme jer kidev win iyo da kongresze is bolos gadawyda, rac gamowveuli iyo ruseTis mimarT inglisis Tanmimdevruli mtruli poziciiT [3, 76].

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1878 w. 6 ivliss kongresze sityviT gamovida solsberi da ganacxada, rom ruseTis xelSi yarsisa da artaanis gadasvla asustebda TurqeTs, rac xels SeuSlida mas simSvide daemyarebina Tavis aziur samflobeloebSi. misi sityvebiT, aseT situaciaSi inglisi Tavis interesebs aRniSnul regionze yvela saSualebiT daicavda. am gancxadebas zomieri pasuxi gasca gorCakovma. misi gancxadebiT, ruseTi Tmobda arzrums, baiazeTs da alaSkertis xeobas. misi azriT, es inglisis savaWro interesebs pasuxobda, radgan am teritoriebze gadioda mTavari savaWro gza sparseTisaken. gorCakovis azriT, baTumis Tavisufal qalaqad gamocxadeba ruseTis suverenuli uflebebis SenarCunebiT, yvela movaWre qveynis interesebs pasuxobda, pirvel rigSi ki inglisis interesebs, romelsac yvelaze didi savaWro floti gaaCnda [3, 91]. aseTi poziciis dakavebiT ruseTi eswrafvoda, rom zedmetad ar gaemwvavebina urTierToba inglisTan, Tumca kargad xedavda, rom seriozul daTmobebze midioda. baTumis Tavisufal qalaqad gamocxadebis ideas bismarki misalmebia da aRuniSnavs, rom mas mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi Sehqonda san-stefanos zavis pirobebSi. Tu kongresi amas miiRebda, misi sityvebiT, maSin mxolod detalebis ganxilva darCeboda. bismarki cdilobda ,,patiosani makleris" roli Seesrulebina da miukerZoebeli yofiliyo, ramdenadac amis saSualebas movlenebi aZlevda. igi mxars uWerda rogorc rusebis pretenziebs Savi zRvis evropul da aziur sanapiroebze, ise avstria-ungreTis sagareo saqmeTa ministris andraSis politikas, hyoloda samxedro kontigenti bosniasa da hercegovinaSi [11, 363]. 1878 w. 8 ivliss cnobili gaxda, rom 4 ivniss inglissa da TurqeTs xeli mouweriaT saidumlo samxedro konvenciaze. am cnobas ukmayofileba gamouwvevia kongresze [19, 164], radgan baTumisa da mcire aziaSi sazRvrebis dawesebis sakiTxebis gamo inglissa da ruseTs Soris brZola grZeldeboda. TurqeTs imedi hqonda, rom londoni daexmareboda balkaneTze sazRvrebis dawesebis, baTumisa da alaSkertis xeobis dabrunebis da sxva sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi. londonSi elodnen TurqeTis sulTnis mier konvenciis ratificirebas da aziis sakiTxebi am droisaTvis Semonaxuli hqondaT gansaxilvelad. imave dros sulTans emuqrebodnen, rom mxars dauWerdnen TurqeTis dayofis gegmas, Tu droze ar moxdeboda konvenciis damtkiceba. bikonsfildi jer kidev 1877 wels fiqrobda Seeqmna samxedro-sazRvao baza xmelTaSua zRvis aRmosavleT nawilSi. kviprosis xelSi Cagdeba ki warmoadgenda aziaSi inglisis eqspansiis arsebiT elements, romelic Seadgenda inglisis konservatiuli mTavrobis mTavar amocanas [7, 129]. 6 ivliss

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TurqeTma moaxdina konvenciis sanqcionireba da inglisis delegaciam 9 ivliss baTumis sakiTxis saboloo gadawyvetaze Tanxmoba ganacxada. lobanovi, ruseTis elCi TurqeTSi, 15 ivliss ityobineboda, rom vidre baTumis sakiTxi daismeboda kongresze, londons surda garantiebis miReba, rom kvipross daeufleboda. amitom iyo, rom 6 ivliss inglisis elCma konstantinopolSi leiardma TurqeTis mTavrobas gadasca solsberis depeSa, romelSic londoni moiTxovda 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi sulTans mieRo kviprosis gadacemis firmani, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi TurqeTis interesebis dacvaze uariT imuqreboda. 7 ivliss TurqeTis mTavrobis sxdomaze gadawyda kviprosis gadacemis firmanis sakiTxi, ris Sesaxebac acnobes solsberis. amis miuxedavad, TurqeTis didma sabWom kviprosis daTmobis Sesaxeb firmanis gamocema gadasdo kongresis damTavrebamde imis SiSiT, rom ruseTs uari ar eTqva mcire aziaSi baiazeTisa da alaSkertis xeobis daTmobaze. bikonsfildi da solsberi inglisis parlaments arwmunebdnen, rom isini agrZelebdnen brZolas baTumisa da dasavleT somxeTis garSemo [17, 102]. cxadi iyo, rom baTumisa da dasavleT somxeTis sakiTxebze londonis diplomatiur brZolas uSualo kavSiri hqonda kviprosis xelSi Cagdebis sakiTxTan. 1878 w. 8 ivliss inglisma Tanxmoba ganacxada ruseTisaTvis yarsis, artaanis da baTumis gadacemaze. amis mizezi gaxda is garemoeba, rom imave dRes bikonsfildma gamoacxada inglisis mier kviprosis dakavebis Sesaxeb, Tumca kviprosi formalurad da iuridiulad TurqeTis imperiis nawilad 1914 wlamde rCeboda. amis Semdeg gorCakovs aRar gauZnelda bikonsfildis Tanxmobis miReba, rom baTumi ,,ZiriTadad komerciul" navsadgurad gamoecxadebinaT. rukaze sazRvrebis zusti mimarTulebis gansazRvris mimarT sirTuleebis gamo, dawesebuli iqna ubralo sworxazobrivi sazRvari mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis da adgilis reliefis Taviseburebis mxedvelobaSi miuReblad. amis miuxedavad, kongresis XIX sxdomaze sazRvari daamtkices da berlinis kongresis muSaobac dasasruls miuaxlovda. berlinis traqtatis 58-e muxliT baTumi, aWara, SavSeTi, artaani, Zveli samcxe-saaTabagos sxva nawilebi, agreTve yarsi da dasavleT somxeTis nawili, ruseTs uerTdeboda. 59-e muxlSi mocemuli iyo baTumis porto-frankos statusi [9, 229]. miuxedavad londonis diplomatiuri Zalisxmevisa, istoriuli qarTuli teritoriebis didi nawili dabrunebul iqna da ruseTs gadaeca. Tumca, londonma SeZlo am daTmobebis safasurad kviprosi Caegdo xelSi da baTumis sakiTxSi ruseTi aiZu85

la daeTmo. amiT ruseTma, ra Tqma unda, brZoliT da sisxliT miRweul san-stefanos monpovarze nawilobriv uari Tqva.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. ,,droeba", 1878 w. 2. v. donaZe, bosfori da dardaneli, Tb., 1983. 3. a. CxeiZe. baTumi inglisis axloaRmosavlur politikaSi (18751878 ww.), baT., 1974. 4. ., ., 1789 , . ., ., 2006. 5. ., . 1814-1878, .II, . ., --, 1995. 6. .., . , ., 1968. 7. , .II, ., 1963. 8. . ., . ., , 1870-1918, , ., 1940. 9. , , .I, ., 1925. 10. , . 1-2, ., 1964 (.2, . 400). 11. ., , . ., , 1998. 12. , 1856-1917, ., 1952. 13. . ­ , -., 1997. 14. Buchheim K., Das Deutsche Kaiserreich, 1871-1918, München, 1969. 15. Engelberg E., Bismarck, Das Reich in der Mitte Europas, Berlin, 1990. 16. Gall L., Bismarck Der Weise Revolutionär, Frankfuct a/M., 1980. 17. Medlicott W.N., The Congress of Berlin and after, ­ A Diplomatic History of the Eastern Setlement, 1878-1880, London, 1938. 18. Rachahl F., Deutschland und die Weltpolitik, 1871-1914. Bd. I, Stuttgart, 1923. 19. Summer B. H., Russia and Balkans, Oxford, 1937.

Vazha Chochia (Gori, Georgia) 1878 San-Stephano truce and issue of Batumi on Berlin congress Summary In this article there are shown reasons and terms, that stipulated to form secret contract between Russia and England on 30th May of 1878 about changes of SanStephano contract's articles. On 4th June of 1978 between England and Tyrkey was signed secret convention in Constantinople, according that England took Cypress occupation and administration right in return to protect Batumi, Ardagani, Karsi

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from Rusiia's encroach. On 6th June England signed secret convention with Austria-Hungary that considered united action against Russia on Berlin congress. Among the many critical problems on Berlin congress there was also Batumi question. With the help of England, Turkey tried to return back Batumi which was lost by San-Stephano truce. By means of diplomatic fight related to the Batumi and West Armenia issues London tried to seize cypress. Hence the situation of congress Beaconsfield understood that Batumi issue wouldn't settle cypress problem and refused it. Return he raised the issue to declare Batumi. as an independent. Russia avoided to tense the situation toward England and declared consent, in spit of England's consent on 8th July of 1978 for karsi, Ardagani and Batumi transfer to Russia. By that reason, Beaconsfield declrared cypress capture by England that was a result of diplomatic pressure on Turkey. Russia managed to preserve Batumi, but lost many gains of San-Stephano.

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dodo WumburiZe

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

gazeTi `droeba~ baTumis dakavebis Sesaxeb

1878 wlis 13 ivliss xelmowerili berlinis traqtatis ZaliT ruseTis imperiam SeierTa aWara, SavSeTi, klarjeTi, imerxevi, kola-artaani da olTisi. es teritoriebi traqtatis xelmowerisas ukve rusul jars ekava, TurqTa jari mxolod baTumSi rCeboda. Aaravin icoda, ras moimoqmedebda es panTurquli ideologiiT aRgznebuli armia, rodesac qalaqSi rusuli jaris nawilebi Sevidodnen. rusuli jaris nawilebs baTumSi Sehyva gazeT `droebis~ redaqtori, cnobili publicisti da sazogado moRvawe _ sergei mesxi. imdenad didi iyo xalxis interesi am istoriuli faqtisadmi, rom redaqtori aravis daanebebda am movlenis gaSuqebas. qarTveli xalxis ocneba samuslimano saqarTvelos dabrunebaze kargad gamoCnda omSi wamsvlel moxaliseTa enTuziazmSi, qarTuli sazogadoebis gamorCeul interesSi omisadmi, rac qarTul presaSi jer kidev omamde, balkaneTis krizisis gaRrmavebisTanave aisaxa. 1875 wels aWarlebma uari ganucxades TurqeTis mTavrobas balkaneTSi, ajanyebuli hercegovianelebis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebaze, ramac xelisuflebasa da xalxs Soris dapirispireba gamoiwvia [x. axvlediani, 1957: 123]. aWarelTa antiTurqulma gamosvlam gazeTi `droeba~ da misi redaqtori maSinve gaaxara da daainteresa. Mman am movlenaSi saqarTvelosTvis sasargeblo faqti dainaxa [s. mesxi, 1950: 196]. baTumis dakaveba arzrumis sanacvlod 1878 wlis 13 ivliss bismarkis meTaurobiT Sekrebilma berlinis kongresma gadawyvita. Turqebi daTanxmdnen am pirobas, Tumca yovelmxriv aferxebdnen qalaqis daclas. maTi mizani iyo, rac SeiZleba meti simdidre gaezidaT baTumidan da mTlianad aWaridan. Tu ra xdeboda baTumSi da ras akeTebdnen Turqi samxedroebi, kargad Cans sergei mesxis Svid werilSi, `droebaSi~ rom gamoqveynda.Ees werilebi acocxleben istoriul faqtebs, bevr detals mateben am omis istorias, aRadgenen amdroindeli baTumis saqalaqo saxesa da aq mcxovreb qarTvelTa portretebs. werilebi dawerilia: 1. TviTmxilvelis mier movlenebis cxel kvalze; 2. werilebis avtori gamorCeuli niWis publicisti da moazrovnea, romlis Sexedulebebi ruseT-saqarTvelosa da saqarTveloevropis urTierTobebze dResac aqtualurad JRers da obieqturad aRiqmeba; 3. statiebSi daufaravad ikiTxeba, rom ruseTi ar fiqrobda arc aWaris mkvidr qarTvelebze da arc saqarT88

veloze, romlis xsenebac ki am dros cenzuris aRSfoTebas iwvevda; is TiTqos winaswar grZnobs aWaris xvedrs koloniur saqarTvelosa da imperiul ruseTSi. marTlac, baTumis aRebidan sul raRac sam TveSi, 1879 wlis 3 Tebervals xelisuflebam gamosca kanoni aWaris e. w. Tavisufali miwebis rusi kolonistebiT dasaxlebis Taobaze, 1884 wels ki, quTaisis maSindeli samxedro gubernatoris _ general-leitenant smekalovis xelmZRvanelobiT, daarsda pirveli rusuli dasaxleba aWaraSi _ `smekalovka~. sergei mesxi qarTuli erovnuli moZraobis aqtiur frTas miekuTvneboda da misTvis ukve nacnobi iyo rusuli imperiul-dapyrobiTi xrikebi, mis werilebSi, aWaris dabrunebis did sixarulTan erTad, es codna da patrioti qarTvelis grZnobac ikiTxeba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT amdroindeli cenzuris simkacres, statiebi obieqturi, gabeduli da principuli poziciiT, qarTuli presis erovnuli brZolis avangardSi yofnis utyuar nimuSadac SeiZleba miviCnioT. sergei mesxi rusul jarTan erTad samtredia-ozurgeTis gziT gaemarTa baTumisaken. gza imdenad cudi yofila, rom sviatopolk-mirskis gzis samxedro inspeqtoris _ vaxramovisTvis sastiki sayveduri gamoucxadebia. amis gamo mTeli guria gamosula gzis samuSaoze. baTumis dakavebis TariRad berlinis kongresiT dawesebuli iyo 25 agvisto. mesxi imasac aRniSnavs, ra Zneli iyo am TariRis zustad gansazRvra, radgan mowinaaRmdeges ase advilad ar SeeZlo misi Seleva. publicistis azriT, baTumSi pirvelad artaanis razmi unda Sesuliyo 25 ricxvSi, Tumca vrceldeboda xmebi, rom 5 seqtembramde vada iTxoves Turqebma, amasobaSi SesaZloa saomrad moemzadon lazebi da qobuleTlebi, maT 10 aTasamde meomari hyavT gamzadebulio. am Worebs sergei mesxi `damfrTxali tvinis mogonil ambavs~ uwodebs da sruliad sapirispiro ambavs auwyebs `droebis~ mkiTxvels. misi azriT, lazebsa da qobuleTlebze didi gavlena moaxdina grigol gurielma, romelic, baTumSi Sesvlamde, qobuleTis samoqalaqo mmarTvelad dainiSna da romelic ise uyvardaT aqaurebs, rom misi yoveli sityvisa sjerodaT. qarTuli sazogadoeba aRafrTovana Seqmnil rTul situaciaSi gurielis diplomatiam da mamuliSvilurma qmedebam. amas Tu gulisxmobda peterburgidan `droebisTvis~ gamogzavnil werilSi akaki wereTeli, rodesac grigol gurielTan dakavSirebiT saubrobda qarTul Wkuasa da gonebaze, av-kargis garCevasa da zneobaze [gaz.`droeba~, 1878, #183]. swored gurielis samoqalaqo mmarTvelad misvlis Semdeg Semwydara baTumidan da qobuleTidan xalxis wasvla TurqeTSi. is ki arada, bevri mis gamo ukanve dabrunebula.Aam sakiTxze rom saubrobs,

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sergei mesxi akritikebs rusul samxedro xelmZRvanelobas, romelmac baTumSi ar Seiyvana arc erTi qarTuli druJina. `rac ar unda iyos, Cven, qarTvelebs, isini mainc ufro gvicnoben, ufro Tavis Zmebad mivaCnivarT da amitomac ufro gvendobian, Cveneburi jarebis danaxva amaT ufro daarwmunebda, rom rusebi marTla imaTi qveynis asaklebad da asaoxreblad, imaTi sarwmunoebis Sesaviwroeblad ar midian imaTTan. samwuxarod, es garemoeba ar miuRia mxedvelobaSi Cvens samxedro mTavrobas. arcerTi sotna Cveneburi jarisa ar mihyavT axlad SeZenils osmalos saqarTveloSi~ [gaz. `droeba~, 1878, #174]. 24 agvistos Rame jarma da `droebis~ publicistma CaqvSi gaatara. igi aRwers cixisZirsa da Caqvs, akritikebs da sabrZolo gegmas uwunebs rusuli jaris meTaurebs cixisZirTan damarcxebisaTvis, rac, rusuli jaris warmatebebiT aRtyinebis Jams, didi gabeduleba iyo qarTveli publicistis mxridan. imdroindeli Caqvi, mesxis TqmiT, ekonomikis TvalsazrisiT Zlieri yazi (mazra) iyo, mohyavdaT didi raodenobiT simindi, Romi da brinji, marto husein-begi (beJaniZe) yovelwliurad 3000 maneTis brinjs hyidda, Caqvis Rvino ki mTels osmalos saqarTveloSi yofila ganTqmuli. Aaq modioda SesaniSnavi xilis mosavalic, romelic gasayidad gahqondaT artaansa, trapizonsa da sxva qalaqebSi. Caqvidan baTumSi mimaval jars Sua gzaze Seegeba TurqeTis armiis brigadis generali mustafa-faSa erTi polkovnikiT, ori oficriT da 30 cxenosniT. mustafa-faSa, sergei mesxis daxasiaTebiT, Zalian axalgazrda da lamazi vaJkaci yofila. mas Soridan miucia salami sviatopolk-mirskisTvis. rodesac miaxlovebian erTmaneTs, rus generals xeli gauwodebia CamosarTmevad, Turqsac miuwevia cxeni xelis misacemad. Aam incidents ase aRwers mesxi: `roca T. mirskim gauwia xeli CamosarTmevad da mustafa faSamac moiwia xelis misacemad, imis cxenma uecrad erTi saSinlad daiWixvina, itlinka da ukan daiwia, ramdeni ecada, rom moewia cxeni, magram ara eSvela ra, rogorc miuaxlovdeboda da xels gaiSverda, imwamsve cxeni daiwyebda tokvas, dadgeboda ukana fexebzed da ukan daixevda... TiTqo ar surda, rom imis patrons rusis generlisaTvis xeli mieca~ [gaz. `droeba~, 1878, #176]. baTumis olqis Turqi xelmZRvaneli _ derviS-faSa erT versze Sexvda ruseTis jarsa da sazogadoebas. zed baTumis karTan ki sviatopolk-mirskis dauxvda qalaqis deputatacia. mirski Camoxta cxenidan, mivida deputaciasTan da mokle sityviT mimarTa, sadac aRniSna, rom es qveyana ruseTis imperators darCa, Tqvens sarwmunoebas aravin Seexeba, Tqvens ojaxebs nurafris SeeSindebaTo. iyaviT da icxovreT mSvidobianad,

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emsaxureT ruseTis imperators ise erTgulad, rogorc aqamde osmaleTis sulTans msaxurebdiT da darwmunebulni iyaviT, rom ara mxriv safrTxe da Sewuxeba ar mogeliTo... baTumSi sami dRis yofnis STabeWdileba asaxulia mesxis meoTxe werilSi. sainteresoa derviS-faSas miseuli Sefaseba.AderviS-faSa am dros samoc wlamde asakis yofila. maRali tanis, odnav welSi moxrili, gamxdari, patara WaRara wveriT. erTi SexedviTac Cans, rom Wkviani kaciao, _ wers publicisti. is acnobs mkiTxvels sxvaTa azrs baTumis yofil Turq gamgebelze: amboben mSromeli, pasuxismgebeli adamianiao, simagreebis agebasa Tu yvela sxva saqmeSi TviTon monawileobdao. Semdeg agrZelebs: amaSi mec davrwmundi, rodesac baTumis portSi mis saqmianobas vuyure am dReebSi, vnaxe, rogori wesrigiT Caalages misi xelmZRvanelobiT Turqebma bargi-barxana xomaldebSi trapizonSi da stambulSi wasaRebad. TiTqmis dilidan saRamomde fexmoucvlelad ijda is zRvis napiras, baTumis reidze da xan erT gankargulebas aZlevda da xan meores _ rogor CaelagebinaT sxvadasxva saqoneli xomaldebSi, rogor CaesvaT jarebi da sxva. mesxis mier aRwerili axlad SemoerTebuli baTumi imdroindeli qarTuli qalaqebisagan gansxvavebuli, Cqari majiscemiT gamoirCeva.Aamis mizezi iyo is, rom Turqebi midiodnen da aRarafers tovebdnen, yvelaferi mihqondaT.Mmeorec, saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxidan Camodiodnen vaWrebi da yidulobdnen, qiraobdnen savaWro saxlebs, maRaziebs, sastumroebs, duqnebs. es afiqrebinebs avtors, rom rusebis Semosvla mainc moulodneli iyo rogorc xalxisTvis, aseve Turquli sardlobisTvisac [gaz.D`droeba~, 1878, #177]. siiafiT ganTqmul baTumSi yvelaferi gaZvirebula. yvelaze iafi yofila evropuli sasmelebi, rasac rusi jariskacebi ise misZalebian, rom, TviTmxilvelis sityviT, mtversa da talaxSi eyarnen xSirad. miuxedavad amisa, baTumSi wesrigi iyo. osmalebi wynarad alagebdnen wasaReb tvirTs, maT ramazani aqvT da dRisiT wyalsac ki ar svameno.Mmesxi aRwers sviatopolk-mirskisTan gamarTul darbazobasac. jer derviS-faSas gaumarTavs darbazoba rusi generlebisaTvis, momdevno dRes ki sviatopolk-mirskis, rusul gemze `pamiat merkuria~ miuwvevia Turqi generali da misi amala. derviS-faSas orjer warmouTqvams sityva. pirvel sityvaSi is azri gamouxatavs, rom Cven dRemdin mtrebi viyaviT da am mtrobaSi mtkiced, marjved, mxned videqiT erTmaneTis winaaRmdego. axla mSvidobianoba damyarda da vinatroT, rom am mSvidobianobis drosac ise mtkiced da energiulad davdgomodeT yvela samSvidobo saqmes, rogorc maSin samxedro saqmeebs vadeqiTo.

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meored uTqvams, rom yovel kacs Tavis gulSi ueWvelia, erTi ram keTilSobiluri grZnoba, siyvaruli da wadili aqvs Rrmad dawerili, romelsac xSirad saqveynod ar gamoaaSkaravebs xolmeo, am idumali siyvarulisa da grZnobis sadRegrZelo davlioTo!.. ise mSvenivrad da tkbilad laparakobs Turme derviS-faSa, rom visac ar esmis TaTruli, imasac ki Tavis dReSi ar mowyindeba imis yurisgdebao, _ irwmuneba mesxi [gaz, `droeba~, 1878, #177]. sergei mesxis aRweriT, 1878 wlis Semodgomis baTumi ase gamoiyureboda: osmaluri qalaqebis msgavsad da mimdinare saomari bataliebis gamo, is mtvriani, usufTao yofila. ZiriTadad aziuri iyo qalaqis arqiteqturuli tipic da xalxis cxovrebis wesic. Mmagram iyo evropuli tipis Senobebic. amis magaliTad publicists moaqvs: ali-faSa TavdgiriZis da konsulis saxlebi, e.w. `damoJna~da kidev sanapiroze ganlagebuli ramdenime saxli. mTeli omis dros qalaqi jariT iyo gavsebuli, saxli aRar darCa, fanjara rom ar hqondes Catexili, iataki ayrili, quCaSi, moednebze, zRvis pirebze nagavi da mtveri yriao. qalaqis mcxovrebTaTvisYyvelaze mavneblad mesxs miaCnda osmaluri sasaflao, romelic qalaqs dasavleTis mxridan ekra da sadac, mcxovrebTa gadmocemiT, 30 aTasi kaci mainc iyo dasaflavebuli.Oosmaluri wesiT, mkvdrebi Rrmad ar imarxebodnen, zogan Candnen kidec micvalebulni, rac sanitaruli TvalsazrisiT saSinel suraTs hqmnida. `Zveli osmalos sasamarTlo (mejlisi) moispo, axali jer ar daudgeniaT. skolebi osmalebma Cveni SemosvlisTanave daxures. aq yofila erTi saxelmwifo skola gimnaziasaviT da 15mdis samrevlo skola meCeTebTan da medreseebTan. samoqalaqo saqmeebis gamgeobas warmoadgens T. grigol gurieli, policias _ stefane mefisaSvili. Yyovel Rame afxodebad dadian sami rusi da sami osmalo saldaTi quCebSi da erTad, Zmurad icaven mcxovrebTa mSvidobianobas. rac Cven aq varT, erTi ubralo qurdoba da avazakoba ra aris, ar momxdara. rusi da osmalo saldaTebi megobrulad arian. xSirad erTad Sekrebilni Seeqcevian xils, sazamTros, yurZens, msxals, galetebs da gacxarebiT musaifoben~ [gaz. `droeba~, 1878, #178]. sergei mesxi saubrobs baTumSi mcxovreb qarTvelebze. esenia: TavdgiriZeebis da beJaniZeebis warCinebuli gvaris warmomadgenlebi, romelTac aWaraSi sxvadasxva Tanamdebobebi eWiraT. zogierT maTgans is gascnobia kidec am mogzaurobis dros. eseni yofilan Zmebi ali da osman-faSa TavdgiriZeebi. beJaniZeebidan (is yvelgan beJaniSvils wers) gascnobia huseinbeg beJan oRlis, romlis erTi Zma yirimis omSi mouklavT.

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moklul Zmas darCenia sami vaJi. erT maTgans _ xasan begs Zalian axlos gavecanio, _ miuTiTebs publicisti. sergei mesxi am or gvars warCinebul gvarad Tvlis osmaleTis xonTqris karze. isini scemdnen yvela gankargulebas aWaraSi. qobuleTsa da baTumSi rogorc mefeebi, ise grZnobdnen Tavso. Oomis dros maT unda gamoeyvanaT jari da sardlebic isini iyvneno. mimdinare omSic osmalos mTavrobam qobuleTis, Caqvis da baTumis mazrebSi milicionerebis mokreba da sardloba amaT miando, rogorc damarwmunes, 10 aTasamde meomari gamouyvaniaTo. am jarebis ufrosoba mindobili hqonda jer ali-faSa TavdgiriZes, magram male derviS-faSam mas ruseTis momxreoba daswama da trapizonSi gaagzavna, sardloba imis Zmas _ osmans misca, magram male isic imave mizeziT daiWira da trapizonSi gauSvao. ucxo qveynis gazeTebi maT mier fulis gaflangvas asaxelebdnen derviS-faSasTan ukmayofilebis mizezad, sergei mesxis azriT, isini Tavad ruseTis faqtors miiCnevdnen am saqmeSi gadamwyvetad. Zmebi imdenad Seuracxyofilni yofilan braldebiT, rom mesxTan saubrisas gamouTqvamT survili stambolSi wasvlisa da xonTqris winaSe Tavis marTlebisa. mTavari aq TurqeTis an ruseTis problema ki ar iyo, aramed am adamianebisTvis erTgulebis zneobrivi Rirebuleba. osman faSa TavdgiriZe am dros 45-50 wlis yofila, dafiqrebul, mowyenil pirisaxezed atyvia, rom bevri dardi da mwuxareba gamouvliao, _ gveubneba publicisti. Zalian kargi qarTuliT metyvelebs da garegnobiTac namdvili qarTveliao. aseve gvacnobs avtori xasan beg beJaniZes _ 33 wlis Caqvel mebatones baTumSic didi mamulebi aqvso, bevri ram miambo xasan begma aWarelTa Sexedulebebisa da xasiaTis Sesaxebo. 30 agvistos baTumSi Sevida artaanis razmi general-maior komarovis sardlobiT, Tan Camohyva deputacia arTvinidan, maWaxelidan, SavSeTidan da aWaridan. aq yofila Serif beg ximSiaSvilis Zmiswuli _ nurid-begic. sviatopolk-mirskim mimarTa deputacias, imedi misca, rom arc maT sarwmunoebas da arc wes-Cveulebebs aravin Seexeboda mesxi aRwers Amiwis yidva-gayidvis sakiTxSi Seqmnil sirTuleebs da ambobs, rom zogjer erTi da igive mamuli orjer da samjerac iyideboda, radgan kadastris davTrebi, sakancelario da saarqivo masalebi osmalebma waiRes. gauqmebuli iyo baTumis mejlisic.Aaxali samxedro gubernatori _ general-maiori komarovi iZulebuli gaxda gamoeca brZaneba uZrav-moZravi qonebis gayidvis manamde SeCerebaze, sanam trapizonidan (sadac iyo baTumis mazris memamuleebis kadastri) ar movidoda sakuTrebis Sesaxeb cnoba [gaz. `droeba~, 1878, #181].

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`droeba~ aqveynebda inglisuri `manCester gardianidan~ gadmoRebul werils qobuleTidan da baTumidan gadasaxlebulTa saSinel mdgomareobaze, rom TurqeTSi wasulebi saSinel dReSi aRmoCndnen da isini aqaur naTesavebs urCevdnen samSobloSi darCenas [gaz. `droeba~, 1878, #195]. omis Sedegebs, aWaris sakiTxs _ gazeTi `droeba~ Semdegac mravaljer miubrunda. maT Soris sergei mesxis publikaciebic iyo. rac Seexeba Cven mier ganxilul Svid statias 1878 wlis gazeT `droebaSi~, maT aqvT wyaros mniSvneloba. masala aRebulia TviTmxilvelis mier da masSi gadmocemulia uSualod, movlenebis epicentrSi myofi adamianis STabeWdilebebi da gancdebi. miT ufro Rirebulia motanili faqtebi da Sefasebebi, rom is iseT gamoCenil publicists, moazrovnesa da patriot moRvawes ekuTvnis, rogoric sergei mesxi iyo.

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. x. axvlediani, saxalxo-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis istoriidan samxreT saqarTveloSi, 1957. 2. sergei mesxi, werilebi, Tb., 1950. 3. gaz.`droeba~, # 183, 1878; akaki wereTeli, werili peterburgidan, gaz. `droeba~, #183, 1878. 4. gaz. `droeba,~ ## 174-181, 1878; sergei mesxi, werilebis seria _ `baTumSi~, gaz. `droeba~, ##174-181, 1878. 5. gaz. `droeba,~ #195, 1878; `trapizonSi gadasaxlebuli qobuleTlebis mdgomareoba~, gaz. ~droeba,~ #195, 1878.

Dodo Chumburidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Magazine "Droeba" About the Occupation of Batumi Summary On the strength of the Berlin treaty of 1878, July 13 Russian empire annexed and joined Achara, Shavsheti, Klarjeti, Imerkhevi, Kola-Artaani and Oltisi to Russia. When the treaty was signing these territories had already been occupied by Russian troops and Turkish army was only in Batumi. No one knew what these troops, excited with pan-Turkish ideology, should have done when Russian submilitary units would enter the town. Together with Russian military sub-units and Georgian warriors who bravely fighted, the editor of the magazine "Droeba", famous publicist and public figure Sergei Meskhi, entered Batumi. He published seven articles in "Droeba". In his articles he thoroughly described the enter of the

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Russian army in Batumi, the mood of the citizens, the town itself and the relations of the Russian and Turkish troops who were located in the town. The publications of Sergei Meskhi have the importance and the value of historical source. They may shed the light more precisely on historical facts. They also obviously show what Georgian Muslims thought about returning back to motherland.

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oTar gogoliSvili

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis ganaSenianebis istoriisaTvis meme-19 saukunis damlevs

(g. rCeuliSvilisa da p. lipinskis proeqtebi)

1896 wlis ivnisSi, quTaisis guberniis samxedro gubernatorma, qalaq baTumis maSindel Tavs luka asaTians gadmougzavna damtkicebuli, g. rCeuliSvilis mier Sesrulebuli qalaqis generaluri gegma, romelic Seicavda kavkasiis mefisnacvlis kancelariis teqnikos-mSeneblis simonsonis SeniSvnebs. quTaisis guberniis general-gubernatori baTumis qalaqis Tavs sTxovda qalaqis ganaSenianeba ganxorcielebuliyo am gegmis mixedviT, arsebuli SeniSvnebis gaTvaliswinebiT. 1896 wlis 14 seqtembers qalaqis saTaTbirom Seqmna specialuri komisia gegmaSi Setanili simonsonis SeniSvnebis dasamuSaveblad. komisiam saTanadod Seiswavla generaluri gegma da damatebiTi SesrulebisaTvis warmoadgina Semdegi Sinaarsis winadadebebi (quCebi warmodgenilia misi dRevandeli saxelwodebiT): 1. gagrZeldes axmed melaSvilis quCa (adre am quCas ewodeboda sviatopolk-mirskis quCa) zRvis ubemde da gafarTovdes misi sigane Svid saJenamde, 2. axmed melaSvilis quCa SeuerTdes g eliavas quCas (yofili savaWro quCa), 3. quTaisis quCidan (es quCa warmoqmnilia me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi) dawyebuli, zRvis ubemde gagrZeldes vaxtang gorgaslis quCa (yofili jer kaTolikis, Semdeg bagratinskisa da olRas quCebi), 4. sergei mesxis quCa (warmoiqmna me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi) gafarTovdes 25 saJenamde, 5. ilia WavWavaZis quCa (yofili jer petrogradis, Semdeg ki kooperaciis quCa) samxreT nawilSi gafarTovdes 15 saJenamde (mdinare angisis midamoebSi). komisiis es winadadebebi simonsonma ar miiRo da amitomac g. rCeuliSvilis es gegma saerTod uaryofili iqna. maSin luka asaTianma sTxova simonsons, raTa mas Tavad Seedgina qalaqis generaluri gegma, razedac simonsonma uari ganacxada. amis Semdeg qalaqis generaluri gegmis Sedgena, g. rCeuliSvilis gegmis safuZvelze, daevala qalaqis mTavar arqiteqtors kandidovs, magram kandidovis mier Sedgenili qalaqis ganaSenianebis gegmis proeqti aRar daamtkices [acsa, f. 6, an. 1, s. 27, f. 197-198].

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1897 wlis 29 oqtombers, qalaqis Tavma luka asaTianma qalaqis generaluri gegmis Sedgenaze xelSekruleba gaaforma quTaisis guberniis miwis mzom petre aleqsandres-Ze lipinskisTan, romelsac mieca davaleba, raTa generaluri gegmis Sedgenisas gaeTvaliswinebina wina periodSi Sedgenili proeqtebis mimarTebaSi Setanili SeniSvnebi. p. Llipinski, samsaxurebrivi movaleobidan gamomdinare, kargad icnobda baTumsa da mis Semogarens, amitomac iyo, rom igi uyoymanod daTanxmda emuSava qalaq baTumis ganaSenianebis generaluri gegmis proeqtis Sedgenaze. qalaqis ganaSenianebis generalur proeqtze muSaobis dawyebamde p. lipinskim Zirfesvianad Seiswavla baTumis topografiuli monacemebi, romlis safuZvelze Semdegi daskvna gaakeTa: rogorc cnobilia, baTumi ganlagebulia zRvispira zolis vrcel dablobze, romelic Seqmnilia mdinare Woroxis SemonatanebiT. mTeli es teritoria, mdinare Woroxidan mdinare barcxanamde da mdinare skurkubamde, aRemateba zRvis dones erTi metridan 1,5 metramde da igi mxolod dasaxleba ,,gorodokis'' Semdeg maRldeba. qalaqis teritoriaze Caedineba sami mdinare: angisa, degolmanis wyali da barcxana. mdinare angisa Zalian mixveul-moxveulia, amavdroulad mcirewyliania da igi mdinareze ufro dagubebul Waobs gvagonebs. am mdinarem zRvasTan SeerTebamde erTi kilometris farglebSi Seqmna mravali limani, romlebsac droTa ganmavlobaSi Waobis saxe miuRia. Tavisi mcirewylianobis gamo cud amindebSi mdinare angisas Zalian uZneldeba zRvaSi SeWra (dReisaTvis mdinare angisas faqtobrivad dakarguli aqvs mdinaris mniSvneloba). mdinare angisis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT ganlagebulia SedarebiT vrceli sufTa tba, romelic CvenSi cnobilia nurigelis saxelwodebiT. am tbis sigrZe udris 155 metrs, sigane ki 50 metrs. es tba ZiriTadad miwisqveSa wyaroebiT ikvebeba. misi wyali imdenad sufTaa da kamkama, rom daleva Tavisuflad SeiZleba. meore mdinare _ degolmani, mcirewyliania, magram igi swrafi dinebiT gamoirCeva. mesame mdinare _ barcxana, zemoTCamoTvlil or mdinaresTan SedarebiT didia. igi zafxulis cxeli, mSrali amindebis periodSi mcirewyliani xdeba, wvimebis dros ki sagrZnoblad diddeba. es mdinare mTidan moedineba. amdenad, qalaqis terortoriaze Sesvlamde sufTaa, Semdeg ki TandaTan binZurdeba navTobproduqtebis narCenebis Serevis Sedegad. bevr adgilas mdinare barcxanis napirebi gamagrebulia betonis gambrjeni kedlebiT.

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grunti, niadagi qalaqis umetesi nawilis qveS xreSisa da qviSis narevia, ris gamoc gruntis wyali ganTavsebulia orioTxi metris siRrmeSi. zedapiridan mxolod mdinare angisisa da mTisZiris midamoebSi xreSi da qviSa icvleba TixiT, amitomac gruntis wyali am midamoebSi sagrZnoblad iwevs zeviT, zogierT adgilas zedapirzedac ki amodis [acsa, f. 7, an. 1, s. 307, f. 12]. 1899 wlis zafxulisaTvis p. lipinskim qalaqis ganaSenianebis generaluri gegmis proeqti TiTqmis daamTavra. am proeqtSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo yvela is SeniSvna, rac wina periodSi Sesrulebuli gegmebis mimarT iyo miniSnebuli. amis Semdeg proeqtis gadamamowmebelma komisiam qalaqis saTaTbiros saxelze moamzada Semdegi Sinaarsis moxsenebiTi baraTi: ,,rogorc cnobilia saTaTbirosaTvis, qalaqis gegma dRemde ar damtkicebula, jer kidev gasworebis stadiaSia miwis mzom lipinskis mier, amitom jer kidev gvaqvs dro gegmaSi SevitanoT damatebani, romlebic Cveni SexedulebiT aucileblobas waroadgens. qalaqi baTumi gaizarda, man mTlianad miaRwia gaTvaliswinebul sazRvrebs, amitomac aucilebelia qalaqis teritoriis gafarToeba, sanamdisac ar damtkicebula aRniSnuli lipinskiseuli qalaqis gegma. yovelgvari dagvianeba am mxriv xels SeuSlis qalaqis bunebriv zrdas da xels Seuwyobs qalaqis sazRvrebs gareT mSeneblobis TviTneburad warmoebas, rac momavlisaTvis dasangrevi gaxdeba" [acsa, f. 7, an. 1, s. 307, f. 22]. qalaqis saTaTbirom gaiTvaliswina komisiis moxseneba da aRniSnuli sakiTxis ukeT Seswavlis mizniT 1899 wlis 12 oqtombris sxdomaze daadgina Seqmniliyo gansakuTrebuli mosamzadebeli komisia Semdegi SemadgenlobiT: n. dumbaZe, m. nikolaZe, a. guguSvili, a. polski, dursun-beg abaSiZe, a. dimitriadi. komisiam sakiTxi Seiswavla da mivida im daskvnamde, rom qalaqis sazRvrebi Turme aravis mier ar yofila dafiqsirebuli TviT porto-frankos sazRvrebis CaTvliT da igi ganisazRvreboda TviTneburad, qalaqis mmarTvelobis monawileobis gareSe da, amitomac, saWiroeba moiTxovda saswrafod gansazRvruliyo qalaqis sazRvrebi. kerZod, qalaqis teritoria unda gansazRvruliyo Semdeg sazRvrebSi: dasavleTiT _ CrdiloeTidan samxreTisaken, mdinare mejiniswylis zRvasTan SeerTebis adgilidan Jilinskis saniaRvre arxis gaswvriv, qvis xidamde, romelic aSenebuli iyo mdinare urexze. samxreTiT ­ dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisaken ­ xididan samxedro uwyebis magistralur gzatkecilamde, iqedan ki mTebis Ziramde (gzatkecili unda Sesuliyo qalaqis farglebSi), aqedan sazRvars unda gaevlo samxreT-aRmosavleTisaken andreevisa da sisonkos kuTvnil

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teritoriaze, iqedan ki rkinis xidamde, romelic aSenebuli iyo mdinare barcxanaze, saidanac sazRvari gaivlida CrdiloeTisaken mdinare barcxanis marcxena napiris gaswvriv. qalaqis saTaTbirom Tavis sxdomaze, 1899 wlis 24 oqtombers ganixila gansakuTrebuli komisiis daskvna qalaqis sazRvrebis dadgenasTan dakavSirebiT da moiwona igi mxolod erTi SesworebiT ­ qalaqis samxreTis sazRvari unda gadataniliyo mdinare yoroliswylis marcxena napiramde. p. lipinskim yvela es SeniSvna saTanadod gaiTvaliswina generaluri gegmis proeqtSi da 1900 wlis 27 oqtombers igi gaigzavna dasamtkiceblad mixailovis cixis komendantTan. es gegma komendantis mier mTlianad iqna mowonebuli da xeli moawera kidec 1900 wlis 27 noembers. 1901 wlis 9 ianvars generaluri gegma dasamtkiceblad gaegzavna quTaisis guberniis samxedro gubernators. gubernatorma es gegma ar daamtkica im mizeziT, rom 1900 wlis 19 ivniss mis mier damtkicebuli iyo baTumis navTobis qalaqis gegma, romelic Seadgenda baTumis nawils. amitomac axal generalur gegmaSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda yofiliyo navTobis qalaqis teritoriac [acsa, f. 7, an. 1, s. 307, f. 45-47]. unda iTqvas isic, rom arc p. lipinskis Semdgomi qalaqis ganaSenianebis gegmebic, romlebic ekuTvnoda inJiner ritels da sxvebs, ar damtkicebula. ZiriTadi mizezi ki iyo qveyanaSi Seqmnili qaosi, anarqia da areulobebi. gamomdinare aqedan, yovelTvis jer Wianurdeboda, Semdeg ki saerTod ar ecalaT aseTi generaluri gegmebisaTvis, magram mdgomareoba ki moiTxovda saqmis saswrafod dawyebas.

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi

1. aWaris centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi 6, anaweri 1, saqme 27. 2. acsa, f. 7, an. 1, s. 307.

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Otar Gogolishvili (Batumi, Georgia) The Architectural Project of the Town of Batumi at the End of the XIX Century (The Projects Composed by G. Rcheulishvili and P. Lipinski) Summary On 1896, the head of the town of Batumi Luka Alsatian received the architectural project of the town of Batumi. This project was sent from Kutaisi. The author of this architectural project was G. Rcheulishvili. This project was rejected because of some mistakes that had been made in it. Then Luka Alsatian signed a contract with P. Lipinski. The architectural project composed by P. Lipinski was better than the ones made previously by another authors. But the architectural project composed by P. Lipinski was also rejected because of many different reasons.

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gela saiTiZe

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

petre surgulaZe da baTumis sazogadoeba

1931 wlis 6 seqtembers stambolSi uecrad gardaicvala didi qarTveli patrioti da politikuri moRvawe petre surgulaZe. am samwuxaro faqts didi gulistkiviliT Sexvda emigraciaSi myofi qarTveloba da perioduli gamocemebis redaqciebi. aq ki, mis samSobloSi, erTi sityvac aravis dascdenia amasTan dakavSirebiT. g. gvazava lakonuri fraziT warmoaCenda Tavisi megobris mier ganvlil cxovrebiseul gzas: `misi moRvaweoba iyo sxvadasxvanairi _ pedagogiuri, publicisturi, politikuri...~ [gaz. `damoukidebeli saqarTvelo~ (parizi), 1931, #69; g. SaraZe, 2001: 333]. savsebiT swori miniSnebaa, magram TiToeul am Temaze saubars aq ar SevudgebiT, maTze vrclad vmsjelobT monografiul gamokvlevaSi, romelsac male miiRebs mkiTxveli sazogadoeba. petre surgulaZisTvis (1877-1931) mTeli misi moRvaweobis manZilze erT-erT prioritetul mimarTulebas warmoadgenda sxvadasxva sarwmunoebis (qristian, mahmadian da kaTolike) qarTvelTa urTierTobis sakiTxi. `ganaTlebaSi~, `ersa~ Tu `Tavisufal saqarTveloSi~ dastambuli werilebi, konkretul pirebTan urTierTobani da praqtikuli nabijebi mimarTuli iyo araqristian moZmeTa interesebis dacvisaken, maTi SeWirvebuli yofis gaumjobesebisaken. igi ara marto mis mier redaqtirebul JurnalebSi gamogzavnili korespondenciebiT ecnoboda mahmadian TanamoZmeTa satkivars, aramed Tavad cdilobda adgilze misvliT gacnoboda maT cxovrebas. amitom iyo, rom mas kargad icnobdnen baTumelebi. igi ara Tu Ria, aramed megobrebisadmi miweril kerZoO werilebSic Tavis aRSfoTebas ar malavda, Tuki vinmeSi mahmadian TanamoZmeTa Rirsebis Semlaxvel raime faqts dainaxavda. sandro SanSiaSvilisadmi miweril erT pirad werilSi p. surgulaZe miuTiTebda: `am bolo dros ise datrialda Cveni istoria, rom qarTveloba sam umTavres sarwmunoebad daiyo: orTodoqsaluri qristianoba, kaTolikoba da mahmadianoba... cxadia, dRevandeli gmiri verc erT sarwmunoebriv samoselSi ver gaexveva; Cven sarwmunoeba kerZo sindisis saqmed unda vaRiaroT da Cven namdvil sarwmunoebad samSoblo da misi siyvaruli gamovacxadoT. es metad didi saqmea... sazogado moRvaweni yoveli gziT unda cdilobdnen sxvadasxva sarwmunoeb101

riv jgufTa Soris daaxloebas. samwuxarod, Cveni gazeTebi ise daecnen, rom `kolxidaSi~ zedized vkiTxulobT: qobuleTeli TaTari beJaniZe, baTumeli qarTveli osmalo niJaraZe. ise daveciT, rom qarTvels _ TaTarsa da osmalos vuwodebT...~ [slm, s. SanSiaSvilis fondi, #6569-x]. ufro adre, Jurnal `eris~ pirveli nomris saredaqcio werilSi, sxva sakiTxebTan erTad, sarwmunoebis wina planze dayenebas saxavda upirveles miznad, raTa `ZaliT gamuslimanebul TanamoZmeebTan mtkice kavSiri damyarebuliyo...~; rom `qarTvel ers unda scodnoda saqarTveloSi rusis fexis Semodgmis Sedegad naxevari saqarTvelo dacarielda...~. redaqcia ki Tavis movaleobad saxavda mahmadian moZmeTa Soris muSaobis ufro intensiurad warmarTvas, raTa `maT TavianT qristian ZmebTan erTad gaewiaT gaWirvebis Wapani, romelic CvenTvisac aranakleb samZimo iyo, vidre maTTvis...~ [J. `eri~, 1909, #1]. Jurnal `Tavisufali saqarTvelos~ furclebze gamoqveynebul werilSi _ `risTvis unda qarTvel ers sakuTari saxelmwifo,~ miuTiTebda: `qarTveli eri, romelsac rusebma as weliwadze metia sakuTari saxelmwifoebrivi marTva-gamgeoba waarTves, dRes daRupvis gzazea damdgari... maT naxevari saqarTvelo gaanadgures da dResac sarwmunoebis niadagze ufro metad abneven isedac gzaabneul musulman qarTvelobas... samSoblodakarguli da osmaleTSi dasaxlebuli qarTveloba sxvisi stumrebi gaxdnen... isini TandaTan hkargaven mSobliur enas da masTan erTad qarTul cnobierebas... qarTveloba hkargavs Tavis RviZl Svilebs. vinca kvdeba misi saxsenebeli qreba da ara qarTvelad, aramed Turqad ixsenieba... es procesi ki metad sasixarulod gamxdara rusTaTvis, radgan amaSi qarTvelTa ricxvis Semcirebis erT-erT saukeTeso saSualebas xedaven...~ [J. `Tavisufali saqarTvelo~, 1914, #3]. TviTmpyrobelobis damxobis Semdeg sazRvargareT iZulebiT gaxiznuli p. surgulaZe samSobloSi brundeba da misTvis Cveuli SemarTebiT ebmeba erovnul saqmianobaSi. igi xvdeba saqarTvelos qalaqebisa da soflebis mcxovrebT, ismens maT mosazrebebs, uziarebs Tavisas. gansakuTrebiT yurs ugdebs da efereba mahmadian qarTvelobas, Wirsa Tu lxinSi maT gverdiT dgas. magaliTad, 1917 wlis aprilSi igi baTumSia, roca Tbilisidan mSobliur aWaraSi saxelovani mamuliSvilis yadir SarvaSiZis cxedari Camoasvenes. mas aTasobiT mahmadiani da qristiani qarTveli daxvda azizies moedanze, saidanac micvalebuli Tavis mamulSi, qedaSi waasvenes. micvalebuls bevri cnobili Tu aracnobili qarTveli miacilebda ukanasknel gzaze. maT Soris iyvnen soc.-demokrati isidore ramiSvili da erovnul-demokrati petre surgulaZe. maT sasaflaoze yadir

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SarvaSiZes gulSi Camwvdomi sityviT mimarTes, riTac damswre sazogadoebis didi mowoneba daimsaxures. `iloca ximSiaSvilmao~, _ dasZens is. ramiSvili Tavis `mogonebaSi~ [is. ramiSvili, mogonebebi (xelnaweri): 135]. 1918 wlis 11 maiss baTumSi sazavo konferencia gaixsna, romelsac TurqeTis, germaniis da amierkavkasiis seimis warmomadgenlebi eswrebodnen. am konferenciis msvlelobisas momxdar yvela detalze, mis Sedegebze aq yuradRebas aRar SevaCerebT. gavixsenebT mxolod 20 maiss baTumidan sruliad saidumlod gagzavnil werils saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWosa da misi aRmasrulebeli prezidiumis saxelze, romelSic delegaciis xelmZRvaneli ak. Cxenkeli a/kavkasiis seimis dauyovnebliv daSlas da saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxadebas moiTxovs. am faqtTan dakavSirebiT z. avaliSvili miuTiTebs: `moxda gadamwyveti sxdoma viwro wreSi, romelsac ukve mzad hqonda saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxadebis proeqti~. sxdomas daswrebian _ ak. Cxenkeli, niko nikolaZe, z. avaliSvili da petre surgulaZe. es proeqti germaniis delegaciasTan gulaxdili ganxilvis Semdeg `mxolod ramdenime kacs hqonda saidumlod gandobili~-o, dasZens z. avaliSvili [z. avaliSvili, 1990]. aq CvenTvis sainteresoa is, rom oTx pasuxismgebel pirs Soris petre surgulaZec aris dasaxelebuli. niko nikolaZe, SemdgomSi igonebs ra baTumis sazavo konferenciis peripetiebs da molaparakebebis Sedegebis mniSvnelobas, mSvenier daxasiaTebas aZlevs petre surgulaZis pirovnebas da mis rols am molaparakebebSi. `dRes dilas (gulisxmobs 24 maiss _ g.s.) Cxenkelis oTaxSi vnaxe petre surgulaZe, Jurnal `ganaTlebis~ damaarsebeli, odesme myofi maswavleblad... mere bevri devna da vai-vaglaxi gadautania, sazRvargareT gadaxvewila da iq bevri uSromia im jgufSi, romelsac didZali Sroma gauwevia germaniis yuradRebis misaqcevad saqarTvelos da kavkasiis mdgomareobaze... piradad is simpatiuri adamiania, blomaT nakiTxi, sakuTari Sexedulebebis mqone qveynierebaze, dakvirvebuli da gonieri, gamocdili, icnobs qveyanas, originaluri azri aqvs Sedgenili yvelaze da yvelaferze. stambolSi icnobs mTels mmarTvel wres, icis maTi urTierTdamokidebuleba da TiToeulis gankerZoebuli xasiaTi da survili... baTomSiac yvelas icnobs: roca Cxenkelis oTaxidan Cven masTan da sp. kediasTan erTad yavaxanisaken gavemgzavreT sasauzmeT, mas vin ar ginda, vinc Sexvdeboda, mxiarulaT Tavs ukravda da emusaifeboda, rogorc Zvel nacnobs da megobars: didi da patara, meduqne, muSa, guruli, TaTari, aficeri, inteligenti, qali Tu kaci. man Cxenkels gaacno, Tu ras ambobdnen da Svrebodnen Turquli da germanieli delegaciebis wevrebi

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da maTi mxleblebi stambolidan baTomamde mogzaurobis dros. is TviTon am gemiTve movida, am delegaciebs mohyva, maT megobraT iTvleba da mekavSires warmoadgens Cvensa da maT Sua. misi sityviT, germanieli delegacia wamovida misi da misi jgufis mecadineobiT... surgulaZis rCeviT, Cven unda vimecadinoT germanelebis CarTvisaTvis konferenciaSi, `davainteresoT saqarTvelos bedSi da maTi daxmarebiT vixsnaT Tavi Turqebis madisa da gaumaZRrobisagan~. surgulaZem saTiTaod dagvixasiaTa TiToeuli wevri germanieli delegaciisa da osmalo delegaciis umTavresi mxleblebi, agreTve orive ministri _ halil bei da jemal faSa... CxenkelTan p. surgulaZis moxsenebas yurs ugdebdnen agreTve: giorgi Juruli, zurab avaliSvili da spiridon kedia, Cveni delegaciis mrCevelebi _ samrewvelo-saekonomio dargisa, iuridiulis da mesame ki _ mdivani...~. n. nikolaZis TqmiT, Semdeg qarTuli delegacia restoranSi wauyvania baTumidan erovnul-demokratiuli partiis wevrs mgalobliSvils... saubari da azrTa gacvla-gamocvla Zlier saamod gagrZelebula. `saubris meTauri da TiTqmis `solisti~, rasakvirvelia, surgulaZe gaxldaT, romelic TandaTan ufro met simpatias iZens Cvensas sazogadod da Cemsas gansakuTrebiT~, _ aRniSnavs n. nikolaZe [d. CikvilaZe, 2003: 129130]. rogorc ityvian, ukeTes daxasiaTebas kaci ver inatrebs, es sityvebi xom erT-erT `samocianels~ ekuTvnis, romelsac haerze sityvebis wamosrola arasdros uyvarda. amasTan erTad TvalnaTliv SegviZlia imis warmodgena, Tu ra siyvaruliTa da popularobiT sargeblobda p. surgulaZe baTumis sazogadoebaSi, romelic haiharad guls ise iolad aravis gauxsnida, Tu masSi WeSmarit mamuliSvils ar Seicnobda. damoukidebeli saqarTvelos umaRlesi sakanonmdeblo organos wevrs, p. surgulaZes, Tavisi saqmianobis erT-erT upirveles sazrunavad aWarisa da misi centris, baTumis mcxovrebTa socialur-ekonomikuri da politikuri mdgomareoba yovelTvis wina planze hqonda wamoweuli. 1919 wlis aprilSi, gazeT `saqarTveloSi~ dastambul erT-erT werilSi igi baTumis mxareSi Seqmnil viTarebas exeba. misi TqmiT, qarTuli sazogadoeba guldamSvidebiT Sexvedria ingliselTa Semosvlas am regionSi, radgan darwmunebuli iyo `maT miudgomlobasa da samarTlianobaSi~, magram, samwuxarod, es ase ar momxdara da Sedegi sawinaaRmdego gamomdgara. `baTumis mxare gadaiqca Savrazmel rusTa aRTqmul qveynad. yoveli mxridan, rogorc yornebi leSisaken, ise moeSurebian baTumisaken... CvenTvis autanelia is, rac Cvens qveyanaSi xdeba, roca siZulviliT aRsavse mtruli Zalebi Cvensave dasaklav danas lesaven. amitom qarTvelobam, musliman TanamoZmeebTan erTad, xma unda aimaR104

los Sav-bneli Zalebis winaaRmdeg da meti aqtiuroba gamoiCinos TavianTi keris dasacavad~, _ werda p. surgulaZe [gaz. `saqarTvelo~, 1919, 2 aprili]. aWarasTanaa dakavSirebuli p. surgulaZis didi piradi ubedureba, romelic mas 1920 wlis maisSi daatyda Tavs. `zemo aWaraSi, sofel uTxis ubanTan~, avazakTa mier gasrolilma tyviam sicocxles gamoasalma misi erTaderTi Zma, samxedro eqimi irakli surgulaZe. am tragikul ambavs farTod gamoexmaura imdroindeli qarTveli sazogadoeba. 37 wlis axalgazrda kacs damtireblad da Wirisuflad ufrosi Zmis meti aravin darCenia. cxedari TbilisSi iqna gadasvenebuli da qaSveTis wm. giorgis eklesiaSi panaSvidis gadaxdis Semdeg, veris wm. nikolozis eklesiis galavanSi dakrZales. samgloviaro mitingze gamosulebi Tu presis furclebze dastambuli samgloviaro gancxadebebis avtorebi guliTad TanagrZnobas ucxadebdnen p. surgulaZes. maTgan gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa baTumSi gamomaval gazeT `samuslimano saqarTveloSi~ gamoqveynebuli werili, romelic, udavoa, mis redaqtors memedbeg abaSiZes ekuTvnis. masSi Rirseuli Sefaseba aqvs micemuli udrood daRupulis xsovnas da guliTadi, Zmuri Tanadgomaa gacxadebuli gulmokluli Zmis, p. surgulaZis mimarT. `4 am Tves, aWaris gzaze yaCaRebma sicocxles gamoasalmes samuslimano saqarTvelos didi megobari da mosiyvarule eqimi irakli surgulaZe. mokles is adamiani, romelsac mTeli Tavisi arsebiT uyvarda qarTveli muslimanebi... da mere vin mokla? rogorc sCans, is mouklavT aWarlebis wridan gamosulebs. mouklavT im xalxis Svilebs, romlis interesebisaTvis irakli mzaT iyo Tavi gaewira. irakli erTad-erTi Zma iyo samuslimano saqarTveloSi kargad cnobili sazogado moRvawis petre surgulaZisa. petrem qarTvel muslimanTa daxmarebis saqmeSi didi ubedureba gamoiara. samuslimano saqarTvelodan gadaxvewil Tanamemamuleebs petre Tavs evleboda da uvlida maT, rogorc Zmebs da megobrebs. petres meoxebiT bevri qarTveli muslimani gadaurCa simSiliT sikvdils. da mas Semdeg ar yofila arc erTi wuTi, rodesac petres Tavis kerZo saqmeze ezrunos; is yovelTvis samuslimano saqarTvelos sikeTeze fiqrobs da zrunavs. aseTi iyo misi Zmac... ra saSineli ironiaa bedisa. kaci, romelic Tavs evleboda qarTvel muslimanebs, romelsac Tavis sicocxlis sagnaT qarTveli muslimanebisadmi samsaxuri dausaxavs miznaT, rCeba kerZo cxovrebaSi sruliad oblaT, erTaderT sayvarel Zmisagan gamoTiSulad... saukunoT iqneba xseneba samuslimano saqarTvelos didi megobris irakli surgulaZisa. xolo mis Zmas, Cven did megobar

105

petres ar viciT, Tu ra nugeSi vuTxraT... Cvenma cremlebma misces mas mcirediT mainc misi tanjvis Semsubuqeba. vusurvebT mas, rom vaJkacurad gadaetanos es didi ubedureba da kvlav daubrundes Tavis sayvarel saqmes: samuslimano saqarTvelos TavdaviwyebiT samsaxurs~, _ naTqvamia werilSi [gaz. `samuslimano saqarTvelo~,1920, #356]. bolSevikuri ruseTis mier saqarTvelos okupaciis Semdeg p. surgulaZe midis emigraciaSi da TurqeTSi rCeba. aq igi saqarTvelodan emigrirebuli mTavrobis politikur komisiaSi moRvaweobs da saqarTvelos ganTavisuflebisaTvis ganagrZobs brZolas. Aamrigad, p. surgulaZis, rogorc zneobrivi pirovnebis, saxeli samagaliTod darCeba samSoblos bed-iRbalze mofiqrali TaobebisaTvis.

gamoyenebuli gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. saqarTvelos g. leoniZis sax. literaturis muzeumi (slm), sandro SanSiaSvilis fondi, #6569-x. 2. z. avaliSvili, saqarTvelos damoukidebloba 1918-1921 wlebis saerTaSoriso politikaSi, Tb., 1990. 3. i. gogebaSvili, Txz., t. III, Tb., 1954. 4. is. ramiSvili, `mogonebebi~ (xelnaweri). 5. g. saiTiZe, petre surgulaZis sazogadoebriv-politikuri da sagamomcemlo-publicisturi moRvaweoba, _ wm. gr. feraZis sax. Tbilisis universitetis `Sromebi,~ t. I, Tb., 2009. 6. g. SaraZe, qarTuli emigrantuli Jurnalistikis istoria, t. I, Tb., 2001. 7. g. SaraZe, qarTuli emigrantuli Jurnalistikis istoria, t. II. Tb., 2001. 8. d. CikvilaZe, drosgaswrebuli mamuliSvili, Tb., 2003. 9. oT. janeliZe, Jurnal `eris~ istoriisaTvis, _ samecniero Sromebis krebuli, t. II, Tb., 1999. 10. oT. janeliZe, saqarTvelos erovnul-demokratiuli partia 1917-1923 wlebSi (sadoqtoro disertacia, xelnaweris uflebiT), Tb., 1999.

J u r n a l e b i

1. 2. 3. 4. `ganaTleba~, Tebervali, #1; marti, #3-4, 1908. `bedi qarTlisa,~ (parizi), #39-40, 1962. `eri,~ seqtemberi, #1, 1909. `Tavisufali saqarTvelo~ (Jeneva), marti, #3, 1914.

106

g a z e T e b i

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. `damoukidebeli saqarTvelo~ (parizi), seqtemberi, #69, 1931. `TeTri giorgi,~ (parizi), #43-44, 1931. `saqarTvelo,~ (parizi), 1939. `saqarTvelo~, 2 aprili, 1919. `samuslimano saqarTvelo,~ maisi, #356, 1920.

GGela Saitidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Petre Surguladze and the Society of Batumi Summary Petre Surguladze, as a teacher, publicist, editor-publisher and politician took an important place in Georgian public and political life of the 20th century. On every step of his activity he paid too much attention to the matters of relationships between Orthodox and Moslem Georgians. He had very close contacts with all sections of the population of South -West Georgia, also with the society of Batumi, the centre of this region. The facts brought in the article confirm it evidently.

107

jemal karaliZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

ivane andronikaSvili - baTumis qalaqisTavi

baTumis ganviTarebaSi didi roli Seasrula 1888 wlis 28 aprils gamocxadebulma saqalaqo TviTmmarTvelobam. umaRlesi gankargulebis Sesabamisad, qalaqis pirvel Tavad daniSnes k. gavronski. 1894 wlis 12 oqtombers baTumSi meored Catarda saTaTbiros arCevnebi. Tu pirvel saTaTbiroSi mxolod 11 qarTveli xmosani gavida, 1894 wlis arCevnebSi 19 qarTvelma gaimarjva. saTaTbiroSi ki sul 36 xmosani iyo [j. karaliZe, 2009: 67]. arCevnebis aseT Sedegebs didi mniSvneloba hqonda, vinaidan maSindeli kanonmdeblobiT qalaqisTavs da gamgeblobis Semadgenlobas saqalaqo saTaTbiro airCevda. 1894 wels baTumis Tavad airCies luka asaTiani, gamgeobis wevrebad _ gr. volski da i. ivanovi, mdivnad _ i. mesxi. baTumis gamgeoba 1894-1901 ww. luka asaTianis xelmZRvanelobiT saTaTbirosTan erTad aqtiurad zrunavda qalaqis rogorc ekonomikuri, ise kulturuli ganviTarebisaTvis. 1901 wlis 9 noembers luka asaTiani moulodnelad gardaicvala. dadga qalaqisTavis kandidaturis SerCevis sakiTxi. gamgeobis Semadgenlobidan gr. volskis hqonda Sesabamisi sazogadoebrivi avtoriteti da gamocdileba, magram mas xelisufleba arakeTilsaimedod miiCnevda. carizmis momxre reaqcionerebs TavianTi kandidatura Tavs rom ar moexviaT, saTaTbiros "qarTulma partiam" daxmareba ilia WavWavaZes sTxova. iliasTan konsultaciis Sedegad gadawyda baTumis qalaqisTavis postze ivane andronikaSvilis wamoyeneba.@"iliam urCia ivane mesxs da mixeil beTanels, romlebic TbilisSi iyvnen gamogzavnili mosalaparakeblad, ivane andronikaSvilzed SeCerebuliyvnen da daaimeda, rom igi sasurveli kandidati iqneboda baTumis qalaqisTavis TanamdebobisaTvis. andronikaSvili, specialobiT agronomi, axalgazrda, Sromismoyvare da energiuli pirovneba iyo. ilias azriT, mTavrobac winaaRmdegi ar iqneboda, radgan igi imxanad saxelmwifo samsaxurSi imyofeboda" [T. komaxiZe, 2004: 311]. Tavdapirveli uaris Semdeg ivane daTanxmda, magram mas ar gaaCnda arCevnebSi monawileobisaTvis Sesabamisi qonebrivi cenzi. prorusul Zalebs, romelTac mxars uWerda quTaisis samxedro gubernatori, surdaT daeCqarebinaT arCevnebis procesi, raTa iv. andronikaSvils masSi monawileoba ver mieRo. magram qarTvelma xmosnebma saTaTbiros ramdenime sxdoma CaSales,

108

moZebnes cenzis damfinansebeli da problemac gadawyvites. amis Semdeg iv. andronikaSvils kanonieri ufleba hqonda monawileoba mieRo baTumis Tavis arCevnebSi. 1902 wlis 4 ianvars gvian RamiT gaimarTa baTumis saqalaqo saTaTbiros sagangebo sxdoma. dRis wesrigSi iyo erTi sakiTxi _ qalaqis Tavis arCevnebi, ganixileboda erTi kandidatura _ ivane zaqarias Ze andronikaSvilisa [acsa, f. 7, s. 379, f. 8], 26 xmiT 3-is winaaRmdeg igi airCies baTumis Tavad. amieridan ivane andronikaSvili mTeli 14 wlis manZilze ucvlelad iyo am Tanamdebobaze da marTlac didi wvlili Seitana baTumis ganviTarebaSi. samarTlianad SeniSnavda daviT kldiaSvili, rom man saavsebiT gaamarTla ilia WavWavaZis ndoba. rTul pirobebSi uxdeboda qalaqis gamgeobas saqmianoba. 1902 wlis 10 noembersa da 1 dekembers or etapad Catarda baTumis saTaTbiros rigiT meoTxe arCevnebi. 706 amomrCevlidan arCevnebSi monawileoba miiRo 492 amomrCevelma (acsa, f. 7, s. 569, f. 59; , 1906: 500-501]. axlad arCeulma saTaTbirom ivane andronikaSvili kvlav airCia qalaqisTavad. magram gamgeobis wevrad arCeuli gr. volski administraciam ar daamtkica. mis nacvlad Semdeg g. Juruli airCies. aseTi uxeSi Careva TviTmmarTvelobis saqmianobaSi iSviaTi ar yofila. administraciis mxridan aseT faqtebs sxva drosac hqonda adgili. mag. 1911 wlis 26 ivliss baTumis Tavma miiRo olqis samxedro gubernatorisgan mimarTva, romelSic igi moiTxovda xmosnebis: gr. s. sogorovis, eq. s. berZeniSvilis, an. d. eliavasa da xmosanTa kandidatis evt. i. xoromanskis gadayenebas. marTlac saqalaqo debulebis 52-e muxlis ZaliT isini Secvales sxva kandidatebiT: sp. gurgeniZiT, vl. ruxaZiT, n. saipoviT da iv. kaxianiT. gubernatori aseve moiTxovda qalaqis gamgeobis sxdomis dRis wesrigis masTan winaswar SeTanxmebas [,,baTumis gazeTi," 1911, #12]. olqis administracia cdilobda aqtiurad Careuliyo gamgeobis sameurneo saqmianobaSic. am SezRudvebisa Tu moqmedi saqalaqo debulebis xarvezebze ivane andronikaSvili sajarod miuTiTebda. mag. 1911 wlis 30 ivliss, miuloca ra qalaqis saTaTbiros axlad arCeul Semadgenlobas arCevnebSi gamarjveba, man ganacxada: "batonebo ... moqmedi kanonmdebloba qalaqis warmomadgenlobas Zalze umniSvnelo uflebebs aZlevs.. gansakuTrebiT portis mSeneblobisa da misi keTilmowyobis sakiTxebSi.. amis mizezi Tanamedrove moTxovnebTan qalaqis mmarTvelobis organizaciis SeusabamobaSia.. miuxedavad amisa daJinebuli, avtoritetuli, dasabuTebuli sityva qalaqis gamgeobisa xels Seuwyobs wamoWrili problemebis gadawyvetas adgilobrivi vaWrobisa da mrewvelobis interesebis Sesabamisad [acsa, f. 7, s. 502, f. 4-5].

109

baTumis Tavi ivane andronikaSvili TviT kritikul situaciebSic ki aqtiurad gamoxatavda sazogadoebriv pozicias. 1905 wels mTels ruseTis imperiaSi gaZlierda revoluciuri gamosvlebi. analogiuri viTareba Seiqmna baTumSic. vaJTa gimnaziis moswavleebma gimnaziis administracias wauyenes moTxovnebi, rasac Sedegad direqtoris brZanebiT gimnaziaSi swavlis Sewyveta mohyva. iv. andronikaSvili aqtiurad CaerTo am problemis mogvarebaSi, piradad gamarTa molaparakeba kavkasiis administraciasTan da miaRwia rom vaJTa gimnaziaSi swavla ganaxlebuliyo ["cnobis furceli," 1905, #27]. baTumis qalaqisTavi 1905 welsve kavkasiis mefisnacvalTan piradad gaemgzavra da sTxova baTumis olqis administraciis moqmedebebis gamoZieba. ilia WavWavaZis mkvlelobasTan dakavSirebiT ivane andronikaSvilis iniciativiT Catarda qalaqis TviTmarTvelobis sxdoma da Sedga specialuri deputacia TbilisSi gasamgzavreblad [d.kldiaSvili, 1984:80]. ivane andronikaSvili unariani sameurneo xelmZRvaneli iyo. igi kargad xvdeboda, rom qalaqis ganviTarebisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba finansebis moZiebas da maT gegmazomier xarjvas hqonda. baTumis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba imTaviTve sazRvao ports gaaCnda. baTumis gamgeoba da piradad iv. andronikaSvili yovelmxriv mxars uWerdnen portis ganviTareba-keTilmowyobas, magram amave dros cdilobdnen portis saqmianobidan qalaqis biujetsac mieRo Sesabamisi Semosavlebi. qalaqis Tavma saocari energiuloba da principuloba gamoiCina portSi gamaval tvirTebze qalaqis sasargeblod safuTo gadasaxadis aRdgenis sakiTxSi. am saqmeSi aqtiurad CarTo qalaqis TviTmarTveloba [acsa, f. 7, s. 547, f. 5-7], aRniSnul sakiTxze piradad mimowera hqonda saxelmwifo saTaTbiros wevrebTan [acsa, f. 6, s. 664, f.4], ministrTa sabWosTan, specialurad am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT araerTxel Casula imperiis dedaqalaqSi, xolo 1912 wlis martSi roca baTumisTvis safuTo gadasaxadis aRdgenis sakiTxis bedi saxelmwifo saTaTbiroSi wydeboda, ivane andronikaSvili peterburgSi myofi elodeboda pasuxs. aseTma mondomebam Sedegi gamoiRo _ 1912 wlis 19 marts saxelmwifo saTaTbirom daadgina: 1) baTums moexsnas yvela saxis davalianeba xazinisadmi; 2) dawesdes portSi gamaval tvirTebze fuTze meoTxedi kapiki qalaqis saWiroebisaTvis [acsa, f. 6, s. 664, f. 351]. portis maSindeli tvirTbrunvis gaTvaliswinebiT am gadasaxadiT baTumis biujets weliwadSi 130-140 aTasi maneTi Seemateboda ["baTumis gazeTi," 1912, #59].

110

baTumis Tavi, rogorc am saqmis sulisCamdgmeli, peterburgSi myofi Rebulobda milocvebs, maT Soris TviT olqis samxedro gubernatorisagan. baTumis gubernatorma polkovnikma b. romanovskim peterburgSi aseTi depeSa gagzavna: "peterburgi, nevis 11, Tavad andronikovs _ gilocavT brwyinvale warmatebas, gulwrfelad vxarob baTumisTvis" [acsa, f. 6, s. 664, f. 352]. aseve aqtiurad iyo CarTuli iv. andronikaSvili baTum-yarsis rkinigzis proeqtis ganxorcielebaSi, radgan kargad grZnobda mis mniSvnelobas qalaqis ganviTarebisaTvis. proeqtis inJineri d. sviSCevski sakiTxis gadawyvetis mimdinareobis Sesaxeb mas peterburgidan regularulad atyobinebda ["baTumis gazeTi," 1914, #6], samwuxarod, am proeqtis ganxorcieleba pirveli msoflio omis gamo veRar moxerxda. ivane andronikaSvili Seuvali iyo, roca saqme baTumisa da misi mmarTvelobis interesebsa da Rirsebis dacvas Seexeboda. 1910 wlis 2 aprils gazeT " russkoe znamiaSi" (redaqtori dubrovini) gamoqveynda werili, romlis avtori baTumis gamgeobas 1905-1907 ww-Si antisaxelmwifoebriv saqmianobaSi, kerZod ki SearaRebuli razmebis dafinansebaSi pirdapir sdebda brals [acsa, f. 6, s. 652, f. 1-5]. baTumis saTaTbirom da gamgeobam cilismwameblisTvis pasuxis moTxovna qalaqisTavs daavala. ivane andronikaSvilma peterburgSi Sesaferisi advokati zarudni moZebna [acsa, f, 6, s. 652, f. 54]. marTalia, saqme gaWinaurda, magram sabolood, 1915 wlis 31 marts, peterburgis sasamarTlom "russkoe znamias" redaqtors dubrovins 2 TviT patimroba miusaja [acsa, f. 6, s. 652, f. 73]. sagulisxmoa, rom piradi materialuri problemebis miuxedavad, ivanem 1906 wlidan uari Tqva samivlinebo xarjebisaTvis wliurad 800 maneTis miRebaze, riTac 8 wlis manZilze qalaqis biujets 6400 maneTi dauzoga [acsa, f. 7, s. 554, f. 14]. yovelive zemoT Tqmulis gamo, iv. andronikaSvili damsaxurebuli avtoritetiT sargeblobda rogorc baTumSi, ise mis farglebs gareT. igi zedized oTxjer airCies qalaqisTavad. sagulisxmoa, rom arCevnebs damajerebeli upiratesobiT igebda (acsa, f. 7, s. 503, f. 8-9]. "baTumis gazeTi," romelic yovelTvis kritikuli iyo xelisuflebis organoebisadmi, 1911 wlis arCevnebis wina dReebSi werda: "radgan sazogado asparezze ukeTesni ar sCanan... amitom Cven vemxrobiT arsebul gamgeobas ["baTumis gazeTi," 1911, #10]. 1916 wels ojaxis finansuri problemebis gamo ivane andronikaSvili TbilisSi gadadis samuSaod. amis Taobaze Tavad werda: "1916 wlis Semodgomaze Tbilisidan miviRe winadadeba komersant a. xoStariasgan, mTxovda mis firmaSi samuSaod ga111

dasvlas, rasac ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebis mizniT daveTanxme" [T. komaxiZe, 1993: 73], igi TbilisSi gadasvlis Semdegac aqtiur moRvaweobas agrZelebda. Ggardaicvala 1947 wels, 85 wlis asakSi [T. komaxiZe, 2003: 150-151].

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. aWaris centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi 6, anaweri 1, saqmeebi 652; 664. 2. acsa, fondi 7, anaweri 1, saqmeebi 379; 502; 503; 547; 554; 569. 3. "baTumis gazeTi," 1911, ivlisi, 10, 12. 4. "baTumis gazeTi," 1912, aprili, 59. 5. "baTumis gazeTi," 1914, ianvari, 6. 6. "cnobis furceli," 1905, 27. 7. d. kldiaSvili, Cemi cxovrebis gzaze, baT., 1984. 8. T. komaxiZe, baTumis amagdarni, baT., 1993. 9. T. komaxiZe, ivane andronikaSvili, baT., 2003. 10. T. komaxiZe, ilia WavWavaZe _ aWaris didi moamage, baT., 2004. 11. j. karaliZe, aWara 1878-1903 wlebSi _ politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri viTareba, baT., 2009. 12. , ., 1906 .

Jemal Karalidze (Batumi, Georgia) Ivane Andronikashvili _ Batumi City Head Summari Cityte as self-government announced in 1888, played an important role in the development of Batumi. In 1902 after the death of Luka Asatiani the supporters of Tsarism wanted to appoint their candidate as the head of head of Batumi, but ,,Georgian Party" of the council managed to appoint progressive and energetic figure Ivane Andronikashvili by Ilia Chavchavadze's direct recommendation and support. Ivane Andronikashvili tried with all his might to create solid financial basis for the economic development of Batumi as well as its cultural promotion. He was an active public figure and he always expressed his point of view, heroically defended city's prestige. Right for this qualities he was respected by the society of Batumi and in 19021916 he was reelected four times as the head of Batumi. The present paper dead with the study of Ivane Andronikashvili's work in Batumi.

112

jibaSvili oleg jibaSvili

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis ubnebis istoriidan _ barcxana

barcxana dReisaTvis baTumis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani ubanTagania Semdgomi ganviTarebis didi perspeqtivebiT. igi moqceulia mdinareebs _ barcxanasa da skurkubas Soris, xolo zRvis sanapirodan moyolebuli grZeldeba xelvaCauris municipalitetis sof. salibauris misadgomebamde. 120-130 wlis winaT es teritoria WaobebiTa da gauvali tye-jagnariT iyo dafaruli. pirveli mosaxleoba aq baTumis ruseTTan mierTebis Semdeg gaCnda. gadavxedoT barcxanis daarsebisa da cxovrebis pirveli aTwleulebis istorias. ruseT-osmaleTis 1877-1878 wlebis omis Sedegad istoriuli samxreT-dasavleTi saqarTvelos miwebis didi nawili osmalTa mflobelobidan ruseTis imperiis xelSi gadavida. evropuli saxelmwifoebis winaaRmdegobis daZlevis Semdeg es faqti berlinis traqtatis LVIII muxliT dakanonda [ ..., 1906: III ]. aRniSnuli miwebidan gansakuTrebul SenaZenad baTumi moiazreboda, rogorc kargi geo-strategiuli mdebareobisa da moxerxebuli navsayudelis mqone qalaqi. sankt-peterburgs didi Zalisxmeva dasWirda misi SenarCunebisaTvis. zogierTi avtoris monacemiT, baTumis irgvliv gamarTul diplomatiur WidilSi garkveuli roli parizeli rotSildebis sabankiro saxlmac iTamaSa. ,,rotSildebs aucileblad unda mieRwiaT, rom baTumi nebismieri formiT ruseTis iurisdiqciis qveS aRmoCeniliyo", _ miTiTebulia maT statiaSi [ ., ., http://rosvesty.ru/1934/interes/?id=1000000301 ]. ase Tu ise, 1878 wlidan es qalaqi ruseTis imperiis farglebSi moeqca. XIX saukunis 70-iani wlebis bolosaTvis baTumSi 3000 kacamde mcxovrebi Tu moiTvleboda [ ., 1879: 60 ]. qalaqs teritoriac mcire ekava, xolo misi Semogareni, rogorc zemoTac mivuTiTeT, tye-buCqnariTa da WaobebiT iyo dafaruli. 1883 wels baqo-Tbilisi-baTumis sarkinizo xazis amoqmedebisa da 1886 wels porto-frankos gauqmebis Semdeg qalaqma swrafad daiwyo zrda. d. kldiaSvilis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, ,,baTumi yvelasaTvis saSovar adgilad Seiqna aRiarebuli, yoveli mxridan morbodnen, rom aq fexi CaedgaT da jibe gaesqelebinaT. sul mokle xanSi daiyida carieli miwebi da gaSenda axali qalaqi" [d. kldiaSvili, 1984: 37].

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ganviTarebis aseTi tempis aRebaSi didi roli iTamaSa baqos navTobma. ,,is sazRvargareT baTumis navsadguriT gahqondaT, ramac mniSvnelovanwilad ganapiroba qalaqis gadaqceva msxvil savaWro-samrewvelo centrad" [m. sioriZe, 1995: 78 ]. sxvaTa Soris, sainteresoa, rom baTumi-baqos sarkinigzo xazis dasruleba zeviT naxsenebi parizeli rotSildebis TanxebiT ganxorcielda. 1886 wels rotSildebma ,,baTumis navTobgadamamuSavebeli amxanagoba" () daaarses [ ., 1999: 42-43] da palaSovskisagan SeZenili navTobis taris patara qarxanac male vrcel sawarmod aqcies. barcxanis dasaxlebis CamoyalibebaSi am kompleqsma mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa. 1898 wlisaTvis aq dasaqmebuli 4 aTasamde muSidan [aWaris istoriul-revoluciuri.., 1973: 28] didi nawili swored barcxanaSi iyo damkvidrebuli. rogorc aRvniSneT, 1880-iani wlebis II naxevridan qalaqma swrafad daiwyo zrda, Sesabamisad gaizarda fasebi miwaze. 1890 wlis monacemebiT, baTumis zogierT ubanSi (azizie, axmedie, muftie) 1 kvadratuli saJeni (= 4,552 kvadratul metrs) miwis fasi 120 maneTamde aRwevda, xolo md. barcxanis marcxena sanapiroze, sadac rotSildis qarxana da sxva samrewvelo obieqtebi iyo ganlagebuli, kvadratuli saJeni 10-15 maneTi Rirda [ ., 1890: 12]. miwis siZvirisa da ruseTis mTavrobis diskriminaciuli politikis gamo, romelic maqsimalurad zRudavda adgilobrivi mosaxleobis damkvidrebas qalaqis teritoriaze, samuSaos maZiebeli qarTveli glexobisaTvis xelmisawvdomi ZiriTadaT qalaqgareT arsebuli, md. barcxanis marjvena sanapiros mimdebare Waobiani teritoria aRmoCnda. ai ras wers d. kldiaSvili: ,,soflidan ayrils, qalaqs Semoxiznuls, erTaderTi adgili hqonda dasabinaveblad, es iyo rotSildis qarxnis gadaRma, mdinare barcxanas napirze. am daTmobaSi gadacda mTavroba, Torem aq aravis gaaWaWanebda _ ar egona, Tu aq Tavs moiyrida erTgvari elementi, romelic 905-Si erT aliaqoTs autexavda, gamoacxadebda Tavis nebas ,,barcxanis gubernatoris" saxeliT da Tavisi nebis da brZanebis qveS moiqcevda baTumsac da mis mTavrobasac" [d. kldiaSvili, 1984: 41]. diax, barcxana dasavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxidan gamosulma mebrZoli sulis adamianebma daaarses. barcxanac brZolaSi _ mTavrobisa da bunebis winaaRmdegobaTa daZlevis procesSi daibada. movusminoT gazeT ,,kvalis" 1899 wlis 45-e nomers (teqsti amoRebulia T. komaxiZis wignidan ,,luka asaTiani"):

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,,q. baTums aRmosavleTis mxriT Camoudis patara mdinare, romelsac barcxanis wyals eZaxian. am mdinaris napirebi 18-20 wlis winaT dafaruli iyo xe-tyiT da bard-ekaliT, gansakuTrebiT marjvniv, sadac dRes barcxanelebi cxovroben. mara mas Semdeg droni icvalen da barcxanas are-maremac saxe gamoicvala. is tye da bard-ekali gaikafa, gaiCexa; misi midamo mosufTavda, tylapo-WenWyoebi amoSra da iqauroba mSvenier sacxovrebel... adgilad gadaiqca, karga blomaT mcxovreblebic daesaxlnen... dRes barcxana saukeTeso nawilia baTumis are-maris. am saukeTeso alagzea moTavsebuli muSaTa umetesoba. erovnulaT: qarTvelebi da rusebi, umetesoba qarTvelebia. danarCen erovnebas aq verc SexvdebiT" [T. komaxiZe, 2003: 65-66]. 1901 wlisaTvis barcxanaSi, erT-erTi wyaros mixedviT, arc Tu ise mkvidrad nagebi 60-mde ficruli saxli moiTvleboda [ ., 1901: 58]. administraciuli TvalsazrisiT ki igi gorodokTan, baTumis meore gareubanTan erTad Sedioda orTabaTumis sazogadoebaSi [iqve], romelic Tavis mxriv kintriSis ubanSi erTiandeboda (Tumca qalaqis saTaTbiros 1899 wlis 24 oqtombris dadgenilebis Tanaxmad ukve gadawyvetili iyo barcxanis dasaxlebis uSualod baTumis farglebSi moqceva). imdroindeli viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT, 60-komlian dasaxlebaSi mcxovrebTa mozrdili ricxvi unda vivaraudoT. Cveni mosazreba eyrdnoba doqtor t. segalis mier 1903 wels Catarebul baTumeli muSebis sacxovrebeli binebis sanitaruli Semowmebis angariSs. igi miuTiTebs, rom qalaqsa da mis gareubnebSi arsebuli kerZo saxlebi da specialurad muSebisaTvis aSenebuli barakebi ukiduresad gadatvirTuli iyo mdgmurebiT [ ., 1903: 10-20]. iq, sadac 2-3 adamiani Zlivs moTavsdeboda, 5-7-9 da meti kaci cxovrobda [ ., 1903: 15]. barcxanaSi segals aRwerili aqvs rotSildebis mier Tavisi muSebisaTvis agebuli 2 baraki. maTSi 3-3 kacze gaTvaliswinebuli 48 bina iyo ganTavsebuli [ ., 1903: 22]. e.i. mxolod am 2 barakSi cxovrobda minimum 144 muSa. es im SemTxvevaSi, Tu samkaciani norma daculi iqneboda, rac Zalian saeWvoa. amdenad, 60 saxlSi sakmaod bevri adamiani ganTavsdeboda. aseTi xalxmravlobisa da mcxovrebTa mebrZoli xasiaTis gamo 1905-07 wlebis revoluciis dros barcxana antisamTavrobo moZraobis bastionad gadaiqca. rsdmp (ruseTis socialdemokratiuli muSaTa partia) baTumis komitets aq hqonda bina dadebuli da ,,barcxanis gubernatoris" saxelwodebiT sakmaod didxans TiTqmis erTpirovnulad ganagebda qalaqs. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT friad sainteresoa baTumis olqis imdroindeli samxedro gubernatoris, general fon parkaus cnobili TviTaRiarebiTi gancxadeba.

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,,ra SemiZlia gavakeTo me, _ dauCivlia mas, _ brZanebas vcem, aravin ar mismens, komiteti ki brZanebs da misi moTxovna usityvod sruldeba" [ ., 1970: 125]. Tavisi aqtiurobiT aseve gamoirCeoda rsdmp baTumis komitetis samxedro organizaciis barcxanis jgufi, romelsac barcxanaSi hqonda konspiraciuli Sexvedris adgilebi da antisamTavrobo muSaobas awarmoebda axlo mdebare samxedro nawilebis jariskacebSi [ ., 1960: 158-160]. ai ase, bedTan WidilSi yalibdeboda da cxovrobda barcxanis dasaxleba Tavisi arsebobis pirvel aTwleulebSi. aqve oriode sityviT gvsurs SevexoT toponim ,,barcxan"-is etimologiis sakiTxs. iyo cdebi, aRniSnuli toponimi ucxo enebis saSualebiT aexsnaT. mag. sabWoTa periodSi baTumze arsebul saeqskursio TemebSi miTiTebuli iyo, rom barcxana momdinareobs Turquli sityvidan ,,baruT-xana" (denTis sacavi), sxva versiiT ,,bar-(c)xana" TiTqos niSnavda adgils, sadac ,,specialurad gamoyofili moxele mosaxleobas xelisuflebis operatiul gadawyvetilebas acnobda" (,,bar" _ sajarod gamomcxadebeli sparsulad, ,,xana" _ adgili) [i. beqiriSvili, 2001: 54-55]. qarTveli mecnierebi am versiebs ar cnoben. mag. i. beqiriSvili aRniSnavs, rom qedis raionis sof. WinkaZeebSi arsebobs mikro-toponimi ,,barcxana," xolo imave raionis sof. dologanTan Camoedineba md. barcxaniRele da samarTlianad askvnis, rom araviTari safuZveli ar gvaqvs davuSvaT maTi araadgilobrivi, araqarTuli warmomavloba. marTlac, aWaraSi, gansakuTrebiT qedis municipalitetSi, bevria iseTi tipis fonetikurad urTiermsgavsi toponimebi, rogorebicaa barcxana-farcxana-baZgnara-baZgara da sxv. [i. sixaruliZe, 1958: 47-85 ]. xolo is, rom ,,barcxanas saxeliT ori mdinarea cnobili, orive aWaris qedis erTi da imave mTidan gamodis da erTi aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken miedineba da baTumTan axlos erTvis zRvas, xolo meore _ aWariswylis Senakadi _ CrdiloeTidan samxreTisaken miemarTeba" _ Jan muriesaTvisac ar darCenila SeumCneveli [J. murie, 1962: 39]. qarTveli mecnierebis Sromebidan irkveva, rom barcxana jer adgils erqva da Semdeg gadavida mdinareze. mag. ist. i. beqiriSvili miiCnevs, rom barcxana (saubaria baTumis ubanze) am adgils ewoda, rogorc barSi arsebul rcxal anu sasven miwas (bar-rcxal-a _ barcxal-a _ barcxan-a), Tumca ar gamoricxavs, rom toponimi SeiZleba warmomdgariyo mcenareebis _ rcxilas an baZgi-barcxis saxelwodebidan [i. beqiriSvili, 2001: 55-56]. baZgi-barcxis saxelidan miRebulad miiCneven toponim

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barcxanas mkvlevarebi nargiz axvlediani [n. axvlediani, 2000: 241-242] da guram bedoSvilic [g. bedoSvili, 2002: 78-79]. Cveni varaudiT, ar aris gamoricxuli, rom barcxana pirvelad mdinares daerqva, romelic adidebis dros sanapiro mcenareulobas dinebis mimarTulebiT miwaze awvenda, erTgvarad varcxnida anu, kuTxurad, ,,barcxnida." aqedan barcxniRele, barcxniwyali. yovel SemTxvevaSi, Zieba zusti etimologiis dadgenisaTvis jer kidev saWiroa. ai, daaxloebiT, rac gvindoda mokled gveTqva barcxanis daarsebisa da misi cxovrebis pirveli aTwleulebis Taobaze. vfiqrobT, calkeuli ubnebis warsulis safuZvliani Seswavla udaod gaamdidrebs mTeli qalaqis, mTeli Cveni kuTxis istorias. samomavlod aucilebelia muSaobis kidev ufro gaRrmaveba am mimarTulebiT.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. aWaris istoriul-revoluciuri adgilebi, baT., 1973. 2. n. axvlediani, ,,barcxan"-isa da ,,Wuria"-s etimologiebisaTvis, kr. saenaTmecniero Ziebani, t. X, Tb., 2000. 3. g. bedoSvili, qarTul toponimTa ganmartebiT-etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2002. 4. i. beqiriSvili, aWaris geografiul saxelTa leqsikoni, baT., 2001. 5. d. kldiaSvili, Cemi cxovrebis gzaze, baT., 1984. 6. T. komaxiZe, luka asaTiani, baT., 2003. 7. J. murie, baTumi da Woroxis auzi, baT., 1962. 8. m. sioriZe, baTumis roli navTobis msoflio bazrisaTvis brZolaSi (1883-1918ww.), bsu Sromebi (humanitarul mecnierebaTa seria), t. I, baTumi, 1995. 9. i. sixaruliZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos toponimika (aWaris assr), w. I, baT., 1958. 10. ( 25- . ), ., 1906. 11. ., . , ., 1901. 12. ., ., ., 1890. 13. ., , ., 1999, http://lib.aldebaran.ru/author/ergin_dyeniel/ergin_ dyeniel_dobycha/ 14. ., . , , 1903. 15. ., ., , - ,, ", 29 ­ 6 , 2008, http://rosvesty.ru/1934/interes/?id=1000000301 16. ., - , ., 1879.

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17. ., - , ., 1960. 18. ., (18901921 ), ., 1970.

Oleg Jibashvili (Batumi, Georgia) From History of Batumi Districts ­ Bartskhana Summary Bartskhana is one of the most important districts of Batumi. It is located between the Bartskhana and the Skurkuba rivers. 120-130 years ago, this territory was covered with swamp, forests and bushes. The first settlement in this territory aroused after Batumi incorporating to Russia. These were peasants coming here from other parts of Georgia looking for jobs. In the beginning of XX century Bartskhana was the suburb of Batumi. From the administrative point of view it was included in Ortabatumi community of Kintrishi district. Its plentiful population at large was fighting against the unfavorable natural conditions as well as against the Russian colonial administration. It must be noticed that in 1905-1907 during the Russian Revolution, Batumi Committee head quarter of Russian SocialDemocratic Labor Party was situated in Bartskhana and in the name of "Bartskhama Governor" administrated the town personally for a long period of time. The name of Bartskhana is interpreted in many ways. In my opinion it must not be excluded that the first it appeared as the name of river; i. e. during its overflowing, it made the plants lie towards the stream and in some way combed them. "vartskhnis" in Georgian literary language means to brush, to comb, whereas "bartsknis" is mostly used in local speech. So from this the water of Bartskhana, in another words the Bartskhana River had to be derived.

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uCa oqropiriZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis mosaxleobis erovnuli erTaSorisi Semadgenloba da erTaSorisi urTierTobebis zogierTi sakiTxi

(XX s­is pirveli ocwleuli)

frangi mkvlevris _ Jan muries mixedviT, 1884 wels baTumSi cxovrobda 8671 kaci, romelTa Soris iyvnen qarTvelebi, rusebi, somxebi, lazebi, Turqebi, sparsebi, afxazebi, berZnebi [J. murie, 1962: 35]. 1890 wlisaTvis misi mosaxleoba 14.891-mde gaizarda [semima, f. 4, s. 45, f. 1-3]; 1897 wlis saimperatoro aRweriT baTumis mosaxleobam 28,5 aTasi Seadgina, 1913 wlisaTvis (pirveli msoflio omis dawyebis win) ki 38,6 aTas miaRwia. pirveli msoflio omis periodSi mosaxleoba aq ramdenadme Semcirda da 1917 wlisaTvis man 35.048 kaci Seadgina [arTmelaZe S., 1988: 33-34]; ucxouri, gansakuTrebiT ki Turquli okupaciis pirobebSi qarTuli mosaxleobis udidesma nawilma qalaqi datova da 1918 wlisTvis baTumis mcxovrebTa raodenoba 15.375mde daeca, 1920 wels ki, aq saqarTvelos saxelmwifo iurisdiqciis aRdgenisTanave, misma mosaxleobam swrafad iwyo zrda da 1918 welTan SedarebiTQTiTqmis gasammagda, miaRwia ra 45.446 mcxovrebs [semima, iqve]. amave periodis q.baTumis mosaxleobis erovnuli Semadgenlobis suraTi ki ase gamoiyureba: jer kidev 1862 wlidan baTumis erT-erTi ubani, kerZod nurie, gamoeyo muhajirebsa da afxazeTidan gamosulebs TurqTa mier gamocemuli specialuri kanonis safuZvelze [scsia, f. 416, an. 3, s. 819, f. 5-8]. Tumca, regionze ruseTis mmarTvelobis damyarebis Semdeg, afxazTa umravlesoba iqedan gaasaxles. unda aRiniSnos, rom baTumSi sxvadasxva erovnebis muSa-mosamsaxureTa mozRvavebis miuxedavad, maT ZiriTad masas saqarTvelos calkeuli regionebidan Camosulebi Seadgendnen. rogorc cnobilia, saqarTveloSi batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg ganviTarebulma movlenebma xeli Seuwyo didi raodenobiT umiwawyalo glexkacobis gaCenas [semima, f. 2, s. 2585, f. 2-7], romelTa mniSvnelovani nawili saarsebo saxsrebis saSovnelad qalaqebisaken daiZra. isini Seadgendnen muSa-mosamsaxureTa Sevsebis erT-erT ZiriTad wyaros baTumSic. aqve Tavs iyridnen ruseTidan da muslimanuri qveynebidan mosulebic [gr. margiani, 1974: 485], agreTve italiidan, safrangeTidan, inglisidan,

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belgiidan da avstria-ungreTidan gamowerili maRalkvalificiuri muSaxeli [gr. margiani, 1974: 488-489]; baTumis mcxovrebTa sagrZnob nawils Seadgendnen osmaleTidan XIX saukunis 90-ian wlebsa da pirveli msoflio omis dros ltolvili somxebi da berZnebi; baTumSi modiodnen ruseTisa da ukrainis centraluri raionebidan gamoqceuli gaRatakebuli elementebic [i. boriki, aWaraSi rusebis dasaxlebis istoriisaTvis 1878­1980 w.w.]. saarqivo dokumentebSi aRniSnulia, rom baTumSi Tavi moiyara sxvadasxva warmoSobis muSaTa masam, romlis mTavar kontingents qarTvelebi (ZiriTadad gurulebi), agreTve ruseTis Sida guberniebidan da TurqeTidan mosulebi Seadgendnen [semima, f. 2, s. 2584/261, f. 11-14]. iqve naTqvamia, rom baTumi dasaxlebulia qarTvelebiT, ZiriTadad, gurulebiT da megrelebiT [iqve, f. 116-117], xolo baTumis portSi muSaobdnen qarTvelebi (maT Soris muslimi aWarlebi), afxazebi, somxebi, Turqebi, rusebi da sxvani [semima, f. 4, s. 62, f. 17]. Tu yvela am monacemebs gaviTvaliswinebT, unda iTqvas, rom q.baTumSi mcxovrebTa umravlesobas aRniSnuli periodisaTvis, ruseTis carizmis mier gatarebuli koloniuri politikis miuxedavad, ukve qarTvelebi warmoadgendnen. me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi baTumSi aRmavlobas ganicdis antisamTavrobo moZraoba, romelSic monawileobas iRebdnen yvela erovnebis warmomadgenlebi: qarTvelebi, rusebi, polonelebi, somxebi, ebraelebi da sxv., ­ naTqvamia dokumentSi ,, . " [semima, f. 2, s. 2583/260, f. 1-10]. iqve aRniSnulia, rom antisamTavrobo swavlebis warmatebas xels uwyobda mTeli rigi mudmivi da SemTxveviTi mizezebi da pirvel maTgans unda mivakuTvnoT erovnuli sakiTxi [iqve]. zogierTi mkvlevari TavianT naSromSi aRniSnavs, rom baTumis artelebSi SeiniSneboda ,,erovnebis mixedviT dajgufebani: qarTvelebis artelebSi qarTvelebia, ruseTis naosnobisa da vaWrobis sazogadoebis artelSi _ somxebi, xolo rusuli sazogadoebis artelSi ­ rusebi" [ab. surgulaZe, 1962: 94-95], magram sapirispiro suraTs gvaZlevs baTumis portis muSaTa artelis erovnuli Semadgenlobis 1909 wlis monacemebi [semima, f. 4, s. 62, f. 17]. 1905 wliT daTariRebul zemoT motanil mimoxilvaSi pirdapiraa miTiTebuli, rom baTumis muSebSi bevria qarTveli (gansakuTrebiT gurulebi), romelTac baTumSi Seqmnes sastiki teroris atmosfero, rac iqca Zlevamosil iaraRad maT xelSi. danarCeni erovnebani, raodenobrivad mcireni, iZulebulni arian maT miekedlon. aravis SeuZlia damnaSavis gacema, rac ar

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unda daaSavos, ar arsebobs mowmeebi da azri ara aqvs TanamSromlebis Zebnas... teroris gamo q.baTumis mTeli mosaxleoba isea SeSinebuli, sakmarisia savaWro rigebs Camourbinos adgilobrivma (igulisxmeba qarTveli ­ u.o.) dakonkilma biWunam da warmoTqvas muqaris sityvebi, rom daiketos maRaziebi da xSir SemTxvevaSi sxva danarCeni dawesebulebebic. amgvari Zaladobis gamo baTumis mosaxleobas dakarguli aqvs kanonierebisa da administraciuli organoebisadmi rwmena, _ aRniSnulia moxsenebaSi [semima, f. 2, s. 2583/260, f. 1-10]. am SemTxvevaSi rusi moxele, ra Tqma unda, Zalian aWarbebs, magram ver malavs ra q.baTumze qarTuli erovnuli elementis udides gavlenas, am faqtis axsnas misi teroristuli qmedebebis Sedegad gasaRebiT cdilobs. igive moxele aRniSnavs, rom social-demokratiuli partiis (romelic TiTqmis mTlianad qarTvelebisagan Sedgeboda) baTumis komitetis TaosnobiT daibeWda da gavrcelda proklamaciebi ,,kavkasiis yvela xalxebisadmi," romelSic mouwodebdnen maT Cabmuliyvnen ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobaSi [semima, f. 2, s. 2583/260, f. 1-10]. amave qarTuli elementis maRali Segnebis nimuSad SeiZleba miviCnioT 1905 wels somex-TaTarTa Jletis dros gamomJRavnebuli pozicia. maSin, rodesac carizmis saidumlo samsaxurebis mier provocirebul am saSinel aqcias musulmanuri wreebis mier gamoxmaurebis saxiT moyva proklamacia ,, ," romelic, faqtobrivad, warmoadgenda mowodebas kavkasiis qristianuli mosaxleobisadmi sastiki Surisgebisaken [acsa, f. i.-1, s.n., an. 1, s. 189, f. 18-19]. qarTvelTa mier maTdami baTumSi gakeTebul mimarTvaSi naTqvamia: ,,salami Tqven musliman da qristian Zmebs. albaT Tqven ukve gaigeT, rom axlaxan kavkasiis sxvadasxva adgilebSi moxda sisxliani ZmaTamkvleli angariSsworeba muslimanebsa da somxebs Soris. CemTvis, rogorc qarTvelisaTvis, rogorc Tqveni TanamoZmisaTvis, es Zalian samwuxaroa... me, rogorc Tqvenma mesame Zmam, SemiZlia gTxovoT orive xalxs, icxovroT megobrulad da SeignoT saerTo interesebi... ecadoT gamoasworoT Tqveni amJamindeli bneli mdgomareoba. ifiqreT erTad, Zvirfasebo... gafanteT Tqvens irgvliv Camowolili sibnele, gaacnobiereT erTad, rogorc Zmebma da erTmaneTis siyvaruliT ibrZoleT ukeTesi momavlisaTvis [acsa, f. i.-1, s.n., an. 1, s. 189, f. 6]. aseTi sulieri ganwyobilebis viTarebaSi, yalbad gamoiyureba rusi saxelmwifo moxelis mier Tavis mimoxilvaSi gakeTebuli daskvna, rom TiTqos baTumSi ,,SeuZlebelia gamoinaxos Serigebis dasayrdeni rogorc partiul, ise arapartiul safu121

Zvelze da erTaderTi gamafrTxilebeli RonisZieba, rom Tavidan aviciloT Setakeba, aris muslimanuri, qarTuli da somxuri mosaxleobis ganiaraReba" [acsa, f. 1, s.n., an. 1, s. 741, f. 33-35]. aqve unda iTqvas, rom baTumSi mcxovrebi muslimebisaTvis ucxo ar iyo urTierTsolidarobis grZnoba. magaliTad, rodesac baTumSi mokles ori mahmadiani meezove, protestis niSnad qalaqis sapolicio samsaxuridan wavida 4 (oTxi) mahmadiani [scsia, f. 10, s. 55, f. 27]. amasTan, maT mierve adgili hqonda ruseTis saimperatoro xelisuflebisadmi sakuTari uryevi loialobis damtkicebis mcdelobasac (moxseneba ,,megreli" propagandistebis baTumSi saqmianobis Sesaxeb ­ Targmani Turqulidan) [scsia, f. 10, s. 55, furc. 76]. baTumSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis ideis gavrcelebis TvalsazrisiT metad saintereso cnobebs Seicavs 1916 wlis erT-erTi saidumlo moxseneba, romelSic pirdapir naTqvamia: ,,yvela adgilobriv mcxovrebs imedi aqvs, rom odesme ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis daxmarebiT miaRweven ruseTisagan gamoyofas" [acsa, f. 1, s.n., an. 1, s. 741, f. 33-35]. amave dokumentSi naTqvamia Semdegi: ,,qarTvelebi, somxebi da musulmanebi ­ es sami xalxia, romelTa urTierTobaze, erovnul problemebzea ZiriTadad damokidebuli mTeli kavkasiisa da amierkavkasiis simSvide. ar arsebobs qarTveli, romelic ar iziarebdes Tavisi xalxis miswrafebas SeinarCunos eris, enis batonoba (gabatonebuli mdgomareoba) da momavalSi saqarTvelos avtonomiis miRwevis SesaZlebloba... qarTvelTa es ukanaskneli miswrafeba gaxda mTavari sagani maTi moqmedebisa, es aris yvela qarTvelTa gaerTianeba, miuxedavad religiisa, saerTo miznebis misaRwevad... baTumis olqis muslimanebi, mocemul momentSi, sruliad daeqvemdebaren qarTvelebis gavlenas da araviTari sakuTari ar gamouvleniaT, garda somxebisadmi aSkara mtrobisa, rac ukanasknel periodSi kidev ufro gamwvavda aWarlebis procesTan dakavSirebiT. am gamwvavebas xels uwyoben qarTvel mahmadianTa advokatebi (damcvelebi), romelTac sasamarTlo darbazis ukana karebidan gamoitanes tendenciuri faqtebi somexi mowmeebis gasamtyuneblad (sawinaaRmdegod)... samarTliani ar iqneboda ar aRniSnuliyo somxebis mxridan gamomwvevi xasiaTis moqmedebani, gansakuTrebiT maTi sasuliero pirebisa, romlis gavlenac maTSi batonobs. somxebis nacionaluri imedebi damyarebulia yvela somxis gaerTianebasa da avtonomiuri somxeTis Seqmnaze" [acsa, f. 1, s.n., an. 1, s. 741, f. 33-35].

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igive dokumenti gvaZlevs baTumSi moqmedi politikuri organizaciebis erovnul maxasiaTebelTa saintereso suraTs. aq aRniSnulia, rom baTumsa da mis olqSi 1905­1907 wlebis gamosvlebisas socialist-revolucionerTa, social-federalistTa, agreTve daSnakistebisa da gnCakistebis moRvaweobis asparezi Zalian susti iyo, Tumca yvela revoluciuri organizacia mitingebisa da quCebis uwesrigobisas sruli TanxmobiT moqmedebda da yvela upiratesobas aniWebda maTSi yvelaze Zlier social-demokratiul partias, romelSic upiratesad qarTvelebi iyvnen gaerTianebulni (socialist-revoluciurSi (s.r-ebi) ­ rusebi, s.f-ebSi ­ qarTveli inteligencia ­ u.o.). rac SeexebaT daSnakebsa da gnCaks, isini ZiriTadad dakavebuli yofilan TavianTi centrebisaTvis materialuri saxsrebis SekrebiT da agreTve asrulebdnen maT calkeul davalebebs. rac Seexeba panislamisturi da panTurqistuli partiebis moRvaweobas, aseTi organizaciebi, rogorc calke erTiani erTeuli, ar arsebobdnen da mTeli maTi qmedeba panislamizmis ideis propagandisaken mimarTuli, Tavmoyrili iyo muslimani sasuliero pirebisa da maTi specialuri emisrebis xelSi, romlebic aq Camodiodnen CrdiloeT kavkasiisa da amierkavkasiis muslimuri regionebidan. moxsenebaSi xazgasmulia, rom saboloo miznis miRwevis TvalsazrisiT panislamizmis ideebma baTumsa da mis olqSi sagrZnobi Sedegebi ver gamoiRo da xeli Seuwyo mxolod fanatizmis gaRvivebas. revoluciis periodSi baTumSi yofila mcdeloba ,,rusi xalxis kavSiris" Seqmnisac, magram misi moRvaweoba Zalian SezRudul xasiaTs atarebda, araviTari gavleniT ar sargeblobda da sul cota xanSi arseboba Sewyvita, _ miTiTebulia dokumentSi [acsa, f. 1, s.n., an. 1, s. 741, f. 33-35]. aRsaniSnavia, rom ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobas TanaugrZnobda ucxoeTidan mosuli zogierTi pirovnebac. magaliTad, baTumSi ,,bnitos" qarxnis direqtori gvoni, rogorc frangi respublikeli, ar TanaugrZnobda TviTmpyrobelur ideas da, rogorc ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis gulSematkivari, ifaravda carizmis mier devnilebs da TavisTan samsaxurSi iRebda sxva qalaqebidan administraciuli wesiT gasaxlebulebs [semima, f. 2, s. 2583/260, f. 1-10]. dokumentSi aRniSnulia, rom somxebic miekedlnen moZraobas, magram yvela somexma, gansakuTrebiT maTma inteligenciam, mxolod maSin aimaRla xma, rodesac maT CamoarTves saeklesio qoneba. isini yovelTvis cdiloben daexmaron TavianT TanamoZmeebs TurqeTSi da yovelTvis dakavebulni arian iaraRis miwodebiT somxur centrebSi: erevanSi, aleqsandropolSi da

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sxv. sxva masalebic gvaZlevs safuZvels vifiqroT, rom somxuri mosaxleoba baTumSi xSirad moqmedebda Tavisi viwro erovnuli Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare [semima, f. 2, s. 7, f. 710; iqve, s. 2583/260, f. 1-10]. ai, aseTia mokled aRniSnul periodSi q.baTumis mcxovrebTa erovnuli Semadgenloba da maTi saqmianobis zogadi suraTi. magram unda iTqvas isic, rom qalaq baTumis 1888 wlis pirvelive TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebSi upiratesoba qarTvelebma moipoves. am organos 36 wevridan qarTveli iyo 11 (7 qristiani da 4 mahmadiani), 10 _ somexi, 7 ­ rusi, or-ori wevri gaiyvanes polonelebma, berZnebma, ebraelebma da 1 germanelebma [ ..., 1890: 121-135]. 1894 wlis baTumis TviTmmarTvelobis meore arCevnebSi ki gamarjvebuli 35 xmosnidan qarTveli iyo 19, rusi ­ 8, berZeni ­ 5 da poloneli ­ 3; xolo qalaqis Tavad moiwvies da airCies cnobili qarTveli sazogado moRvawe luka asaTiani [ ., 1906: 496-497], misi gardacvalebis Semdeg ki, 1902 wlis ianvridan 1916 wlis martamde, baTumis qalaqis Tavi iyo aseve cnobili qarTveli sazogado moRvawe ivane andronikaSvili. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTvelebis sasargeblo balansi q.baTumis TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebSi ar darRveula 1898, 1902 da Semdegi wlebis arCevnebSic. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT yovelive zemoT aRniSnuls, daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom me-20 saukunis pirvel ocwleulSi baTumi warmoadgenda mravalerovnul dasaxlebas, sadac erTmaneTis gverdiT cxovrobdnen qarTvelebi, rusebi, somxebi, TaTrebi, sparselebi, Turqebi, ingliselebi, frangebi, italielebi, germanelebi, belgielebi, polonelebi, ebraelebi da sxvebi; magram, carizmis koloniuri politikis miuxedavad, aRniSnul periodSi mosaxleobis umravlesobas aq mainc qarTvelebi warmoadgendnen, romelTac wamyvani poziciebi ekavaT qalaqis politikur da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi.

gamoyenebuli literatura da wyaroebi

1. S. arTmelaZe, aWaris mosaxleobis ricxovnebis dinamika, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos ekonomikis problemebi, baT., 1988. 2. aWaris ar centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi 1, saidumlo nawili, anaweri 1, saqme 741. 3. acsa, fondi i-1, saidumlo nawili, anaweri 1, saqme 189. 4. acsa, fondi 2, saqme 7. 5. i. boriki, aWaraSi rusebis dasaxlebis istoriisaTvis, 1878­1980 w.w. 6. J. murie, baTumi da Woroxis auzi, baT., 1962.

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7. gr. margiani, saqarTvelos mrewveloba da samrewvelo proletariati 1864­1917 wlebSi, Tb., 1974. 8. saqarTvelos erovnuli moZraobis istoriis muzeumis arqivi (semima), fondi 2, saqmeebi 7; 2583/260; 2584/261; 2585. 9. semima, fondi 4, saqmeebi 45; 62. 10. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi (scssa), fondi 416, anaweri 3, saqme 819. 11. scssa, fondi 10, saqme 55. 12. ab. surgulaZe, baTumis navsadguris muSaTa revoluciamdeli yofis sakiTxisaTvis, baTumis samecniero­kvleviTi institutis Sromebi, t. 2, baT., 1962. 13. , 17 1890 ., . 14. ., , . « », ., 1906.

Ucha Okropiridze (Batumi, Georgia) Some Questions of National Structure and National Relation of the Population of Batumi (The first tventy Years of the XX -th century ) Summary The data discussed in the essay give us possibilities to announce, that in the first twenty years of the XX-th century the national structure of the population of batumi, in spite of the colonial policy of the Russian tsarism the leading position had the Georgians. Beside of them in Batumi there lived: the Russians, the armenians, the Tatars, the Persians, the Turks, the English, the French, the Italians, the Germans, the Belgians, the Polishs, the Jews and so long. At this period, Georgians were not only majority of population of Batumi, but they also had the leading position in the political and social life of town.

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lela saraliZe

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

osmaleTis okupaciis periodis w. baTumis istoriidan (1918 w.)

1916 wlis 1 noembers osmaleTma parizis 1856 wlis da berlinis 1878 wlis xelSekrulebebi gauqmebulad gamoacxada, ris gamoc baTumi osmalTa mxridan mosalodneli agresiis gazrdili safrTxis qveS aRmoCnda. brest-litovskis sazavo molaparakebaze (1918 w.) baTumisa da sxva qarTuli teritoriebis osmaleTisaTvis gadacemis aucilebloba osmaleTis delegaciis warmomadgenelma haki faSam ase daasabuTa: ,,yarsardagan-baTumis olqebi osmaleTs ekuTvnoda oTxi saukunis ganmavlobaSi; ...oTxi saukunis ganmavlobaSi osmaleTs ar usargeblia baTumiT kavkasiaze Tavdasasxmelad... iseTi didi imperia, romelsac xelT hqonda porti baTumi, arasodes Tavs ar dasxmia patara saxelmwifo saqarTvelos. ruseTs aqvs kavkasiaSi sakmao portebi, magaliTad, foTi, romelic moxerxebulia TbilisTan savaWro urTierTobisaTvis. baTumi davuTmeT ruseTs 1877-1878 wlis berlinis traqtatiT, rogorc samxedro kontribuciis nawili, romelsac dRevandeli principebi, sazavo konferenciis mier aRiarebuli, aRar cnobs. Cven am olqebs aneqsias ar vuxdenT, rac Seexeba ardagan-yars-baTumis mosaxleobis interesebs, me vkiTxulob: romel saxelmwifos aqvs meti ufleba am mxareze, vinem osmaleTs, romelsac oTxi saukunis ganmavlobaSi eWira igi da Tavis winaaRmdeg araviTari revoluciuri moZraoba ar gamouwvevia?..." [v. nozaZe, 1989: 21]. 1918 wlis 12 aprils, osmaleTis mTavarsardalma vexib faSam, baTumis komendant gedevaniSvils qalaqis dauyovnebliv dacla mosTxova. 1918 wlis 14 aprils osmaleTis jarma baTumi daikava. amierkavkasiis respublikis dacemis Semdeg, 1918 wlis 26 maiss, saqarTvelos erovnulma sabWom saqarTvelos damoukidebloba gamoacxada. osmaleTis jarebis winsvlis SesaCereblad, drois mogebis mizniT, 1918 wlis 4 ivniss, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobam otomanTa imperiis mTavrobasTan xeli moawera kabalur sazavo xelSekrulebas [scssa, f. 1836, an. 1, s. 73]. giorgi gvazava, romelic am zavze xelmomwerTagan erT-erTi iyo, SemdgomSi ase afasebda am nabijs: ,,Cven gamovacxadeT damoukidebloba 26 maiss. 4 ivniss ki Cven win idga baTumSi SemoWrili osmaleTis jari. TavisTavad cxadia, erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelo ver

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moawyobda sakmaris jarsa da samxedro masalas, rom SeeCerebina osmaleTis laSqari. ruseTi damarcxebuli iyo; brestlitovskis xelSekrulebiT man dauTmo osmaleTs baTumis, artaanis da yarsis olqebi. dRidan am xelSekrulebis dadebisa CvenTvis cxadi iyo, rom osmaleTi wamovidoda am provinciebis dasaWerad da did gansacdelSi Cavardeboda mTeli saqarTvelo. amitom Cven maSinve daviwyeT saWiro diplomatiuri muSaoba. erTad erTi Zala, romelsac SeeZlo maSin raime daxmarebis aRmoCena, iyo germania. Cven droze SevecadeT da gavitaneT germaniaSi is azri, rom ar iqneboda didi saxeli germaniisaTvis, Tu is nebas miscemda Tavis mokavSire osmaleTs, musulmanur qveyanas, daeWira saqarTvelo, qristianuli qveyana... xelis mowera osmaleTis zavze CvenTvis iyo mxolod drois mogeba. ratifikacia ar momxdara da TviT osmaleTi iZulebuli gaxda daecala samusulmano saqarTvelo" [g. gvazava, 1938: 5]. osmalebi kargad acnobierebdnen, rom maTTvis ioli ver iqneboda baTumisa da axalcixe-axalqalaqis SenarCuneba. isic icodnen, rom maTi mokavSire germania saqarTvelos damoukideblobis sakiTxisadmi dadebiTad iyo ganwyobili. Tavis mxriv, arc ruseTi iyo kmayofili brest-litovskis zaviT da protesti ganacxada osmalebis mier baTumis dakavebis gamo [al. manveliSvili, 1984: 188-189]. xelSekrulebis dadebis garda, osmalebma baTumis SesanarCuneblad sxva xerxsac mimarTes. maT Caatares plebisciti, raTa gamoerkviaT, baTumis olqis mcxovrebni osmalebs dauWerdnen mxars Tu saqarTvelos. plebiscitis dros saqarTvelos momxre yvela aWareli daatusaRes da aiZules osmaleTis sasargeblod miecaT xma. qarTvelebis momxreobis gamo, osmalo jariskacebma daxvrites qarTveli mahmadiani, qobuleTeli ananiZe sofel qedaSi, xolo qobuleTeli xasan TxilaiSvili, referendumis dros osmaleTis sawinaaRmdegod xmis micemisaTvis dasaxvretad xeze gaakres da mxolod germanelma oficerma gadaarCina sikvdils [scssa, f. 1864, an. 1, s. 5]. osmalTa okupacia 1918 wlis bolomde gagrZelda. baTumis mcxovrebTaTvis erTnairad mZime iyo rogorc mefis ruseTis, aseve osmaleTis mmarTveloba, rac adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis faqtobrivad erTi uRlis meoreTi Secvlas niSnavda. Tumca, Cvens mier Sinagan saqmeTa saministros arqivSi mikvleuli Zveli Cinovnikis, v. p. melnikovis xelnaweri mogonebis _ ,, " _ mixedviT ikveTeba SedarebiT gansxvavebuli suraTs, rac xSir SemTxvevaSi araobieqturobis STabeWdilebas stovebs [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73].

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Mmelnikovi Semdegnairad gvixatavs osmalTagan okupirebul baTumSi Seqmnil viTarebas: Mmisi sityviT, aWaraSi osmaleTis jarebis Sesvlis win mravali baTumeli SiSobda, rom okupantebi daiwyebdnen cxovrebis ukve damkvidrebuli formebis radikalur Secvlas; Tumca baTumelebis sasiamovno imedgacrueba moxda, radgan amjerad osmalebma Tavi warmoaCines ara rogorc mrisxane, aramed sakmaod taqtianma da koreqtulma dampyroblebma. gamarjvebul osmalo jariskacebs mrisxane SeZaxilebiT ar dauCoqebiaT baTumis damarcxebuli mosaxleoba, qalaqi jariskacebisaTvis saZarcvavad ar gadauciaT, rogorc es adre, msgavs SemTxvevebSi xdeboda. Tavis mxriv, baTumis mosaxleoba osmalo dampyrobels koreqtulad, magram ara aRfrTovanebiT, Sexvda [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 20]. miuxedavad amisa, adgilobriv mosaxleobasa da momxvdurebs Soris mWidro kavSiri ar damyarebula, risi mTavari mizezic osmalebisa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis xasiaTebs Soris mkveTri gansxvaveba iyo. osmalebisagan SedarebiTi lmobiereba imiTac iyo gamowveuli, rom I msoflio omSi oTxTa kavSiris qveynebs ar umarTlebdaT. aSkarad igrZnoboda omSi gardatexis moaxloeba mokavSireebis sasargelod. cxadi iyo, aWara da baTumi osmalebis xelSi didxans ver darCeboda. albaT, es iyo erT-erTi mizezi imisa, rom gamarjvebulis rangSi baTumSi Sesvlisa da mosaxleobasTan urTierTobis dros, osmalebi maT upirates mdgomareobas aranairad ar usvamdnen xazs. baTumis garnizonis oficerTa Semadgenloba kargi manerebiT, garegnuli sikoxtaviTa da koreqtulobiT gamoirCeoda. oficerTa umravlesoba kargad aRzrdili iyo da Turqulis garda ramdenime ucxo enas flobda, umetesad franguls da Tanac SesaniSnavad. oficerTagan franguli TiTqmis yvelam icoda [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 21]. ucxo enis codna osmaleTis armiaSi raime gansakuTrebuls ar warmoadgenda. konstantinopolSi da imperiis sxva saporto qalaqebSi Cveulebriv mravali ucxoeli cxovrobda da otomanTa imperiis oficrebi bavSvobidanve SeCveuli iyvnen maT garSemo ucxo enebze saubars. TvalSisacemi iyo baTumSi myofi osmalo oficrebis kargi Cacmuloba, rasac ver vityviT jariskacebze, romlebic cudad iyvnen Semosilni, rac imdroindeli osmaleTis xazinis siRaribiT iyo ganpirobebuli. cudi Cacmulobisa da mwiri momaragebis miuxedavad, osmalo jariskacebi ar maTxovrobdnen da arc raime saxis gamoZalvas eweodnen baTumis mosaxleobisagan [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 22]. osmalebma mmarTvelobis TavianTi wesebi daadgines, romlebic arsebuli rusuli wesebisagan sruliad gansxvadeboda. magaliTad, mniSvnelovnad gamartivda rogorc qalaqis marTvis

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sistema, aseve mosaxleobasTan xelisuflebis urTierTobis formebic [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 23]. okupaciis dawyebis Semdeg, _ wers melnikovi, _ bevri baTumeli sagonebelSi Cavarda imis gamo, Tu ra fulis niSnebi iqneboda mimoqcevaSi da ra moeloda manamdel qaRaldis fuls. SedarebiT mSvidad iyvnen oqrosa da vercxlis monetebis mflobelebi. axalma xelisuflebam safinanso problema SedarebiT martivad gadawyvita. osmalebma saxelmwifo fulis erTeulad gamoacxades lira. erTi osmaluri lira udrida 16 rusul rubls. kursi mkacrad iyo gansazRvruli da okupaciis periodSi ar Secvlila, risi Sedegic iyo pirveladi moTxovnebis sagnebze fasebis uryeoba. baTumis mosaxleoba sixaruliT inaxavda osmalur fuls, ris gamoc drodadro aWaraSi lirebis, kerZod, wvrili kupiurebis deficitic ki iqmneboda. osmaleTis finansurma wreebma savaWro operaciebis dros naRd fulze moTxovnilebis problemis gadaWris ubralo da originaluri gza ipoves: isini qaRaldis kupiuras Suaze Wridnen, TiToeul nawils sabanko niSnebs asvamdnen da kvlav mimoqcevaSi uSvebdnen. am naxevar kupiurs igive Zala hqonda rac mTlians, aseTi fulis miReba savaldebulo iyo rogorc saxelmwifo dawesebulebisTvis, aseve kerZo pirebisTvis [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 24]. gansakuTrebuli simkacriT gamoirCeodnen osmalo policielebi. damnaSaveebs mkacrad sjidnen, maT iatakze awvendnen da msxvil joxs urtyamdnen. dartymebis raodenoba damokidebuli iyo danaSaulis xarisxze. Zalian gavrcelebuli iyo dasja joxis 31-jer dartymiT. baTumelebs kargad axsovdaT dasjis es forma, romelsac osmalebi ,,oTuz-birs" eZaxdnen. dasjis Semdeg nebismier pirs SeeZlo sadac surda iq wasuliyo, an sulac daetovebina baTumi [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 25]. osmalebis okupaciamde, rogorc carizmis, aseve revoluciis periodSi, xSiri iyo qurdobisa da Zarcvis SemTxvevebi. baTumis gazeTebSi specialuri rubrikac ki iyo, sadac regularulad qveyndeboda cnobebi mZarcvelebis Sesaxeb. carizmi sustad ebrZoda sisxlis samarTlis damnaSaveebs, ufro metic, maTgan qrTamis saxiT xSirad sargebelsac naxulobda. melnikovis sityviT, osmaleTis mmarTvelobis dros Zireulad amoiZirkva qurdobis faqtebi, radgan dakavebul mZarcvelebs umowyalod scemdnen policiaSi da qalaqidan aZevebdnen [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 26]. baTumelebma, romlebsac, rogorc namdvil samxreTelebs, yovelTvis uyvardaT sxvadasxvagvari garToba da mxiaruleba, osmaluri okupaciis periodSi Zalian moiwyines. iseT qalaqs, rogoric baTumi iyo, gansakuTrebulobas aniWebda porti da

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garnizoni. okupaciis periodSi mezRvaurebs da portis muSakebs mxiarulebisTvis aRar ecalaT. gaWianurebuli omis gamo samxiarulo ganwyoba arc saxelmwifo moxeleebsa da garnizonis xelmZRvanelobas hqondaT. baTumis Teatric uRimRamod agrZelebda Tavis arsebobas, romlis scenazec ZiriTadad moyvarulebisa da umuSevrad darCenili msaxiobebisagan saxeldaxelod Sekowiwebuli dasebi gamodiodnen. osmaleTis saokupacio xelisufleba sifrTxiles iCenda sxvadasxva enisa da damwerlobis gamoyenebis mimarT. saxelmwifo ena, ra Tqma unda, Turquli iyo, magram masTan erTad gamoiyeneboda rusulic, rogorc adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis met-naklebad gasagebi ena. Turqul da rusul enebze ibeWdeboda oficialuri gancxadebebi, gankargulebebi da brZanebebi, gazeTebi, Teatraluri afiSebi, sareklamo warwerebi. melnikovi aRniSnavs sxva faqtsac. miuxedavad imisao, rom safrangeTi osmaleTis mowinaaRmdege banakSi imyofeboda, adgilobriv osmalur administraciasTan urTierToba frangul enazec iyo SesaZlebeli. osmaluri administracia, mSobliur enaze saubris gamo, ar aviwrovebda baTumSi mcxovreb arc adgilobriv mosaxleobas da arc sxva erovnul umciresobebs, baTumis quCebSi Cveulebriv ismoda saubari qarTul, berZnul, somxur da sxva enebze. Zveli rusuli mmarTvelobis periodisagan gansxvavebiT, baTumis quCebSi ver naxavdiT verc erT araTu mTvral, aramed nasvam osmalo jariskacsac ki. osmalebi TavianTi religiis gamo alkoholur sasmelebs ar iyenebdnen, Tumca, spirtiani sasmelebiT vaWrobis mimarT moTminebas iCendnen. Tavis mxriv, baTumeli moqalaqeebic eridebodnen quCaSi gamosuliyvnen nasvam mdgomareobaSi [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 28]. sakmaod mZime situacia iyo sanitaruli TvalsazrisiT, radgan axali xelisufleba mas saTanado yuradRebas ar aqcevda. baTumis centralur nawilSic ki quCebi gavsebuli iyo nagviT. es imiTac iyo gamowveuli, rom okupaciis gamo saxlebis zogierTi mepatrone qalaqidan gaqceuli iyo da ezoebic upatronod mitovebuli [sSssa, f. 8, an. 1, s. 73, f. 32]. 1918 wlis 30 oqtombers osmaleTma xeli moawera mudrosis droebiT sazavo xelSekrulebas, romlis ZaliTac maT kontrolqveS myofi amierkavkasiis teritoriebi antantis daqvemdebarebaSi gadavida.

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literatura gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. g. gvazava, vin gasca saqarTvelos miwa-wyali (pasuxad zurab avaliSvils), gaz. ,,damoukidebeli saqarTvelo", 1938, ianvari, #142. 2. al. manveliSvili, ruseTi da saqarTvelos damoukidebloba, sanfrancisko, 1984. 3. v. nozaZe, saqarTvelos aRdgenisaTvis brZola mesxeTis gamo, Tb., 1989. 4. 1918 wlis sazavo da megobrobis xelSekruleba otomanis saimperio mTavrobasa da saqarTvelos respublikis mTavrobas Soris, saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi (scssa), fondi 1836, anaweri 1, saqme #73; iqve, fondi 1864, anaweri 1, saqme #27 (rusul enaze). 5. d. TofuriZe, cnobebi osmaloebis mier qarTvelebis daxvretis Sesaxeb (1918 wlis dekemberi), saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi (scssa), fondi 1864, anaweri 1, saqme #5. 6. . ., , saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros arqivi (sSssa), fondi 8, anaweri 1, saqme #73.

Lela Saralidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) From the history of period of Ottoman occupation of Batumi (1918) Summary This work is based on archival materials and discusses the existence of population of Batumi during Ottoman occupation. Ottomans occupied Batumi in 1918 of 15 April, after their government demanded to Russia to return the territory of Ardagani, Kharsi and Batumi according to Brest-Litovsk agreement which was made in 1918 of 3 marches. This work shows how the local inhabitants of Batumi obtained the Ottomans govern, which was radically different from Russians. There is also discussed the dependence of Ottoman soldiers to local inhabitants, work describes how local people and intelligence lived and spent their free time in occupied city. There is also discussed banking and financial system which was in power during Ottoman occupation. There is also underlined that Ottoman empire saw the approaching failure and that's why they become more liberal. In this work there is also said that Ottoman occupation did not last long, because in 1918 of 30 October Ottoman Empire signed for Mudros peace treat. According to it the territory of Transcaucasia which was occupied by Ottoman Empire became the part of Antanta. According to it in 1919 of 18 January the army of England entered in Batumi and established Engish govern.

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nodar muSkudiani

(quTaisi, saqarTvelo)

germanuli delegaciis saqmianoba baTumSi 1918 wels

pirveli msoflio omis damamTavrebel etapze ruseTis imperiaSi mimdinare dezintegraciulma procesebma xelsayreli pirobebi Seqmna saqarTvelos pirveli respublikis daarsebisaTvis. gadamwyveti roli saqarTvelos damoukidebeli saxelmwifos SeqmnaSi kaizerulma germaniam Seasrula, romelmac Tavisi `qarTuli politika" yvelaze aqtiurad baTumis konferenciaze gamoavlina, sadac erTi plenaruli sxdoma Catarda 11 maiss da Semdeg, Turquli mxaris destruqciuli poziciis da, aseve, amierkavkasiis delegaciis SigniT gadaulaxavi winaaRmdegobebis gamo, erToblivi muSaoba CaiSala1 [kresi, 2002: 9_10]. konferenciis muSaobis orive etapze (11-26 maisi da 31 maisi - 4 ivnisi) Turqebi Tavis teritoriul pretenziebs mZlavri samxedro aqciebiT amyarebdnen da aSkara iyo, mxolod germanias SeeZlo misi mokavSiris sapirwone Zalis rolis Sesruleba. baTumis samSvidobo konferencia, romelic saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis bedis ganmsazRvreli movlena gaxda, qarTveli mecnierebis intensiuri yuradRebis centrSia.2 aq marto imis aRniSvnac sakmarisia, rom prof. m. sioriZem gamokvlevaSi `samxreT-dasavleTi saqarTvelo 1914-1918 wlebSi" specialuri paragrafi miuZRvna konferenciis muSaobas3 [m. sioriZe, 202: 234-247]. misi lakonuri SefasebiT `... saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis azri sabolood baTumSi gamoiZerwa da aq SemuSavebuli gegmiT 26 maiss TbilisSi ganxorcielda". miuxedavad amisa, calke araa gamokvleuli germanuli delegaciis saqmianobis bevri detali, arada, rogorc iTqva, germania iyo is umniSvnelovanesi sagareo politikuri faqtori da realuri Zala, romelmac arsebiTad ganapiroba qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgena. germanuli delegaciis saqmianobis analizi mocemulia Cvens mier Targmnil fon kresis mogonebebisadmi wamZRvarebul narkvevSic [kresi, 2002: 14-25], magram axla Cvens mTavar wyaros germanuli mxaris ramdenime, qarTul istoriografiaSi ucnobi dokumenti warmoadgens. saqme exeba iohanes lepsiusis4 mier jer kidev 1919 wels, movlenaTa kvaldakval, potsdamSi gamocemul dokumentTa krebuls _ `germania da somxeTi 1914 - 1918~,

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romelSic Sevida germaniis sagareo saqmeTa saministros politikuri arqivis dokumentebi _ ZiriTadad diplomatiuri mimowera da angariSebi. krebuli Seicavs masalas, romelic saqarTvelos da, konkretulad, baTumSi germanuli misiis saqmianobas exeba. sainteresoa, rom Tavis droze lepsiusis mier gamoqveynebuli dokumentebi ramdenadme saxeSecvlili (manipulirebuli) aRmoCnda. am masalebis axali, originalebTan Sejerebuli versia gamoqveynebulia 2003 wels volfgang da zigrid gustebis5 mier. germaniis kavkasiuri politikaSi baTumis konferenciis win ikveTeba ori xazi. erTi _ tradiciuli, romelic adgilobrivi ararusi xalxebis antirusuli insurgentuli suliskveTebis gaRvivebas emsaxureboda da meore _ romelic Turqebis kavkasiuri eqspansionisturi politikis mxardaWeras gulisxmobda. es ukanaskneli ki miuRebeli gaxldaT qarTvelebisa da amierkavkasiis sxva xalxebisTvisac. germaniis delegacias baTumSi Tavisi mTavrobis politika unda gaetarebina da, amitom, mudmivad iyo mokavSireebs Soris seriozuli konfliqtis saSiSroeba. gasaTvaliswinebelia agreTve, rom germanuli samxedro da sagareo politikuri uwyebebi, arcTu iSviaTad, saerTo enas ver poulobdnen kavkasiaSi gasatarebel politikisTan dakavSirebiT, rasac kidev ufro arTulebda Turquli mxaris sawinaaRmdego qmedebebi. am winaaRmdegobaTa mTeli kompleqsi srulad gamovlinda germanuli delegaciis baTumSi moRvaweobisas. germanuli mxare baTumis konferenciaze uwinaresad sakuTari interesebis dasacavad Camovida, rasac sruliadac ar gamouwvevia Turquli mxaris aRfrTovaneba. antikavkasiuri Turquli samxedro aqciebis ganuwyveteli eskalaciis pirobebSi germaniis mizani _ TurqTa eqspansionisturi gegmebis Sekaveba da, upirvelesad, qristiani xalxebis mxardaWera _ obieqturad xelsayreli iyo qarTuli politikisaTvis. germaniis delegacia maRali klasis profesionalebisagan Sedgeboda da mas generali oto fon losovi (1868_1938 ww) xelmZRvanelobda, romelic manamde konstantinopolSi samxedro rwmunebuli iyo. generlis daniSvna delegaciis meTaurad samxedroebis hindenburg-ludendorfis mkacri politikis dominantobas niSnavda. osmaleTis genStabis ufrosi gen. h. fon zeeqti aRniSnavda, rom delegaciis meTaurad oficris da ara diplomatis daniSvna namdvilad kmayofilebis Rirsi movlena iyo6 [Baumgat W., 1966: 178]. delegaciis danarCeni ori wevri _ grafi f.-v. fon der Sulenburgi (1875_1944 ww) da o.-g. fon vezendonki diplomatebs warmoadgendnen. Sesabamisad, ruseTis da aRmosavleTis saqmeTa

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specialistebad iTvlebodnen. gansakuTrebiT kolorituli figuraa grafi Sulenburgi, romelic 25 wlis asakidan Sevida sakonsulo samsaxurSi. misi kolega h. fon hervarti mas saqarTvelos respublikis `erT-erT damfuZnebel mamas" uwodebs7 [Herwarth H. vou, 1985: 99] da sayuradRebo informacias gvawvdis, rom mas `saqarTvelos damoukideblobis saqmeSi damsaxurebisaTvis" madlierebiT ixsenebdnen `emigrantebi da bolSeviki qarTvelebic." hervartisave cnobiT, Sulenburgis saukeTeso strategia bismarkiseuli principi iyo: akeTo saqme ise, rom dinebis winaaRmdeg ar icuro. baTumis konferenciaze germanelTa miznebi da saqmianoba oficialurad ganisazRvreboda aprilis bolos `ausenamtis" mier SemuSavebuli instruqciiT, romelic amierkavkasiasTan da TurqeTTan molaparakebisaTvis Semdeg principebs efuZneboda: I. amierkavkasiasTan molaparakebebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia: 1. maSin, roca sasurvelia amierkavkasiasa da TurqeTs Soris kavSiris dadeba, unda uarvyoT amierkavkasielTa SesaZlo mcdeloba germaniasTanac analogiur kavSirSi Sesvlis Taobaze. 2. amierkavkasiis mTavrobas unda vurCioT, rom TurqeTs baTumis dabrunebis sanacvlod baTumis navsadguriT sargeblobasTan dakavSirebiT ekonomikuri privilegiebi mieces. 3. saWiroa im mimarTulebiT moqmedeba, rom somxebs maTi kopaqturi gansaxlebis adgilebSi qarTvelebma da TaTrebma lokaluri avtonomiebi mianiWon, aseve amierkavkasiis sxva olqebSi maT unda mieceT TavianTi saeklesio da kulturuli saqmeebis mowesrigebis Tavisufleba. 4. saWiroa im mimarTulebiT moqmedeba, rom Crdilo-kavkasiel mTielTa kavSiri amierkavkasias SemouerTdes. II. TurqeTTan mimarTebaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia: 1. rogorc ki TurqeTis mTavroba miiRebs arTvinis axlos mdebare amerikuli sazogadoebis kuTvnil spilenZis sabados, SesaTanxmebelia, rom TurqeTi am sabados eqsploataciis mizniT ijariT gadascems germanias, Sesabamisad, germanul sazogadoebas. 2. TurqeTis mTavrobas unda vurCioT, rom brestis zaviT da amierkavkasiasTan dadebuli xelSekrulebiT miRebul olqebSi somxebs maTi kompaqturi gansaxlebis adgilebSi lokaluri avtonomia da qveynis sxva nawilebSi maTi saeklesio da kulturuli cxovrebis organizebaSi sruli Tavisufleba mianiWos8 [1918_04_30_DE-001]. am dokumentidan cxadia, rom germaniis mTavari mizani TurqeTsa da amierkavkasias Soris xelSekrulebis dadebaa, rome134

lic regionSi mSvidobas uzrunvelyofda. Tumca bundovani da TiTqmis gaurkvevelia im `saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnis" teritoriuli konfiguracia, romelic germanelTa warmodgeniT kavkasiaSi unda Seqmniliyo. damoukidebeli kavkasiuri saxelmwifos ideas, romelic `yofili ruseTis teritoriis farglebSi" unda Seqmniliyo da oficialuri urTierToba daemyarebina kaizeris xelisuflebasTan9 [Bihl, 1992: 32-33], centraluri saxelmwifoebi jer kidev 1917 wlis zafxulSi ganixilavdnen. 1918 wlis maisSi germaniis kavkasiuri politikis zemoT aRniSnuli ori xazi arsebiTad samxedro da diplomatiuri uwyebis warmomadgenelTa mxridan konkretuli movlenebiT ganpirobebul manevruli svlebis kombinacias ufro warmoadgenda, vidre germaniis mTavari miznidan _ kavkasiuri saxelmwifos Seqmnis gzidan gadaxvevas. am saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnis birTvi saqarTvelo unda yofiliyo. germanuli diplomatia TiTqmis gadauWreli dilemis winaSe aRmoCnda, rac gamoixateboda erTdroulad saqarTvelos damoukideblobisadmi mxardaWerasa da, meore mxriv, mokavSiris Selaxuli reputaciis aRdgenis mizniT misi Crdilo-aRmosavluri eqspansiis waxalisebaSi. baTumis konferenciaze Turquli delegaciis xelmZRvanelma halil-beim radikaluri teritoriuli pretenziebi daayena, romlebic brestis zaviT dadgenili teritoriuli daTmobebis garda, damatebiT, axalcixis, axalqalaqis da aleqsandropolis olqebs moicavda. imavdroulad, TurqTa armiebma winsvla daiwyes aRniSnuli olqebis mimarTulebiT da gegmavdnen Tbilisze galaSqrebas. germaniis konstantinopoleli elCi grafi i.-p. fon bernstorfi, losovis informaciaze dayrdnobiT, 15 maiss berlins acnobebs, rom `Turqebis zRvars gadasuli moTxovnebis mizani, brestis xelSekrulebis zemoT, wminda somxuri olqebis _ axalqalaqis (bernstorfi aq cdeba _ n.m.), aleqsandropolis, erevnis da ... mTeli kavkasiis ekonomikuri eqsploataciaa". `Turqebma ultimatumis formiT moiTxoves yars-aleqsandropol-julfis rkinigzis gadacema, ise rom CemTvis araferi ucnobebiaT winaswar da arc Tanxmoba uTxoviaT"... bernstorfis azriT mwvave sakiTxebis daregulirebis gza Semdegia: 1. `Turqebma brestis xelSekruleba unda aRiaron rogorc molaparakebebis safuZveli. 2. Turqebis pativmoyvareoba rom davakmayofiloT da ukandaxeva gavuadviloT... axalcixis musulmanuri olqi unda gaicvalos baTumis CrdiloeTiT mdebare teritoriaze...10 [1918_05_15_DE_002]. aqedan Cans, rom bernstorfs mxolod saomari moqmedebebis Sewyvetis survili amoZravebs da mzadaa qarTuli teritoriebis xarjze mokavSiris interesebi daakmayofilos. avstrieli mkvlevari v. bili wers, rom germa135

nuli politikis ormagi standarti omis bolomde grZeldeboda da am xnis ganmavlobaSi germaniis kavkasiuri politikis winaaRmdegobrivi mimarTulebebis SeTanxmebis cdasac hqonda adgili. aseT SemTxvevaSi `qarTuli faqtori", igive emigraciaSi myofi `damkomi," maqsimalurad cdilobda sakuTari interesebis dacvas da, bernstorfis azriT, aZnelebda kidec xandaxan `kavkasiis Sesaxeb aucilebeli germanul-Turquli kompromisis miRwevas" [Bihl, 1992:49]. `sruli gagebis" gamomJRavneba erTdroulad orive mxarisaTvis _ qarTvelebisa da TurqebisaTvis _ SeuZlebeli iyo. germaniis mTavrobisaTvis jerac ar iyo cxadi, Tu ramdenad Sors unda wasuliyvnen Turqebi saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi `politikuri, ekonomikuri da teritoriuli TvalsazrisiT". es garemoeba metismetad arTulebda qarTuli politikuri speqtris da, Sesabamisad, a. Cxenkelis delegaciis saqmesac, romelsac aseve bundovani warmodgena hqonda uaxloesi momavlis samoqmedo gegmaze. bernstorfi moaxsenebs berlins, rom baTumis `molaparakebebi, rogorc aqamde, Znelad midis da naklebad imedismomcemia". igi moiTxovs `konferencia konstantinepolSi gadaitanon, Tu mas avstria-ungreTi da bulgareTic SeuerTdebian". amasTan, miaCnia, rom germanuli delegacia baTumSi unda darCes, sxvagvarad ar gvecodineba, Tu iq ra xdebao. gen. losovs SeeZlo, magaliTad, kavkasiaSi darCeniliyo umaRlesi sardlobis warmomadgenlad, radgan pasuxismgeblobis aReba yvelaferze Cven (e.i. diplomatebs _ n.m) mogviwevso. roca baTumSi aSkara gaxda Zireuli uTanxmoebani amierkavkasiis delegaciis SigniT, losovis politikaSic gamoikveTa ufro radikaluri midgoma Turqebisadmi. man Seityo, rom Turqebi amierkavkesiis mTavrobasTan molaparakebebs `TavianT gansakuTrebul saqmed" ganixilavdnen da germaniis delegacias xels uSlidnen muSaobaSi. amis gaTvaliswinebiT igi bernstorfisganac Rebulobs miTiTebas, rom `saqarTvelosTan separatiuli SeTanxmebas unda miaRwion". losovs baTumSi dro ar daukargavs da cal-calke xvdeboda amierkavkasiis seimis delegaciis erovnul warmomadgenlobebs. qarTul delegaciasTan Sexvedrebi da `qarTuli poziciis" gamomuSaveba dawvrilebiTaa aRwerili a. Cxenkelis werilebSi, romlebic 12-dan 23maisamde periods moicavs 11 [u. baxtaZe, 1990: 85_98] da masze dawvrilebiT aRar SevCerdebiT: 14 maiss saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWo mimarTavs losovs, rom germaniis mTavrobam aRmouCinos daxmareba saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso da saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri saqmeebis mogvarebaSi, saSinao wesrigis damyarebasa da bolSevikuri anarqiis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. a.

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Cxenkelma miiRo losovisagan dapireba, rom germania da misi mokavSireebi saqarTvelos aRiareben damoukideblobis gamocxadebis SemTxvevaSi. gen. losovi aseve xvdeboda somex delegatebsac. bernstorfis angariSSi `ausenamtisadmi" xazgasmulia, rom somxebi, marTalia, omamde ruseTze da inglisze iyvnen orientirebuli, magram axla xsnas germaniisgan elian da momavalSi `samudamod germaniis erTgulni iqnebian"12 [1918_05_23_DE-001]. somxuri warmoSobis germanulenovani mkvlevari a. ohanjaniani sayvedurs gamoTqvams losovisadmi da aRniSnavs, rom man amierkavkasiis delegaciis somxuri nawili uyuradRebod miatova, maSin roca losovi sTavazobs bernstorfs da `ausenatms", rom somxebisadmi mxardaWeriT `Cven SegviZlia erTi dartymiT CavaxSoT somexTa sakiTxis gamo msoflioSi Cvens winaaRmdeg momarTuli propaganda" [1918.05-23-DE-001]. somexTa erovnuli sabWo germaniisagan iseTsave mxardaWeras iTxovda, rogoric man saqarTvelos gauwia. losovma saqarTvelos damoukideblobis sakiTxi n. JordaniasTan konfedencialuri Sexvedrebis drosac ganixila 17dan 21-maisamde da daarwmuna igi TurqeTTan morigebis SeuZleblobasa da amierkavkasiis federaciis politikur uperspeqtivobaSi. damoukideblobis gamocxadebis Semdgom o. losovma da a. Cxenkelma, rogorc damoukidebeli saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministrma, xeli moaweres foTis xelSekrulebebs, rac saqarTvelos damoukideblobis `de-faqto" aRiarebas niSnavda. v. bilis marTebuli SefasebiT, foTis xelSekrulebebi kavkasiasTan mimarTebaSi germaniis imperiis `Zalismieri politikis gamovlinebis erT-erTi kulminaciuri momenti iyo" [ihl, 1992: 63], xolo TviT losovisTvis saqarTveloSi moRvaweobis bolo akordi. mas, rogorc germaniis imperiis diplomatiur warmomadgenels baTumis samSvidobo molaparakebebze, 1 ivniss uflebamosileba Seuwyda, Tumca misi TanamSromloba Cxenkelis misiasTan germaniaSi, samSobloSi dabrunebis Semdegac grZeldeboda.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. f. r s fon kresenStaini, Cemi misia kavkasiaSi, germanulidan Targmna, istoriuli narkvevi da komentarebi daurTo n. muSkudianma, quT., 2002. 2. a. silagaZe, v. guruli, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgena 1917-1918, Tb. 1998; v. guruli, m. vaCnaZe, qarTuli

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social-demokratiis istoria 1898-1918, Tb., 1999. a. bendianiSvili, saqarTvelos pirveli respublika 1918-1921 ww., Tb., 2001. 3. m. sioriZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelo 1914-1918 ww., baT., 2002 da sxv. 4. Lepsius (Hrsg)Dentschlend und Armenien 1914-1918 Sammlung diplomotischer Akusticke. Potsdam, 1919. meore gamocema Bremen, 1986. 5. Gust. W. und Gust S. (Hrsg) Der Voelker morda on den Armeniern im Ersten Weltkrieg. Vorgeschichte und Ereignisse anhand von Dokumenten aus staatlichen und privaten Archiven. Erstverofen tlichung 2000. In: www. armenocide. net. 6. Baumgart W. Deutsche Ostpolitik 1918. Von Brest-Litowsk bis zum Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges, Wien, Munchen, 1966. 7. Herwarth H. von. Zuwischen Hitler und Stalin. Erlebte Zeitgeschichte 1931-1945. Frankfnrt a/M 1985 8. 1918-04-30-DE-001 www. armenocide. net. 9. Bihl W. Die Kaukasuspolitik der Mittelmachte. Teil II. Die Zeit der versuchten Kaukasischen Staatlichkeit (1917-1918) Wien, Koeln etc. 1992. 10. 1918_05_15_DE_002 www. armenocide. net. 11. 1918_05_23_DE -001 www. armenocide. net. 12. 1918.05-23-DE-001 www. armenocide. net.

Nodar Mushkudiani (Kutaisi, Georgia) The German Delegation's Activities in Batumi in 1918 Summary In May, 1918, Batumi became a venue for the international conference and the political decisions being particularly significant for Georgia. I mean the establishment of the first democratic republic of Georgia, having been an outcome of the ultimate activeness within the Caucasian policy of Kaiser Germany. After the Russian annexation in 1801, the sovereign Georgian state was established for the first time, and the German imperial authorities were the first to recognize it de facto. The present paper addresses the preparation of the issue in point and the process of epochal decision-making associated with it. It is a detailed study fo the role of Kaiser Germany, as that of an initiator of the establishment of the independent state of Georgia and its international guarantor, in the Batumi negotiations. The German delegation's activities have been highlighted based on German documentary sources and also on official data provided by the delegation members (General O. von Lossiw, F.-W. von der Schullenburg,, O.-G. von Wesendonck).

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oTar TurmaniZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

gemTmSeneblobis ganviTareba baTumSi

saqarTveloSi gemTmSeneblobis istoria saTaves Soreul warsulSi iRebs, magram qarxnuli warmoeba ruseT-germaniis 1941-1945 wlebis omis dros daiwyo. kerZod, baTumSi gemTmSenebeli qarxana 1943 wels daarsda navsadgurTan arsebuli saxelosnoebis bazaze. saxelosnoebi ki 1921 wels Seiqmna, romlis daniSnulebas Seadgenda gemebis mimdinare, saSualo da kapitaluri SekeTeba. baTumSi gemTmSenebeli qarxnis daarseba ramdenadme ganapiroba meore msoflio omTan dakavSirebulma problemebma. mterma daikava ssr kavSiris evropuli teritoriis mniSvnelovani nawili. omis dasawyisSive ssr kavSiris Savi zRvis akvatoriis portebis umetesobas okupaciis seriozuli safrTxe Seeqmna. aseT pirobebSi sevastopolidan tuafseSi, foTsa da baTumSi evakuirebuli iyo gemTSemkeTebeli qarxana. mas Tan gadmoyva sawarmos koleqtivi da maTi ojaxebis didi nawili. baTumSi gemTmSenebeli qarxnis daarsebis Sesaxeb brZaneba ssr kavSiris sazRvao flotis saxalxo komisarma gamosca 1943 wlis pirvel ianvars, xolo sawarmo amoqmedda ivnisSi. qarxana ssr kavSiris sazRvao flotis saministros daqvemdebarebaSi Sedioda. igi uSualod daeqvemdebara odesis sanaosnos. mogvianebiT ki e.w. "sovtankers". qarxnis dafinanseba, teqnikuri gadaiaraReba, nedleuliTa da saWiro masalebiT momarageba mTlianad damokidebuli iyo sazRvao flotis saministroze. sazRvao flotis saministro gansazRvravda sawarmoo programas, amtkicebda materialur, finansur da ekonomikur gegmebs da direqtivis saxiT agzavnida adgilze. Tavisi arsebobis manZilze baTumis gemTmSenebel qarxanas ar hqonda myari sawarmoo programa. zogjer wlis ganmavlobaSi igi ramdenjerme icvleboda, rac uaryofiTad moqmedebda warmoebis ganviTarebaze. 1943-1950 wlebis sawarmoo programa iTvaliswinebda gemebis SekeTebas, axlis mSeneblobas, saTadarigo nawilebis damzadebas. qarxana farTo moxmarebis produqciasac amzadebda. marTalia, 1948 wlidan daiwyes liTonis gemebis (karWapebis) ageba, xolo 1949 wlidan _ orTqlis manqanebisa, magram qarxnis ZiriTadi sawarmoo saqmianoba mainc gemebis SekeTeba da saTadarigo nawilebis damzadeba iyo. 1950 wels maTze modioda saerTo produqciis 84 procenti.

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didxans gaiwela qarxnis profilis gansazRvra. 1943-1956 wlebSi qarxanas ewodeboda gemTSemkeTebeli. sawarmoo profilis gansazRvris Sedegad 1956 wels ewoda gemTSemkeTebeligemTmSenebeli, xolo 1957 wlidan cnobilia gemTmSenebeli qarxnis saxelwodebiT. aqedan moyolebuli qarxnis sawarmoo programaSi gemTmSeneblobam ganmsazRvreli adgili daikava. qarxanaSi agebdnen patara gemebs. omis dros qarxanas arasakmarisad miewodeboda saWiro teqnika, masalebi, sawvavi da sxva. amis gamo saamqroebis mowyoba da saWiro instrumentebiT aRWurva gaZnelebuli iyo. Tujis gamodnoba, sawvavis uqonlobis gamo, aseve garTulda. gaiwela elingis mSenebloba. siZneleebis miuxedavad, qarxnis koleqtivi energiis dauzogavad Sromobda. 1944 wels baTumis gemTmSenebeli qarxnis koleqtivi 234 kacs iTvlida. maT Soris muSebis raodenoba _ 157-s, xolo inJiner-teqnikuri muSakebisa _ 36 kacs Seadgenda. qarxanaSi iTvleboda agreTve 18 mosamsaxure, amdenive moswavle da 5 umcrosi momsaxure personali. 1945 wels arsebiTi cvlilebebi ar yofila [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 28, f. 18]. qarxnis muSebis umravlesoba baTumis 1 saxelosno saswavleblis kursdamTavrebuli iyo. es iyo axalgazrda Taoba, romelic profesiuli kvalifikaciiT sagrZnoblad CamorCeboda qarxnis winaSe arsebul moTxovnebs. amitom qarxanaSi ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobda sawarmo personalis teqnikuri da teqnologiuri kvalifikaciis amaRleba, axali profesiebis aTviseba. aseTi SemadgenlobiTa da susti material-teqnikuri baziT, saWiro masalebiT arasakmarisi uzrunvelyofis pirobebSi, qarxnis koleqtivma warmatebiT gaarTva Tavi saqmes. omis dros SeakeTes didi gemebi da saxazo xomaldebi: "iupiteri", "krasnaia moldavia", "krasnaia kubani", "Capaevi", "kurski", "torosi" da sxva [k. totoCava, 1987: 11]. omis damTavrebis Semdeg gagrZelda qarxnis mSenebloba da pirveli rigis samuSaoebi 1950 wels dasrulda. qarxanaSi amoqmedda 7 saamqro: meqankuri, saqvabe-sakorpuse, eleqtroteqnikuri, xisdamamuSavebeli, saCamomsxmelo-samodelo, instrumentaluri, saremonto, moewyo saqarxno laboratoria, aaSenes administraciuli saxli da sxva. 1946-1950 wlebSi qarxanaSi daidga 50-ze meti dazga-mowyobiloba, eqspluataciaSi gadaeca sauwyebo eleqtrosadguri da sxva. am xnis ganmavlobaSi qarxnis sawarmoo simZlavreebi 15-jer gaizarda. amis miuxedavad, qarxanas eklo Tanamedrove teqnika, dabal doneze idga warmoebis teqnologia. XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan moyolebuli qarxanaSi permanentulad mimdinareobda axali teqnikis danergva, warmoebis

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teqnologiuri procesebis gaumjobeseba, SromiTi koleqtivis raodenobrivi da Tvisebrivi maxasiaTeblebis amaRleba. 1953-1959 wlebSi daidga sami sxvadasxva tipis ("m-15", "m-150", "tmsg") TviTmtvirTavi, erTi 150 toniani pnevmaturi Rumeli, dainerga sxmuli muSaobis aero damuSaveba, eqspluataciaSi gadaeca Tormet da samtoniani moZravi, avtomaturi da naxevradavtomaturi SeduRebis ubani da meqanikuri saamqro. qarxanaSi daamontaJes sakaribWo amwe, eleqtromarTvis sistema [k. totoCava, 1987: 290-291]. 1960 wels daidga 8 cali axali, modernizirebuli tvirTamwe, rekonstruqcia Cautarda liTonsaWrel Carxebs, gemebis zRvaSi CasaSveb sanapiros, samWedlo-sawnexo mowyobilobas da sxv. [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 510, f. 12]. cxadia, qarxnis gadaiaraReba sistematurad xdeboda, rac ganpirobebuli iyo ZiriTadad teqnikis moZvelebulobiT, xolo nawilis _ fizikuri gacveTis gamo. teqnikuri gadaiaraRebis, sawarmoo programebis gazrdis Sedegad, aseve, mniSvnelovani raodenobrivi da Tvisebrivi cvlilebebi ganicada qarxnis koleqtivma. 1950 wels qarxnis koleqtivi 305 kacs Seadgenda. inJiner-teqnikuri personali 43mde gaizarda. 1955 wlisaTvis saerTo personali _ 369-mde, 1960 wels _ 553-mde, xolo1976 wels _ 722 kacamde gaizarda. 1950-1976 wlebSi inJiner-teqnikuri personali 44-dan 125 kacamde, e.i. 3jer gadidda [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 268, f. 21: iqve, s. 404, f. 5; iqve, s. 510, f. 9]. SromiTi koleqtivis Camoyalibeba, sawarmo personalis profesiuli daostateba Zalze rTuli, winaaRmdegobrivi, amave dros sasikeTo procesia. cxadia, es aris axali samuSao adgilebi, rac araerTi ojaxis arsebobis wyaros warmoadgenda. amave dros gemTmSenebeli qarxnis SromiTi koleqtivis saxiT Seiqmna sazogadoebis teqnikuri fena, rac regionis, mTlianad qveynis ganviTarebis didmniSvnelovani faqtoria. gemTmSenebeli qarxnis koleqtivi sistematur ganaxlebas ganicdida. igi ganpirobebuli iyo TaobaTa cvliT, warmoebis gafarToebis Sedegad axali kadrebis mizidviT. amasTan kadrebis denadobis mizezebs Soris aRsaniSnavia: Sromis disciplinis darRveva, armiaSi gawveva, saswavlebelSi wasvla, ukeTesi samuSaos Zieba, aranormaluri sabinao da yofiTi pirobebi da sxva. magaliTad, 1955 wels samuSaoze miiRes 116 kaci, daiTxoves _ 103 [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 404, f. 7]. metnaklebad ase iyo sxva drosac. kerZod, 1960 wels samuSaoze miiRes 110, xolo daiTxoves _ 123 kaci [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 510, f. 11]. cxadia, aseT pirobebSi kadrebis momzadebasa da gadamzadebas, axali teqnikisa da teqnologiebis aTvisebas gansakuT141

rebuli yuradReba eqceoda. amisaTvis qarxanaSi Seqmnili iyo kadrebis momzadebisa da gadamzadebis e.w. safabriko-saqarxno skola, specialuri jgufebi da wreebi. gamoiyeneboda kvalifikaciis amaRlebis individualuri formac. magaliTad, 1952 wels individualuri swavlebis wesiT moamzades 29 kaci, meore profesia aiTvisa oTxma pirovnebam [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 337, f. 71]. 1955 wels 44 axali kadri moamzades, xolo kvalifikacia aimaRla 78 momuSavem [acss, f. 455, an. 1, s. 395, f. 2]. 1959 wels moamzades 60 axali kadri, xolo kvalifikacia aimaRla 75 pirovnebam [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 488, f. 8]. rac Seexeba sabinao-sayofacxovrebo pirobebs, mZime suraTia omisa da omisSemdgom aRdgeniT wlebSi. am mimarTulebiT mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba 50-ian wlebSi daiwyo. qarxanam Tavisi koleqtivisaTvis pirveli sacxovrebeli saxli 1952 wels aago. igi gaTvaliswinebulili iyo 50 ojaxze da minimaluradac ver akmayofilebda koleqtivis moTxovnas. momuSaveTa sistematuri denadobis gamo qarxnis koleqtivi yovelTvis ganicdida sacxovrebeli binebis naklebobas. sakavSiro da saqarTvelos respublikuri xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebiT yvela sawarmos, maT Soris baTumis gemTmSenebel qarxanas, neba darTes da kidec daavales sakuTari saxsrebi gamoeyenebinaT sabinao mSeneblobisaTvis. 1957 wels eqspluataciaSi gadaeca qarxnis saxsrebiT aSenebuli sacxovrebeli saxli, ris Sedegad sagrZnoblad gaujobesda qarxanaSi momuSaveTa pirobebi, es dadebiTi tendencia momdevno wlebSic gagrZelda. mowesrigda kvebis, dasvenebis, garTobis da sxva yofiTi sakiTxebi: gaixsna klubi da e.w. wiTeli kuTxe, qarxnis teritoriaze skveric moewyo. qarxnis koleqtivis muSaoba bevrad iyo damokidebuli ssr kavSiris sazRvao flotis saministroze, magram igi saWiro yuradRebas ver iCenda qarxnis materialur-teqnikuri momaragebis TvalsazrisiT. qarxana Tavisi arsebobis mTel manZilze ganicdida masalebis naklebobas. arasakmarisi materialur-teqnikuri momaragebis miuxedavad, baTumis gemTmSenebeli qarxnis koleqtivi Tavdadebulad Sromobda, mudmivad axlis ZiebaSi iyo da TvalsaCino miRwevebi hqonda. ukve 1953 wels 16 sxvadasxva tipis sazRvao gemi aages. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia katarRa "JemCuJina", 1956 wels daiwyes "magnoliasa" da "b-1" tipis katarRebis gamoSveba. 1957-1958 wlebSi awarmoes katarRebi "moskviCi", "aWara", "Tbilisi-1500", romlebic gankuTvnili iyo Tbilisis wyalsacavisaTvis (Tbilisis zRva). am wlebSi qarxanam gamouSva wylis velosipedebi, patara navebi (e.w. "Sliupkebi") da sxva. 1955 wels qarxanam gamouSva 7 cali katarRa, 85 cali saseirno da samuSao navi.

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qarxnis sasaqonlo produqcia 1961 wlis fulis kursis mixedviT 1222 aTas maneTamde gaizarda. aqedan gemTmSeneblobaze da manqanaTa nawilebze modioda 89,3 procenti [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 404, f. 4-5]. 1960 wels aRniSnuli maxasiaTeblebi kidev metad gaizarda. am wels qarxanam gamouSva 282 cali kateri, katarRa, Tbomavali, samuSao da saseirno navi, nagvis gamtani Salanda (brtyelZira karWapi) da sxva. sasaqonlo produqciam 2 milioni maneTi Seadgina [acsa, f. 455, an. 1, s. 510, f. 8]. XX saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi qarxnis inJinrebis, konstruqtorebisa da muSebis SemoqmedebiTi Ziebis Sedegad Seiqmna axali Taobis gemebi. magaliTad, 1959 wels qarxanaSi aiTvises wyalqveSafrTiani katarRis "volga" da modernizirebuli samgzavro kateris "arkadia" warmoeba, romelTa seriuli gamoSveba 1960 wels daiwyes. wyalqveSafrTiani katarRa "volga" qarxnis ZiriTad produqciad iqca, radgan maRali xarisxisa da komfortulobis gamo, didi mowonebiT sargeblobda. 1962 wels qarxanam gamouSva sabuqsiro Zraviani navi, xolo 1966-1967 wlebSi _ maSveli navebis ramdenime saxeoba. 1969-1970 wlebSi daiwyes 6 da 12 kaciani maSveli navis, xolo 1971 wels _ "volga-70"-is warmoeba. XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi baTumis gemTsaSeni qarxana 6 saxeobis gems agebda. maT Soris gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda wyalqveSafrTian katarRas "volga-73", romelic winandelTan SedarebiT sagrZnoblad gaumjobesebuli modeli iyo. aseve SesamCnevlad gaumjobesda kater "limuzinis", flotis maSveli navebis warmoeba da sxva. 60-70-ian wlebSi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda gemebis gamoSvebis raodenobrivi maCveneblebi. magaliTad, 1966 wels qarxanam gamouSva 98 cali wyalqveSafrTiani katarRa da 154 cali sabuqsiro navi [o. TurmaniZe, 2005: 142-143]. es maCvenebelebi momdevno wlebSi gaorkecda. XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi qarxana 4 milioni maneTis sasaqonlo produqcias uSvebda, rac 1960 wlis maCvenebels orjer, xolo 1950 wlisas _ 3-jer aWarbebda. baTumis gemTmSenebeli qarxnis produqciis ZiriTadi Semsyidveli iyo ssr kavSiris sazRvao da samdinaro flotis organizaciebi. mniSvnelovani nawili sazRvargareTis qveynebSi igzavneboda. magaliTad, 1966 wels baTumuri warmoebis gemebi 46 qveyanam Seisyida [o. TurmaniZe, 2005: 143]. momdevno wlebSi es maCvenebeli gaizarda. baTumuri warmoebis gemebi SeiZines aSS-m, didma britaneTma, germaniam, safrangeTma, italiam, niderlandebma, fineTma, Cexoslovakiam, saberZneTma, poloneTma, avstriam, Sveicariam, SvedeTma, aziisa da afrikis qveynebma. sazRvargareTis qveynebis daintereseba SemTxveviTi ar yofila. baTumis gemTmSenebeli qarxnis mier warmoebuli gemebis,

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kerZod, wyalqveSafrTiani katarRis Sesaxeb cnobili inglisuri firmis "viravia" komerciuli direqtori edi tvigzi werda: "katarRis marTviT udidesi siamovneba miviRe. igi metad sada, moxerxebuli da saimedo samarTavia. aqvs Tanamedrove, eleganturi Sesaxedaoba. erTi sityviT, zafxulobiT is aris ideali sazRvao gaseirnebisa, romelic ase uyvarT ingliselebs" [gaz. "komunisti," 1969, 9 Tebervali]. Tanamedrove patara gemebis, gansakuTrebiT, wyalqveSa frTiani katarRis warmoebis aTviseba da seriuli gamoSveba baTumis gemTsaSeni qarxnis koleqtivis did miRwevad CaiTvleba. igi aris qarxnis sawarmoo personalis xangrZlivi Ziebisa da Tavdadebuli Sromis Sedegi, aTobiT novatoris teqnikuri Semoqmedebis nayofi. swored novatorebma Seqmnes axali manqanebi, meqanizmebi, sqemebi, detalebi da sxva. gemTsaSeni qarxnis novatorebs Soris gamorCeuli iyvnen v. tabanovi, a. streliaevi, p. jorbenaZe, riCkovi, l. bestavaSvili, o. xasan-oRli, a. Smagini, a. seidiSvili da sxvebi. nayofieri teqnikuri SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobisaTvis qarxnis novatorebs v. tabaCovsa da a. streliaevs 1967 wels mianiWes aWaris assr damsaxurebuli racionalizatoris wodeba [o. TurmaniZe, 2005: 352]. XX saukunis bolos baTumis gemTsaSeni qarxana samxedro programaze gadaiyvanes da misi saqmianoba gasaidumloebuli gaxda. 80-iani wlebis bolos axali sawarmo korpusebis mSenebloba daiwyo qalaqis gareubanSi, mdinare mejiniswylis zRvasTan xerTvisis marjvena napirze. misi mSenebloba 80-iani wlebis bolos dasrulda, magram ssr kavSiris daSlis Semdeg qarxnis funqcionireba moiSala. XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi iyo cdebi qarxnis aRorZinebisa. baTumis gemTmSenebelma qarxanam ramdenime cali swrafmavali katarRa, kerZod, sasazRvro dacvis samxedro-sadesanto navi da sxva gamouSva, magram 2004 wlis maisis cnobili movlenebis Sedegad es wamowyeba CaiSala. saqarTvelos axalma xelisuflebam qarxnis korpusebis demontaJi moaxdina. amis Semdeg baTumis gemTsaSeni qarxana istoriis kuTvnileba gaxda.

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. aWaris centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi 455, anaweri 1, saqmeebi 28; 268; 337; 395; 404; 488; 510. 2. o. TurmaniZe, social-ekonomikuri viTareba aWaraSi omisSemdgom periodSi (1946-1990ww.), baT., 2005.

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3. k. totoCava, saqarTvelos ssr transporti da satransporto manqanaTmSenebloba didi samamulo omisa da omisSemdgom periodSi, Tb., 1987. 4. gaz. ,,komunisti," 9 Tebervali, 1969.

Otar Turmanidze (Batumi, Georgia) Shipbuilding Development in Batumi Summary The work studies the history of Batumi shipbuilding factory and shows its contribution in the social-economical development of the region of Adjara. The factory was founded in 1943 and worked until 2004. The article characterises the qualitative and quantitative features of the staff, also the productive results of the factory. It informs about the fruitful work of the technical staff and the society of rationalists and inventors. At the result of their productive work the technical progress was hastened.

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arqeologia

ARCHEOLOGY

amiran kaxiZe

(saqarTvelo, baTumi)

baTumi da misi Semogareni Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi

(baTumis cixe)

samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis antikuri xanis samosaxloTa Soris yvelaze ufro Tavisebursa da mniSvnelovan Zegls baTumis cixe warmoadgens. pirdapiri werilobiTi cnobebi uZvelesi baTumis Sesaxeb ar gagvaCnia. prof. T. yauxCiSvilma am adgilebs fsevdo aristotelesTan moxsenebuli daukavSira [T. yauxCiSvili, 1969: 10-14]. plinius ufrosTan [PL.NH, 11,224, VI, 12] da arianesTanac gvxvdeba [ariane, periplusi, 37]. es punqti dasaxelebulia, agreTve, ax.w. V s anonim, ufro gvian ki ­ bizantiel istorikos miqel panaretosTan [panaretosi, 1960: 40]. k.miuleri baTumTan aigivebs `tabula peutingerianaze~ aRniSnul punqts `Portus altus~-s. XIX s Sua wlebidan Cndeba mecnieruli interesi baTumis uZvelesi warsulis Sesaxeb. arapirdapiri werilobiTi cnobebis gamoyenebisa da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, hipoteturi Sexedulebis mixedviT gamoiTqva araerTi urTierTgamomricxavi mosazrebani baTumis uZvelesi saxelwodebis, lokalizaciisa da qalaqad qcevis periodebis Sesaxeb. p. xicunovi Tvlida, rom cnobili berZeni oratori demosTene baTumidan iyo [ ., 1847: 848]. p. ioselianis azriT, baTumi daarsebuli iqna XI s damdegs bagrat IV mier [ ., 1850: 31-32]. saamisod arc pirvelsa da arc meore mkvlevars raime wyaro ar gaaCnia. d. baqraZe aRniSnavs, rom baTumi cnobili iyo adreuli epoqebidan Bathys saxelwodebiT, hqonda SesaniSnavi navsadguri da idga romaelTa garnizonic [ ., 1878: 12-20]. araerT Secdomasa Tu uzustobas SevxvdebiT a. frenkelis [ ., 1879: 58], Jan muriesa [Jan murie, 1962] da n. dakiSeviCis [ ., 1890: 25] SromebSiac (mxedvelobaSia qalaqis istoriis sawyisi periodi). amaTgan gansxvavdeba i. kalfoRlu, romelic akritikebs ra zogierT winamorbed mkvlevars, gvTavazobs saintereso dakvirvebebs. misi azriT, arianesTan moxsenebuli md. akamfsisi Woroxia, xolo md. baTisi ­ Culqubaa (igive skurkuba), romelic baTumis CrdiloeTiT Camodis md. barcxanis iqeT. Tavisi saxel146

wodeba baTumma miiRo Bathys limen ­ Rrma havanisagan (etyoba es Sexeduleba p. kesarielisagan aqvs aRebuli). igi ar iziarebs a. xicunovis mier straboniseul `batas~ baTumTan gaigivebas da adgens, rom strabonis `bata~ da plinius-arianes `batisi~ sxvadasxva punqtebia [ ., 1906]. baTumis Zveli istoriisadmi interesi kidev ufro gaizarda XX saukuneSi. s. kakabaZe plinius-arianesTan moxsenebuli baTus lokalizacias Caqviswylis midamoebs ukavSirebs [s. kakabaZe, 1928: 28], magram am Sexedulebam ver pova saTanado aRiareba samecniero literaturaSi. petrasa da baTums erTmaneTTan aigivebs akad. s. yauxCiSvili da mas ZvelTaganve daarsebulad miiCnevs. misi azriT, `baTusi~ adgilobrivi saxelis berZnuli gaazrebaa, rac Rrmas niSnavs. `paskalur qronikaSi~ naxsenebi `megale polisi~ da `tabula peutingterianaze~ aRniSnuli `portus altus~ igive baTumia. am toponimis Ziri `baT~ svanur `baCs~ daukavSira da berZnuli petras Sesatyvisad miiCnia. akad. s. yauxCiSvili Tvlis, rom petras simagreebi cixisZirSi iyo, xolo navsadguri, savaWro monopoliis centri da strategosis rezidencia baTumSi [s. yauxCiSvili, 1950-51:^17-23]. am SexedulebaTa gaziareba arqeologiuri monacemebis mixedviT SeuZlebeli Cans, radgan petra baTumTan SedarebiT ufro gvian qceula (adrefeodaluri xana) aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis cixe-qalaqad. prof. i. sixaruliZem erT-erTma pirvelTaganma Seagrova baTumis cixis teritoriaze zedapiruli arqeologiuri masalebi. gamoTqva varaudi aq uZvelesi fenebis arsebobis Sesaxeb. mogvca gadarCenil nagebobaTa aRwera da samSeneblo periodebis daxasiaTeba [i. sixaruliZe, 1956:83-91; misive, 1959:79-90; misive, 1962]. misi mosazrebiT, aq I-III saukuneebSi navsadguri unda yofiliyo. baTums mniSvnelovan savaWro da samxedro navsadgurad Tvlis doc. vl. siWinava [vl. siWinava, 1958]. baTumis formirebis saqmeSi did rols aniWebs navsadgurisa da didi sazRvao savaWro gzis arsebobas doc. j. CxeiZe, romelic s. yauxCiSvilisagan gansxvavebiT, vfiqrobT samarTlianad, megapoliss afsaross ukavSirebs [j. CxeiZe, 1959]. doc a. surgulaZe miuTiTebs, rom baTumis, rogorc dasaxlebuli punqtis istoria goridan iwyeba. igi qalaqur dasaxlebad iqca ax.w. II-VI saukuneebSi [a. surgulaZe, 1965]. baTumis toponimis garkvevas specialuri naSromi uZRvna a. inaiSvilma. igi askvnis, rom baTumis saxelwodeba momdinareobs md. baTÂ-sagan. Tavdapirveli baC/baT-yoron/yorol uZvelesi saxelwodeba Seicvala berZnulad gagebuli baTÂsiT [a. inaiSvili, 1976].

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baTumis uZvelesi istoriis SeswavlaSi gadamwyveti sityva XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi warmoebulma savele arqeologiurma kvleva-Ziebam Tqva. prof. d. xaxutaiSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT pirveli gaTxriTi samuSaoebi baTumis cixeze 1962-63 wlebSi ganxorcielda. Seswavlili iqna Sidacixis teritoria, sadac kulturuli fenebis simZlavre 120-140 sm udrida. magram aq umetesad SemorCenili iyo gviandeli periodis masala, Tumca, aqa-iq yviTel Tixnar fenaSi Tavi iCina antikuri xanis kolxuri qvevrisa da Savlakiani keramikis natexebmac. gaTxrebis procesSi aSkara gaxda, rom mSenebelebi periodulad borcvis Tavze amzadebdnen samSeneblo moedans da ferdobze yridnen wina epoqis masalebsac. amitomac Sidacixis Seswavlis paralelurad, pirvel xanebSi sacdeli Txrili gavlebuli iqna gorasamosaxlos Crdilo-aRmosavleT ferdze (sigrZe 30 m, sigane 15 m), xolo Semdgom ki Crdilo-dasavleT ferdze [a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, 1989]. am ukanasknelze 1968 da 1979 wlebSi stratigrafiuli gverdxedis gamoyenebiT gagrZelda gaTxriTi samuSaoebi samSeneblo periodebis da gadmonayari fenebis Tanamimdevrobis dazustebis mizniT. baTumis cixeze ganxorcielebuli savele-arqeologiuri kvleva-Zieba Semdeg suraTs iZleva: Zegli warmoadgens tipiur gancalkevebul bunebriv gorasamosaxlos [n. berZeniSvili, 1964: 346-347, 367-427]. misi dasaxleba Zv.w. VIII-VII saukuneebSi iwyeba, Tumca, nanaxia kaJis damuSavebuli iaraRebic, magram am erTeuli monapovrebis mixedviT am adgilebSi qvis xanis adamianis arsebobis pirobebis Sesaxeb msjeloba Wirs. Zv.w. VIII-VII saukuneebis uZravi kulturuli fenebi dadasturebuli iqna gorasamosaxlos Zirze. aq warmodgenilia winaantikuri xanis Tixis WurWlis natexebi, xelsafqvavebi, sawafebi. yuradRebas iqcevs aqve nanaxi Tixisagan damzadebuli xaris Tavisa da tanis skulpturuli gamosaxulebis fragmentebi. prof. d. xaxutaiSvilma borcvis Txemis gaTxrebisas yuradReba miaqcia Tarosebr viwro biliks, romelic samosaxlos, etyoba, irgvliv Semouyveba. samxreT SavizRvispireTSi qsenofontes mier Zv.w. 401 wels `anabazisSi~ drilebis tomSi arsebuli safortifikacio nagebobis analogiis mixedviT (e.w. `metropolisis~ damcveli Txrili) CaTvala, rom am adgilas baTumis gorasamosaxlo xis meseriT unda yofiliyo gamagrebuli. am fenaSi ucxouri nakeTobani ar Cans. importuli nawarmi Cndeba zeda SreSi (sisqe 10 sm, wina fenis 30-35 sm). esenia sadazolebiani ioniuri keramikuli nakeTobani (Tasebi, kilikebi, oinoxoiebi, askosebi da a.S.). aqve da momdevno gadmonayar fenaSi nanaxia e.w. TeTrangobiani qiosuri amforis natexebi, romelTa ricxvi kidev ufro gamravlda 1979 wels. es natexebi gvesaxeba Zveli

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kolxeTis Semotanili keramikis yvelaze adreul nimuSad, romelTac k. qiosze [Anderson J. K., 1954:168-178], k. feraze [Dragendorf H., 1903:228, sur. 425; Anderson J. K., 1954:136], k. rodosze [Clara Rhodos, III, pl. III], istriaSi [Lambrino M., 1938:100 da a.S.], k. berezanze da nimfeaSi [ .., 1960:70], pantikapeonSi [ .., 1962:10, . 4], patreasa da germonasaSi [ .., 1960:70] aRmoCenili masalebis mixedviT Zv.w. VII s bolosa da VI s damdegiT vaTariRebT [a. kaxiZe, 1965: 203-206; missive, 1971: 29-31]. verner texnau amave periodiT aTariRebs baTumiscixis msgavs samosur oinoxoiebs, romlebic Semkulia moTeTro (vercxlisferi) da mowiTalo zolebiT [Technau W., 1929]. am fenis Seswavlisas yuradReba miiqcia namwvav-nangrevma Srem. am monacemebiT dasturdeba, rom fena unda asaxavdes adgilobrivi kolxuri mosaxleobisa da ionieli moaxalSeneebis pirvel Sexvedrebs, romelsac mSvidobiani xasiaTi ar unda hqonoda. momdevno doneebis mZlavri masalebis mixedviT Cans, rom Zvel kolxur gorasamosaxlos adrindeli statusi SeunarCunebia da klasikur xanaSi cxovrebas kidev ufro farTo, intensiuri xasiaTi miuRia. aRmoCenil masalebSi wamyvani Cans adgilobrivi nivTieri kulturis Zeglebi. gakvirvebas iwvevs sameurneo keramikis, kerZod, kolxuri qvevrebis mravalricxovneba, Semkobis sxvadasxva motivi da rigi Taviseburebani [n. vaSakiZe, g. lorTqifaniZe, 1976]. aSkaraa, rom Zveli kolxuri sameurneo keramikis warmoebis erT-erTi msxvili centri Zv.w. VII saukunidan baTumis midamoebSic moqmedebda. mravladaa nanaxi sxva saxis WurWelTa natexebi, riyis qvis sawafebi, xelsafqvavebi, Surdulis qvebi, Tixisagan nakeTebi ornamentirebuli verZis Tavis SesaniSnavi skulpturuli gamosaxuleba da sxva. klasikuri xanis gadmonayar fenaSi zomieradaa warmodgenili sakmaod adreuli yelgamoberili qiosuri, samosuri, sasmisebrZiriani da Tazosuri amforis natexebi, Zv.w. VI saukunis ioniuri sada zolebiani WurWlis fragmentebi. cotaa atikuri Savlakiani keramika. baTumis uZveles mosaxleobas gvianarqaul xanaSi gacxovelebuli savaWro urTierToba aqvs aRmosavleT saberZneTis ioniur centrebsa da egeosis zRvis kunZulebTan. klasikur xanaSi baTumis samosaxlos roli saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa sferoSi SedarebiT dakninebulia, Tumca, igi am am epoqaSic rCeba sakmaod msxvil adgilobriv sameurneo da saxelosno centrad. Zv.w. VIII-IV saukuneebisaTvis baTumis gorasamosaxloze xis nagebobebi ivaraudeba. am periodSi moqmedebda, agreTve, xis meseri da savaraudod damcveli Txrili (aRmosavleTidan mas md. yoroliswyali Camoudioda). Zv.w. IV saukunis bolosaTvis momxdara borcvis wveris mTliani nivelireba, gadmoyril mi149

wis gruntsa da arqeologiur masalebs mTlianad Seuvsia borcvis Ziri da xis meseriani damcveli kedeli aRar aRudgeniaT. elinisturi xanisaTvis borcvze aRmarTuli Senobebis nawili, saZirkvlebi mainc, ukve qvis unda yofiliyo. saqme imaSia, rom adrefeodaluri xanisaTvis borcvis xelaxali nivelirebisas moxsnil da gadmoyril yviTel Tixnar fenaSi mozrdili samSeneblo riyis qvebic urevia. elinistur-gvianantikuri xanis gadmonayar fenaSi warmodgenilia mowiTalo-moyavisfrod gamomwvari qvevrebis, adgilobrivi da sinopuri amforebisa da kramitis natexebi, kvlavac bevria Surdulis qvebi. nanaxia wisqvilis mrgvali qva, Tixis piramiduli sawafi, kviristavebi, rkinis moxrili dana da a.S. Cans, rom baTumis uZvelesi samosaxlo am epoqebSic mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobda. mis aRmavlobas, bunebrivia, xels uwyobda baTumis yureSi moxerxebuli navsadguri. aseve iTqmis momdevno epoqebis Sesaxebac. borcvis axali ganaSenianeba momxdara adre da ganviTarebul feodalur xanaSiac. gaTxrebisas mravladaa aRmoCenili am epoqis masalebi. cixe sabolood ingreva XIX saukuneSi. borcvis Zirze Seqmnilia am ngrevis amsaxveli TiTqmis 2 m sisqis qvaRorRiani fena.

literatura gamoyenebuli literatura

1. n. berZeniSvili, istoriuli geografiisaTvis, ­ saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1964. 2. n. berZeniSvili, erTi furceli istoriul-geografiuli dRiuridan, _ saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1964. 3. n. vaSakiZe, g. lorTqifaniZe, kolxuri qvevri, ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. II, 1971. 4. a. inaiSvili, baTumis etimologiisaTvis, _ aWaruli dialeqtis dargobrivi leqsika, I, Tb., 1976. 5. s. kakabaZe, Ziebani qarTvelTa IV-VII saukuneebis istoriis Sesaxeb, ­ saistorio krebuli, II, 1928. 6. a. kaxiZe, aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis antikuri xanis qalaqebi, sakandidato disertacia, Tb., 1965. 7. a. kaxiZe, keramikuli tara antikuri xanis naqalaqaridan, ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. II, 1971. 8. a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis, ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XVIII, 1989 (sur. I-XLVII). 9. m. panaretosi, trapizonis qronika, ­ masalebi saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis istoriisaTvis, nakv. 33, 1960. 10. Jan murie, baTumi da Woroxis auzi, baT., 1962. 11. i. sixaruliZe, baTumis warsulidan, ­ SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis baTumis pedinstitutis Sromebi, t. V, 1956.

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12. i. sixaruliZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos toponimika, naw. II, baT., 1959. 13. i. sixaruliZe, baTumis uZvelesi istoriis axali arqeologiuri masalebi, _ gaz. `aWara~, 9 ivnisi, 1962. 14. a. surgulaZe, baTumis istoriisaTvis, ­ aWaris mosaxleobis yofisa da kulturis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1965. 15. vl. siWinava, baTumis istoriidan, baT., 1958. 16. flavius ariane, mogzauroba Savi zRvis garSemo, Tb., 1961. 17. T. yauxCiSvili, berZeni mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, t. II, Tb., 1969. 18. s. yauxCiSvili, antikuri masalebi baTumis istoriisaTvis, ­ al. wulukiZis saxelobis quTaisis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi, t. X, 1950-51. 19. j. CxeiZe, baTumi, baT., 1959. 20. ., , , 1878. 21. .., 1945-1949, 1952 1953 ., ­ , 103, ., 1962. 22. ., , ., 1890. 23. .., , ­ , 83, 1960. 24. ., , , ., 1850. 25. .., , ­ , XVIII, 1960. 26. ., - , ., 1879. 27. ., , ­ . «», ., 1847. 28. Anderson J. K., Excavations at the Kofina Ridge, Chios, ­ BSA, XLIX, 1954. 29. Clara Rhodos, III, pl.III. 30. Dragendorf H., Thera II, Berlin, 1903. 31. Lambrino M., Les vases archaiques d'Histria Bucurest, 1938. 32. Technau W., Griechishe keramic in Samische Heraion _ Athenishe mitteilungen, LIV, 1929.

Amiran Kakhidze (Georgia, Batumi) Batumi And Its Suburbs (Batumi Fortress) in I Millennium BC Summary Great many authors mention the Batumi Fortress (Aristotle, Plinius, Arian, Anonym, Panaretos, etc.) into their works. Huge interest about Batumi Fortress has been arisen in historiography since 19th century. Some mutually exclusive ideas have been stated about the fortress name, localization, and periods of its turning into a town (P. Khitsunov, P. Ioseliani, D. Bakradze, A. Frenkel, Jan Murrie, N. Dakishevich, I. Kalfoglu, S. Kakabadze, S. Kaukhchishvili, I. Sikharulidze, V. Sichinava, J. Chkheidze, A. Surguladze, D. Khakhutaishvili, A. Inaishvili, and

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others). The decisive concept in studying ancient history of Batumi was based upon archaeological excavations in 60-70's of 20th century. It was reviled and acknowledged that the monument used to be a hill-type settlement dated back to 8th-7th centuries BC. The hill was surrounded with a wooden fence. The oldest Greek import throughout eastern Black Sea shore and the Caucasus in general was found at Batumi Fortress. White ground chian amphora and simple stripped ionian ceramics found there have similar parallels dated back to late 7th and early 6th centuries. Batumi Fortress used to be an important urban settlement during the Classical and Hellenistic periods. Its functions were significantly increased following ages that prepared a good basis for turning Batumi into a well developed town centre of Middle Ages.

152

nino inaiSvili

(saqarTvelo, baTumi)

adrebizantiur baTumi adrebizantiur xanaSi

berZnul-romaul werilobiT wyaroebSi (aristotele, pliniusi, ariane, tabula pevtingeriana) Bathys-is saxelwodebiT cnobili mdinarisa da geografiuli punqtis saxelwodeba (saidanac warmosdgeba dRevandeli baTumis saxelwodeba) adrebizantiur wyaroebSi am saxeliT ar ixsenieba, Tumca baTumis teritoria eqceva istoriuli lazikis im nawilSi, sadac bizantia-sparseTis omebis ZiriTad epizodebs hqonda adgili da romelTa Sesaxebac sakmao detalur informacias gvawvdian bizantieli avtorebi _ prokopi kesarieli da agaTia sqolastikosi. werilobiTi wyaroebis simwiris pirobebSi baTumis uZvelesi da Zveli istoriis SeswavlisaTvis udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda baTumis cixis arqeologiuri Seswavlas. baTumis cixe an Tamaris cixe baTumis CrdiloeTiT, mdinare yoroliswylis SesarTavTan, zRvis napiras mdebare maRal borcvze mdebareobs, sadac SemorCenilia cixe-simagris naSTebi. gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi iv.javaxiSvilis sax. istoriis institutma da baTumis samecniero-kvleviTma institutma baTumis cixeze ganaxorcieles arqeologiuri samuSaoebi (xelmZRvaneli ­ akad. n. berZeniSvili) [d. xaxutaiSvili, 1962-1963]. baTumis cixis arqeologiuri kvleva-Ziebis dawyebis droisaTvis sasimagro kedlebisa da kulturuli fenebis daculoba metad arasaxarbielo iyo. cixis nangrevebi mimofantuli iyo borcvis aRmosavleT, dasavleT da Crdilo ferdobebze. cixe ingreoda droTa ganmavlobaSi da adamianis zemoqmedebis Sedegad. igi gansakuTrebiT dazianda didi samamulo omis dros aq baTumis haersawinaaRmdego dacvis erT-erTi qvedanayofis sacecxle poziciis gamarTvis Sedegad. samxedroebma cixis sasimagro kedlebi gamoiyenes da borcvze didi moculobis miwis samuSaoebi Caatares. cixis samxreT-dasavleTi nawilis ganadgureba ki ganapiroba 1960 wels kafe-pavilionis mSeneblobam, romelmac cixis teritoriis 200 kv. m farTobi daikava. cixis ferdobebze kulturuli fenebi daaziana agreTve gamwvanebis trestis mier gavlebulma terasebma. arqeologiuri kvleva-Ziebis Sedegad gairkva, rom baTumis cixe mravalfeniani Zeglia da igi, rogorc akad. n. berZeniSvili varaudobda, agebuli iyo im Zveli kolxuri samosaxlos

153

adgilas, romelic am provinciis adreuli xanis centrs warmoadgenda. man dasabami misca qalaq baTumis warmoqmnas. winaanatikuri da antikuri xanis samosaxlos Seswavlis Sedegebi gamoqveynebulia a. kaxiZisa da d. xaxutaiSvilis naSromSi [a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, 1989]. baTumis cixe mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobda momdevno epoqebSiac. borcvis xelaxali nivelireba-ganaSenianeba momxdara adre da ganviTarebul Sua saukuneebSi. cixe Tavis funqcias sabolood XIX s. kargavs. borcvis Zirze Seqmnilia am ngrevis amsaxveli TiTqmis 3 m sisqis qvaRorRiani fena. gaTxrebis Sedegad dadginda, rom borcvis Txemze daculi sasimagro nagebobani ramdenime periods miekuTvneba. miuxedavad imisa, rom cixis kedlebi mravalgzis aris gadakeTebuldagegmarebuli, maT Soris XX saukunis Sua xanebSic, gamTxrelebma SeZles cixis kedlebis mSeneblobaSi uZvelesi, adre Sua saukuneebis fenis gamoyofa (Sidacixe II), romelic SedarebiT ukeTaa gadarCenili sworkuTxa moyvanilobis cixis Crdilo-aRmosavleT, samxreT-dasavleT da samxreT-aRmosavleT kuTxeebSi. rogorc gamTxrelebi aRniSnaven, Sidacixe II mSeneblobaSi gamoyenebuli qvaTlilebi da duRabi Zalian hgavs petras citadelisa da samnaviani bazilikis wyobas, rac mis TariRze miuTiTebs. Tumca, samwuxarod, Sidacixe II kedlis nangrevebis udidesi nawili sabWoTa periodSi ganxorcilebuli samuSaoebis Sedegad borcvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT da samxreT-aRmosavleT ferdobebze iyo gadayrili [d. xaxutaiSvili, 1962-1963]. borcvis Txemsa da ferdobebze gavlebulma Txrilebma Semdegi stratigrafiuli suraTi daadastura: aq mopovebuli masalebi didi qronologiuri diapazonisaa (Zv.w. I aTaswleulis pirveli naxevari ­ XIX-XX ss). uZvelesi da adre Sua saukuneebis kulturuli fenebi SedarebiT ukeTaa gadarCenili borcvis qveda doneze. adre Sua saukuneebis fena warmodgeni154

lia ax.w. VI saukuneebis yavisferkeciani, welSezneqili da wiTelkeciani, daRarultaniani amforebis, agreTve samzareulo da sufris WurWlis, agreTve kramitis fragmentebis saxiT [d. xaxutaiSvili, 1962-1963]. dasavleT saqarTvelos adre Sua saukuneebis xanis monumenturi arqiteqturis kvlevis procesSi, baTumis cixem miipyro mkvlevar v. leqvinaZis yuradReba, romelmac mas specialuri naSromi miuZRvna [ ., 1967:505-510]. v. leqvinaZis azriT, baTumis cixis ZiriTadi samSeneblo fena aSkarad adrebizantiuri xanisaa, Tumca tipiuri adrebizantiuri Sereuli wyoba, romelic xasiaTdeba qvisa da aguris sartylebis sistematuri monacvleobiT, aq mxolod erT mcire adgilasaa SemorCenili [ .., 1967:505-510; .., 1973:172173, . 2]. mkvlevris azriT, baTumis cixis yvelaze damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebas warmoadgens borcvis reliefisaTvis Seuferebeli, magram adrebizantiuri xanis cixesimagreebis mSeneblobaSi damkvidrebuli standartuli sworkuTxa gegmarebis gamoyeneba da kidev erTi sayuradRebo detali: cixesimagris uZvelesi fena kuTxeebSi aRWurvili iyo farTo sworkuTxa koSkiseburi SverilebiT (isini Semonaxulia simagris samxreT-dasavleT da samxreT-aRmosavleT nawilebSi), romlebic mxolod VI-X saukuneebis bizantiuri simagreebisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli. aRniSnul detals mkvlevari saintereso paralels uZebnis sebastopolisis kastelumis im naSTebTan, romelic aRmoCenilia ori romauli simagris nangrevebis zemoT da romelic iustinianes periodis samSeneblo saqmianobas unda ukavSirdebodes [ .., 1973:172-173, 178, . 6; .., .. , 1960:171-179, . 1]. cixesimagris adrebizantiuri xasiaTis dadgenis Semdeg mkvlevari prokopis naSromSi "mSeneblobaTa Sesaxeb" dasaxelebuli punqtis _ losorionis baTumis cixesTan igiveobas amtkicebs. avtoris azriT, prokopis naSromSi losorioni dasaxelebulia im punqtebs Soris, romlebic agebuli iyo iustinianes mier evqsinis pontos sanapiroze. amasTan, losorionis Ziebis areali SeiZleba Semoifarglos afsarossa (gonio) da petras (cixisZiri) Soris mdebare sanapiroTi. aRniSnul monakveTSi ki losorionis lokalizaciisaTvis yvelaze Sesaferisi adgili baTumis cixea [ . ., 1973:169-173], raSic SeuZlebelia avtors ar daeTanxmo. ratom dasWirdaT bizantielebs cixesimagris ageba baTumSi? rogorc cnobilia, imperator iustinianes (527-565) dros dasavleT saqarTvelo bizantiur-sparsuli Setakebebis centrad iqca. 523 wels aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi (iberiaSi)

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myarad fexmokidebul sparselebs ukve lazikis gavliT SeeZloT bizantiis imperiaSi SeWra, rac kargad aris gamoxatuli prokopi kesarielis sityvebSi: `kavkasiaSi mosaxle barbarosTaTvis lazike aris mxolod sawinaaRmdego tixari. yvelaze ufro ki, mas [xosros] imedi hqonda, lazikis mxriT gaZliereba sparselTaTvis imiT iqneboda sasargeblo, rom iqidan SeteviT isini advilad SeZlebdnen Tavs dasxmodnen xmeleTiTac da zRviTac, egreT wodebul evqsinis pontoze mdebare soflebs, daemorCilebinaT kapadokielebi, maTi mosazRvre galatielebi da biTvinielebi, da moulodnelad daepyroT bizantielebi, ise, rom maT aravin gauwevda winaaRmdegobas~ [BP.II.28 georgika, 1965: 94-95]. am safrTxem aiZula bizantielebi samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi gaeCaRebinaT safortifikacio mSenebloba, raTa gaekontrolebinaT is gzebi, romliTac SesaZlebeli iyo bizantiis imperiaSi SeRweva [a. bogveraZe, 1973: 249-250; .., 1973: 171-172; Braund D., 1994: 273-274, 297]. am regionSi agebul sxva cixeebTan (rize, petra) erTad, losorionis strategiuli mniSvneloba bizantiis imperiis misadgomebis dacvaSi gamoixateboda.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. a. bogveraZe, brZola iraneli da bizantieli dampyroblebis winaaRmdeg egrisSi, ­ saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. 2, Tb., 1973. 2. georgika, bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, t. 2, teqstebi qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosca da ganmartebebi daurTo simon yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1965. 3. a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis, I, _ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XVIII, Tb., 1989. 4. d. xaxutaiSvili, baTumis cixis arqeologiuri gaTxrebi _ savele dRiuri, 1962-1963, baTumis niko berZeniSvilis institutis arqivi. 5. .., , ­ , XLVII, 2, 1967. 6. .., , ­ , 34, 1973. 7. .., .., ­ , 3, 1960. 8. Braund D., Georgia in Antiquity, Oxford, 1994.

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Nino Inaishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi in Early Byzantine Period Summary Bathys (from which the present name Batumi originates) the name of a river and a geographical location known from the Greek and Roman written sources (Aristotle, Pliny, Ariane), is not mentioned by Byzantine writers though the territory of Batumi falls into the part of ancient Lazica where the main battles of the Byzantine-Persian wars took place and about which quite detailed information is provided by the Byzantine authors ­ Procopius and Agathias. In the Early-Byzantine deposit revealed during the archaeological excavations on the Batumi Fortress (Tamara Fortress) in 1960s there appeared the fragments of brown clay concave-body and red clay amphorae with grooved surface of the 6th century. The scholar V. Lekvinadze who specialized in the study of the sites of West Georgian monumental architecture, distinguished in the multi-deposit site of the Batumi Fortress the Early-Byzantine period layer that is characterized by typical Roman-Byzantine rectangular planning and tower-like projections in the corners thus greatly resembling Sebastopolis' Castellum built by Justinian. In V. Leqvinadze's opinion, based on the analysis of the data of the archaeological and written sources it is possible to identify the Batumi Fortress with the fortress Losorion in Lazica built by Justinian which is mentioned in the Byzantine written sources. Losirion should have been located on the coast between Apsarus and Petra.

157

SoTa mamulaZe, rezo uzunaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumi Sua saukuneebSi

(werilobiTi wyaroebisa da arqeologiuri masalebis mixedviT)

baTumis saqalaqo dasaxleba saTaves iRebs antikuri xanidan [s. yauxCiSvili, 1950-1951; d. xaxutaiSvili, 1989; a. kaxiZe, 2007; T. yauxCiSvili, 1987; a. inaiSvili, 1966; vl. siWinava, 1962; j. CxeiZe, 1959; .., 1905]. igi did ganviTarebas aRwevs XII-XVU ss-Si. wina aziaSi Turq-selCukebis gabatonebam (XI s.) mTlianad gadaketa saqarTvelodan bizantiaSi mimavali saxmeleTo gzebi, ramac saqarTvelosa da bizantias Soris sazRvao urTierToba qalaq-navsadgurebis, maT Soris _ baTumis meSveobiT, kidev ufro intensiuri gaxda [T. beraZe, 1981: 167; ., 1989: 71-72; misive, 2009: 119-132]. amas daemata isic, rom TurqselCukTa wina aziaSi gabatonebam da gamudmebulma rbevaTareSma gamoiwvia msoflio satranzito gzebis (,,abreSumis gza'') saqarTveloSi gadmonacvleba [s. masxaraSvili, 2006: 131], romlis erTi Sto gadioda baTumze. igi axalcixe-Tbilisis gavliT miemarTeboda kaspiispireTisa da sparseTisaken, aqedan indoeTisa da CineTisaken [T. beraZe, 1981: 167]. Sesabamisad, imata baTumSi cxovrebis majiscemam. aRniSnuli procesi gansakuTrebiT win wavida daviT aRmaSeneblisa (1089-1125) da Tamaris mefobis (1184-1213) xanaSi. baTumi gaxda mniSvnelovani sazRvao qalaqi. baTumSi saqalaqo cxovrebis ganviTarebis Sedegad gaizarda qalaqis mosaxleoba. erTi cnobis Tanaxmad, am periodis baTumSi cxovrobda 30 aTasamde kaci [T. beraZe, 1981: 183]. prof. T. beraZis samarTliani SeniSnviT, monacemebi baTumis mosaxleobis Sesaxeb erTob gadaWarbebulia. magram erTi ram cxadia: am droisaTvis baTumi warmoadgenda ricxvmraval qalaqs, sadac cxovreba Zalumad Cqefda. izrdeba qalaqis dasaxleba. igi moicavda vrcel teritorias md. yoroliswyalis SesarTavidan marcxena sanapiros gayolebiT, e.w. menavTobeTa (Tamaris) dasaxlebis CaTvliT.* qalaqis samxreTi sazRvari aRwevda md. barcxanamde. es midamoebi rom Sua saukuneebSi marTlacda istoriuli baTumis ZiriTad centrs warmoadgenda, kargad Cans sxvadasxva dros baTumis cixeze warmoebuli arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad moZiebuli masalebis mixedviTac. am epoqis aq aRmoCenil mravalricxovan

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masalaTagan amjerad mokled SevCerdebiT mxolod moWiqul keramikaze. baTumis cixeze aRmoCenili moWiquli WurWeli 100ze meti erTeuliTaa warmodgenili. maT umravlesobas jamebi warmoadgens (80-ze meti erTeuli). jamebi da, gansakuTrebiT, quslebi imeoreben ZiriTadad ganviTarebuli Sua saukuneebis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRmoCenili sada keramikis formebs. maTi didi nawili sxvadasxva elferis mwvane WiquriTaa dafaruli. zogierTi nimuSis mixedviT Cans, rom TeTri angobiT dafaruli jamebis Sigapiri (nawilobriv gareT, qimis are) Semkulia nakawri maryuJiani rgolebiT, gaSlili spiralebiTa da urTierTgadamkveTi xazebiT, ormagi xazovani da, aseve, sxvadasxva saxis geometriuli ornamentiT. am tipis keramikaSi gvxvdeba sada, uornamento mwvaned moWiquli jamebic. baTumis cixeze aRmoCenili mwvaned moWiquli keramikis msgavsi nimuSebi sakmaod mravladaa aRmoCenili dasavleT saqarTvelos iseT Zeglebze, rogoricaa: soxumi, bagratis cixe, gonio, cixisZiri, cixesulori, oCamCire, uqimerioni, quTaisi [m. miwiSvili, 1976: 8], aWariswylis xeobis ganviTarebuli Suasaukuneebis safortifikacio Tu saeklesio nagebobaTa teritoria [S. mamulaZe, 1993: 58] da a.S. baTumis cixeze aRmoCenil erTfrad moWiqul WurWelSi warmodgenilia aseve yviTlad moWiquli keramikac. isini formebiTac da Semkobis motiviTac imeoreben mwvaned moWiquli WurWlis formebsa da ornaments. erT ferSi da, gansakuTrebiT, yviTlad moWiquli keramika ZiriTadad damaxasiaTebelia dasavleT saqarTvelosaTvis. isini mwvaned moWiquli jamebis msgavsad, ZiriTadad, aRmoCenilia soxumis, bagratis, gonios, uqimerionis, cixisZiris, cixesuloris [m. miwiSvili, 1976: 10], aWariswylis xeobis ganviTarebuli Sua saukuneebis Zeglebze [S. mamulaZe, 1993: 58-59]. am tipis WurWeli aseve cnobilia CrdiloeTSavizRvispireTis Suasaukuneebis naqalaqarebidan, gansakuTrebiT ki qersonesidan [ .., 1959: 172-173]; agreTve tmutarakanidan, orenyaladan [ .., 1959: 258], Sua aziidan (munCak-Tefe) [ .., 1947: 167-168] da sxva. isini yvelgan XI-XII ss.-iTaa daTariRebuli. amokawvriT moxatuli da erTfrad (yviTelis garda) moWiquli jamebi didi raodenobiTaa aRmoCenili aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva Zeglebze [m. miwiSvili, 1969: 23-28; misive, 1979: 29-30; v. jafariZe, 1956: 24-28; z. maisuraZe, 1953: 27-37]. isini aq wamyvania XI-XII ss.Si da ganagrZoben arsebobas XIII s.-is I naxevarSi [m. miwiSvili, 1969: 25]. dasavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva Zeglze aRmoCenili msgavsi keramika sakmaod safuZvlianad aqvs Seswavlili m. miwiSvils, romelic maT XII-XIII ss.-iT aTariRebs [m. miwiSvili,

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1976: 16]. baTumis cixeze aRmoCenili erTferSi moWiquli keramikac eqceva saerTo dasavlur-qarTuli moWiquli keramikis warmoebis tradiciebis zogad sferoSi da amave periodiT unda daTariRdes. baTumis cixis ganviTarebuli Sua saukuneebis masalebs Soris aseve sakmao raodenobiTaa warmodgenili mravalfrad moWiquli keramikac. aqac umravlesoba jamebze modis. maT sufTad ganleqili, moyviTalo, movardisfro da mowiTalo keci aqvT. dasavleT saqarTvelos da, kerZod, baTumis cixeze aRmoCenili jamebi garkveuli TaviseburebiT xasiaTdebian. samkauli zogjer sam-sami xaziT aris gamoyvanili. amokawvriT moxatuli ornamenti feradi saRebaviT ki ar ivseba, aramed aqa-iq daRvenTilia feradi laqebiT. Aasea Semkuli dasavleT saqarTvelos mravalfrad moWiquli jamebis didi nawilic. Mmravalfrad moWiqul jamebs Soris yvelaze mcire raodenobiT frinvelis gamosaxulebiT Semkuli jamebi gvxvdeba. baTumis cixeze aRmoCenilia jamis natexebi, romelzedac SerCenilia frinvelis frTa da fexis zeda nawilebi (#113). frinvelis bolo tanisagan ori xaziT aris gamoyofili. misi tani da frTa Ria mwvane ferisaa.Bbolo da tanis zeda nawilebi ki yviTelia. jami dafarulia uferuli WiquriT. Mmsgavsi gamosaxuleba jerjerobiT sxva Zeglebidan ucnobia. baTumis cixis mravalfrad moWiqul monapovar jamebs Soris gvxvdeba iseTi nimuSebic, romelTa Siga tanze wyvili xazebisagan gadmocemulia sxvadasxva saxis ornamenti. isini, umTavresad, Sedgenilia yvavilis (gvirilas) furclebisagan. igi Seqmnilia sam-sami xazisagan. gaxalisebulia feradi _ mwvane da yviTeli laqebiT. dafarulia uferuli, kriala WiquriT. baTumis cixis mravalfrad moWiqul jamebSi gvxvdeba iseTi nimuSebic, romlebic Semkulia sxvadasxva saxis geometriuli ornamentiT. am tipis ornamentiT Semkoba Zalze gavrcelebulia aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. rogorc m. miwiSvili fiqrobs, araa gamoricxuli es ornamenti dasavleTSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan iyos Setanili [m. miwiSvili, 1976: 21]. baTumis cixeze aRmoCnda wyvili xazebisagan Sedgenili ornamentiT Semkuli jamis Zir-qusli (#308). wyvili xazebi faqizad aris gamoyvanili. isini erTmaneTs kveTen. centrSi gamosaxulia xvia. jamis Zirze ki niSania amokawruli. igi ar aris moWiquli, naxevrad namzadia. es garemoeba gvafiqrebinebs, rom davuSvaT misi adgilobrivi warmoeba. baTumis cixis monapovarTa Soris aris mravalfrad moWiqul jamTa natexebi ornamentiT, romelic, rogorc Cans, qims sartyeliviT garSemouyveba. Nnatexze SerCenilia paralelur xazebs Soris amokawruli Tanabari xviebi. Aaqa-iq daRvenTilia

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feradi _ mwvane da yviTeli laqebi; gadavlebulia uferuli kriala Wiquri.Mmsgavsi ornamentiT Semkuli, mwvaned moWiquli jami aRmoCnda qersonesSi. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi ki xviebiTa da maryuJebiT mxolod erTfrad moWiqul jamebs amkobdnen. aseTi ornamenti dasavleT saqarTveloSi gamoyenebulia mravalfrad moWiqul jamebze. baTumis cixeze da, saerTod, dasavleT saqarTvelos mravalfrad moWiquli WurWeli Zalze saintereso da Taviseburia. maTi Tavisebureba gamoixateba kecSi, WiqurTa ferebSi, ornamentis gadmocemis xasiaTSi da sxva, rac vfiqrobT, kidev erTxel, imis maCvenebeli unda iyos, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi da, Cven SemTxvevaSi, baTumis cixezec, am tipis keramikis adgilobrivi warmoeba iyo. dasavleT saqarTvelos da, maT Soris, baTumis cixeze aRmoCenili mravalfrad moWiquli jamebi, iseve rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelosi, XII-XIII ss.-s unda mivakuTvnoT. baTumis cixeze yvelaze didi raodenobiT aRmoCenilia mwvaned moWiquli ,,msxvili'' WurWeli, mopovebulia am epoqis importuli (bizantiuri) moWiquli keramikac. aqve xazi unda gaesvas erT garemoebasac, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebze da maT Soris baTumis cixeze aRmoCenili keramika bizantiis gavlenasac ganicdis (Wiquris ferebi-mwvane, yviTeli; ornamenti-koncentruli wreebi da sxva). aseTive suraTi Cans CrdiloeTSavizRvispireTisa da ruseTis qalaqebSi aRmoCenil moWiqul WurWelzec. aseT did sivrceze erTi da igive elementis gavrceleba imis maniSnebeli unda iyos, rom bizantias garkveuli gavlena da urTierToba hqonda dasaxlebul punqtebTan. Bbizantiasa da samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis centrebs Soris mWidro kavSirs adasturebs numizmatikuri monapovrebic, romelzedac Cven aq aRar SevCerdebiT. baTumis cixis ganaTxar masalaSi warmodgenilia gviani Sua saukuneebis moWiquli WurWelic. maTze aq vrclad aRar SevCerdebiT. isini SeiZleba ZiriTadad or jgufad gaiyos. Ppirveli jgufisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sufTad ganleqili mowiTalo keci, jamTa Sigapiris angobiT dafarva, feradi naRvenTebiT an mkveTrad amokawruli ornamentiT Semkoba. am jgufis masalebi msgavsi monapovrebis mixedviT swored gviani Sua saukuneebiT (XIV, XV-XVI ss.) unda DdaTariRdes. meore jgufSi gaerTianebuli moWiquli WurWeli pirvelisagan mkvTrad gansxvavdeba saerTo ieriT, ornamentis gamoyvanis xerxiT, WurWelTa formebiTa da sxva. maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia sufTad ganleqili mowiTalo keci, jamebis ormxriv angobiT dafarva da ormxriv moWiqva. Oornamenti gamoiyvaneba funjiT. jamebi ramdenime saxisaa. maT dabali, gamoyvanili qusli da brtyeli Ziri aqvT. Aam tipis moWiquli keramikac gviani Sua

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saukuneebiT TariRdeba. XVIII s.-is Semdgomi nivTebi ganaTxar masalebSi sakmaod klebulobs, rac imis mimaniSnebelia, rom qalaq baTumis teritoria TandaTanobiT Tanamedrove portis midamoebisaken inacvlebs. ase rom, Tu gadavxedavT arqeologiur masalebs da, gansakuTrebiT, moWiqul keramikas, davinaxavT, rom yoroliswylis marcxena sanapiroze mdebare e.w. baTumis cixe da misi Semogareni teritoria met-naklebi datvirTviT XI s.-dan mokidebuli XVIII s.-is CaTvliT funqcionirebs. vfiqrobT, es borcvi Tavisi Semogareni teritoriiT Sua saukuineebSic warmoadgenda im adgils, im baTums, romlis Sesaxebac saintereso cnobebia daculi antikuri Tu mogviani xanis avtorebTan. Aam mosazrebas ramdenadme mxars uWers d. baqraZesTan daculi cnobac, romlis mixedviTac baTumis cixis mimdebare teritoriaze mis dromde SemorCenili iyo didi kedlisa da Svidamde eklesiis naSTi.Mmisi mTxrobelis, xasan-aRas mixedviT, oTxamde eklesiis naSTi iyo am teritoriisagan cotaTi moSorebiTac. erTi gumbaTiani eklesiis nangrevebi zed yoroliswylis saTavesTanac iyo [d. baqraZe, 1987: 27].

sainteresoa isic, rom sakuTriv yorolisTavSi dRemde sakmaod kargadaa SemorCenili Sua saukuneebis safortifikacio nagebobis naSTebi. amdeni Zeglis Tavmoyra, koncentracia yoroliswylis zRvasTan SeerTebis marcxena sanapiroze SemTx162

veveiTi ar unda iyos. es faqti, kidev erTxel, xazs usvams am adgilis gansakuTrebulobas, imas, rom mas gamorCeuli centris funqcia unda hqonoda Sua saukuneebSic. Aam adgilis dawinaureba sxva faqtorebTan erTad unda ganepirobebina imasac, rom swored aq, baTumis goris Sida sivrceSi unda gaevlo saxmeleTo gzebs, romlebic, erTis mxriv, rogorc CrdiloeTiT ise samxreTiT miemarTeboda, xolo meores mxriv, axalSenxeyru-joWo-ergesa da aWariswyalze, Semdeg ki Woroxze gavliT am regions akavSirebda istoriul tao-klarjeTTan, samcxe-javaxeTTan, iberiasTan Tu somxeTTan. swored baTumis goridan Woroxis da aWariswylis xerTvisamde monakveTSi iyo aSenebuli Tavis droze qvis sami TaRiani xidi, romelTa naSTebmac Cvenamde moaRwia. sofel yorolisTavSi arsebuli cixis erT-erTi ZiriTadi funqciac swored aq gamavali gzebis gakontroleba unda yofiliyo. baTumi rom sakmaod dawinaurebuli punqti da savaWro navsadguri iyo Sua saukuneebSi, kargad Cans sxva faqtebiTac. igi datanilia XIII s.-is venecielTa Tu XIV s.-is italiur sakompaso rukebze, kerZod, veskontes 1318 wlis, luksoris XIV s.-is dasawyisis da piciganebis 1367 wlis, gracizo benikazas (1480 w.), jakofo gastoldis (1561 w.) rukebze da a.S. evropul sazRvao rukebze baTumi miTiTebulia cixe-qalaqis aRmniSvneli kartografiuli niSnebiT. j. gastoldis rukaze baTumTan axlos gamosaxulia ialqniani gemi, rac mianiSnebs, rom baTumi warmoadgenda mniSvnelovan sanavsadguro qalaqs [T. gvancalaZe, 1981: 33]. 1426w germaneli mogzauri hans Siltbergeri Tavis ,,mogzaurobis wignSi'' baTums uwodebs mTavar qalaqs, romelic warmoadgenda msxvil zRvispira dasaxlebas [e. mamisTvaliSvili, 1980: 108]. 1472 w. italieli diplomati da mogzauri iosafat barbaro baTums moixseniebs qalaqad, sadac mimoqcevaSi yofila qarTuli TeTri [ , 1971: 138-139]. veneciis elCi sparseTSi ambrojo kontarini, romelmac baTumi moinaxula 1474 w., mas cixe-qalaqad moixseniebs [[ , 1971: 215-216] da a.S. 1615 wlisaTvis misioneri lui granJie ukve sagangebod asaxelebs baTums, rogorc sazRvao ports [m.TamaraSvili, 1995: 545].

SeniSvna * aRniSnulis Taobaze saintereso cnobas gvawvdis i. kalfoRlu: ,,baTumis mkvidri moxuci glexebi mogviTxroben, rom yirimis omis win md. Culkuba (skurkuba _ mcire mdinare, moedineba yofili navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnis teritoriaze) adidda da gadarecxa sanapiro mindvrebi, romelTa qveS gamoC163

nda SenobaTa nangrevebi Dda saZirkvlebi" [ .., 1905: .40-41].

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. d. baqraZe, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, baTumi, 1987. 2. T. beraZe, zRvaosnoba Zvel saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1981. 3. T. beraZe, saqarTvelos urTierToba Savi zRviT bizantiasTan V-XV ss., _ bizantiologia saqarTveloSi-2, Tb., 2009. 4. T. gvancalaZe, 1561 wlis ucnobi italiuri ruka saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tb, 1981. 5. m. TamaraSvili, qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRemde, Tb., 1995. 6. a. inaiSvili, baTumis istoriisaTvis axali arqeologiuri gaTxrebis safuZvelze, _ kavkasiis xalxTa istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1966. 7. a. kaxiZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTi Zv.w. VIV ss., sdsin (aWara), I, Tb., 2007. 8. z. maisuraZe, qarTuli mxatvruli keramika, Tb., 1953. 9. e. mamisTvaliSvili, saqarTvelo hans Siltbergis ,,mogzaurobis wignSi'', _ ,,macne'', 1980, #2. 10. S. mamulaZe, aWariswylis xeobis Suasaukuneebis arqeologiuri Zeglebi, baT., 1993. 11. s. masxaraSvili, matiane qarTvelTa, Tb., 2006. M 12. m. miwiSvili, moWiquli WurWeli Zvel saqarTveloSi (IX-XIII ss.), Tb., 1969. M 13. m. miwiSvili, qarTuli moWiquli WurWlis warmoebis istoriidan, Tb., 1976. M 14. m. miwiSvili, moWiquli keramikis sawarmoo Suasaukuneebis TbilisSi (IX-XIII ss.), Tb., 1979. 15. vl. siWinava, q. baTumis istoriidan, _ baTumis ped. institutis Sromebi, t. 9, baT., 1962. 16. T. yauxCiSvili, antikuri wyaroebi baTumis istoriisaTvi, _ sdsZ, XVI, Tb., 1987. 17. s. yauxCiSvili, antikuri masalebi baTumis istoriisaTvi, _ quTaisis pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi, t.V, quT., 1950-1951. 18. j. CxeiZe, baTumi, baT., 1959. 19. d. xaxutaiSvili, masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis (wina antikuri da antikuri xana), _ sdsZ, XVIII, Tb., 1989. 20. v. jafariZe, qarTuli keramika, Tb. 1956. 21. , , , ., 1971. 22. ., , ., 1989. 23. .., 1943-1944 ., , .9, 1947.

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24. .., , _ , XVIII, . 1, ., 1905. 25. .., , _ , 63, -, 1959. 26. .., (-), , 69, -, 1959.

Shota Mamuladze, Revaz Uznadze (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi In The Middle Ages (According to Written Sources and Archaeological Materials) Summary On the basis of the written sources and archaelogical materials the research shows that the so called Batume Fortress located on the left bank of the modern Korolistskali, 150m away from the sea, and its surrouding territory represented the historical Batumi and a sea harbour in the Middle Ages.

165

giorgi TavamaiSvili

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

Suasaukuneebis gviani Suasaukuneebis arqeologiuri masala baTumis cixidan

baTumis istoriuli warsulis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT, werilobiT wyaroebTan erTad, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba arqeologiur artefaqtebs. qalaqsa da mis SemogarenSi mopovebuli arqeologiuri masala TvalnaTliv metyvelebs, rom cxovreba qalaqSi, met-naklebi intensivobiT, grZeldeboda politikurad da ekonomikurad sakmaod mZime periodSic, kerZod, gvian Sua saukuneebSi. amjerad, Cven mizans ar Seadgens aRniSnuli periodis masalis srulad mimoxilva. Tqveni yuradReba gvsurs SevaCeroT baTumis cixis gaTxrebisas aRmoCenili sayofacxovrebo keramikis erT saxeobaze - Tambaqos mosawev Tixis Cibuxebze, romlebic konkretuli epoqisa (gviani Sua saukuneebi) da eTnikuri jgufis (Turqebi) kuTvnilebadaa miCneuli da maTi tradiciuli cxovrebis wesis damaxasiaTebel atributs warmoadgens. SesaZloa, ucnaurad mogveCvenos, magram miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi Tixis Cibuxebi sakmaod didi raodenobiTaa mikvleuli, es nakeTobebi arasodes gamxdara Rrma mecnieruli Seswavlis obieqti. Tixis Cibuxebis formis Camoyalibeba sxvadasxva xalxebSi Tambaqos moxmarebis gansxvavebuli wesisa da pirobebis arsebobas ukavSirdeba. Tambaqos kulturis gavrcelebis kvaldakval, Cibuxebis ori tipi damkvidrda: evropuli da aRmosavluri. pirveli tipis Cibuxebma, romelTa Semadgeneli nawilebi - jami, Rero da satuCe erTi mTliani formiTaa warmodgenili, ZiriTadad safrangeTSi, inglissa da holandiaSi moikida fexi. aRmosavluri tipis Cibuxebi, romelTa jami, Rero da satuCe cal-calke elementebadaa danawevrebuli, gavrcelda samxreT da aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi, Crdilo afrikidan da egviptidan moyolebuli, TurqeTisa da balkaneTis CaTvliT [Show, 1960]. sruli safuZveli gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom aRmosavluri tipis Tixis Cibuxebi TurqeTidan gavrcelda saqarTveloSi. XVI saukunis meore naxevarSi, sagareo Tu saSinao problemebiT dasustebul saqarTvelos, osmaleTma CamoaSora teritoriis didi nawili. qarTuli cixesimagreebSi, maT Soris baTumis cixeSi, Cadga Turquli garnizoni. TurqeTis mTavrobisaTvis

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baTumis cixes strategiuli mniSvneloba hqonda, radgan is, gonios cixesTan erTad, qmnida erTgvar placdarms kavkasiis samxreT-dasavleT zRvispira zolze kontrolis gasaxorcieleblad da dasavleT saqarTvelos calkeul saTavadoebze Tavdasasxmelad [, 1984:250]. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom saqarTveloSi Tixis Cibuxebis absoluturi umravlesoba napovnia cixesimagreebis gaTxrebis dros, albaT, safuZvels moklebuli ar iqneba vamtkicoT, rom konkretul periodSi, saqarTveloSi (maT Soris baTumSi), Tixis Cibuxebis ZiriTadi momxmarebeli (Tu Semomtani) Turqi jariskaci iyo. baTumis cixeze Tixis Cibuxebis mxolod ramodenime nimuSia mopovebuli [kaxiZe, xaxutaiSvili, 1989:124, 125, tab. XLVII], rac, Cveni azriT, ganpirobebuli unda iyos konkretul periodSi am ubanze Tambaqos momxmarebelTa ara simciriT, aramed cixis arqeologiuri Seswavlis naklebi masStaburobiT. baTumis cixis teritoriaze aRmoCenili erT-erTi Tixis Cibuxi (751) zaris formisaa. gadarCenilia nakeTobis Tavi, piri dazianebulia. nakeTobas mTel sigrZeze gasdevs badiseburi Wdeebis ornamentirebuli zoli. keci wiTeli wernaqiTaa dafaruli. meore Cibuxi (752) sadaa, momrgavalebuli zaris formiT. Tavi tanisagan gamoyofilia amoRaruli xazebiT. mesame nimuSis (754) piri dazianebulia, Tavi tarisagan gamoyofilia rombiseburi ornamentis ori rigiT, Tavis wina xedi Semkulia mcenareuli ornamentiT. tari wertilovani xazebiT dayofilia rombiseburi ornamentiT Sevsebuli zolebiT. zedapiri wiTeli wernaqiTaa dafaruli. danarCeni masala Cibuxebis naklebad metyvel fragmentebs warmoadgens. baTumis cixeze aRmoCenili Cibuxebis savaraudo momxmareblebis Taobaze, zemoT mogaxseneT. rac Seexeba konkretuli nimuSebis qronologiur CarCoebs, am sakiTxis dasazusteblad, Cibuxebis formebis da dekoris evolucias unda gavadevnoT Tvali. Cibuxebis saTuTuno jamebi mzaddeboda ornawilian yalibSi, kargad garecxili da gafiltruli Tixisagan. Cibuxebis adreuli nimuSebi TeTri an monacrisfro iyo. XVII saukunis bolosaTvis is wiTeli TixiT Seicvala, romelic mohqondaT egviptidan, bulgareTidan da vanis tbis midamoebidan. rodesac wiTeli Tixis mopoveba problemuri iyo, maSin Cibuxebi ifareboda mowiTalo feris wernaqiT, radgan wiTeli feris Cibuxebze moTxovnileba meti iyo da isini ufro kargad saRdeboda [Kocaba,1963:12]. adreuli periodis CibuxebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia SedarebiT patara zomebi, rac, mkvlevarTa azriT, ganpirobebuli iyo Tambaqos nedleulis siZviriT (Robinson,

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1983:268, Duco, 1980). sxva parametrebs Tu gadavxedavT, TvalSisacemia, rom Tavidan saTuTune jamTan Reros misaerTebeli adgili sakmaod viwro iyo (1 sm), romelic mogvianebiT gaizarda (1,5 sm), XIX saukuneSi ki 2 sm­s miaRwia. XVIII saukunemde Zalian cota nimuSze Tu iyo datanili damamzadeblis monograma, XIX saukuneSi ki Zalian cotas Tu ar hqonda is. adreul Cibuxebs ar gaaCnda saTuTune jamis RerosTan mierTebis figura. es detali dasturdeba XVII saukunis bolosa da XVIII saukunis dasawyisis nimuSebze da damaxasiaTebeli niSani xdeba (Tumca saxecvlilebiT: xan brtyeli, xan ki dakuTxuli) Cibuxebis warmoebis bolo periodamde. Cibuxebs amkobdnen geometriuli Tu mcenareuli ornamentiT, aseve damRebiT [Kocaba, 1963:11]. damRebze ZiriTadad damamzadeblis monogramebi iyo amotvifruli, Tumca zogierT nimuSze ortaepiani baiaTebic iyo datanili. magaliTad: ,,Tqveni keTildReoba ar Sesustdeba, Tu mieciT SekveTa Cibuxze. aba, isiamovneT moweviT", an kidev ,,SegiZliaT isiamovnoT Cemi saCuqriT da mec masiamovnebT, Tu mas ar dakargavT" [Bakla, 1985:8]. arsebiTad, Cibuxebis Turquli warmomavlobis aRiareba gaxda safuZveli qarTul istoriografiaSi damkvidrebuli naklebad argumentirebuli daskvnisa, rom aRniSnul nakeTobaTa qveda qronologiuri CarCo, e.i. Cven qveyanaSi maTi Semotanis TariRi, XVI saukuniT unda ganisazRvros [CxaiZe, 1982; arCvaZe, 1978; jandieri, 1974]. uaxles gamokvlevebze dayrdnobiT, Cven SevecadeT dagvesabuTebina, rom XVI saukuneSi saqarTveloSi Turquli Cibuxebis Semotana praqtikulad SeuZlebeli iyo, radgan, arc werilobiTi wyaroebiT da arc arqeologiuri monacemebiT, XVI saukunis bolo wlebamde maTi damzadeba TurqeTSic ar dasturdeba. Cveni azriT, aRniSnuli keramikuli nawarmis saqarTveloSi Semotanis realur TariRad, TurqeTis politikuri da ekonomikuri viTarebis, agreTve sxva faqtorebis (Tambaqos siZvire, sxvadasxva saxis akrZalvebi) gaTvaliswinebiT, XVII saukunis pirveli naxevris bolo aTwleuli SeiZleba miviCnioT [TavamaiSvili, 2009]. rac Seexeba baTumis cixeze aRmoCenil Cibuxebs, es nimuSebi ZiriTadi parametrebiT, maT Soris zomebiT, saTuTune jamis formebiT, jamsa da Reroze datanili ornamentis mixedviT [Robinson, 1983:270-272; Hayes, 1980:5], saberZneTis, TurqeTis, rumineTisa da bulgareTis analogebTan Sedarebis safuZvelze, XVIII saukuniT SegviZlia davaTariRoT.

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gamoyenebuli literatura

1. arCvaZe T. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos gvianfeodaluri xanis mouWiqavi Tixis nawarmi. feodaluri saqarTvelos arqeologiuri Zeglebi, III, Tbilisi, 1978. 2. TavamaiSvili g. gvianSuasaukuneebis osmaluri Tixis Cibuxebi. qarTveli xalxis socio-kulturuli anTropologiisa da eTnolingvisturi centris simpoziumis masalebi. baTumi, 2009 (ibeWdeba). 3. kaxiZe a., xaxutaiSvili d. masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis. I. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, XVIII, Tbilisi, 1989. 4. CxaiZe l. gvianfeodaluri xanis keramikuli nawarmis erTi saxeoba goniodan. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, XI, Tbilisi, 1982. 5. jandieri e. javaxeTis axalqalaqi gvianfeodalur xanaSi. feodaluri saqarTvelos arqeologiuri Zeglebi, II, Tbilisi, 1974. 6. Bakla Erdinç. Unutulmu bir halk sanati lülecilik.A Long-forgotten Popular Handscraft: Clay Pipe Making. Antika; The Turkish Journal of Collectable Art, August, Issue 5. 1985. 7. Duco D.H. Clay Pipe Manufacturing Processes in Gouda. The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacoo Pipes. IV.Europe I, edited by Peter Davey, BAR International Series 92 , 1980. 8. Hayes J.W. Turkish Clay Pipes: A Provisional Typology. The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacoo Pipes. IV.Europe I, edited by Peter Davey, , BAR International Series 92 , 1980. 9. Kocaba Hüseyin. Tophane Lülecilii. Türk Etnografya Dergisi, Jayi,V,Ankara, 1963. 10. Robinson Rebecca R. Tobacco Pipes of Corinth and of the Athenian Agora Hesperia, Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, volume 54, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1985. 11. Robinson Rebecca R. Clay Tobacco Pipes from Kerameikos. Mittelungen Des Deutshen Archäologischen Instityts. Athenische Abteilung, Band 98, Gebr. Mann Verlag. Berlin, 1983. 12. Show Th. Early Smoking Pipes: in Africa, Europe, and America. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 90, 1960. 13. . . . 1978. .1984.

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Giorgi Tavamaishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Archaeological Materials of Late Middle Ages from Batumi Fortress Summary Together with written sources, archaeological artifacts are of great significance in view of studying historical past of Georgia. The archaeological findings revealed in the city and its vicinities show that life in the city was flowing with more or less intensity, even during politically and economically hard periods, namely, in the Late Middle Ages. The paper deals with the tobacco pipes found during the excavations at the Batumi fortress. They belong to the definite epoch (Late Middle Ages), are considered to belong to a certain ethnic group (the Turks) and represent a characteristic attribute to their traditional way of life. In our opinion, the main customers of the tobacco clay pipes excavated at Batumi fortress were Turkish soldiers. These items can be dated to 18th century by their shape parameters and decoration.

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eTno logia ETHNOLOGY

nodar kaxiZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

uiliam jiford palgrevi baTumis Sesaxeb

qalaq baTumis, misi warmoSobisa da ganviTarebis, sazogadoebriv-politikuri cxovrebis sakiTxebis Seswavla didi xania iqcevs rogorc qarTvel, ise ucxoel (evropel, rus, Turq da sxv.) mogzaur-mkvlevarTa yuradRebas. mkvlevarTa aseTi daintereseba baTumisadmi aixsneba TviT qalaq baTumis geopolitikuri da samxedro-strategiuli mniSvnelobiT, riTac igi did rols TamaSobda evropul da msoflio politikaSi, pirvel rigSi ruseT-TurqeTis urTierTobaSi. am urTierTobaTa mTavari RerZi iyo Sav zRvaze gabatoneba, rac baTumis xelSi Cagdebis gareSe ver ganxorcieldeboda. baTumis, rogorc Sav zRvaze xelsayreli sanavsadguro qalaqis mniSvnelobaze bevrs werdnen samxedro istorikosebi, diplomatebi, sxvadasxva profesiis mogzauri mkvlevrebi. erT-erTi maTgani iyo cnobili ingliseli diplomati, inglisis konsuli trapizonSi uiliam jiford palgrevi (18261888). 1882 wels TbilisSi rusul enaze gamoqveynda mis mier 1867-1868, 1869 da 1872 wlebSi inglisur enaze dawerili `angariSebis~ Targmani, romelic saintereso cnobebs Seicavs qalaq baTumisa da mTeli lazistanis sanjayis Sesaxeb [, 1882]. palgrevis Canawerebidan Cans, rom igi Tavad mogzaurobda lazistanis sanjayis provinciebSi, raTa Seeswavla aqauri sazogadoebriv-politikuri viTareba, mosaxleobis ganwyoba osmaleTis mTavrobisadmi da Sesabamisi cnobebi miewodebina inglisis, anu Tavisi qveynis mTavrobisaTvis. bunebrivia, aseTi cnobebis Sekrebas ZiriTadad politikuri datvirTva hqonda, magram ingliseli diplomati lazistanis sanjayis calkeuli raionebis (yaza, nahie) istoriul, eTnografiul, geografiul da ekonomikur daxasiaTebasac iZleva. dasavleTevropel mogzaurTagan palgrevi imiT gamoirCeva, rom man SedarebiT vrclad mimoixila sakuTriv qalaq baTumisa da mTlianad baTumis yazis sazogadoebrivi da politikuri cxovreba. baTumis Sesaxeb cnobebi palgrevis yvela wlebis angariSebSia Sesuli, magram am mxriv gansakuTrebiT 1872 wlis angariSi

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gamoirCeva, romelSic baTumi SedarebiT vrcladaa daxasiaTebuli. palgrevic adasturebs, rom maSin baTumi warmoadgenda lazistanis sanjayis administraciul centrs, romelsac marTavda faSis Cinis matarebeli muTesarifi, anu gubernatori. sanjayi moicavda sakmaod vrcel teritorias, romelic iwyeboda ruseTis sazRvridan anu Coloqidan da vrceldeboda qalaq rizemde. sanjaySi baTumis garda Sedioda Curuq-sus, qvemo aWaris (aWara-sufla), zemo aWaris (aWara-ulia), maWaxlis, gonios yazebi [, 1882: 56-59]. palgrevi pirvel rigSi yuradRebas amaxvilebda qalaq baTumis navsadguris mdebareobaze, mis zrda-ganviTarebaze, rolsa da mniSvnelobaze Savi zRvis auzis qalaqebTan mimarTebaSi. igi werda, rom 1850-ian wlebamde baTumi warmoadgenda mcire dasaxlebas, magram Savi zRvis ruseTis vaWrobisa da sazRvao sanaosnos sazogadoebis daarsebis Sedegad da foTTan siaxlovis gamo man SeiZina farTo savaWro mniSvneloba da moipova mTeli rigi upiratesobani Savi zRvis auzis sxva portebs Soris [, 1882: 46]. baTumis erT-erTi upiratesoba imaSi mdgomareobda, rom mas gaaCnda Rrma navsadguri, romelic amave dros kavkasiis mTebTan siaxlovis gamo daculi iyo qarebisagan. navsadguris aseTi moxerxebuli mdebareoba qmnida usafrTxo da xelsayrel pirobebs aq sxvadasxva kapotaJis mqone gemebis mimosvlisaTvis. palgrevi aqve SeniSnavda, rom osmalTa batonobis dros qerCidan sinopamde da surmenemde Sav zRvaze baTumis garda arc erTi xelsayreli navmisadgomi ar arsebobda [, 1882: 47]. amasTan dakavSirebiT, sainteresoa inglisuri gazeTis `deili niusis~ cnobac, romelSic agreTve naTqvamia, rom baTumi erTaderTi usafrTxo navsadguria Savi zRvis mTel samxreT da aRmosavleT sanapiroze yirimamde [r. uzunaZe, 2001: 47]. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom inglisuri gazeTi am SemTxvevaSi palgrevis monacemebs iyenebda. palgrevi imazec miuTiTebda, rom sxvadasxva qveynis almebiT foTSi mimavali da ukan dabrunebuli gemebic aucileblad baTumSi unda Sesuliyvnen. baTumis qalaq-navsadguris msgavs daxasiaTebas iZleva g. yazbegi, romelic werda: baTumis navsadguri warmoadgenda gemebis yvelaze saukeTeso TavSesafars Savi zRvis samxreT-aRmosavleT nawilSi, vidre foTis navsadguri. didi gemebis gadmotvirTva-datvirTvac swored baTumSi xdeboda, romlebic foTSi ver Sediodnen. g. yazbegis daxasiaTebiTac es imiT aixsneboda, rom baTumis navsadguri iyo Rrma da daculi qarebisagan [ ., 1876: 86]. palgrevi baTumis qalaq-navsadguris sxva mxareebzec gvawvdis cnobas. igi miuTiTebda rkinis 15 metrian boZze aRmarTul orsanTlian Suquraze, romelic dadgmuli yofila konstantinopolSi arsebuli Suqurebis

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aRmdgeneli franguli sazogadoebis mier [, 1882: 47]. Suqura zRvaSi yvela mxridan moCanda da aiolebda baTumSi momavali gemebis moZraobas. navsadgurs hqonia xis baqani, romelic auSenebia Sav zRvaze naosnobisa da vaWrobis rusul sazogadoebas. Tumca, es faqti arcTu ise sasiamovno yofila TurqeTisaTvis, romelic TiTqmis arafers akeTebda navsadgurSi gemebis usafrTxo mimosvlisa da xelsayreli pirobebis SeqmnisaTvis. palgrevis Canawerebidan isic irkveva, rom TurqeTis batonobis qveS moqceul Savi zRvis sanapiroze gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ruseTis flots eWira. am saqmeSi mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula ruseTis Savi zRvis naosnobisa da vaWrobis sazogadoebam, romelmac jer kidev 1858 wels gaxsna sazRvao sanaosnos saagento baTumSi da sxvadasxva tvirTis Sesanaxi sawyobebi [, 1882: 47]. am garemoebam sruliad Secvala navsadguris cxovreba da misi CarTva saerTaSoriso savaWro operaciebSi [m. sioriZe, 2003: 46]. amieridan baTumis yureSi yovelTvis idgnen ruseTis gemebi. dasaxelebuli inglisuri gazeTis cnobiT, baTumi am periodSi ufro ruseTis zRvispira navsadgurad iTvleboda, vidre TurqeTis. amas adasturebs palgrevis 1867 wlis monacemebi: baTumSi Semosula ruseTis 182 gemi 61 aTas tonaze meti sxvadasxva tvirTiT, xolo TurqeTidan mcire tonaJis 18 gemi, agreTve, 258 feluka da ramdenime anZiani navi [, 1882: 117-118], romelsac Seutania da gautania aTjer naklebi tvirTi, vidre ruseTis flots. es cnobebi imis dasturic aris, rom izrdeboda ruseTis gavlena Sav zRvaze batonobisaTvis. TurqeTi iZulebuli iyo Serigeboda ruseTis sazRvao flotis aseT upiratesobas Sav zRvaze imis gamo, rom misi floti SedarebiTYsustad iyo ganviTarebuli da ver axerxebda didi raodenobiT dagrovebuli tvirTis gatana-Semotanas. garda amisa, TurqeTis floti moZvelebulic iyo da nakleb tvirTgamtari [, 1882: 48]. samagierod, Turqebs kargad hqondaT daculi baTumis navsadguris mimdebare teritoria samxedro TvalsazrisiT. palgrevis TqmiT, otomaTa mTavrobas baTumis Tavdacvis mizniT 1860-iani wlebis bolos navsadguris dasavleT mxares ganlagebuli hqonda sakmaod Zlieri batareia 80 qvemexiT. meore aseTive batareia ki idga navsadguris samxreTiT, mesame ki navsadguris SesasvlelTan aRmosavleTiT. baTumis navsadguris saerTaSoriso savaWro urTierTobis ganviTarebis kvalobaze izrdeboda saqalaqo vaWroba. palgrevis 1872 wlis angariSSi vkiTxulobT, rom am droisaTvis baTumSi iyo 385 savaWro farduli, romlebSic iyideboda sak173

marisi raodenobis sasursaTo produqti, spirtiani sasmelebi da manCesteridan Semotanili manufaqturuli nawarmi [, 1882: 48]. Cven gvaqvs d. baqraZis cnobac, romlis mixedviT 1873 wels baTumSi 800-mde savaWro duqani arsebobda, sadac vaWrobas eweodnen berZnebi, lazebi, somxebi, Turqebi da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis warmomadgenlebi [d. baqraZe, 1987: 24]. d. baqraZis cnobidan Cans, rom duqnebis raodenoba erTi wlis manZilze orjer da ufro metad gazrdila. d. baqraZis cnoba ar unda iyos gadaWarbebuli, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT baTumis mosaxleobis yovelwliur zrdas da, Sesabamisad, savaWro saqmis ganviTarebas. xuTi wlis Semdeg, 1878 wels, a. frenkelic adasturebda, rom mTeli baTumi duqnebiT yofila dafaruli [ ., 1878: 98]. palgrevi mxolod manufaqturul nawarmze miuTiTebda, rom igi inglisidan iyo baTumSi Semotanili. sxva savaWro saqonlis sadaurobaze ki arafers ambobs. Cveni azriT, ingliseli diplomati inglisis sazogadoebis yuradRebis miqcevis mizniT mxolod Tavisi qveynidan Semotanili saqonliT vaWrobaze amaxvilebda yuradRebas. d. baqraZis monacemebiT ki irkveva, rom baTumsa da mis SemogarenSi savaWro saqoneli Semodioda ara marto inglisidan, aramed Sveciidan (feiqruli nawarmi), ruseTidan (rkina da qvanaxSiri), safrangeTidan (Saqari), arabeTidan (abreSumis qsovili) [d. baqraZe, 1987: 25]. g. yazbegis monacemebiT, evropuli nawarmi, maT Soris inglisidan Semotanili qsovilebi, xulos savaWro duqnebSic iyideboda [g. yazbegi, 1960: 69]. palgrevis 1868 da 1872 wlebis angariSebi saintereso statistikur suraTs iZleva osmalTa batonobisdroindeli qalaq baTumis da mTlianad baTumis yazis mosaxleobis raodenobriv da eTnikur Semadgenlobaze. 1872 wlisaTvis sakuTriv baTumSi iyo 246 sacxovrebeli saxli 1383 mcxovrebiT. umravlesobas adgilobrivi mahmadianebi Seadgendnen. sxva erovnebebidan qalaq baTumSi palgrevi asaxelebs berZnebsa da Cerqezebs, romlebic Sesabamisad mTeli mosaxleobis 1/12 da 1/3 nawils Seadgendnen [, 1882: 48]. qalaqis mosaxleobis saerTo ricxvs emateboda 400 suli, romelic sxvadasxva qalaq-navsadgurebidan Semodioda sezonur samuSaoze [, 1882: 48]. aqve SevniSnavT, rom palgrevis monacemebi baTumis mosaxleobaze ramdenadme SeusabamobaSia im monacemebTan, romlebsac gvawvdis ruseTis konsuli baTumSi judiCi 1971 wlisaTvis. judiCis monacemebiT, 1871 wels baTumSi cxovrobda 1076 komli 3327 mcxovrebiT [ ., 1878: 10]. palgrevis 1872 wlis cnobebiT, anu erTi wlis manZilze, qalaq baTumis mosaxleoba komlobrivad da

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ricxobrivad Zalze Semcirebuli Cans. Cven ufro sarwmunod gveCveneba judiCis monacemebi. mTlianad baTumis yazaSi Sedioda 52 sofeli. misi mosaxleoba ki Seadgenda 13.388 mcxovrebs. maT Soris iyo: 12.370 mahmadiani, 804 berZeni, 214 somexi, 9500 Cerqezi, 1200 afxazi. afxazebi da Cerqezebi 1860-ian wlebSi Camosaxlebulan [, 1882: 56]. palgrevis monacemebiT, mTlianad aWaris mosaxleoba Seadgenda 44824 kacs. Tu am ricxvs SevadarebT g. yazbegis mier 1874 wels motanil ricxvs aWaraSi 52990 mcxovrebis Sesaxeb [ ., 1876: 86], maSin aWaris mosaxleoba ori wlis Semdeg (1872 welTan SedarebiT) gazrdili Cans 8166 kaciT, rac, SesaZloa, mosaxleobis bunebrivi matebis Sedegi iyo. rodesac palgrevis 1872 wlis angariSi iwereboda, baTumi ar iyo CarTuli erTian sarkinigzo sistemaSi, uromlisodac uperspeqtivo Canda sanavsadguro qalaqis ganviTareba. inglisel diplomats kargad esmoda, rom Tu baTumi sarkinigzo qselSi CaerTveboda, gaizrdeboda misi ekonomikuri mdgomareoba da tvirTzidvis TvalsazrisiTac ukan moitovebda Savi zRvis dawinaurebul navsadgurebs odesisa da trapizonis saxiT [, 1882: 56]. igi amave dros mianiSnebda, rom TurqeTis xelSi baTumis sanavsadguro qalaqis ganviTarebisaTvis araferi Seicvleboda. amis gamoc did imedebs amyarebda baTumSi rkinigzis Semoyvanaze, romelic xels Seuwyobda baTumis evropul qalaqad gadaqcevas. es procesi ramdenime weliwadSi marTlac SesamCnevi gaxda, razec garkveviT werdnen 1880-ian wlebSi frangi orientalisti Jan murie (`baTums ukve amJamad aqvs evropuli qalaqis saxe~) [Jan murie, 1962: 23] da rusi samxedro istorikosi v. lisovski (`baTumma SeiZina evropuli saxe~) [ ., 1887: 132]. baTumis qalaq-navsadguris ganviTarebis perspeqtivebze erTmaneTs emTxveva palgrevisa da niko nikolaZis Sexedulebani. n.nikolaZe baTums swored 1872 wels ewvia, rodesac palgrevi Tavis angariSebs werda. niko nikolaZem Semdegac ramdenime werili uZRvna qalaq baTumisa da saqarTvelos SavizRvispira sxva qalaqebis sakiTxebs. igi werda, rom baTumisa da misi Semogarenis keTilmowyoba, misi rkinigzis qselSi CarTva mkveTrad gazrdida mis sanavsadguro mniSvnelobas da evropasTan vaWrobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan centrad gadaiqceoda [v. donaZe, 1981: 98]. 10 wlis Semdeg es marTlac ase moxda. 1883 wels baTumi CaerTo baqo-baTumis erTian sarkinigzo sistemaSi. amas mohyva baqo-baTumis naTobsadenis gayvana. am orma faqtorma gansazRvra baTumis, rogorc sazRvao da saxmeleTo magistralze mde175

bare sanavsadguro qalaqis mniSvneloba ara marto aWarisa da mTlianad saqarTvelos ekonomikur, aramed saerTod msoflio ekonomikur cxovrebaSi. baTumi gadaiqca mesame samrewvelo qalaqad kavkasiaSi baqosa da Tbilisis Semdeg da navTobis eqsportis ZiriTad centrad amierkavkasiaSi [v. jaoSvili, 1962: 178179]. am fonze XIX saukunis ingliseli diplomatis, trapizonSi inglisis konsulis jiford palgrevis cnobebi mniSvnelovani istoriuli wyaroa osmalTa batonobisdroindeli (60-70-iani wlebi) qalaq baTumisa da baTumis yazis (okrugis), aseve mTeli lazistanis sanjayis socialur-ekonomikuri da politikuri cxovrebis sxvadasxva aspeqtiT SeswavlaSi.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. d. baqraZe, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, baT., 1987. 2. v. donaZe, niko nikolaZe baTumis Sesaxeb, ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos yofa da kultura, t. IX, Tb., 1981. 3. Jan murie, baTumi da Woroxis auzi, baT., 1962. , 4. m. sioriZe, baTumis sabaJo, baT., 2003. 5. r. uzunaZe, naosnoba baTumis olqSi, baT., 2001. 6. g. yazbegi, sami Tve TurqeTis saqarTveloSi, ­ giorgi yazbegi aWaris Sesaxeb, baT., 1960. 7. v. jaoSvili, aWaris qalaqebi, ­ vaxuStis saxelobis geografiis institutis Sromebi, t. IX, ekonomikur-geografiuli seria, aWaris assr, Tb., 1962. 8. ., - , ., 1876. 9. ., , ., 1887. 10. . 1867-68, 1869 1872 , ­ , VII , ., 1882. 11. ., - , ., 1878.

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Nodar Kahidze (Batumi, Georgia) William Dzhiford Paligrev about Batumi Summary U.D.PALIGREV was an Britain diplomat of the second half of the XIX th century, which in 1867-1872 worked as the consul in Trabzone of Lazian Sandzak. In his "Report" he described all regions of this Sandzhak including the centre of Sandzhak Batumi and its vicinities. Batumi was characterized by him as deep and protected from winds port. Coming thereof, the author pointed to the advantages of the port Batumi in Russian-Turkish rivalry on Black sea with standpoint of military-political and trade-economic position. Thus itself Paligrev has shown the leading role of Russia in mastery on Black sea. Paligrev was one of the first European traveller, who detailed characterized public, political and economic life of the Batumi at period of Turkish mastery.

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naila CelebaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

naSromis baTumi e. eriqsonis naSromis mixedviT

mzardi interesi saqarTvelos am istoriuli qalaqis mimarT aWaris dedasaqarTvelosTan dabrunebis Semdeg gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda. calkeuli avtoris mier profesiuli interesebis paralelurad, baTumisa da baTumelebisagan miRebuli STabeWdilebebis safuZvelze, qalaqis istoriasTan dakavSirebiT mravalmxrivi informacia dagrovda. am mxriv sayuradReboa eqim eriqsonis Sromebi, romlebSic avtorma araerTi saintereso mosazreba ganaviTara. eriqsoni eqimTa im pleadis warmomadgenelia, romlebic XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze, ruseTis sxva warmomadgenelTa msgavsad, didad iyvnen dainteresebulni rogorc saqarTvelos, ise kavkasiis xalxTa istoriuli warsuliT.Gyovelive amas zed erTvoda eriqsonis imperiuli miznebic, rac avtoris mier saqarTvelos sakuTar qveynad moazrebaSi araerTgzis gamoixata. raoden gasaocaric ar unda iyos, ruseTis samedicino wris iseTi warmomadgeneli, rogoric iyo e. eriqsoni, visi naSromebic ibeWdeboda ruseTis TiTqmis yvela akademiur gamocemaSi _ rogorc samedicino, ise istoriul-anTropologiur krebulebSi (`E ,'' ` '', ` '' da sxv.), araa Seyvanili arc samedicino da arc did sabWoTa enciklopediaSi. Aamas, rogorc Cans, seriozuli safuZveli hqonda da misi garkveva sagangebo kvlevis sagans warmoadgens. sayuradReboa is garemoeba, rom eriqsonebi, romlebic skandinaviuri warmoSobisani arian, eTnologiur mecnierebaSi sakmaod cnobil gvars warmoadgenen. ase magaliTad, sigurd eriqsoni (1888-1968) aris araerTi eTnografiuli Jurnalis damfuZnebeli.Maseve, man Seqmna skola, raTa daeZlia sxvaoba aRwerilobiTsa da Teoriul meTodebs Soris. 1951 wlidan s. eriqsoni saTaveSi edga evropel eTnografTa sazogadoebas. am gvaris samecniero dinastiis TvalsaCino warmomadgenelia msoflioSi aRiarebuli fsiqoanalitikosi erik eriqsoni (19021994). ase rom eriqsonebis cnobili warmomadgeneli eqimi e. eriqsoni eTnologiuri kvlevebiT dainteresda jer kidev maSin, roca saxelovani Tanamogvare eTnologi, Tavisi sexnia erik eriqsoni dabadebulic ar iyo.

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erik eriqsonis daintereseba saqarTvelosa da, kerZod, aWaris mimarT Semdegi naSromebiT dagvirgvinda: ,, ", ,, ", ,, - - . .. ", ,, - , ", ,, " da a.S. es naSromebi ZiriTadad anTropologiuri xasiaTisaa. ruseTSi anTropologiuri kvlevis centri axlad daarsebuli iyo, sadac anTropologia eTnografiis, arqeologiisa da geografiis momcvel mecnierebad moiazreboda. miuxedavad amisa, eriqsonis naSromebSi aSkarad igrZnoba rogorc samamulo samecniero tradiciebis, aseve aSS-sa da dasavleTSi Camoyalibebuli kulturuli da socialuri anTropologiis saTanado codna, rac kargad Cans baTumis sanitaruli mdgomareobis analizis dros naklebad aprobirebuli anTropologiuri meTodikis gamoyenebaSi. ase rom gabedulad SeiZleba saubari naSromebis Rirsebisa da avtoris niWierebis Sesaxeb Sesadarebeli masalebis ­ istoriuli wyaroebis (straboni, hipokrate, ariane, qsenofonte, vaxuSti batoniSvili, m. janaSvili da sxv.), statistikuri monacemebis, gansakuTrebiT ki avtoris mier Segrovebuli masalebis farTod gamoyenebis, aseve, naSromis struqturisa da mravalferovani Tematikis, weris kulturisa da sxvaTa safuZvelze. eriqsonis naSromi baTumis Sesaxeb warmoadgens 92 gverdisagan Semdgar monografiul gamokvlevas, romelic 1901 wels gamoica. baTums Seexeba avtoris mogonebebi mogvianebiT gamoqveynebul statiaSic. naSromSi mocemulia baTumis Semogarenisa da mis sazRvrebSi moqceuli xelvaCauris, qobuleTisa da qedis raionebis teritoriuli aRweriloba.AerTgan avtori azustebs qalaqis sazRvars da mas Woroxamde moiazrebs, anu im pirobiT adgilamde, sadac kargad movlili Wa yofila qalaqSi Semavali mgzavrebisaTvis. zogadad, qalaq baTumis teritorias avtori ruseTis lazistans uwodebs, rac sakvlev periodSi ukve damkvidrebul termins warmoadgenda. qalaqis warmoSobasTan dakavSirebiT eriqsoni gamoTqvams azrs, rom XVI saukunemde baTumis adgilas Waobebi unda yofiliyo. avtori bunebrivgeografiul pirobebze uSualo dakvirvebis Sedegad eTanxmeba im mosazrebas, rom adre baTumis mxares ar unda arsebuliyo didi qalaqebi da rom sanapiro zolma axali welTaRricxvidan moyolebuli Zalzed umniSvnelo cvlilebebi ganicada. eriqsoni aseTive interesiT aRwers baTumis olqis niadagebs, floras, faunas da maTi daxasiaTebis paralelurad iZleva

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baTumisa da misi Semogarenis toponimiur masalasac: porti, barcxana, stefanovka (romelsac nuries dasaxlebasac uwodebs), kaxabris dablobi, souq-Cu (albaT souq-su) da sxv. imJamindel periodikis masalebze dayrdnobiT avtori adasturebs TurqeTis batonobis dros aWaraSi arsebul sanitarul problemas da iZleva arsebuli sanitaruli mdgomareobis vrcel analizs. saqalaqo cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi warmatebuli kvlevis Sedegebis safuZvelze avtorma SesZlo adgilobrivi mosaxleobis anTropologiuri gamokvlevis Catarebac. eriqsoni maT aRwers rogorc fizikuri, ise sulieri mdgomareobis mixedviT da saintereso daskvnebs akeTebs. aRniSnul gamokvlevaSi avtori mniSvnelovan adgils uTmobs aWarlebisa da lazebis aRweras da ucxo tomelebTan ­ TurqebTan maT Sedarebas. fizikuri sxvaobis garda, naSromSi mocemulia mosaxleobis klasifikacia religiuri, sqesobrivi, wodebrivi da fsiqologiuri niSnebis mixedviTac. eriqsoni Taviseburad aRwers qalaqis socialur Semadgenlobas, iZleva qalaqis inteligenciis konkretul suraTs, romelsac ZiriTadad Cinovnikebi, vaWrebi, agentebi da mrewvelebi warmoadgendnen. ase rom eriqsonis kvlevis interesi gacilebiT Sorsmimavalia, vidre eqimi sanitarisa, rac ucxoeli mkvlevrisagan Cveulebriv ambavs unda warmoadgendes. eqimi eriqsoni farTo aRwerilobas iZleva aWaraSi ama Tu im daavadebaTa gavrcelebis Sesaxebac.AgansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevs haeris Semadgenlobas da gadaudebel saqmed miiCnevs misi qimiuri analizis Catarebas. eqimi swored am mizeziT xsnis adgilobrivi bavSvebis uferulobasac. misi SeniSvniT, am problemas qalebic ganicdian, radgan maT mamakacebTan SedarebiT naklebad uwevT haerze yofna da amas ufro mTaSi dasvenebis dros axerxebeno. amasTan dakavSirebiT avtori wers, rom zafxulis sezonSi adgilobrivi mosaxleoba cxra saaTis Semdeg qalaqis bulvarSic ar Cndeboda. teqstidan Cans damsvenebelTa Soris TbiliselTa siWarbe, romlebic aseve ganicdidnen adgilobriv klimatTan dakavSirebul problemebs. qalaqis meteorologiuri sadguris informaciis safuZvelze avtori dawvrilebiT aRwers klimatur pirobebs.AaRniSnuli monacemebis mixedviT irkveva, rom haeris maqsimaluri temperatura agvistos TveSi 23°7 aRwevda, xolo dabali maCvenebeli ianvris TveSi 5°9 yofila. yvelaze naleqian Tved ianvars _ 258 mm, xolo yvelaze unaleqod maisis Tves _ 72 mm _ asaxelebs. aqedan gamomdinare, gaanalizebulia baTumis SemogarenSi gavrcelebul daavadebaTaASedegebi da eqimi iwonebs mosaxleobis

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mier alpuri zonis dasasvenebel adgilad gamoyenebis tradicias. eriqsoni mosaxleobis janmrTelobis sakiTxs samarTlianad ukavSirebs sasmeli wylis problemasac. qalaqis wyliT uzrunvelyofis sakiTxSi xazgasmulia wyaros wylis, adgilobrivi Webisa da wyalgayvanilobis mniSvneloba.Eeqimi gansakuTrebul saSiSroebas Webis gamoyenebaSi xedavs da sasmelad upiratesobas barcxanis wyals aniWebs. igi yuradRebas amaxvilebs agreTve samkurnalo abanoebTan dakavSirebiT da baTumelebisaTvis yvelaze mosaxerxebel da sasargeblo adgilad miiCnevs maxinjauris abanos. iqve SeniSnavs, rom garkveuli mizezebis gamo adgilobrivi muslimebisaTvis maxinjauris samkurnalo `serni" (gogirdovani) abanoebis sezoni ufro gvian ­ seqtembris Tvidan iwyeboda. avtori baTumis mikroklimatis SeqmnaSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs zRvis, mdinareebis, Waobebisa da tbebis arsebobasac. amasTan dakavSirebiT aanalizebs Woroxis deltasTan zRvis Zlieri talRebiT gamowveuli wyaldidobebis mZime Sedegebs, kerZod, 1895 wlis tragedias, romelsac adamianTa msxverplic ki mohyolia. Cans, rom amasTan dakavSirebiT eqimi gascnobia baTumis sazogadoebis samomavlo programas, romelic datborvis Tavidan acilebis mizniT iTvaliswinebda gadaudebeli RonisZiebebis gatarebas. qalaqis samxreT nawilSi Waobebis amoSrobasTan dakavSirebuli absoluturi umoqmedoba da skepticizmi avtoris seriozuli SeSfoTebis safuZvels warmoadgens.Asxva SemTxvevaSi ki eriqsoni sakmaod dadebiTad afasebs baTumis TviTmmarTvelobis gadawyvetilebas da gvauwyebs, rom maT metad gamocdili inJineri mouwveviaT da am saqmeSi Cadebuli asignacia 150 000 maneTs aRwevso. garda bunebriv-klimaturi pirobebisa, mosaxleobis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba eriqsons rTuli sayofacxovrebo pirobebiTac aqvs axsnili. amasTan dakavSirebiT avtorma Seiswavla ganaTebis problema da gvamcno, rom mosaxleoba naklebad iyenebda sanTels da ZiriTadad navTis lampas, buxarsa da sxv. saSualebebs mimarTavda, rac bavSvebze gansakuTrebulad cudad zemoqmedebda. rogorc anTropologi, eriqsoni sakmaod did yuradRebas uTmobs qalaqis eTno-demografiul problemebs. avtoris cnobiT, 1896 wels baTumis mosaxleoba Seadgenda 28 500 adamians, xolo 1901 wlisaTvis baTumis okrugSi 57 064 kaci cxovrobda baTumelTa gamoklebiT, maSin rodesac baTumSi savaraudoT 30 000 mcxovrebi unda yofiliyo. eriqsoni dawvrilebiT iZleva mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis suraTs, saidanac vgebulobT, rom sakvlev periodSi qalaqSi cxovrobda araerTi erovnebis adamiani, romelTa istoriis, yofisa

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da kulturis sakiTxebi avtorma SeZlebisdagvarad warmoadgina. esenia: berZnebi, afxazebi _ 600-ze meti; Cerqezebi _ 150-mde; qurTebi ­ 500-mde; xemSilebi ­ 400-ze meti; cignebi (boSebi) da, aseve, gamuslimebuli zangebis ramdenime ojaxi. sainteresoa cnobebi rusebis Sesaxebac. eriqsonis cnobiT, XIX saukuns 80ian wlebSi SimSilobisagan Tavis dasaRwevad ruseTis mosaxleobis erTi nawili baTums Sefarebia, magram mowyenilobis mizeziT maleve asaxlebulan. avtori zemoT dasaxelebuli xalxebis Sesaswavlad farTod iyenebs Sesadarebel masalas da miRebuli daskvnebiT mkiTxvels sTavazobs saintereso analizs calkeuli eTnosis ucxo garemoSi adaptaciis problemebTan dakavSirebiT. eriqsoni eqimis poziciidan ganixilavs ra qalaqis sanitarul mdgomareobas, saporto qalaqSi ucxoelTa Semosvlas araerTgvarovan kvalifikacias aZlevs. igi uwinaresad maT mier sxvadasxva infeqciur daavadebaTa gavrcelebis SesaZlo safrTxeze laparakobs. amave kuTxiT aris daxasiaTebuli meCeTTan arsebuli imdroindeli skolebic. eqimi sainteresod aRwers qalaquri cxovrebis araerT niuanss. avtoris TqmiT, yvela savaWro garigebisa da sxvadasxva saxis problemaTa gadaWris adgils yavaxana warmoadgenda. igi xazs usvams savaWro adgilebis, gansakuTrebiT ki Rvinis duqnebis momravlebis faqts da dasZens, rom mamakacebi Zalzed mieZalneno Rvinosa da drostarebas. maT ricxvSi asaxelebs adgilobriv sasmels. mamakacebis drostarebis adgilad asaxelebs specialur saxlebs da dasZens, rom 1898 wlisTvis aseTi saxlebis mTeli quCac ki yofilao baTumSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT eriqsoni guldasmiT ganixilavs adgilobrivi mosaxleobis zneobriv problemebs. sainteresoa avtoris cnoba baTumis abanoebTan dakavSirebiTac. qalaqSi yofila aTamde abano, sadac sadResaswaulod Cacmuli qalebi koleqtiurad dadiodnen. qalaqis dawesebulebaTagan dasaxelebulia hospitali, tyavis qarxana mdinare WoroxTan axlos da sxv. garda Sidasasaqonlo urTierTobebisa, eriqsonis SeniSvniT, savaWro urTierTobaTa mniSvnelovani wili TurqeTTan modioda.Mmisi cnobiT, Turqebs baTumidan gahqondaT Tevzeuloba, gansakuTrebiT ki delfinebi. avtori gansakuTrebiT aRniSnavs im faqts, rom gasayidad baTumSi ZiriTadad arTvinis yurZeni SemohqondaT. amrigad, eqim erik eriqsonis cnobebi baTumis Sesaxeb asaxavs XIX s. dasasrulisa da XX saukunis dasawyisis qalaquri cxovrebis araerT mniSvnelovan mxares. avtori istoriuli wyaroebis, statistikuri monacemebis, anTropologiuri gamokvlevebisa da sakuTriv mis mier Sekrebili mravalferovani masa182

lebis safuZvelze iZleva metad saintereso da vrcel masalas baTumis istoriis, qalaqis sazogadoebrivi, socialur-ekonomikuri da kulturuli cxovrebis, aseve, eTno-demografiuli da eTno-religiuri mozaikis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. eriqsonis naSromebis eTnografiuli masalebis mcire nawili ukve daibeWda, ZiriTadi nawili ki dRemde ar Sesula samecniero mimoqcevaSi. amitom am masalebis moZieba da saTanado Seswavla garkveul mniSvnelobas SeiZens baTumis warsuli istoriisa da kulturis kvlevis saqmeSi.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. .., , . ,,E ," ., 1899, 1. 2. .., , ., 1901. 3. .., , . ,, ," ., 1904, 4. 4. .., - - . .. , ., 1904. 5. .., - , , ., 1905. 6. .., , I, ., 1907. 7. Nn. CelebaZe, eriqsonis eTnografiuli kolaJi aWaris Sesaxeb, _ samecniero konferencia Temaze `aWara ucxoel avtorTaA SromebSi", baT., 2009.

Naila Chelebadze (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi in the works of E. Ericson Summary Dr. Eric Ericson's data about Batumi were collected at the end of the XIX and at the beginning of the XX centuries. On the basis of historical sources, statistic data and anthropological research the author gives very interesting and extensive materials connected with the history of Batumi, anthropological description of the population, the public, social-economical, and cultural life of the town, as well as its ethnodemographic and ethnoreligious inlay. The principal part of the above mentioned materials has not entered the scientific circulation yet, that gives more importance to the materials represented in the article.

183

Tamila lomTaTiZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

eTnokulturul RirebulebaTa transformaciis zogierTi aspeqti Tanamedrove baTumSi

bolo dros mTel msoflioSi da, gansakuTrebiT, postsabWoTa sivrcis qveynebSi anTropologiis prioritetul mimarTulebad iqca qalaqis eTnografiis Seswavla. moxda mkvlevarTa interesebis globaluri gadamisamarTeba arqaikidan Tanamedrove kulturaze. mas Semdeg, rac tradiciuli agraruli civilizacia industriulma, xolo es ukanaskneli postindustriulma (anu informaciulma) sazogadoebam Secvala, kulturis ganviTareba pirdapir daukavSirda qalaqebis rolis zrdas kacobriobis istoriaSi da ara mxolod imitom, rom am etapze eTnosocialuri da eTnokulturuli procesebis ganmsazRvreli qalaqia, aramed imitomac, rom aq mimdinareobs modernizaciis rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi sociokulturuli procesi, romlis msvlelobisas yalibdeba Tanamedrove sazogadoebis institutebi da struqturebi. eTnosis tradiciuli da Tanamedrove modernizebuli kulturebis urTierTobis problemac swored aq ikveTeba [ .., 1996: 9]. qalaqi yovelTvis iyo eTnikuri da eTnokulturuli procesebis damaCqarebeli, xalxuri kulturis formirebis aqtiuri monawile. qalaqs ganviTarebis yvela etapze, drois moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, koreqtivebi Sehqonda eTnokulturis istoriulad Camoyalibebul sistemaSi, saxes ucvlida mis calkeul komponentebs. swored siaxleebisadmi qalaqis gaxsnili damokidebulebis Sedegia is, rom dReisaTvis tradiciuli materialuri kultura qalaqSi TiTqmis mTlianad transformirebulia. inovaciuri procesebi sulier kulturaSi ki intensiurad axla mimdinareobs. bevri tradicia qreba, bevri siaxle droTa ganmavlobaSi tradiciad iqceva [ . ., . ., 1984: 23]. eTnokulturul RirebulebaTa transformaciis procesi, garkveulwilad, tradiciebis TaobaTa Soris translaciis problemasac ukavSirdeba. bevri movlena, rac axali TaobisaTvis tradiciaa, wina TaobisaTvis siaxles, zogjer miuRebel inovaciasac warmoadgenda, magram drom igi eTnokulturis Semadgenel nawilad aqcia. axali Taoba tolerantuladaa ganwyobili sxva kulturebidan Semosuli elementebis da e.w. "masobrivi kulturis" mimarT. am fonze iqmneba gansakuTrebuli,

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axalgazrduli subkultura, rac sazogadoebrivi azris ZaliT SenarCunebuli tradiciulisa da inovaciuris erTgvar sinTezs warmoadgens. yvela didi Tu patara eTnosisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia specifiuri da unikaluri kompleqsebi, romlebic Taobidan Taobas gadaecema da eTno-kulturuli faseulobebis istoriul erTobliobas warmoadgens. amave dros, isini met-naklebad cvlilebebsac ganicdian. globalizaciis Tanamedrove procesebi Tavis kvals tovebs eTnikur kulturaze, arRvevs tradiciebs, aZlierebs urbanizaciis tendenciebs. xdeba mosaxleobis Tavmoyra da mkveTri zrda qalaqebSi, yofis standartizacia, eTnokulturul RirebulebaTa transformacia [ , 1986: 49]. es procesebi mimdinareobs Cvens Tvalwin, Tanamedrove baTumSi da igi gansakuTrebiT TvalnaTliv ikveTeba ukanasknel periodSi soflebidan migrirebulTa sulieri kulturis sferoSi momxdari cvlilebebis Seswavlisas. am aspeqtSi maTi migraciis Sedegebis ganxilva sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadac sofelma bolo dromde kargad Semoinaxa eTnokulturuli tradiciebi. soflidan migrirebulebs tradiciuli kulturis es elementebi Tan moaqvT da qalaqur garemoSi maTi integraciis procesi, soflisa da qalaqis subkulturebis urTierToba faqtobrivad eTnokulturul RirebulebaTa transformaciis mraval aspeqts asaxavs [ .., 1999: 9]. upirveles yovlisa, transformacias ganicdis qcevis tradiciuli stereotipebi. soflidan qalaqSi gadmosaxlebulTa qalaqur garemoSi adaptirebisas qcevis tradiciuli programebi, Tavisi "standartebiT", normebiT, "ejaxebian" qalaquri cxovrebis wess. qalaqi tradiciuli kulturis elementebis matarebel migrirebulTaTvis qmnis ara mxolod cxovrebisa da saqmianobis axal pirobebs, aramed cvlis urTierTobaTa da qcevis tradiciul sistemebs, maT damokidebulebas materialuri da sulieri kulturis tradiciul elementebTan. pirvelyovlisa, icvleba sayofacxovrebo etiketi. qalaqi SedarebiT mimteveblurad, tolerantulad ekideba qcevis tradiciuli wesebidan gadaxras, tradiciuli kulturuli Rirebulebebis ugulebelyofas. aq nivelirebulia qcevis tradiciuli stereotipebi, Tavs iCens mzardi individualizmi. adamiani ufro orientirebulia Tavis pirad miznebze, maSin, roca tradiciul sazogadoebaSi es miznebi ufro jgufuri, koleqtiuria, miRebulia mWidro kontaqtebi sxva ojaxebTan, mezoblebTan, TanasoflelebTan. soflidan gadmosaxlebul adamianebs qalaqSi xvdebaT "gaucxoebuli" urTierTobebi. isini iZulebuli arian akontrolon TavianTi emociebi da kontaqtebis damyarebisas

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iyvnen distanciurebi. magram miuxedvad imisa, rom individis qceva qalaqur garemoSi garkveulwilad "emorCileba" am faqtorebs, es maTSi ar iwvevs cxovrebis wesis erovnuli Taviseburebebis srul ignorirebas. paralelurad moqmedebs miswrafeba, qalaqSi Camoitanon da SeinarCunon tradiciuli sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebli yofiTi kulturis elementebi Tavisi RirebulebiTi orientirebiT, tradiciebiT, naTesauri da mezobluri kavSirebiT. adaptaciis sawyis etapze isini, aseve, cdiloben SeinarCunon qcevisa da urTierTobebis is formebi, rac tradiciuli sazogadoebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. gansakuTrebiT cdiloben SeinarCunon kontaqtebi soflebidan gadmosaxlebul aseTive ojaxebTan. ufro metic, isini qalaqSic axerxeben im tradiciuli "samyaros" retrospeqcias, romelSic cxovrobdnen sofelSi da qalaqSi, mravalsarTulian saxlebSi cxovrebis probebSic, cdiloben Seiqmnan erTgvari "mikrosamyaro" - tradiciuli agraruli sazogadoebis erTgvari modeli: iRobaven teritoriebs ezoebSi, akeTeben bostnebs, rgaven mcenareebs, amravleben qaTmebs da yovelnirad cdiloben SeinarCunon soflisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sacxovrebeli garemo. Tumca, yvelaferi es droebiTia da qalaquri urTierTobebi, droTa ganmavlobaSi, arRvevs am stereotipebs, radgan "sofluri eTnikuri tradiciuli socionormatiuli qcevis kultura TandaTan aRmoCndeba umoqmedo, zedmeti da daviwyebas eZleva"[( .., .., 2004: 149]. Tumca, gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom SigasivrceSi, ojaxur mikrokosmosSi tradiciebi bolomde SenarCunebuli da morgebulia Tanamedroveobas. qalaqur garemoSi icvleba tradiciuli saqorwino-saojaxo urTierTobebi. Tanamedrove qalaquri qorwili aris rTuli sociokulturuli movlena, romelic ori gansxvavebuli kulturis _ tradiciul-yofiTi da Tanamedrove individualurkreatiuli kulturebis SerwymiTaa miRebuli. qorwilis samnawiliani struqtura (winasaqorwino, saqorwino da qorwilisSemdgomi) SenarCunebulia, magram Zalze transformirebuli saxiT. TiTqmis mTlianad daikarga saweso da sadResaswaulo semantika. saqorwino ciklis bevri elementi reducirebulia an mTlianad amovardnilia. gansakuTrebiT funqcidakargulia winasqorwino etapi _ niSnoba. igi erTgvarad fakultatur elementad iqca. moxsnilia SezRudvebi Sexvedrebze, aseve, sapatarZlos mier sasiZos ojaxis wevrebisaTvis saCuqrebis momzadebis wesi, akrZalvebi da brZnilobebi. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, TviTon saqorwino wveulebis mimdinareobisas bevr tradiciul elements iyeneben (erovnuli tansacmeli, sadilis

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mitanis wesi, mefe-dedofalTan tkbileuliT Segebeba, xalxuri folklori da sxv.). qalaqi arsebiT gavlenas axdens ojaxebis Semadgenlobaze, formebze, funqciaTa ganawilebaze. tradiciuli mravalTaobiani ojaxebisagan gansxvavebiT, qalaqSi mkvidrdeba mSoblebis ojaxisagan axalgazrda wyvilis calke gamoyofis tendencia. aseTi ojaxi Sedgeba ori Taobisagan ­ mSoblebisa da Svilebisagan. maTSi bavSvebis raodenobac mcirdeba. mravalSviliani ojaxebi erTi an orSviliani ojaxebiT icvleba. nawilobriv es movlena qalis sazogadoebrivi poziciis aqtivizaciiTac aixsneba. qalaqSi icvleba qalis roli rogorc ojaxSi, ise sazogadoebaSi. tradiciul ojaxSi mas mxolod diasaxlisis funqcia akisria da xSirad ojaxSic ara aqvs gadamwyveti xmis ufleba. qalaqSi, sadac qalis dasaqmebisaTvis meti SesaZleblobebia, is xSirad ojaxis marCenalis funqciasac iZens da, Sesabamisad, izrdeba misi damoukideblobis xarisxi, uflebebi. qali qalaqad CarTuli aRmoCnda feminizaciis procesebSi, Seicvala misi socialuri statusi da, xSirad, gadamwyveti xmac ki moipova saojaxo problemebis mogvarebaSi. aWaraSi, tradiciul sazogadoebaSi, Zalze iSviaTia Sereuli qorwinebebi. im iSviaT SemTxvevebSi, roca soflad aseT qorwinebas aqvs adgili, "mosuli" usityvod iRebs tradiciuli cxovrebis wessa da Cveulebebs. qalaqSi gadasaxlebis Semdeg ki es kanonzomiereba xSirad irRveva da izrdeba qorwinebaTa ricxvi rogorc sxvadasxva eTnosis, ise gansxvavebuli konfesiebis warmomadgenelTa Sorisac. dReisaTvis baTumSi ikveTeba tradiciuli kulturebis Tanamedrove modernizebul kulturasTan SeTavsebadobis problemac. soflidan gadmosaxlebulebs qalaqSi Tan mohyvebaT saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli eTnikuri kulturis Taviseburebebi, qarTul tradiciebi, wes-Cveulebebi, mentaloba, rac aq mzardi modernizaciis tendenciebs "ejaxeba" da TviTmyofadobis xazgasasmelad amoqmedebas iwyebs sociokulturuli antiTeza _ `Cven~ _ `isini~, `Tavisi~ _ `sxvisi~. soflebidan migrirebulebi Znelad elevian tradiciuli kulturis elementebs, radgan isini qarTuli mentalobis ganmsazRvrel niSnebad, eTnosis specifikur maxasiaTeblebad aRiqmebian. amitomac, didxans inarCuneben tradiciul wes-Cveulebebsa da dResaswaulebs. ufro metic, xSirad axal garemoSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnlobasac ki aniWeben da aRadgenen xolme winaparTaTvis damaxasiaTebel bevr rituals (tradiciuli mravalricxovani da xmauriani qorwilebi, naTloba, religiuri dResaswaulebi, stumar-maspinZloba, ufros-umcrosoba da sxva) da amiT ara mxolod icaven, xazs usvamen sakuTar TviTmyofado187

bas, aramed Tanamedrove sazogadoebasac aCveneben, Tu rogor unda daicvan da SeinarCunon qarTuli cnobiereba tradiciuli Rirebulebebis SenarCunebiT. es tendencia, soflebidan migrirebulTa meSveobiT, qalaqis subkulturaSic mkvidrdeba da tradiciuli materialuri da sulieri kulturis mravali elementi modernizaciis pirobebSic narCundeba. metic, TviTSenarCunebis es meqanizmi xels uwyobs Tanamdrove qalaqSi zogierTi miviwyebuli tradiciis aRdgenas, aRorZinebas da aseTi, marTalia ukve modernizebuli, gaTanamedrovebuli, magram mainc erovnul fesvebze dafuZnebuli, tradiciebis xelaxla damkvidrebas qalaqur subkulturaSi. amgvarad, Tanamedrove qalaqSi aqtiurad viTardeba kontaqtebi eTnokulturis sxvadasxva elements Soris, yalibdeba axali, "sinTezuri" kultura tradiciuli da inovaciuri elementebis SerwymiT, rasac, saboloo jamSi, eris kulturul erTianobamde mivyavarT. amdenad, dRevandeli baTumis kulturuli cxovrebac Tanamedrove samyaros msoflmxedvelobrivi tendenciebis Sesabamisad viTardeba. mimdinareobs qcevis tradiciuli normebis, socialuri yofis zogirTi rgolis, eTnokulturuli tradiciebis gadaazreba. yalibdeba axali socialur-kulturuli urTerTobebi, tradiciuli yofisa da kulturis elementebi qalaqur garemoSi transformirdebian, iZenen axal formebs. eTnokultura tradiciulobasac inarCunebs da, amave dros, xdeba modernizebuli. realur cxovrebaSi iqmneba transkulturuli modeli, romelic tradiciuli da Tanamedrove elementebis naerTs warmoadgens. rac amtkicebs, rom tradicia da modernizacia erTmaneTis gamomricxveli cnebebi araa, maTi Tanaarseboba SesaZlebelia. saWiroa iseTi nabijebis gadadgma, rom transformaciis procesebi rac SeiZleba umtkivneulo iyos eTnosisaTvis. amisaTvis ki aucilebelia saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gamomuSavebuli, droSi gamocdili da memkvidreobiT miRebuli jansaRi tradiciebis SenarCuneba. tradicia eTnikurobis gamomxatveli iyo da aris. es tradiciebi cxovrebis istoriuli pirobebiT, eTnosis sulieri da materialuri yofis TaviseburebebiTaa ganpirobebuli. bevri maTganis SenarCuneba xalxebs eTnikur TavisTavadobas SeunarCunebs, radgan TiToeuli eTnosi, TiToeuli eri arsebobs iqamde, sanamde inarCunebs Tavis TviTmyofadobas, kulturul identurobas [ ., 2007: 441].

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1. .., .., , ., 2004. 2. .., , ., 1999. 3. . ., . ., , , 2, M., 1984. 4. .., , , , 1996. 5. , .., ., 1986. 6. ., , , , , ., 2007.

Tamila Lomtatidze (Batumi, Georgia) Some aspects to transformation of ethno cultural values in modern Batumi Summary In the course of globalization occurs change in traditional ethnic culture. Globalization pulls down traditions, so-called tendencies of an urbanization ­ a population concentration in mega cities, standardization of its life, ethnic assimilation amplify. These changes proceed in a city as the city is more susceptible to innovations and innovations more actively. Cultural will develop a modern city basically occurs on norms of modern outlook and tendencies. General globalization introduces the corrective amendments in traditional system of cultural values. At the given stage in the city environment occurs collapsing ethnic stereotypes, a metamorphosis of traditional cultural values and new reference points are formed. There is a reconsideration of traditional norms of behavior, a functional purpose of this or that link of a social life, culture forms. New welfare relations and traditions and though some norms of behavior, etiquette, cultural values come under to influence are formed and adapt in the city welfare environment, many elements of traditional material and spiritual culture remain. It is very important, because universality of any ethnos is shown in ethno culture, traditions. Each ethnos, each nation exists until keeps the originality, cultural identity and a city plays the important role in this process.

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nugzar mgelaZe, manuCar loria

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis Tanamedrove religiuri portreti

(kaTolikeebi, grigorianelebi, muslimebi, iudevelebi, marTmadidebeli berZnebi)

XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan baTumSi saqalaqo cxovrebis ganviTareba win swrafi tempiT wavida. baTumi gaxda amierkavkasiis, Sua aziisa da CrdiloeT sparseTis evropis qveynebTan vaWrobis ZiriTadi satranzito navsadguri. aman gamoiwvia mosaxleobis ricxovnobis zrda, sxvadasxva eTnikuri da konfesiuri Temis Camoyalibeba. amJamad qalaqSi qarTvelebis gverdiT cxovroben - berZnebi, somxebi, rusebi, afxazebi, ebraelebi da sxva erovnebis warmomadgenlebi. aq mcxovrebi eTnikuri jgufebisaTvis tradiciuli religiuri mimdinareobebia qristianoba (marTlmadidebloba, kaTolicizmi, grigorianoba), islami da iudaizmi. kaTolikeebis istoria baTumSi sakmaod sainteresoa. aWaris dedasamSoblosTan dabrunebis (1878 weli) Semdeg baTumSi momravlda qarTvel kaTolikeTa ricxvi da abati petre xarisWiraSvilis meTaurobiT daibada eklesiis aSenebis idea. baTumSi kaTolikeebis gansaxleba garkveulwilad savaWroekonomikur interesebTanac iyo dakavSirebuli. z. WiWinaZis dakvirvebiT, baTumSi eklesiis aSenebas iTxovda qarTvel kaTolikeTa garkveuli ricxvi da is garemoebac, rom am kuTxeSi cxovrobdnen qarTveli mahmadianebic, romlis did nawils SenarCunebuli hqonda mSobliuri ena da mTel olqSi qarTul enaze saubrobdnen. kaTolikeebs baTumSi patara eklesiac hqondaT, sadac wirva-locva somxur enaze sruldeboda. saerTod, qarTveli kaTolikeebi laTinuri tipikonis saeklesio wesebis mimdevrebi iyvnen, magram radgan baTumSi laTinuri orientaciis eklesia ar iyo, amitom isini somex kaTolikeTa eklesiaSi daiarebodnen da kaTolikuri aRmsareblobis somex mRvdels emorCilebodnen, Tumca mrevli gamudmebiT cdilobda laTinuri tipikonis matarebeli qarTveli moZRvari hyoloda. iyolies kidec. magaliTad, z. WiWinaZe asaxelebs patri anselmo mRebriSvils, romelic somxur kaTolikur eklesiaSi sami wlis manZilze swiravda [WiWinaZe, 1903:138]. gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi baTumSi kaTolikeTa ricxvi arc ise didi iyo, razec isic unda miuTiTebdes, rom baTumis

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kaTolikuri eklesiis mSeneblobisaTvis mrevlSi erTi Tvis manZilze 1500 maneTze meti ar Sekrebila. vfiqrobT, eklesiis agebis umTavresi mizezebi sxva faqtorebSic unda veZeboT. erTerT aseT faqtorad osmalTagan xangrZlivi droiT mitacebul qarTul mxareebSi zogadad qristianobis da ara mxolod konkretulad kaTolikobis rolis amaRleba SeiZleba miviCnioT. rogorc Cans, im dros qarTul marTlmadidebel eklesias ar ZaluZda farTomasStabiani moRvaweoba da saqarTvelos farglebSi, gansakuTrebiT islamizebul zonebSi, esoden maRalxarisxovani eklesiebis mSenebloba. garda amisa, ruseTis sinodma qarTul eklesias XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi avtokefalia gauuqma da qarTul enaze locvac aukrZala. samagierod, evropis saxelmwifoTa winaSe nakisri valdebulebiT sinodi aseT akrZalvebs ar axorcielebda kaTolikur eklesiebSi. amiT isargebles mowinave qarTvelma moRvaweebma _ Zmebma zubalaSvilebma da dedasaqarTvelosTan dabrunebuli aWaris teritoriaze, kerZod, baTumSi, aaSenes kaTolikuri eklesia, romelSic nebadarTuli iyo qarTul enaze locva da qarTvel morwmunes Seuqmnes xelsayreli pirobebi mSobliur enaze locvisaTvis, rac mTavaria, qarTul enas ganumtkices poziciebi. Cveulebriv, qarTveli kaTolikebi yovelmxriv Sekrulni iyvnen, miT umetes, rom aRmSeneblobiT saqmianobas xels uwyobda biznesSi maTi saZmos calkeul wevrTa warmateba, rac aisaxa kidec Zmebi zubalaSvilebis dedis _ elisabed TumaniSvilis natvraSi: `'Tu vincobaa da Cven baqos navTis mrewvelobis saqme kargaT wagvivida, maSin, saqarTvelos romelime kuTxes qarTvel kaTolikeTaTvis ekklesias aRvaSenebT"-o [WiWinaZe, 1903:134]. roca gairkva, rom eklesiis mSenebloba mrevlis saxsrebiT SeuZlebeli gaxda, daxmarebisTvis mimarTes cnobil qarTvel qvelmoqmeds stefane zubalaSvils, romelsac adre ewada baTumSi eklesiis aSeneba. man mrevlis Txovna daakmayofila da eklesiis mTliani mSenebloba daafinansa. 1898 wlis 12 aprils baTumSi daiwyo goTuri tipis kaTolikuri taZris mSenebloba, romelic 1902 wlis 21 ivniss dasrulda. niSandoblivia, rom taZars dResac amkobs sakurTxevlis ukan marmarilos dafaze amokveTili Semdegi warwera: `'taZari ese yovlad-wmida RvTis-mSobli mariamisaTvis zRudi-TurT, aRvage me stefane konstantines Ze zubalaSvilma sacxoneblad sulisa Cemisa". or Spils qvemoT, niSebSi gamosaxulia saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblis, wmida andria pirvelwodebulisa da mociqulTa swor wmida ninos brinjaos qandakebebi [dawvr. ix. totoCava,

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1995:24-25]. baTumis yofili kaTolikuri eklesia gansakuTrebuli arqiteqturuli originalobiT gamoirCeva. baTumelebi mas frangul eklesias eZaxdnen. eklesiis restavraciis periodSi qarTveli sazogadoebriobisaTvis cnobili gaxda, rom garkveul moTxovnaTa safuZvelze sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos patriarqma ilia II dasva sakiTxi baTumis kaTolikuri eklesiis nagebobis saqarTvelos sapatriarqoze gadacemis Sesaxeb. sakiTxi specifikuri da mravalmxriv sayuradRebo iyo, radgan saqme im teritoriuleTnografiul mxares exeboda, romelic istoriuli ganviTarebis bed-iRbliT XIX saukunis 70-ian wlebamde met-naklebad gansxvavdeboda saqarTvelos sxva provinciebisagan. adre, aWaris saolqo komitetma, imdroindelma mmarTvelobiTma organom, sazogadoebrivi azris Seswavla daiwyo da dasva aseve konkretuli kiTxva imis Taobaze, iyo Tu ara marTebuli baTumis kaTolikuri eklesiis saqarTvelos sapatriarqoze gadacema. qalaqis intelingenciis werilobiTi pasuxebi aracalsaxovani gaxldaT. aTeist-komunistTa nawili kategoriulad uaryofda eklesiis saWiroebas da ewinaaRmdegeboda mis amoqmedebas; meore, am mxriv gacilebiT zomieri nawili gamosavals eklesiis SenobaSi kulturuli dawesebulebis gaxsnaSi xedavda an gardamaval safexurze aseTi dawesebulebis gaxsnis SesaZleblobas ar gamoricxavda da kompromisul gadawyvetilebas konkretuli argumentebiT xsnida, xolo sazogadoebis umravlesoba nagebobaSi marTlmadidebeli eklesiis amoqmedebas iTxovda, riTac, damajerebeli motivirebiT, maT SemdegSi qalaqs sulieri faseulobebis dakmayofilebis SesaZlebloba Seuqmnes. sakiTxis ase dasmis pirobebSi, pirvel rigSi, rogorc Cans, aWaris muslimanuri mosaxleobis saqarTvelos sxva qristianuli provinciebis mosaxleobasTan urTierTobebis religiur-sarwmunoebrivi sferoc iTvaliswineboda. dasamali araa, rom istoriis garkveul monakveTebSi, Tundac uaxloes warsulSi, miuxedavad aTeizmis propagandisa, sxva faqtorebTan erTad swored religiurma sxvaobamac ganapiroba kuTxurobisa da partikularizmis istoriulad Camoyalibebuli stereotipebis sicocxlisunarianoba da aqedan gamomdinare rig sakiTxze araswori Sexedulebebis formireba. xSirad es imitomac xdeboda, rom praqtikulad religiuri mikuTvnebulobis eTnikur mikuTvnebulobaSi transformaciis realuri niadagi arsebobda. identobis es forma gulisxmobda mosaxleobaSi religiurobisa da erovnulobis erTmaneTSi

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gaTanabrebas, romlis kvlevasac Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSi uaRresad didi yuradReba eqceva. diskusiis procesSi sazogadoebis erTi nawilis mier isic iTqva, rom qalaqSi arsebuli marTlmadidebluri eklesia TiTqos `rusulia" da masSi wirva-locva rusulad mimdinareobs, amitom isini qarTuli sagaloblebiT `qarTuli" marTlmadidebluri eklesiis gaxsnas varaudobdnen ara kaTolikuri eklesiis xarjze, aramed axali eklesiis agebis gziT. saubari iyo im dros Semoqmedis eparqiaSi Semavali qarTulenovani moqmedi eklesiis Seqmnaze. aq isic unda iTqvas, rom saero xazis mecnier-specialistTa garkveul wreebSi gaCnda azri imis Taobazec, komunisturi reJimis rRvevis etapze baTumis marTlmadidebluri eklesiis islamizebul zonaSi amoqmedeba sawinaaRmdego reaqcias _ muslimTa gamococxlebasa Tu jameebisa da muslimanur sakulto nagebobaTa aRdgena-aRorZinebasa da maT intensiur mSeneblobasac gamoiwvevda. bunebrivia, es asec moxda, radgan baTumSi arsebobda jame _ muslimTa sakulto daniSnulebis centri. religiuri Tavisuflebisa da demokratiuli faseulobebis konstituciurad aRiarebis pirobebSi am faqts normaluri TvalTaxedviT unda SevxedoT, Tu, ra Tqma unda, islami CvenSi fundamentalizms ar daukavSirda da qveynis sazianod politikuri funqciiT ar daitvirTa. igi yvela SemTxvevaSi mxolod sarwmunoebrivi miswrafebebiT unda dakmayofildes. baTumis kaTolikuri eklesiis saqarTvelos sapatriarqoze gadacemisagan TavSesakaveblad moqalaqeTa gansazRvrul nawils rigi maTTvis obieqturi sxva mizezic gaaCnda. TanamoqalaqeTa am nawilSi sakiTxi ase idga: oRond nagebobaSi maRali Zabvis danadgarebi, saxifaTo detonatorebi da sawyobi moSliliyo da radgan eklesiis gaxsnas komunisturi oficialuri ideologia mainc ewinaaRmdegeboda, maTi azriT, isini kompromisze im SemTxvevaSi wavidodnen, Tu maT SeeTavazeboda am lamaz nagebobas mxolod kulturuli Rirebuleba dabruneboda. am poziciis momxreTa erT nawilSi dasaxelebuli nabiji taqtikur etapobriv svlad iyo aRqmuli, Tumca meore kulturofilur nawilSi kulturologiuri pozicia konkretuli TvalTaxedviT ixsneboda. maTi SexedulebiT, aRniSnuli eklesia kaTolikuria da amdenad, igi arqiteqturul-esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT, kaTolikuri garemosia da kaTolikur sulier samyaros Seesabameba. amitom, `gakeTdeba kargi saqme", Tu eklesiaSi swored kaTolikuri mimarTulebisaTvis niSandoblivi orRani daidgmeba da Seiqmneba saorRano193

sakoncerto darbazi garkveul akustikasTan da damaxasiaTebel komponentebTan SesatyvisobaSi. sabolood, baTumis kaTolikuri eklesiis nageboba saqarTvelos sapatriarqos gadaeca da nagebobaSi marTlmadidebluri cxovreba daiwyo. saqarTvelos patriarqis - ilia II mzrunvelobiT umokles droSi eklesiam aRorZineba daiwyo da man ara marto wminda saeklesio, aramed ukeTilSobilesi sazogadoebriv-aRmzrdelobiTi funqciac itvirTa, rac samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis, saqarTvelos araerTi kuTxis, maT Soris aWaris erT-erTi momqcevisa da ganmanaTleblis saxelis matarebeli sasuliero gimnaziis srulfasovani CamoyalibebiT dagvirgvinda. saqarTvelos sapatriarqosTan arsebuli baTumis wmida andria pirvelwodebulis saxelobis gimnaziis pirveli reqtoris - mama daviTis [amJamad episkopos dimitris] mecadineobiT, qalaqis sazogadoebriobam miiRo skola, sadac saRvTo rjulis paralelurad warmatebiT iswavleba saero sagnebi: qarTuli ena da literatura, istoria, ucxo enebi, maTematika, bunebismetyveleba da sxva. SemdegSi marTlmadidebluri eklesiis kaTolikeebze gadacemis sakiTxi kvlav ganaaxla calkeulma cnobilma qarTvelma publicistma da mecnierma. amasTan dakavSirebiT unda iTqvas, rom kaTolikuri diaspora baTumSi araa ise mravalricxovani, rom farTomasStabiani garemoTi dakmayofilebas iTxovdes. amasTan, xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebasac, rom am tipis sakiTxebi araa Cveni gadasawyveti, radgan igi uSualod saqarTvelos sapatriarqos kompetenciaSi Sedis da raime gadawyvetilebis safuZveli SeiZleba mxolod saqarTvelos patriarqisa da romis papis urTierTTanxmoba iyos. amiT Cven ar gvinda imis Tqma, TiTqos mecniers, literators an ubralod eklesiis istoriiT dainteresebul pirsa da Cveulebriv moqalaqes ama Tu im problemaze saubris ufleba ara aqvs, Tumca arc isaa misaRebi esa Tu is mosazreba sazogadoebrivi azris Camosayalibeblad gamoviyenoT, gansakuTrebiT iseT saTuT TemasTan mimarTebaSi, rogoricaa marTlmadidebloba da kaTolikoba saqarTveloSi. garda amisa, saubari axali marTlmadidebluri eklesiis mSeneblobisa da Zvelis bedis Taobaze mizanSewonilia mxolod maSin, roca nacvali eklesia aigeba [mgelaZe, xelnaweri, 1994]. vinaidan kaTolikuri eklesia marTlmadideblur taZrad gadakeTda, baTumSi mcxovrebma kaTolikebma sakiTxi daayenes mTavrobisa da kaTolikeTa centris, kerZod, romis papis winaSe, raTa maTTvisac axali kaTolikuri eklesia aeSenebinaT. sakiTxi romis papma dadebiTad gadawyvita da mSeneblobac

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TviTonve daafinansa. dRes es probleba sruladaa gadawyvetili da baTumis SesasvlelSi _ gogebaSvilisa da SavSeTis quCebis kveTaSi agebulia da funqcionirebs kaTolikuri eklesia [miqelaZe, 2007:61-62]. 1873 wels baTumSi aSenda somxur-grigorianuli eklesia. igi mdebareobs vaxtang gorgasalisa da konstantine gamsaxurdias quCebis kveTaSi. eklesia gumbaTovania, konusuri formis saxuraviT. sabWoTa xelisuflebis wlebSi am taZris SenobaSi planetariumi funqcionirebda. baTumis olqSi mcxovreb erovnul umciresobaTa Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili somxebs uWiravT. baTumis okrugSi maTi damkvidreba ukavSirdeba 1877-1878 wlebis omsa da omisSemdgom periods, arTvinis okrugSi ki osmalTa batonobis xanas. somexTa mcire jgufi baTumSi adrec cxovrobda. avtorTa erTi nawili 1872 wlisaTvis aq miuTiTebda 120 somexs [siWinava, 1958:110]. isini grigorianebi iyvnen, nawili _ kaTolikeebi. arTvinis mosaxleobis ZiriTad nawils somxebi Seadgendnen [ ,... 1892:9]. somexTa raodenoba baTumis olqSi mkveTrad gaizarda 1895 wels osmaleTSi maTi pirveli konfliqtis Semdeg. maT Soris bevri iyo gamahmadianebuli somexi,^ romlebsac hemSilebs eZaxdnen [mgelaZe, tunaZe, 2005:235-251]. 1915 wels osmaleTSi kvlav daiwyo somexTa devna, ramac gazarda ltolvilTa raodenoba. 1916 wlisaTvis baTumSi iyo 4026 grigoriani somexi, 1948 - sxva religiis mimdevari, maTgan 418 ­ droebiTi, danarCeni - mudmivi macxovrebeli. 1922 wlisaTvis baTumSi somexTa raodenoba gaizarda 14969 kacamde [dawvr. ix. mgelaZe, futkaraZe, 2008]. XIX saukuneSi qarTveli muslimanebis mier baTumSi sami meCeTi aigo: azizies meCeTi anu sulTan jame, orTajame anu axmed faSas jame da mufTies jame [axvlediani, 1944:92, 122-135; komaxiZe, 2001:474]. cnobilia, rom azizies moedanze meCeTi aSenda xanum valides mier sulTnis Svilis abdul azizis saxelze [, 1890:2-3]. dasaxelebul meCeTTagan dReisaTvis mxolod orTajamea SemorCenili. samecniero literaturaSi miCneulia, rom XIX saukunis dasawyisidan, ukve ruseTis imperiis mmarTvelobis periodSi, regionSi islamis gavrcelebis xelSemwyob faqtors sasuliero saswavleblebisa da meCeTebis mSenebloba warmoadgenda. SemdegSi ruseTis imperiis interesebSic Sedioda muslimebTan da maT liderebTan kargi urTierTobisa da TanamSromlobis damyareba. maTdami keTilganwyoba muslimebze zrunviT ixsneboda, Tumca, rogorc cnobilia, mzrunveloba, upirveles yovlisa, gavleniani da mravalricxovani sasuliero wreebis, saerTo organizaciuli struqturis

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farglebSi kontrolsa da imperiaze daqvemdebarebas gulisxmobda. sabWoTa periodSi islami, ise, rogorc sxva religiebi, gansakuTrebiT marTlmadidebloba, gansazRvruli antireligiuri propagandis safuZvelze izRudeboda. nawili samlocveloebisa daangries, xolo nawili ufunqcio darCa an sxvadasxva miznisaTvis gamoiyenes. sabWoTa saxelmwifos arsebobis pirvel wlebSi adgilobrivi partiuli muSakebis saqmianoba religiis dargSi xSirad scdeboda deklarirebul wesebsa da normebs, rac mosaxleobis mRelvarebasa da ajanyebasac ki iwvevda [baramiZe, 2009:7-8]. ufro metic, es iyo ara konkretulad islamis winaaRmdeg, aramed religiurobisa da saerTod, RvTis rwmenis winaaRmdeg daundobeli da totaluri aTeisturi brZola, ramac araerTi sulieri da kulturuli faseuloba Seiwira [ix. Mgeladze, 1994:12-15]. sabWoTa imperiis rRvevis Semdeg religiuri cxovreba regionSi kvlav gamococxlda. aRsdga Zveli an aSenda axali samlocveloebi, maT Soris meCeTebi da minareTebi Sesabamisi sasuliero saswavleblebiT - medreseebiT [baramiZe, 2008:40-51]. magaliTad, 1985 wels baTumis james rkina-betonisagan Camosxmuli moCuqurTmebuli minareTi dauyenes, romelmac nagebobas Taviseburi esTetikuri iersaxe misca da zRvis sanapiroze arsebul nagebobaTa Soris mniSvnelovani adgili daumkvidra. baTumSi cxovroben rogorc aSqenazi, ise sefardi ebraelebi. zogadad ebraelTa amgvar dayofas xangrZlivi istoria gaaCnia. maT Soris gansxvaveba vlindeba locvis wesebSi, sinagogis mowyobaSi, tradiciuli yofiTi kulturis sxva sakiTxebSi. aSqenaz ebraelebs miekuTvnebian evropeli ebraelebis didi nawili. isini Camoyalibdnen Sua saukuneebis^ germaniaSi da gavrceldnen evropis sxva qveynebSi, agreTve amerikaSi, afrikaSi, avstraliaSi. sefardi ebraelebi ki Camoyalibdnen: espaneTSi, portugaliaSi, italiaSi,^ TurqeTSi, aziaSi, balkaneTSi, afrikis nawilSi. mkvlevarTa nawili maTTan aerTianebs im ebraelebsac, romlebic ar arian aSqenazebi da pirdapiri kavSiri ar aqvT sefardebTan. magaliTad, kavkasiis ebraelebi. am saTvistomoTa salaparako enaa idiSi da ladino, romlebic TandaTanobiT xmarebidan gamodis. es enebi ebraelTa sxvadasxva xalxebTan asimilaciis produqts warmoadgens da msoflios ebraelTa umravlesobam ar icis. amJamad, israelSi saxelmwifo enaa ivriTi ­ Zveli ebrauli. evropelma ebraelebma baTumSi damkvidrebisTanave aralegalurad daaarses salocavi saxli. ganaTlebulma aSqenazma ebraelebma sinagogis gaxsnis Taobaze mimarTes quTaisis guberniis gubernators, romelic acnobebda kavkasiis mefisnacvals

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1895 wlis 21 ivliss: `Tqvens maRalkeTilSobilebas vacnobeb, rom baTumSi didi raodenobiT cxovroben ebraelebi... ebraelebis didi survilia, rom qalaqSi hqondeT maT salocavi saxli, aqeTken aris mimarTuli maTi saqmianoba. am ramdenime xnis win CemTan imyofeboda 10 ebraeli baTumidan da maT momitanes sinagogis proeqti". xolo Semdgom, mTxrobelTa TqmiT, uSualod mimarTes imperator nikoloz II-s: `Tqveno aRmatebulebav, - naTqvami yofila mimarTvaSi, - Cven, baTumeli ebraelebi gTxovT, neba dagvrToT sinagogis asaSeneblad. es saWiroa erTi RmerTisaTvis salocavad, raTa, man mogceT STamomavali-Ze, rameTu Tqven qaliSvilebi gyavT". Sinagan saqmeTa ministrma sinagogis gaxsnis Taobaze dawera oficialuri brZaneba 1899 wels, ris Semdegac baTumis evropelma ebraelobam Turqi moqalaqisagan 2000 maneTad Seisyida naqiravebi Senoba. sinagogaSi pirveli locva 1904 wels aRevlina. 1923 wels sinagoga daixura. wlebis manZilze sinagogis am SenobaSi arseboda sportuli organizaciebi _ Sevardeni da spartaki. 1998 wlamde funqcionirebda kulturuli centri `qarTvelTa da ebraelTa urTierTkavSiri". 1998 wlis noembridan Senobam kvlav daibruna religiuri statusi. mdebareobs vaJa fSavelas q. #33-Si. maSiax janaSvilma, abram xuxaSvilma, aron aSurma moqalaqe simon enuqiZisagan 1920 wels Seisyides kerZo saxli, romelic saCuqrad gadasces qarTvel ebraelTa Tems, raTa am saxlSi qarTvel ebraelTa sinagoga gaxsniliyo. aRniSnuli periodidan es saxli sinagogis funqcias 9 martis quCaze asrulebda 2000 wlamde. am welsve xanZris gamo Senoba dazianda [loria, 2009:58-64]. qarTveli xalxis tolerantuli buneba saqarTveloSi dasaxlebuli sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebisadmi da diasporebisadmi, rac eris Semwynareblur xasiaTSia gamoxatuli, kargad Cans berZnul-qarTul urTierTobaTa fonze. berZenTa didi nakadi - 253 ojaxi [2107 suli] - aWaraSi Camosaxlda 1881 wlis 6 noembers [demurova,1983:97]. isini iyvnen sivasis vilaieTis sanjayis sxvadasxva soflebidan, midiodnen yarsis olqSi dasasaxleblad, magram didTovlobis gamo mimarTuleba Seicvales da baTumSi Semovidnen. 1907 wlisaTvis baTumis okrugidan sakuTriv baTumSi berZnebi cxovrobdnen daaxloebiT 3500 suli. 1917 wlisaTvis ki baTumSi berZenTa raodenoba Seadgenda 4008 suls. 1922 wels baTumSi berZenTa raodenoba gaizarda 7629 sulamde [dawvr. ix.: mgelaZe, futkaraZe, 2008].

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osmalTa samaswliani batonobis periodSi baTumSi eklesiamonastrebis mSeneblobas mTeli rigi dabrkoleba eqmneboda, magram zogierTi maTganis aSeneba mainc moxerxda. amis naTeli magaliTia baTumSi mcxovrebi berZnebis mier dawyebuli wmida nikolozis saxelobis eklesia. miuxedavad imisa, rom eklesiis mSenebloba osmaleTis sulTnis TanxmobiTa da nebarTviT xdeboda, adgilobrivma mmarTvelobam ramdenjerme SeaCerebina mSenebloba im motiviT, rom berZnebi eklesiis magier TiTqos cixesimagres aSenebdnen. Seqmnili viTarebis gamo berZnebma TxovniT mimarTes trapizonis mitropolits _ konstantines da ruseTis vice-konsuls baTumSi _ jiudiCs. erTiani ZalisxmeviT maT SeZles firmanis miReba, romliTac SesaZlebeli gaxda eklesiis mSeneblobis gagrZeleba [komaxiZe, 2001:374]. eklesiis mSenebloba 1865 wels dasrulda, Tumca arsebobs sxva mosazrebebic. gumbaTovani marTlmadidebluri taZari klasikur stils miesadageba. mas 1999 wels Cautarda kapitaluri restavracia. ganaxlebuli taZari erT-erTi yvelaze Zveli salocavia baTumis teritoriaze. eklesia mdebareobs farnavaz mefis q. # 20-Si [miqelaZe, 2007:60]. samlocveloebi hqondaT soflad mcxovreb berZnebsac [lekveiSvili, 2000:28]. Aamrigad, demokratiuli faseulobebis damkvidrebis, maT Soris tolerantuli Sexedulebebis CamoyalibebaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba sxvadasxva eTnosTa Tu religiaTa kulturuli faseulobebis urTierTgacnobas, maT daaxloebas. sazogadoeba unda iyos farTod informirebuli religiaTa kulturuli miRwevebis Sesaxeb, raTa sakuTari religiuri aRmsareblobis farglebSi adamianebs CamouyalibdeT sxva religiisadmi pativiscemisa da Semwynareblobis unari. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom sakulto nageboba religiuri Temis cxovrebis wesis gansazRvrisa da mosaxleobis sulieri koordinaciis TvalsazrisiT gadamwyveti funqciis matarebelia. igi sazogadoebisaTvis ara marto sulieri yofis centri, aramed garkveuli sociokulturuli Rirebulebebis mqone arqiteqturuli Zeglicaa.

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gamoyenebuli literatura

1. axvlediani x., narkvevi aWaris istoriidan (me-16-19 saukuneebi), x., baT., 1944. 1944. 2. baramiZe r., samuslimano sasuliero gaerTianebis organizaciir., sa da funqcionirebis Taviseburebani aWaraSi. - niko berZeniSvilis institutis `Sromebi", VII, baT., 2008. 3. baramiZe r., islami da muslimebi aWaraSi (istoriul-eTnolor., giuri da socio-kulturuli aspeqtebi), _ `istoriis doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad wardgenili anotacia", baT., 2009. 4. demurova l., berZenTa dasaxlebis istoriidan aWaraSi, _ l., `samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos yofa da kultura", X, ., 1983. 5. komaxiZe T., religia da saRvTismsaxuro nagebobebi aWaraSi, T., baT., 2001. 6. lekveiSvili s ase iwyeboda qalaqi, ., 2000. s., 7. loria m., saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTis ebraelebi: istoria, m., eTnografia, kultura, baT., 2009. 8. mgelaZe n., eTnokulturuli procesebi samxreT-dasavleT san. qarTveloSi - warsuli da Tanamedroveoba, xelnaweri, baT., 1994, ix. saojaxo arqivi. 9. mgelaZe n., tunaZe T., hemSinTa istoriisaTvis aRmosavleT TurT. qeTsa da samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi. `saistorio macne", baT., 2005. 10. mgelaZe n., futkaraZe T., mosaxleobis dinamika, eTnokonfesiuri T. da socialuri struqtura, - `samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi ­ aWara", III, baT., 2008. 11. miqelaZe j., qalaq baTumis arqiteqturuli Zeglebi, _ niko j., berZeniSvilis institutis `Sromebi", V, 2007. 12. siWinava v. baTumis istoriidan, baT., 1958. v., 13. totoCava g., `ra ar SeuZlia RvTisa da eris siyvaruliT savse gug. lebs", _Jurn. `marji", 1, baT., 1995. 14. WiWinaZe z. kaTolikeTa eklesia saqarTveloSi, tf., 1903. z., 15. ., , ., 1890. 16. - 1892 . . II, ., 1892. 17. Mgeladze N., Ajarians, - Encyclopedia of World Cultures, vol. VI. Russia and N., Eurasia/China. Boston, Massachusetts, 1994.

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Nugzar Mgeladze, Manuchar loria (Batumi, Georgia) Current Religious Picture of Batumi (Catholics, Gregorian, Muslims, Jewish, Orthodox Greeks) Summary Batumi is a poly ethnical town. Side by side Georgians there are Greeks, Armenians, Russians, Jewish, Abkhazians and representatives of different nations in Batumi. Traditional religious confessions of ethnical groups inhabited in Batumi are Christianity (Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Gregorian), Islam and Judaism. The research based on investigation of ethnographical and special literature provides the illustration of historical features and fragments of current religious picture of Catholics, Gregorian, Muslims, Jewish and Orthodox Greeks in Batumi.

200

ganaTleba da kultura EDUCATION AND CULTURE

ruslan baramiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) sergei rumiancevi (baqo, azerbaijani)

baTumis meCeTebi

(warsuli da Tanamedroveoba)

baTumis meCeTebis istoria osmalTa batonobis droidan iwyeba. Tavdapirvelad, vidre baTumi patara dasaxlebuli punqti iyo [gamba, 1987: 262], romelic ZiriTadad warmoadgenda erTgvar samxedro da naklebad savaWro adgils, meCeTebi qalaqSi ar funqcionirebda. amgvari viTareba imdroindeli baTumis mcire mniSvnelobiT unda yofiliyo ganpirobebuli. mogvianebiT, qalaqis samxedro-strategiuli daniSnulebis zrdasTan erTad, gaizarda yuradReba misi ganaSenianebis mimarT, ramac meCeTebis mSeneblobac ganapiroba. baTumis rolis zrda mosaxleobis raodenobazec aisaxa. statistikuri cnobebis mixedviT ukve 1871-1873 wlebisaTvis qalaqsa da mis SemogarenSi 8324 mosaxle cxovrobda, romelTa umravlesoba muslimi iyo [, 1873]. amas meCeTebis mSeneblobac mohyva. a. avalianis azriT, pirveli, e.w. azizies meCeTi baTumSi 1863 wels unda agebuliyo qalaqis ganaSenianebis gegmis farglebSi [avaliani, 1960: 94-100]. is sulTan azizis dedis, valide xanumis iniciativiT gakeTda osmalo samxedroebisTvis navsadguris midamoebSi [, 1879: 62]. daaxloebiT am periodidan iwyeba meCeTebis farTo mSenebloba aWaraSi [WiWinaZe, 1913: 99; avaliani, 1960: 94-100], Tumca, Cveni azriT, es procesi mcire masStabiT gacilebiT adre unda dawyebuliyo. meore meCeTi axmed-faSa ximSiaSvils augia baTumis yures siaxloves Tavis rezidenciasTan, romelic axmedies meCeTis saxeliT gaxda cnobili [, 1905: 41]. es meCeTi xis iyo [, 1879: 62] da male daiwva. mis adgilze male, 1866 wels, orTa (axmedie) jame aSenda, romelic laz ostats mouxatavs [uzunaZe, 2001: 100]. es meCeTi ZiriTadad qarTvel muslimebze iyo gaTvlili. mesame meCeTi 1870-1973 wlebSi yofila agebuli viRac mufTis mier da mufTies saxeliT iyo cnobili [uzunaZe, 2001: 100]. aRniSnuli saxelebi, meCeTebis mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, maSindeli baTumis sami dasaxlebuli ubnis saxelwodebis warmoqmnas daedo safuZvlad [siWinava, 1958: 106]. Sesaba201

misad, es ubnebi iyo azizie, axmedie da mufTie. es Tavis mxriv osmaleTis periodSi meCeTis gansakuTrebuli funqciiTac iyo ganpirobebuli _ is aWaruli soflis (dasaxlebis) macxovrebelTa damakavSirebel religiur da socialur centrs warmoadgena [, 1876: 27.; , 1887: 79]. Tumca, zogierTi avtoris cnobiT, imdroindeli meCeTebidan mxolod azizies meCeTi iyo normalur mdgomareobaSi, danarCeni ki mxolod miSenebuli minareTebiT Tu gansxvavdeboda sxva Senobebisgan [, 1879: 62]. damoukidebeli funqcionirebisaTvis meCeTebs sakuTari Semosavali sWirdeboda. meCeTebis Semosavlis erT-erT ZiriTad saxes vayufebi warmoadgendnen, Tumca isini mxolod azizies meCeTs gaaCnda [..., 1906: 106]. aseve sxvadasxva saWiroebisaTvis mosaxleoba yovelwliurad ixdida gadasaxads _ vezifes, rasac marxvasa da sadResaswaulo dReebSi sxvadasxva Sesawiri emateboda [axvlediani, 1943: 36]. meCeTebTan sasuliero-saganmanaTleblo qselic muSaobda. baTumis olqSi 3 medrese da 28 meqTebe moqmedebda [, 1873; axvlediani, 1943: 132-135]. baTumis medreses umaRlesi statusi hqonda, sadac regionis warCinebuli moswavleebi gadiodnen swavlebas, xolo saukeTesoebs aqedan stambulSi agzavnidnen Seix-ul-islamis skolaSi [, 1879: 85, 126; baqraZe, 1987: 73]. baTumSi moqmedebda aseve ruSties tipis (saero xasiaTis osmaluri skola) saswavlebelic [, 1879: 85, 132-136; `droeba~, 1882, #270]. axalgazrdebs samsaxurisgan mouwyvetliv dilis dersebSic aswavlidnen [axvlediani, 1943: 131]. 1878 wlidan, roca baTumi ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi gadavida, qalaqis mosaxleoba TandaTan izrdeba, amasTanave, icvleba misi eTnikuri da religiuri Semadgenloba [..., 1882: 115-116; siWinava, 1958: 115; ..., 1906: 16, 17, 24]. amis gamo, azizies meCeTi, romelic ZiriTadad TurqebisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili, Cqara kargavs funqcias da Tavis sakuTrebasac. danarCeni oridan, romlebic qarTvel muslimebs emsaxureboda, mufTies meCeTma, am kategoriis mosaxleobis Semcirebis gamo, TandaTan dakarga funqcia da qalaqSi mxolod erTi moqmedi meCeTi _ axmedie SemorCa. ruseTis imperia kavkasiis mahmadianuri sazogadoebis organizaciul sakiTxebs 1872 wlis debulebiT awesrigebda [..., 1872; baramiZe, 2008: 38-39]. unda vivaraudoT, rom aWaraSic am dokumentze dayrdnobiT xdeboda muslimTa sasuliero marTva da Sesabamisi saqmiswarmoeba [saxokia, 1950:161-163]. aWaraSi rusul mmarTvelobas vayufebis Semcireba an gauq202

meba mohyva, maT Soris baTumis azizies meCeTis vayufebisac [acsa, f. i-81, an.1 s.1. f. 73-87; sscsa, f. 229, an. 1, s. 1297, f. 2-8; sscsa, f. 12, an. 10, s. 2026, f. 1-11; asca, f. i-7, an.1, s. 338. f 8-9; asca, f. i-6, an.1, s.238, f. 38; baramiZe, 2004: 40-43]. am sakiTxis mowesrigebis TxovniT garkveuli Suamdgomloba peterburgSi osmaleTis elCsac hqonda [asca, f. i-6, an. 1, s. 238, f. 38]. sayuradReboa, rom meCeTisaTvis CamorTmeul teritoriaze Semdeg qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis iniciativiT baTumis pirveli qarTuli skola aSenda, sadac erTxans muslimuri religiuri sagnebic iswavleboda [nioraZe, 1958: 13, 42-43, 83-90]. ruseTis imperiis periodSi moqmedebda religiuri saswavleblebis farTo qseli [..., 1906: 17], romelSic TbilisSi moqmedi, rogorc sunitebisaTvis, ise SiitebisaTvis gankuTvnili specialuri sasuliero saswavlebelic Sedioda [andriaSvili, 1984: 41; bainduraSvili, 2008: 50]. XX saukuneSi dawyebul rTul politikur procesebSi, baTumis meCeTs, rogorc socialur organos, gansakuTrebuli adgili ekava. 1917 wels adgilobrivi mosaxleobis warmomadgenlobiTi krebis mier dafuZnebuli ,,qarTvel muslimanTa komitetis" sxdomebi erTxans swored aq imarTeboda [mesxia, 1997: 89]. meCeTs, rogorc tribunas, antiqarTuli Zalebic iyenebdnen [andriaSvili, 1973; andriaSvili, 1984]. saqarTvelos damoukidebelobis mokle periodSi iyo ,,samuslimano saqarTvelos" religiur-kulturuli uflebebis gaTvaliswinebis cda, rac 1921 wlis 21 Tebervlis saqarTvelos konstituciaSic aisaxa, Tumca, meCeTebis funqcionirebaze amas didi zegavlena ar mouxdenia. 1921 wlidan saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis dapyrobas meCeTebis istoriaSi axali etapi mohyva. sabWoTa kavSiri 1917 wlidan muslimi mosaxleobisa da sasuliero pirebis kontrolis mizniT qmnis muslimebis saqmeTa komisariats erovnuli umciresobebis komisariatis farglebSi. 1921 wlidan msgavsi struqtura Seiqmna aWaraSic erovnul umciresobaTa saxalxo komisariatis farglebSi. muslimTa seqcias qarTvel (maT Soris lazi), Turq da qurT muslimebTan muSaoba evaleboda, romlebic qalaqis mosaxleobis 50% Seadgendnen [acsa, f. p-1, an. 1, s. 38, f. 1-2; acsa, f. p-1, an. 1, s. 77, f. 1-95; baramiZe, 2008: 48-57]. seqcia ZiriTadad awarmoebda administraciul, organizaciul, informaciul, saagitacio-propagandistul da represiul saqmianobas. am mizniT tardeboda Sexvedrebi, mitingebi, leqciebi [acsa, f. p-1, an. 1, s. 77, f. 72], ixsneboda samkiTxvelo saxlebi [acsa, f. p-1, an. 1, s. 77, f. 73-74] da warmoebda muslimebis komunistur partiaSi gawevrianeba [acsa, f. p-1, an. 1, s.

203

77, f. 27]. misi beWdviTi organo Turqulenovani gazeTi `iSTiraqi~ iyo [acsa, f. p-1, an. 1, s. 38, f. 1-2]. seqciisa da sxva struqturebis saqmianoba gviCvenebs, rom gasabWoebis pirvel periodSi religiuri politikis kuTxiT aWaraSi aqcenti religiuri sistemebis ganadgurebaze iyo aRebuli. axali xelisufleba religiis mimarT daTmobebs da muslimTa mxardaWeras mxolod sawyis etapze axdenda [baramiZe, 2008: 46-73]. mTavari aqcenti muslimTa liderebisa da religiuri centrebis ganadgurebaze iyo aRebuli. am mizniT uSiSroebis samsaxuris mier Catarebuli saangariSo kvlevebi iZleoda arsebuli situaciis amomwurav analizs, ris Sedegadac religiur liderTa aRricxva da maTi kontroli administraciul-Zaladobrivi meTodebiT SedarebiT advilad xorcieldeboda [f. p-1, an. 3, s. 54]. amas TandaTan partmuSakebis TviTneboba da administraciuli meTodebis aqtiuri gamoyeneba mohyva [spa, f. 14, an. 4, s. 301. f. 150, 154, 157]. sayuradReboa, rom amave periodSi meCeTebs da iq Sekrebil mrevls antisabWouri da proTurquli propagandisaTvisac iyenebdnen [andriaSvili, 1973; andriaSvili, 1984]. am procesebis Sedegad XX saukunis 20-iani wlebis bolos da 30-ian wlebis dasawyisSi gauqmda samufTo, daixura meCeTebi da medreseebi [andriaSvili, 1984: 55], mcire xniT daixura baTumis meCeTic. aTeistur-propagandistuli kuTxiT warmarTuli ZiriTadi samuSaoebi 1930 wlisaTvis dasrulda. amis Semdeg xelisufleba, faqtobrivad, miRweulis SenarCuneba-damkvidrebaze zrunavs. miuxedavad imisa, rom antireligiuri da kontrrevoluciuri brZola praqtikulad dasrulebuli iyo, sabWoTa xelisufleba meore msoflio omis wina periodSi muslimi mosaxleobis represiebsac ar erideba [naTmelaZe, 1993: 33-34; dumbaZe, 2002: 26-27; janiaSvili...]. amis Semdeg sabWouri sistema Semoifargleboda miRweuli warmatebis kontroliT, rac Sesabamis instruqciebsa da rekomendaciebs eyrdnoboda [ ..., 1977: 105-117; , 1999: 78, 86]. inergeboda axali sabWouri ritualebic [baramiZe, 2008: 57-63]. religiur sferoSi 1940-iani wlebidan dawyebulma erTgvarma demokratiulobam baTumSi, rogorc saporto da sakurorto qalaqSi, meCeTis moqmedebis aRdgena ganapiroba. igi am periodidan uwyvetad funqcionirebs. amave droidan saqarTvelos ssr-Si ministrTa sabWoebTan iqmneba religiur saqmeTa sabWoebi, romlebic religiuri jgufebis konrolisa da marTvis mizniT awarmoeben saqmianobas arsebuli kanonmdeblobisa da Sesabamisi direqtivebis farglebSi [sabWoTa..., 1982]. sabWoTa periodidan baTumSi moqmedebs orTajamis meCeTi, romelic 1990-iani wlebis Semdeg funqciurad warmoadgens rogorc sakrebulo meCeTs, ise (1995 wlidan) samufTos centra204

lur meCeTsac (Tumca mas ar aqvs oficialuri statusi). masTan moqmedebs religiuri saswavlebeli. meCeTs aseve gaaCnia farTi, romelsac aqiravebs. samufToSi daculi dokumentebiT orTajamis meCeTi 1866-1935 wlebSi uwyvetad moqmedebda. 1935 wlidan is daiketa da ZiriTadad samxedro sawyobad gamoiyeneboda. 1946 wlidan is aRadgines [baramiZe, 2008: 164]. 1995 wlis Semdeg gaukeTda minareTi, xolo 2007 wels bolo, ZiriTadi remonti Cautarda, romlis dros mowesrigda meore salocavi darbazi, Sesasvlelebi, gamoiyo gasaqiravebeli farTi, samufTo administraciis farTi, saswavleblis klasebi, sacxovrebeli da sameurneo oTaxebi [baramiZe, 2008-2009]. baTumis meCeTis personals warmoadgenen mufti, samufTo aparati, mejlisi da imamebi. religiuri saswavlebeli moqmedebs pansionatis formiT, sadac baTumis sxvadasxva saswavleblis moswavleebi da studentebi cxovroben da swavloben [baramiZe, 2008: 176-181]. meCeTSi imarTeba rogorc yoveldRiuri, ise sadResaswaulo locvebi, qadagebebi, vedrebebi. sadResaswaulo locvebisaTvis morwmuneebs mueZini mouxmobs. Tavisi statusisa da mniSvnelobis gamo meCeTs xSirad stumroben saxelmwifo moxeleebi, sxvadasxva organizacebisa da konfesiebis warmomadgenlebi, turistebi. amrigad, baTumSi meCeTebis arsebobasa da funqcionirebaze ZiriTad gavlenas qalaqis ganaSenianebis Taviseburebani axdenda. osmaleTis periodSi, qalaqis mniSvnelobis zrdasTan erTad, Sendeba meCeTebi osmalo samxedroebisaTvis da qarTveli muslimebisaTvis. ruseTis imperiis periodSi, qalaqganviTarebisa da mosaxleobis Semadgenlobis cvalebadobasTan erTad, osmalo samxedroebisaTvis gankuTvnili meCeTi funqcias kargavs, xolo qarTveli muslimebis meCeTebidan mxolod erTi rCeba. sabWoTa periodSi orTajamis meCeTi, sabWoTa politikis gavleniT, mcire xniT iketeba, Tumca, qalaqis daniSnulebidan gamomdinare, mogvianebiT isev iReba. damoukideblobis periodidan baTumis meCeTi aWaris samufTos centri xdeba da mas Sesabamisi administraciuli, safinanso da saganmanaTleblo funqciebic emateba.

205

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. aWaris ar centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi p-1, anaweri 1, saqmeebi ## 38; 77. 2. acsa, f. p-1, an. 3, s. 54. 3. acsa, f. i-81, an. 1 s. 1. 4. acsa, f. i-6, an. 1, s. 238. 5. acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 338. 6. spa, f. 14, an. 4, s. 301. 7. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi (scssa), fondi 12, anaweri 10, saqme 2026. 8. scssa, f. 229, an. 1, s. 1297. 9. a. avaliani, miwaTmflobelobs formebi aWaraSi (TurqeTis ekonomikuri ganviTareba 1878-1907 wlebSi), baT., 1958. 10. r.andriaSvili, islamis dogmatika da sociluri moZRvreba, Tb., 1984. 11. r. andriaSvili, musulmanuri samRvdeloebis Semguebluri tendenciebi saqarTveloSi, _ religiuri gadmonaSTebis daZlevis procesi saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1973. 12. x. axvlediani, narkvevi aWaris istoriidan (XVI-XIX saukuneebi), baT., 1943. 13. x. bainduraSvili, islami da muslimebi XIX saukunis TbilisSi (stagnaciis periodi), _ nodar Sengelia, 75, Tb., 2008. 14. i. baramiZe, baTumis azizies meCeTis savayufo miwebis sakiTxisaTvis, _ saistorio macne (Sromebis krebuli), t. XIII, baT., 2004. 15. r. baramiZe, meCeTebis aRweris masalebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi, 2008-2009, savele dRiurebi. 16. r. baramiZe, islami da muslimebi aWaraSi (istoriul-eTnologiuri da socio-kulturuli aspeqtebi), sakvalifikacio naSromi istoriis doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad, baT., 2008. 17. d. baqraZe, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, baT., 1987. 18. batonobisagan ganTavisuflebis win (XIX saukunis 40-70-iani wlebi), baT., 1960. 19. J. gamba, mogzauroba amierkavksiaSi, Tb., 1987. 20. s. dumbaZe, sabWoTa xelisuflebis samarcxvino furclebi, _ saistorio macne (Sromebis krebuli), baT., 2002. 21. `droeba,~ 1882, #270. 22. e. mesxia, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriidan, baT., 1997. 23. m. naTmelaZe, demografiuli procesebi saqarTveloSi XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi (Turqebisa da mosaxleobis sxva jgufebis gasaxlebani saqarTvelodan 1941-1945 wlebSi), Tb., 1993. 24. g. nioraZe, pirveli qarTuli skola baTumSi, Tb., 1958. 25. sabWoTa sakanonmdeblo saxelmZRvanelo dokumentebisa religiuri kultebis dargSi (samsaxurebrivi sargeblobisaTvis), Tb., 1982. 26. T. saxokia, mogzaurobani (guria, aWara, samurzayano, afxazeTi), Tb., 1950. 27. v. siWinava, baTumis istoriidan (ruseTTan SeerTeba da socialur ­Eekonomikuri ganviTareba 1878-1907 wlebSi), baTumi, 1958. 28. r. uzunaZe, naosnoba baTumis olqSi (samxedro-politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri aspeqtebi), baT., 2001.

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29. z. WiWinaZe, musulman qarTveloba da maTi soflebi saqarTveloSi, tf., 1913. 30. l.janiaSvili, samcxe-javaxeTis eTnodemografiuli transformaciis istoriul-politikuri da eTnologiuri aspeqtebi XIX saukuneSi, http://sric.iatp.ge/lavrenti 31. l. janiaSvili, samxreT saqarTvelodan deportirebuli mahmadiani mosaxleobis repatriaciis sakiTxisaTvis, http://sric.iatp.ge/lavrenti 32. , ., 1906. 33. ., , , . 3, 3, ., 1873. 34. ., , ., 1999. 35. ., - , ., 1876. 36. ., , , . XVIII, #1, ., 1905. 37. ., (- ), ., 1887. 38. , - , , ., 1977. 39. 1872 ., , . VII, ., 1882. 40. , 5- 1872 . 41. ., - , ., 1879.

Ruslan Baramidze (Batumi, Georgia) Sergey Rumyancev (Baku, Azerbaijan) Batumi Mosques (Past and present) Summary The peculiarities of the town building had a great influence on functioning and existence of Batumi mosques. During the Ottoman period, the mosques were built for Ottoman militaries and Georgian Muslims together with the increase of the town importance. During the Russian Empire period, together with the development of the town and changing population composition, The mosque for Ottoman militaries loses its importance, and only one mosque remains for Georgian Muslims. During Soviet Era the Ortajame mosque temporarily is closed due to the influence of Russian Policy, however, its functioning resumed. From the period of Independence Batumi mosque has been the centre of Adjara Mufti Residence and it has the financial and educational functions as well.

207

caca CxartiSvili

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis kulturuli cxovreba XIX saukunis 8080-90 wlebSi

(presis masalebis mixedviT)

TurqeTis TiTqmis samaswliani batonobis miuxedavad, qarTuli ena kvlav JRerda aWaraSi. TurqTa uRlisagan aWaris ganTavisuflebis Semdeg qarTveli sazogado moRvaweebisaTvis naTeli gaxda, rom uSedegod Caiara osmalTa xangrZlivma cdam _ mieRwiaT mosaxleobis mTliani asimilaciisaTvis. axlad SemoerTebul kuTxes mzrunveli sWirdeboda da am zrunvas mas ar aklebdnen: i. WavWavaZe, i. gogebaSvili, g. naTaZe, al. yazbegi, d. kldiaSvili, gr. volski, s. mesxi, gr. gurieli, d. baqraZe da sxvebi, romelTa saxelebTan mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli baTumisa da aWaris Semdgomi kulturuli winsvla da ganviTareba. presis masalebis mixedviT Sevecdebi warmovaCino baTumis kulturuli cxovreba: pirveli scenismoyvarulTa wre, samkiTxvelo, skola, gimnazia, stamba, gazeTi. kulturuli saSualebebiT daaxloeba aWarasTan da misi ganaTlebis gziT gaTviTcnobiereba, _ aseTi iyo sergei mesxis da masTan erTad mTeli mowinave qarTvelobis azri. axladSemoerTebuli kuTxis Semomtkicebis saqmeSi didi roli Seasrula presam (`droeba~, `iveria~, `kvali~, `Teatri da cxovreba~, `cnobis furceli~), romelTa furclebze sistematurad ibeWdeboda yovelgvari siaxle kulturisa da ganaTlebis sferoSi. es iyo skolebis gaxsna, scenismoyvareTa wris Camoyalibeba, samkiTxveloebis daarseba, pirveli stamba, saqvelmoqmedo sazogadoebis Seqmna da sxv.îî yvelaze aqtiurad wamoiWra baTumSi Teatraluri warmodgenebis gamarTvis sakiTxic, rac bunebriv movlenad unda CaiTvalos. qarTveli sazogado moRvaweebi Teatrs Tvlidnen iseT dawesebulebad, romelsac Cveni xalxis gaTviTcnobierebasa da kulturis amaRlebaSi udidesi roli unda Seesrulebina. samociani wlebis moRvaweTa meTauri ilia WavWavaZe werda: `scena igive skolaa, romelic cxovelis suraTebiT elaparakeba kacis gulsa da Wkuasa. igi am TvisebiT kacis gunebazed ufro medgrad moqmedebs, vidre sxva rame... scena xalxis mwvrTneli, xalxis gamzrdeli unda iyos... Cven scenas or Rvawlsa vsTxovT,

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pirveli _ rom marTla gamwmendeli iyos Cveni cxovrebisa, Cveni Wkuisa da gulis ganmanaTlebeli, mwvrTneli, da meorec igi unda iqmnas im adgilada, sadac Cveni ena fexze unda wamodges mTelis Tavis mSvenierebiTa da simdidriTa. dRes Cvens mdgomareobaSi scenis meti sxva iseTi saxsari ara aqvs ra Cvens xalxs, rom goneba, guli gauxsnas da enac avarjiSos sajarod, saqveynod~ [i. WavWavaZe, 1927: 47]. pirvel xanebSi, sakmao Zalebis aryolis gamo, warmodgenebis gamarTva SeuZlebeli Seiqmna, magram Semdeg baTumSi TandaTanobiT imata kulturulma Zalam, aRmoCndnen scenaze muSaobis unariT dajildoebuli pirni da warmodgenebis gamarTvis dawesebac SesaZlebeli gaxda. baTumSi sasceno xelovnebis sawyisebic am epoqasTan aris dakavSirebuli [s. gersamia, 1949, 82]. qarTuli dramatuli Teatri baTumSi saTaves iRebs 1879 wlidan, rodesac adgilobriv scenismoyvareTa mier gaimarTa pirveli warmodgena. 1879 wels gazeTi droeba aseT cnobas aqveynebs: `baTumidan gvweren: am mokle xanSi aq qarTuli warmodgena imarTeba `gana biZam coli SeirTo?~ z. antonovis piesa da v. abaSiZis vodevili `coli Tu ginda es aris~ unda iTamaSon. warmodgenis Semosavali gaWirvebul qobuleTelebisTvis aris daniSnuli~ [droeba, 1879, #122]. am warmodgenis organizatori, xelmZRvaneli iyo qeTevan Jurulisa. imave wlis 8 ivliss aRniSnuli warmodgena marTlac gaumarTavT. gazeTi `droeba~ gakvriT exeba warmodgenis Rirseba-naklovanebas da ambobs: `Cven ar SevexebiT pativcemul moTamaSeebis rolebis sinamdviliT an naklulovanebiT aRsrulebas, radganac SesaZlebelia, romelime naklovanebis gamoaSkaraveba gaxdes xalxis momwamvleli [droeba, 1879, #123]. 1882 wels dekembris dasawyisSi qeTevan Jurulis xelmZRvanelobiT Camoyalibda egreT wodebuli `mudmivi scenismoyvareTa wre~, romelmac gadawyvita drogamoSvebiT warmodgenebis gamarTva, Semosavali ki wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis skolis sasargeblod unda gadacemuliyo. `mudmivi scenismoyvareTa wris~ daarseba baTumelebs Zlier moewonaT da sazogado moRvaweebma mas yovelgvari daxmarebis gaweva aRuTqves. gazeTma `droebam~ am ambavs sagangebo werili miuZRvna: `siamovnebiT viswrafi vaxaro `droebis mkiTxvelebs garemoeba, rom Cveni baTumis qarTveli sazogadoeba ar yofila Turme ise gulcivad Cven saqmeze, rogorc bevrs hgonia. Turme am patiosan sazogadoebaSic Rvioda qarTveluri gulmxurvaleba da siyvaruli sazogado saqmisadmi. dRes ki, TvalsaCinod daamtkica baTumis qarTvelobam, rom igi aris ganuyofeli da

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arsebiTi nawili Cveni qarTveli sazogadoebisa~ [droeba, 1833, #3]. warmodgenebi im dros metwilad qarTuli skolis darbazSi imarTeboda. darbazi patara iyo, Zlivs eteoda 120-mde mayurebeli. mouwyobelic iyo, magram scenismoyvareni amas ar uSindebodnen da warmodgenebs drogamoSvebiT marTavdnen. speqtaklebi primitiulad imarTeboda _ standartul dekoraciebSi. scenismoyvarenic ver iyvnen daxelovnebuli, magram es warmodgenebi baTumSi imxanad erTaderTi saSualeba iyo qarTveli sazogadoebis, maT Soris, qarTveli mahmadianebis Sesakrebad da dasaaxloeblad. baTumSi scenismoyvarulTa wris daarsebisTanave masSi Sevida imxanad baTumSi samxedro samsaxurSi myofi daviT kldiaSvili. mogonebebSi igi agviwers Tavis pirveli sasceno nabijebs: `rasakvirvelia, mec, ymawvili oficeri, mimiyvanes Jurulis ojaxSi da gaacnes Cemi Tavi qeTevans, man pirveli gacnobisTanave misayvedura, rom qarTuli Zlivs mexerxeboda da dediseburi darigeba momca, mSobliuri ena Semeswavla. ramdenime xnis Semdeg saqmeSi Camaba. imarTeboda warmodgena skolis sasargeblod, idgmeboda giorgi erisTavis `gayra~. me damakisres gabrielis roli. gulmodgined Sevudeqi rolis Seswavlas, magram Cemi CiqorTuli qarTuli metad miWirvebda saqmes. amis dasaZlevad, enis gasatexad calke repeticiebi mqonda xolme, Camajenda savarZelSi qeTevani da maTqmevinebda rols. gawvalebuli viyavi aseTi swavliT imitom, rom bevrjer miwevda ganmeoreba. aseve gawvalebuli iyo maswavlebelic, romelic SemomZaxebda xandaxan moTmineba dakarguli: `ar SeiZleba, ymawvilo, unda iswavlo qarTuli, qarTveli xar!...~ am momzadebis dros repeticiaze agvityda ojaxis patroni da, rogorc policmeisterma, piesis cenzoroba moindoma, ar moswonda mouravis leqsi, anduyafars rom eubneboda mosamarTleze, `asi Tumani sudsa ...a im kukunasa sul vaTamaSeb lekurbuqnasa~. daijina es adgili amoSaleTo, amis Tqmis nebas ar mogvcemeno, samsaxuridan damiTxoveno. didi Setakeba mouvida col-qmars amis Taobaze. qeTevanma CaaCuma SeSinebuli policmeisteri da leqsi ar amoSala.~ ocdaeqvsi weliwadi cxovrobda daviT kldiaSvili baTumSi, vidre samxedro samsaxurs Tavs daanebebda. igi mudam mxurvale monawileobas iRebda baTumis Teatralur cxovrebaSi rogorc organizatori, reJisori, aRmzrdeli, mrCeveli [d. kldiaSvili, 1932: 20]. xSirad imarTeboda warmodgenebi baTumeli studentebis dasaxmareblad, romlebic sazRvargareT swavlobdnen da finansurad Zalian uWirdaT. gazeTi `iveria~ amis Sesaxeb wers: `1892

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wlis 10 Tebervals baTumSi aqauri scenismoyvareTa dasis mier warmodgena gaimarTa baTumidan varSavis universitetSi saswavleblad wasuli studentis n. Sengelias sasargeblod. Semosavali iyo 289 m. 55 k. warmodgenis gasamarTaT daixarja 175 m. danarCeni 114 m. 55 k. Sengelias gaegzavna daniSnulebisamebr~ [iveria, 1892, # 54]. Teatris mniSvnelobaze saintereso werils beWdavs Jurnali `Teatri da cxovreba~. `Teatri saxalxo tribunaa, skolaa, saswavlebelia, cxovrebis sarkea. misi daniSnulebaa gaavrcelos da daamkvidros axali azri, idea, axali WeSmariteba. igi xalxis sulieri kulturis ganviTarebis erT-erTi Zlieri faqtoria [Teatri da cxovreba, 1914, # 1]. gazeTi `cnobis furceli~ ukmayofilebas gamoTqvams qarTuli Teatris repertuaris gamo. `qarTuli Teatri verRar izidavs sazogadoebas, radgan igi sinamdviles mowyvetilia da mxolod drois gasarTob adgilad xdeba. yovelive es maTqmevina am dReebSi quTaisidan baTumSi Camosulma dramatuli dasis repertuarma.... merwmuneT, rom baTumSi, rogorc gansxvavebul pirobebSi myofi qalaqisaTvis, iseTi repertuari sruliad interess moklebulia, man ver daakmayofila mayurebeli. magram miuxedavad amisa qarTveli xalxi mainc afasebs qarTuli scenis saSualebiT qarTvelobis sasargeblod moRvaweT~ [cnobis furceli, 1901-1401¼]. scenismoyvareni yovelgvari anazRaurebis gareSe muSaobdnen, warmodgenidan Tanxa Tu darCeboda, es saqvelmoqmedo an kulturul saqmeebs xmardeboda. ilia WavWavaZis didi mcdelobis Sedegad, 1881 wlis 12 marts baTumSi gaixsna qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba, romelsac iliasTan erTad saTaveSi Caudga n. cxvedaZe. am mniSvnelovan saqmesTan dakavSirebiT, skolis gaxsnis win, baTumSi Casula ilia, ris Sedegadac warmatebiT dagvirgvinebula didi erovnuli wamowyeba. presaSi moZiebul masalebs Soris sainteresoa `baTumis gazeTis~ informacia baTumSi wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis daarsebis Sesaxeb. mecxramete saukunis 80-ian wlebSi aucilebeli gaxda mozrdili Taobis mSobliur enaze ganviTarebis saWiroeba. am aucileblobas kargad xedavdnen mowinave qarTvelebi, romlebmac mTavrobis nebarTviT daaarses qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamarvcelebeli sazogadoeba da Seadgines am sazogadoebis wesdebac. sazogadoebis sagani iyo xeli Seewyo wera-kiTxvisa da dawyebiTi ganaTlebis gavrcelebisTvis kavkasiaSi mkvidr qarTvelTa Soris. skolebs garda sazogadoebas unda gaemarTa sa211

xalxo samkiTxveloebi, gamoeca saswavlo saxelmZRvaneloebi da sxva wignebi xalxisaTvis sakiTxavad, sakuTari saswavlebeli gaemarTa maswavlebelTa mosamzadeblad, sadac swavleba mSobliur enaze iqneboda, mas unda ezruna, agreTve, rusuli enis swavlebazec. mowinave qarTveli inteligenciis erovnuli meobisa da dedaenis SenarCuneba-dacvisaTis arsad imdeni Sroma da brZola ar sWirdebodaT, ramdenic axladSemoerTebul baTumSi. amitom erT-erTi mTavari amocana qarTvelTa Soris werakiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebisa (romelic is-is iyo daarsda) imaSi mdgomareobda, rom gaexsnaT skolebi baTumSi. ai ras wers gazeTi `kvali~ baTumis swavla-ganaTlebis Sesaxeb: `swavla-ganaTlebis saqme xom didi xania Segnebuli aqvT baTumlebs, ase rom ar yofiliyo ver daarsebdnen vaJTa klasikur gimnazias, qalTa saswavleblebs da sxva. garda amisa baTumSi aris qarTuli skola, qarTuls garda aswavlian rusulsac, am skolaSive aris qarTvel mahmadianTaTvis TaTruli enis ganyofilebac, romelsac qarTveli mahmadiani xoja ganagebs... es skola qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebis gamgeobas eqvemdebareba. ...imedia mosalodnelze ufro met sikeTes moutans es skola pirvel rigSi qarTvel mahmadianebs da mere baTumis Rarib mkvidrT~ [kvali 1899, 39¼]. wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb gazeTi `iveria~ gvauwyebs: `wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelma sazogadoebam~ aTi wlis win baTumSi daaarsa saxalxo skola. skolis daarsebis aucilebloba mdgomareobda imaSi, rom axlad SemoerTebul mahmadian qarTvelTa Svilebi miezidna, pirvel-dawyebiTi ganaTleba mieca maTTvis, maTis SuamavlobiT gaevrcelebina aWara-qobuleTSi qarTulis wignis codna da am gziT gaeaxlebina kavSiri RviZl ZmaTa Sua, romelic bedma erTmaneTs gahyara warsuls saukuneSi aTasis wlis Zmuri istoriulis cxovrebisa da erTad moqmedebis Semdeg. TurqeTis batonobisagan gamoxsnili aWarlebi, romelTac qarTuli ena da bevri mama-papuri adaT-wesi mtkiced hqondaT Semonaxuli, mTlianad mahmadis rwmenas aRiarebdnen. religiuri fanatizmi, rasac ase Rrmad nergavdnen maTSi mahmadis rjulis msaxurni, seriozulad abrkolebda ganaTlebis miRebas da swored amitom gaxda aucilebeli skolis gaxsna. skolis daarsebis aucileblobas wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba imiT amarTlebda, rom igi iqneboda qarTuli skola mahmadian qarTvelTaTvis. wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelma sazogadoebam baTumSi skola gaxsna 1881 wels, romelSic bevrma qarTvelma axalgazrdam TiTqmis usasyidlod miiRo pirveldawyebiTi swavla-ganaTleba. amave skolaSi swavlobdnen qarT212

vel mahmadianTa Svilebi, romelic danarCen qarTvelTagan marto sjuliT gansxvavdebodnen da mZime istoriul garemoebaTa miuxedavad qarTuli ena qristian qarTvelebze naklebad ar icodnen. `baTumidan mogvivida sasiamovno ambavi... baTumis sakrebulo taZari mTavrobis gankargulebiT ukurTxebiaT. didi madlobis Rirsni arian am saqmis Taosnebi: mRvdeli ToTibaZe, gedevaniSvili, lominaZe, sabaSvili da nikolaZe... yvelam viciT, Tu qristianul saTnoebisaTvis ramdenad saWiroa qarTuli wirvalocvis gamSveniereba qarTuli galobiT, ar veWvobT, rom gurulebi, rogorc daxelovnebuli qarTul galobaSi, Seadgenen Sesaferis qarTul galobis xoros da amiT aRZraven keTil-morwmuneTa gul-lmobierebas da sxvebsac aRuZraven survils qarTulis wirva-locvisaTvis~ [kvali, 1893, #13].¼ `baTumis qalaqSi ukanaskneli monacemebiT 6000 suli qarTvelia da erTi eklesia ara aqvT, rom wirva-locva da Rvdel-moqmedeba qarTul enazed iyos. nuTu amden qarTvel marTlmadidebels erTi eklesiis Senaxva ar SeuZlia?... baTumSi ratom ar unda ismodes Zveli qarTuli galoba, romliTac ase ganTqmulni iyvnen gurulebi: gugunava, gurieli, TavTgiriZe, TayaiSvili. yvelani axla baTumis mcxovrebni gamxdaran da TavianTi ganTqmuli `dvrini~ da `krini~ ki daviwyebiaT, rom amiT ganamSvenon qarTuli wirvis wesi, moulbon guli TavianT megobrebs da mezoblebs. aTi wlis win gadakarguli Zmebi isev dagvibrundnen... vin warmoidgens im gansacdels, rac maT daatydaT Tavs... ai, axla undaT amaT xelisSewyoba... erT-erTi saSualebaa amisa qarTuli ena imaTi gulisa da sulis mosagebad... yvela iqauri warCinebuli gvaris kacebi: sanjax-beg abaSiZe, nuri-beg SarvaSiZe, TavTgiriZeebi, ximSiaSvilebi, beJanoRli beJaniSvilebi da niJaraZeebi siyvaruliT mogvegebnen, dagviaxlovdnen. baTumSi amarTes marTlmadideblobis samreklo, aages eklesia, gaisma zaris rekva qristianebis wirvalocvisaTvis. warmoidgineT! Cvens daSorebul Zmebs TiTqmis gulma ufeTqa! imaT igrZnes qristes sarwmunoebis siTbo da isurves eklesiaSi Sesvla... magram imaT yurs erTi sityvac ar mousmeniaT qarTulad, amitom isini gamovidnen eklesiidan SeZrwunebulni... is iyo da is. amis metad Cvens dakargul Zmebs eklesiaSi aRar gauvliaT~ [kvali, 1893, #7].¼ kviras, 15 dekembers, baTumis sazogadoebam moismina qarTuli qadageba mRvdlis s. ToTibaZesi, romelmac warmosTqva sityva gansvenebulis episkoposis gabrielisa [cnobis furceli, 1896, #52].¼ baTumSi 1879 wels daarsda stamba aleqsandre maxaraZis xelmZRvanelobiT. stambis daarsebis Sesaxeb gazeTi `iveria~

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wers: `aq orad ori stamba arsebobs, erTi ekuTvnis a. maxaraZes, romelsac litografiac aqvs da meore sasiamovno ambavi is aris, rom maxaraZes ori qali auyvania Segirdad da asoTamwyoblis xeloba uswavlebia. erTs dausrulebia swavla da muSaobs, meore ki isev maxaraZesTan aris da swavlobs~ [iveria, 1886, #150]. 1884 wlidan a. maxaraZis stambaSi rusul enaze masiuri tiraJiT ibeWdeba patara formatis gazeTi `batumski listok~. 1890 w., stamba gaxsna vinme lapkom, xolo ufro adre, 1887 wels _ n. gurskim. mogvianebiT, 1911 wels baTumSi gamovida pirveli qarTuli gazeTi `baTumis gazeTi~, yoveldRiuri politikuri, literaturuli, erovnul-patriotuli mimarTulebisa. gamodioda 1911-1914 ww. sxvadasxva dros redaqtorebi iyvnen: n. xomeriki, a. WeliZe, l. gugunava. gazeTSi ibeWdeboda Targmanebi, statiebi, politikuri da literaturuli statiebi, gancxadebebi, qronikebi. daixura adgilobrivi xelisuflebis gankargulebiT [i. lorTqifaniZe, 1997, 332]. `baTumSi gaixsna biblioTeka, romlis daarsebasTan dakavSirebiT araerTi uimedo publikacia ibeWdeboda presaSi. baTumSi, gadawyvites calke samkiTxvelos daarseba da Seudgnen kidec saqmes...~ [kvali 1899, #27]. samSoblosTan baTumis SemoerTebis Semdeg, miuxedavad didi sirTuleebisa, qarTveli sazogado moRvaweebis daxmarebiT kulturis sakiTxebSi mainc progresuli RonisZiebebi iqna gatarebuli. saerTod, amaRlda qarTveli mosaxleobis kulturuli done, gaizarda misi moTxovnilebac, rac presis, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis, skolebis, scenis moyvarulTa wris, mudmivmoqmedi dramatuli Teatris, samkiTxveloebis da sxvaTa udavod didi damsaxurebaa. uamravi masalis moZieba SeiZleba presaSi, magram konferenciis formatis gamo mxolod am informaciiT SemovifarglebiT.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. s. gersamia, baTumis Teatri 70 wlis manZilze, baT., 1949. 2. d. kldiaSvili, memuarebi, Tb., 1932. 3. i. lorTqifaniZe, baTumis gazeTi, _ saqarTvelo (enciklopedia), Tb., 1997. 4. i. WavWavaZe, Txzulebani, t. VI, Tb., 1927. 5. gazeTi `droeba~, 1879, ## 122; 123. 6. gazeTi `droeba~, 1883. #3,

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

gazeTi iveria, 1889, #4. gazeTi iveria, 1892, #54. gazeTi kvali, 1893, ## 7; 13. gazeTi kvali, 1899, ## 27; 39. Jurnali `Teatri da cxovreba,~ 1914, #1. gazeTi `cnobis furceli~, 1896, #52.

Tsatsa Chkhartishvili (Tbilisi, Georgia) Cultural Life of Batumi in 1880s-1890s according to Printed Media Summary In 1979, when Batumi rejoined Georgia, Georgian public figures from the very beginning paid an attention to newly rejoined ancient Georgian region and started arranging issues of culture in Batumi. Mainly to raise the national spirits. These significant issues were worked out at Georgian cultural-educational societies as well as in the press. Georgian newspapers: "Droeba", "Iveria", "Tsnobis Purtseli" ("Messenger"), journal: "Teatri da Tskhovreba" ("Theater and Life") were widely reporting about the revival of the cultural life in Batumi, its first steps in the spheres of education, art, music, theatre. The special point was given to the issue of founding a theater as theater should have to play the significant role in giving an information and illuminating Batumi society and people.

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merab megreliSvili

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis TviTmmarTvelobis kulturulkulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba XIX saukunis damlevsa da XX saukunis dasawyisSi

1888 wlis pirvel oqtombers baTumma izeima TviTmmarTvelobis dafuZneba. TviTmmarTvelobam Tavisi arsebobis pirvelive dRidan mosaxleobisaTvis daawesa qalaqis ganviTarebisa da keTilmowyobisTvis saWiro mosakrebeli. Semosuli Tanxebis didi nawili xmardeboda kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianobas [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 5, f. 5-7]. 1889 wlis 12 ivnisis baTumis TviTmmarTvelobis sxdomis oqmidan vgebulobT, rom qalTa saswavleblis Senobad SearCies zRvispira parkTan mdebare general-maior, Tavadi erisTavis saxli, sakarmidamo nakveTiT [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 52, f. 101]. 1889 wlis 12 agvistos TviTmmarTvelobis sxdomaze ganixiles saidumlo mrCevlis ianovskis werili, romelic iTxovda baTumSi teqnikuri saxelosno saswavleblis gaxsnas (samklasiani). Tavdapirvelad saxelosnoSi aswavlidnen sadurglo da sazeinklo xelobas [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 61, f. 16]. 1889 wlis 24 ivliss TviTmmarTvelobam gamohyo miwa berZnuli da somxuri skolebis asaSeneblad [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1. s. 58, f. 19]. 1895 wlis 26-27 ivniss, baTumis TviTmmarTvelobam vaJTa gimnaziis SenobisaTvis zRvis sanapirosTan gamohyo erT-erTi saukeTeso nakveTi miwisa 2623,95 kv.saJ. moculobiT. gimnaziis Senobis gegma Seadgina samxedro inJinerma d.m. sedelnikovma. amave periodSi dadga iqve gverdiT arsebuli cixis gadatanis sakiTxi [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 228, f. 23]. 1897 wlis 29 seqtembers baTumis TviTmmarTvelobam vaJTa gimnaziasTan gaxsna pansioni [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 277, f. 17]. baTumi Tavisi daarsebis DdRidanve internacionaluri qalaqi iyo. aqedan gamomdinare, baTumis TviTmmarTveloba did mzrunvelobas iCenda sxvadasxva erovnebis axalgazrdebisTvis Sesabamisi saswavlo dawesebulebebiT uzrunvelsayofad. baTumSi TiTqmis yvela erovnebas gaaCnda sakuTari skolebi. 1909 wlis 16 dekembers TviTmmarTvelobam sazogadoebisaTvis ,,polonuri saxli" komarovisa da giorgievskis quCebis kuTxeSi skolisa da biblioTekis asaSeneblad gamohyo 137,32 kv.saJ. miwis nakveTi. baTumis romaul-kaTolikurma eklesiam survili

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gamoTqva gaexsna skola, sadac sxvadasxva erovnebis bavSvi miiRebda ganaTlebas, kerZod, qarTvelebi, polonelebi, frangebi, Cexebi. am ideiT TviTmmarTvelobis winaSe gamovida romaulkaTolikuri eklesiis winamZRvari don gabriel aslaniSvili. am dros baTumSi cxovrobda 20 poloneli, aseve iyvnen litvelebi [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 488, f. 39]. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceoda ruseTis ganapira mxaridan saqarTveloSi saswavlad Camosul axalgazrdebs. 1910 wlis 24 maiss baTumis TviTmmarTvelobam mxari dauWira TbilisSi kavkasiis universitetis gaxsnas. TviTmmarTvelobis sxdomis dRiurSi vkiTxulobT: ,, , , , , , " [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 491, f. 10]. am mizniT, erTroulad daniSnes 5.000 man. daxmareba, xolo universitetis gaxsnis dRidan yovelwliurad dainiSna daxmareba 5.000 man. odenobiT. 1902 wlis 25 aprils baTumis ruseTTan SeerTebis 25 wlisTavTan dakavSirebiT daisva sakiTxi Teatrisa da saxalxo biblioTekis mSeneblobis Sesaxeb [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 386, f. 101]. baTumis TviTmmarTvelobam Teatris mSenebloba sasurvel da aucilebel saqmed miiCnia, romelic moemsaxureboda sam mizans: 1. iqneboda saukeTeso saSualeba masebSi humanitarulaRmzrdelobiTi da saganmanaTleblo saqmianobisTvis 2. qalaqs moutanda karg Semosavals 3. Teatris Senoba gaalamazebda qalaqs. Teatris Senobis proeqtze gamoacxades konkursi. Tavdapirvelad Teatri gaTvaliswinebuli iyo 100 mayurebelze. Teatris adgilsamyofelad airCies nurie-gelis midamoebi. ufro adre, 1889 wlis 17 aprils, Tavadi stefane osipis-Ze stefanovi TviTmmarTvelobas sTxovs zRvispira parkSi miwis gamoyofas sazafxulo Teatris mosawyobad [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 44, f. 14]. zemoT aRniSnul iubilesTan dakavSirebiT TviTmmarTvelobam aseve gadawyvita moewyo erTi ufaso dawyebiTi skola: ,, , " [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 386, f. 20]. TviTmmarTvelobis wevri jayeli winadadebiT gamovida iubilesTan dakavSirebiT gamoeSvaT krebuli, sadac mocemuli iqneboda baTumis istoriul-geografiuli aRweriloba. 1908 wlis 19 marts, TviTmmarTvelobam mxari dauWira moqalaqe g. gomanis ideas da qalaqis a. puSkinis saxelobis dawyebiT skolaSi gaxsna muzeumi zoologiis, botanikis, mineralogiis ganyofilebebiT, zoologiuri baRiTa da akvariumiT [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 476, f. 24].

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1907 wlis 10 seqtembers baTumsa da mis SemogarenSi safuZveli Caeyara klimatur sadgurs. amasTan dakavSirebiT kavkasiis mefisnacvalTan gaigzavna deputacia i. andronikaSvilis, t. triantafilidesis, g. kvicinskisa da s. duninis SemadgenlobiT [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 439, f. 10]. 1907 wlis 10 agvistos baTumis TviTmmarTvelobam Savi zRvis sanapiroze moawyo kavkasiis mxaris sazRvao-samedicinosameTvalyureo sadguri [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 438, f. 2]. 1910 wlis 24 maiss, baTumSi mcxovrebi i.a. baiadJani TviTmmarTvelobisagan iTxovs miwis farTs zRvispira parkSi zRvis abazanebis mosawyobad [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 491, f. 19]. 1908 wlis 19 marts, moqalaqeebma veidemanma da zguricisma zRvispira parkSi moawyves Teatri ,,iluzioni" [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 471, f. 25]. baTumSi mcxovrebma Stenbergma TviTmmarTvelobas warudgina kinematografiis saxlis proeqti. 1908 wlis 19 marts baTumeli n. ruseiSvili zRvispira parkSi xsnis atraqcionebs. 1910 wels, moqalaqe ivane morusi zRvispira parkSi safuZvels uyris kulturul keras, amave dros aleqsandre stefanis-Ze tkaCovma iqve aaSena kinematografiis saxli da musikaluri darbazi, xolo zRvasTan axlos gamoiyo adgili sketing-rinkis mosawyobad (ing. skating rink _ moasfaltebuli moedani an xis iataki gorgolaWebiani cigurebiT sarbenad) [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 991, f. 20]. TviTmmarTvelobam bevri ram gaakeTa qalaqis dagegmarebisa da keTilmowyobisaTvis. ase magaliTad, 1898 wlis 20 aprils TviTmmarTvelobis sxdomaze, romelsac eswrebodnen l. asaTiani, nikolaZe, severini, sabaSvili, volski da sxvebi, ganixiles qalaqis dagegmarebis sakiTxi. sxdomaze warmodgenili iyo qalaqis yoveli quCis, ezosa Tu moednis maTematikuri sizustiT, proporciebis dacviT Sesrulebuli fotografiuli aRweriloba [acsa, f. i-7, an. 1, s. 224, f. 7]. 1889 wlis 10 ivliss TviTmmarTvelobam neba darTo viqtor poliSevskis moewyo centraluri satelofono xazi [acsa, f. i7, an. 1, s. 56, f. 2]. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom TviTmmarTvelobis wevri fics debda RvTis winaSe, rom mis movaleobas Seasrulebda keTilsindisierad da pasuxismgebeli iqneboda RvTis winaSe. amrigad, zemoT motanili saarqivo masalebidan gamomdinare SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom baTumis TviTmmarTvelobam XIX saukunis damlevs da XX saukunis dasawyisSi didi muSaoba gaswia qalaqis kulturuli ganviTarebisTvis.

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gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura

1. aWaris a/r centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi i-7, anaweri 1, saqmeebi 5; 44; 52; 56; 58; 61; 224; 228; 386; 438; 439; 476; 488; 491. 2. m. sioriZe, baTumis municipalitetis saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba 1888-1920 wlebSi, baTumis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, t. 5, baT., 2003.

Merab Megrelishvili (Batumi, Georgia) The Cultural and Educational Activities of Batumi Self-Government at the Boundary of XIX-XX Centuries Summary The present article deals with the problem of cultural and educational activities of Batumi self-Government at the boundary of XIX-XX centuries depending on the archival materials.

219

ermile mesxia

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis Teatris saTaveebTan

2005 wlis 14 ianvars baTumSi maRal doneze aRiniSna baTumis dramatuli Teatris daarsebidan 125 weli. saqarTvelos Teatris moRvaweTa kavSirma, qarTuli Teatris dRe, baTumis dramatuli Teatris saiubileo welTan dakavSirebiT aRniSna baTumSi. am TariRebs mieZRvna specialuri sagazeTo gamoSveba `qarTuli Teatris dRe~ (2005 wlis 14 ianvari). es patara Sesavali imitom warvumZRvareT winamdebare naSroms, rom sazogadoebisaTvis Segvexsenebina qarTuli Teatris istoriaSi damkvidrebuli azri _ baTumis dramatuli Teatris istoria iwyeba 1879 wlidan. ra argumentebs emyareba es sayovelTaod aRiarebuli TariRi? arsebobs cnoba, rom pirveli qarTuli warmodgena baTumSi gaimarTa 1879 wlis 8(20) ivliss. warmodgenis iniciatori iyo baTumis policmeisteris meuRle qeTevan Juruli. scenismoyvareebma warmoadgines z. antonovis komedia `gana biZiam coli SeirTo?~ [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 7]. es iyo saqvelmoqmedo warmodgena, romlis Semosavali gamiznuli iyo baTumis qarTuli skolis sasargeblod. baTumSi scenismoyvareTa pirvel warmodgenas gazeTi `droeba~ gamoexmaura [`droeba,~ 1979, #4]. es arc aris gasakviri. baTumi, sxva qarTul miwa-wyalTan erTad xom sul erTi wlis winaT daubrunda dedasamSoblo saqarTvelos. amitom qarTuli sazogadoebriobis interesi speqtaklisadmi didi iyo, rogorc baTumSi, ise saqarTvelos dedaqalaqSi. warmodgena gaimarTa ficrul SenobaSi, romelic agebuli iyo axlad daarsebuli rusuli samoqalaqo saswavleblis ezoSi. rogorc avtori (g. buxnikaSvili) aRniSnavs, es erTaderTi adgili yofila imdroindel baTumSi, sadac SeiZleboda warmodgenis gamarTva. baTumel scenismoyvareTa pirvel warmodgenas mohyva Tbilisis axlad aRorZinebuli qarTuli Teatris (gaixsna 1879 wlis 5 seqtembers) gastrolebi baTumSi. Tbilisel msaxiobTa speqtakli gaimarTa 1879 wlis 12 ivliss. rogorc mogvianebiT av. cagareli werda, baTumis sazogadoebas didi interesi gamouCenia speqtaklebisadmi [av. cagareli, 1936: 391]. unda vifiqroT, rom Tbilisis Teatris gastrolebma kidev ufro gazarda baTumeli mayureblisa da scenismoyvareTa interesi axali warmodgenisadmi. gazeTma `droebam~ Semogvinaxa kidec es

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saintereso faqti. 1880 wlis 25 marts scenismoyvareebs gaumarTavT: m. ter-grigorianis vodevili `esec Seni maWankloba~ da v. abaSiZis vodevili `coli Tu ginda es aris~. gazeT `droebis~ cnobiT, warmodgena rigiani yofila da xalxic blomad daswrebia [`droeba~, 1980, #70]. Teatrisadmi didma dainteresebam (rogorc mayureblis, aseve `msaxiobTa~) ganapiroba qeTevan Jurulis iniciativiT scenismoyavareTa mudmivi wris Seqmna 1882 wels [s. gersamia, 1949: 9]. am sakiTxebze ase dawvrilebiT imitom SevaCereT yuradReba, rom Tvali migvedevnebina baTumis Teatris Seqmnamde ganvlili rTuli gzisadmi. interesmoklebuli ar iqneba imis gaxsenebac, rom Tbilisis Teatrmac, vidre is Teatrad Camoyalibdeboda, ganvlo mosamzadebeli periodi. Tbilisis Teatraluri dasi 1879 wlis gazafxulisaTvis ZiriTadad formirebuli iyo [v. kiknaZe, 2001: 208]. imave wlis 20 agvistos dasrulda Teatris gastrolebi. saqarTvelos qalaqebSi gastrolebma daarwmuna dasi, rom `mudmivi TeatrisaTvis~ mzad iyo sazogadoeba (xazgasma Cvenia, e.m.). `mudmivi scenis~ dabadebis TariRad Teatris . istoriis mkvlevarebi miiCneven 1879 wlis 5 seqtembers. am dRidan daiwyo Teatris pirveli sezoni. g. jorjaZis komediiT (`ras veZebdi da ra vipove~) 1879 wels TbilisSi gaixsna profesiuli Teatri [v. kiknaZe, 2001: 210-211]. rogorc vxedavT, Tbilisis Teatrma, vidre is Camoyalibdeboda `mudmiv Teatrad~ (profesiul Teatrad), Seqmna Teatraluri dasi da gamarTa gastrolebic, magram arc dasis Camoyalibebis da arc gastrolebis gamarTvis TariRi araa miCneuli `mudmivi Teatris~ dabadebis TariRad. vimeorebT, mxolod amis Semdeg darwmunda dasi, rom `mudmivi TeatrisaTvis~ dasi, mzad iyo sazogadoeba. ase rom, baTumel scenismoyvareTa didi dainteresebis an maTi Semoqmedebisadmi Cveni pativiscemis miuxedavad, ar SegviZlia 1879 weli miviCnioT baTumis Teatris, miT umetes, baTumis saxelmwifo dramatuli Teatris, dabadebis TariRad. ver daveTanxmebiT avtorebis: s. gersamias, g. buxnikaSvilis, l. bolqvaZis, T. komaxiZis (`saiubileo TariRma~ STaagona n. jafariZes poeturi striqonebi) da sxv. mosazrebas, rom 1879 weli CaiTvalos baTumis Teatris Seqmnis TariRad. am SemTxvevaSi g. buxnikaSvilis mosazreba, sxva avtorebTan SedarebiT, ufro mokrZalebulia, igi wers: `aWaris SemoerTebidan erTi wlis Semdeg, 8(20) ivliss, baTumSi adgilobrivma scenismoyavareebma gamarTes pirveli qarTuli warmodgena da amiT dasabami misces qarTuli Teatris arsebobas baTumSi~ (albaT umjobesi iqneboda avtors eTqva, qarTuli Teatraluri tradi221

ciebis aRorZinebas mieca dasabami, rac sruliadac ar niSnavs Teatris Seqmnas). ufro miuReblad migvaCnia naSromSi gatarebuli azri: `am RirSesaniSnavi TariRidan (igulisxmeba scenismoyvareTa pirveli warmodgena, e. m.) asi weli Sesrulda. winamdebare naSromic baTumis dramatuli Teatris am saiubileo TariRs eZRvneba~ [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 4]. rogorc vxedavT, avtori ukritikod aRiarebs da safuZvlianad miiCnevs scenismoyvareTa pirveli warmodgenis gamarTvis TariRs baTumis dramatuli Teatris Seqmnis TariRad, rac yovelgvar safuZvels moklebulia. cnobilia, rom baTumis scenismoyvareTa pirveli warmodgenis gamarTvidan profesiuli Teatris Seqmnamde sakmaod didi dro gavida. aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis kulturis yofili ministri l. bolqvaZe ufro Sors midis da amtkicebs, rom `baTumis baTumis profesiuli Teatris sawyisad swored am periodis (igulisxmeba 1879 w. e.m.) scenismoyvareTa speqtaklebs Tvlian~ (xazgasma Cvenia, e. m.) [l. bolqvaZe, 1977: 9]. Tu ratom Tvlian, amis axsna avtors ar ucdia da arc saTanado argumentebi moutania. gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi ki mxolod varaudebs emyareba da damajereblobas moklebulia. daaxloebiT igive SeiZleba iTqvas aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis kulturis yofili ministris, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtoris baton T. komaxiZis naSromze `aWaris kulturis istoria~ (baTumi, 1999 w.), sadac vrceli Tavi eTmoba baTumis Teatris istorias. avtors igive mosazrebebi aqvs gamoTqmuli naSromSi `Teatraluri warmodgenebi~ [samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi. aWara, 2008: 568-577]. istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT mecnieri detalurad aRwers baTumSi (da baTumis SemogarenSi) Teatraluri tradiciebis damkvidrebis istorias. avtors damowmebuli aqvs bizantieli mwerlis prokofi kesarielis cnoba afsaruntSi (gonio) V saukuneSi Teatris arsebobis Sesaxeb [T. komaxiZe, 1999: 171]. antikuri Teatris istoriis Tema amJamad Cveni msjelobis sagans ar warmoadgens. bunebrivia, arc safuZveli arsebobs eWvi SevitanoT ucxoeli mwerlis cnobaSi. qarTuli Teatraluri kulturis tradiciebic amaze naTlad metyveleben. Tumca, konkretul SemTxvevaSi, sakamaToa, ramden xans iarseba gonio-afsarosis Teatrma. ver gaviziarebT T. komaxiZis mosazrebas, rom `1547 wlidan, mas Semdeg rac gonio da saerTod aWara, osmalebma daipyres, cxadia, Teatrma funqcionireba Sewyvita~ [T. komaxiZe, 1999: 171]. avtors naSromSi damowmebuli ara aqvs wyaro, romelic daasabuTebda 1547 wlamde gonioSi Teatris arsebobas.

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baTumis Teatris istoriis mkvlevari g. buxnikaSvili garkveviT miuTiTebs, rom baTumSi profesiuli dasis Seqmna pirvepirvelad 1891 wels ucdiaT (xazgasma Cvenia, e.m.), magram uSedegod. mogvianebiT es saqme wamoiwyes 1902 wels, magram orive SemTxvevaSi mizans ver miaRwies [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 46]. 1912 wels baTumSi iqmneba e. w. `mogzaurTa dasi~, romelsac saTaveSi edga cnobili mwerali da dramaturgi Salva dadiani. profesori T. komaxiZe Tvlis, rom es iyo mudmivmoqmedi profesionaluri Teatraluri dasi [T. komaxiZe, 1999: 192]. Tumca Semdgomma movlenebma dagvarwmuna, rom es dasi ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos mudmivmoqmed, profesionalur dasad, radgan dasma 1914 wels funqcionireba Sewyvita da adgili dauTmo scenismoyvarulTa wres. amas maSindeli presac adasturebda. kerZod, gazeTi `megobari~ 1916 wels werda: `baTumSi am ori Tvis winaT daarsda scenismoyvarulTa wre. am friad simpaTiur saqmes qarTveli sazogadoebis demokratiuli nawili TanagrZnobiT Sexvda. TviT scenismoyvarulebsac energiuli muSaoba etyobaT, xolo saqmes Tu abrkolebs is, rom wres ar hyavs gamocdili da saimedo, codniT aRWurvili reJisori~ [T. komaxiZe, 1999: 194]. 1916 wels scenismoyvarulTa wres saTaveSi Caudga gamocdili reJisori e. SalikaSvili. 1914 wels `kamerul sakrebuloSi~ (dRevandeli specpoliklinikis Senoba baraTaSvilis quCaze) gaixsna qarTul-rusuli Teatraluri wre g. Silovis xelmZRvanelobiT. wre funqcionirebda 1920 wlamde. 1915 wels a. mamulovma baTumSi Camoayaliba scenismoyvarulTa wre, romelic Senobis uqonlobis gamo warmodgenebs marTavda RamissaTev TavSesafarSi. warmodgenebi imdenad dabal doneze imarTeboda, rom maSindeli presis (Jurnali `Teatri da cxovreba~) kritikis obieqti gaxda. 1917 wels baTumSi moqmedebda lanskis Teatri (konstantine gamsaxurdiasa da sandro axmetelis quCebis kveTaSi), sadac idgmeboda sabaleto da samusiko nawarmoebebi. baTumis profesiuli Teatris Seqmnis gzaze wingadadgmul nabijad unda miviCnioT 1913 wels dramatuli sazogadoebis da 1920 wels `saxalxo warmodgenebis mmarTveli wris~ daarseba [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 56-63[. wre sistematurad ver marTavda warmodgenebs. misi muSaoba ar akmayofilebda mayurebels. maSindeli presa gulistkiviliT werda amaze: `baTumSi saWiroa baTumSi profesiuli Teatri (xazgasma Cvenia, e.m.)~ (`baTumis furceli~, 1920, # 22]. 1920 wels cnobilma momReralma da msaxiobma vaso uruSaZem daaarsa saxalxo warmodgenebis mmarTveli wre. wris dadgmas

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Jurnalma `Teatri da cxovreba~ (1920 w. # 28) misasalmebeli werili uZRvna. 1921 wlisaTvis baTumSi moqmedebdnen berZnuli, sparsuli, somxuri, rusuli dramatuli da saopero araprofesiuli dasebi. 1921 wels Smaevskis nacionalizebul (1920 wels daapatimres antisaxelmwifoebrivi danaSaulisaTvis) TeatrTan Seiqmna Teatraluri dasi, romelsac xelmZRvanelobda vaso uruSaZe. qarTuli dasSi Sediodnen cnobili msaxiobebi: natalia javaxiSvili, kirile maWaraZe, caca amirejibi, mixeil gelovani, vaso abaSiZe, akaki vasaZe, Salva RambaSiZe, emanuil afxaiZe da sxvebi. dasis warmodgenebma sazogadoebis mowoneba daimsaxura [`uwyebani~, 1921, #62]. momdevno wlebSi warmodgenebi didi SeferxebebiT tardeboda, radgan repertuari mowveuli dasis speqtaklebisagan Sedgeboda. rogorc vxedavT, verc sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirveli wlebi aRmoCnda warmatebuli baTumis scenismoyvarulTaTvis (Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT ramdenime warmodgenas da gastrolebs). 1925 wlisaTvis avtonomiuri respublikis xelmZRvanelobam gadawyvita, mTeli yuradReba gadaetana dramatuli studiis daarsebaze, radgan sezonurad mowveuli dasi ver asrulebda Tavis namdvil daniSnulebas. amave dros, daido SeTanxmeba quTaisis dasTan, raTa drodadro Camosuliyo baTumSi warmodgenebis gasamarTavad (zogjer am dass `quTaisbaTumis Teatrsac~ ki uwodebdnen [a. zambaxiZe, 1980: 5] ). quTaisis dasma ver SeZlo am SeTanxmebis bolomde Sesruleba. mxolod ori warmodgenis gamarTva moaxerxa sezonis dasawyisSi [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 78]. 1924 wels damtkicda dramatuli studiis samuSao gegma. studia orwliani iyo. msmenelebad 60-mde axalgazrda unda mieRoT. studias ramdenime Tvis Semdeg unda gaemarTa saCvenebeli warmodgenebi. 1925 wlis damdegs 20 msmeneli (profesori T. komaxiZe 40 msmenels asaxelebs [T. komaxiZe, 1999: 201] ) Seudga mecadineobebs. bolos studias SemorCa 13 msmeneli. studiam erTi weli Zlivs iarseba da daixura. Jurnali `xelovneba~ sinanuliT werda: `Cven yurebi gagviyrues ori wlis ganmavlobaSi aWaristanis akademiuri Teatris studiis Sesaxeb. da marTlac cota fuli daixarja? Sedegebi? araviTari. arc erTi saCvenebeli warmodgena. Tavidanve `kazionurad~ iyo am studiis saqme. Zlivs mSvidobianad miicvala~ [`xelovneba~, 1926: 25]. dramatuli studiis daSlis gamo avtonomiuri respublikis xelmZRvaneloba iZulebuli iyo isev profesiuli dasi moewvia. dasis xelmZRvaneloba daevala mixeil qorels. sezoni gaixsna 26 dekembers da gagrZelda 10 aprilamde. 1926-1927 wlebi ufro

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nayofieri aRmoCnda baTumis Teatraluri dasisaTvis. am periodSi dass saTaveSi edga moskovis samxatvro Teatris msmeneli, reJisori akaki faRava. 1927-1928 wlebis sezonSi dass Seematnen msaxiobebi veriko anjafariZe, maro mesxiSvili, Salva beJuaSvili da reJisori n. goZiaSvili. Seiqmna agreTve patara orkestri. 1930-1931 wlebis sezonidan quTais-baTumis 1930quTaisTeatri Teatri samoRvaweod TbilisSi gadavida (xazgasma Cvenia, e.m.). aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis xelmZRvaneloba iZulebuli gaxda sakuTari dasis Sedgenaze ezruna [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 79-82]. 1930-1931 wlebis Teatraluri sezoni, SeiZleba iTqvas, iyo cda baTumis damoukidebeli (da ara profesiuli) Teatris Seqmnis gzaze. Tumca am sezonsac ar Cauvlia problemebis gareSe. gansakuTrebiT mtkivneuli aRmoCnda msaxiobTa dasis xSiri cvla. 1931-1932 wlebis saTeatro sezonis damTavrebis Semdeg avtonomiuri respublikis xelmZRvanelobam mizanSewonilad aRar scno sxva qalaqebidan mowveul msaxiobTagan sezonuri dasis Sedgena. samwuxarod, 1937 wlamde, baTumSi ar Semdgara dramatuli dasebi. miuxedavad amisa, baTumeli mayurebeli ar iyo mowyvetili qarTul Teatrs, radgan aq regularulad marTavdnen warmodgenebs Tbilisis Teatrebi [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 84-85]. amave dros baTumSi arsebobda Teatris patara kera muSaaxalgazrdobis Teatris saxiT. mkvlevar g. BbuxnikaSvilis azriT, baTumSi 1937 wlamde arsebobda mxolod moyvarulTa Teatraluri muSa-axalgazrdobis Teatraluri dasi _ muSa-axalgazrdobis Teatris saxiT (xazgasma Cvenia, e.m.). . baTumis Teatralur cxovrebaSi axali etapi daiwyo 1932 wlidan. praqtikulad am droidan gadaidga nabiji mudmivmoqmedi profesiuli Teatris Sesaqmnelad. 1932 wels baTumSi gastrolebi gamarTa rusTavelis Teatrma. gastrolebis mimdinareobisas aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis xelmZRvaneloba SeuTanxmda Teatris xelmZRvanels a. axmetels, rom rusTavelis TeatrTan arsebul dramatul studiaSi Seqmniliyo aWaris seqcia da momzadebuliyo msaxiobTa jgufi baTumis TeatrisaTvis. baTumSive gamocxadda miReba. studiaSi Sesvlis survili ganacxada 54 axalgazrdam. Teatris xelmZRvanelobam maTgan SearCia 20-ze meti (profesori T. komaxiZe 22 msmenels asaxelebs [T. komaxiZe, 1999: 207] ) axalgazrda [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 86]. studiaSi swavla 4 weli gagrZelda. studielTa sadiplomo speqtaklis (`sastumros diasaxlisi~, avtori k. goldoni) premiera Sedga rusTavelis TeatrSi 1936 wlis 5 aprils. speqtaklma iseTi mowoneba daimsaxura, rom Teatris xelmZRvane225

lobam mimdinare repertuarSi Seitana (daaxloebiT aseTive ram ganmeorda 2000 wels. baTumis xelovnebis saxelmwifo institutis msaxiobTa pirveli gamoSvebis (jgufis xelmZRvaneli profesori levan mircxulava) sakurso da sadiplomo speqtaklebma (`yvaryvare TuTaberi~, `biloqsuri bluzi~) iseTi mowoneba daimsaxura, rom kursdamTavrebulebi uklebliv miiRes baTumis dramatul TeatrSi, speqtaklebi ki Sevida Teatris repertuarSi. ra Tqma unda, es faqti 1936 wlis movlenebs ver gautoldeba maSindeli movlenis masStabebisa da mniSvnelobis gamo). g. buxnikaSvili baTumis Teatris istoriis pirveli mkvlevaria, romelic mecnieruli keTilsindisierebiT da obieqturad (zogierTi faqtis tendenciurad gaSuqebis miuxedavad) aRwers baTumSi Teatraluri tradiciebis damkvidrebisa da ganviTarebis gzas. misi naSromi `baTumis Teatri~ namdvili megzuria Teatris istoriiT dainteresebuli mkiTxvelebisa da specialistebisaTvis. kidev erTxel gvinda xazgasmiT mivuTiToT g. buxnikaSvilis naSromSi baTumis Teatris istoriis erT detalze. kerZod, igi wers: `baTumelebi didi interesiT adevnebdnen Tvalyurs TavianT mkvidrTa warmatebas rusTavelis Teatris scenaze. am yuradRebas gamoxatavda gazeTi `sabWoTa aWaristani~, romelmac `sastumros diasaxlisis~ premieridan aTi dRis Semdeg dabeWda werili baTumis momavali Teatris (xazgasma Cvenia, e.m.) am pirvel dadgmaze~. g. buxnikaSvils naSromSi motanili aqvs dasaxelebuli gazeTis gamoxmaureba: `... aWaras SegviZlia mivulocoT niWier da kargad momzadebul aqtiorTa jgufis Seqmna, aWaras ar hyavda msaxiobi, dRes is mas hyavs~ [g. buxnikaSvili, 1979: 85]. 1937 wlis 12 marts aWaris jgufi ori speqtakliT mudmivad gamoemgzavra baTumSi [l. lorTqifaniZe, 1980: 5]. 1937 wlis 18 marts (aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis xelisuflebam aRniSnuli TariRi sagangebod daamTxvia aWaris e.w. gasabWoebis TariRs) baTumSi sazeimo viTarebaSi gaixsna pirveli profesiuli Teatri. axladdaarsebuli Teatris dasi Sedgeboda rusTavelis Teatris dramatul studiaSi daostatebuli axalgazrdebisagan. Teatris sazeimo gaxsnis Semdeg dasma warmoadgina g. mdivnis `brma~. dadgma ganaxorciela cnobilma reJisorma d. aleqsiZem. speqtaklSi mTeli dasi (samxatvro xelmZRvaneli arCil CxartiSvili) monawileobda. zogierTi msaxiobi ki ramdenime epizodur rols asrulebda. aRsaniSnavia, rom dasSi Sediodnen rogorc studiadamTavrebulebi, aseve mowveuli msaxiobebi. faqtobrivad, baTumis saxelmwifo dramatuli Teatris istoria iwyeba 1937 wlis 18 martidan, roca gaixsna pirveli

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mudmivmoqmedi, profesiuli Teatri baTumSi (baTumis saxelmwifo Teatris 1937 wels gaxsna arc T. komaxiZes dauyenebia eWvis qveS [T. komaxiZe, 1999: 207] ). mwerali n. modebaZe, romelsac ekuTvnis erT-erTi SesaniSnavi narkvevi baTumis saxelmwifo Teatris pirvel msaxiob qalbatonze nunu TeTraZeze, sagulisxmo informaciasac gvTavazobs Teatris istoriasTan dakavSirebiT: `...saxelmwifo saxelmwifo TeatrSi rigiT meore speqtakli g. mdivnis `alvazari~ S. inasariZem dadga... gamarTlda gulSematkivarTa imedebi _ baTumSi marTlac rom gaixsna mudmivi Teatri (xazgasma zemoTac da aqac Cvenia, e.m.) da am Teatris Rirseuli Semoqmedni iyvnen adgilobrivi Zalebi~ [n. modebaZe, 1980: 12]. rogorc vxedavT, 1937 wlamde baTumSi moqmedebdnen moyvarulTa wreebi da gastroliorTa an mowveulTa dasebi. bunebrivia, es odnavadac Crdils ar ayenebs baTumSi Teatraluri tradiciebis damkvidrebis istorias. Cven sakamaTod Teatraluri tradiciebis damkvidreba ki ar gagvixdia, aramed baTumis saxelmwifo Teatris istoriis saTaveebi, romelic realurad 1937 wlidan iwyeba. roca baTumis saxelmwifo dramatuli Teatris 125 wlis iubiles aRniSnaven da uyoymanod am saiubileo TariRis aRniSvnas ukavSireben scenismoyvarulTa pirveli warmodgenis gamarTvis TariRs, uxerxulia, scenismoyvarulTa pirveli warmodgena profesiuli Teatris daarsebis TariRad CaiTvalos, radgan aranairi pirdapiri kavSiri am or sxvadasxva movlenas Soris ar dasturdeba. ase rom iyos, qarTuli Teatris istoriis mkvlevrebi saqarTveloSi profesiuli Teatris daarsebis TariRad CaTvlidnen ara giorgi erisTavis Teatris pirveli speqtaklis gamarTvis TariRs (1850 w.), romelsac simbolurad yovelwliurad 14 ianvars aRvniSnavT, aramed erekle II-is samefo karTan arsebul Teatrs, romlis damadasturebeli utyuari sabuTebi arsebobs. qarTuli Teatris meistorieni gverds ar uvlian am faqts (erekle II-is Teatri), sagangebodac aris Sefasebuli da aRniSnuli am movlenis mniSvneloba qarTuli Teatris istoriaSi, magram miCneulia, rom es ar iyo profesiuli Teatri da arc aravis azrad mosvlia rusTavelis an marjaniSvilis Teatris istoriis aTvla daewyo XVIII saukunidan an 1850 wlidan. istoriuli faqtebi yvelaze utyuari da obieqturi msajulia movlenebis Sefasebisas. ra Tqma unda, yoveli CvenTagani siamayiT aRniSnavs qarTuli Teatris fesvebis _ ufliscixis, gonio-afsarosis da sxva Teatrebis adgils da mniSvnelobas eris sulier cxovrebaSi. aranakleb Tavmosawonebelia ama Tu im qalaqis profesiuli Teatris siZvelis warmoCena da damt227

kiceba, magram es unda moxdes sruli obieqturobis dacviT, faqtebisa da movlenebis Selamazebis gareSe. logikuri da kanonzomieri iqneba samomavlod mainc gamovasworoT es Secdoma da aRvniSnoT baTumSi Teatraluri tradiciebis damkvidrebis TariRi. amiT ufro metad warmovaCenT da Rirseul pativs mivagebT im adamianebis Rvawlsa da damsaxurebas, vinc baTumSi Teatraluri tradiciebis damkvidrebis saTaveebTan idga.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. l. bolqvaZe, aWaris xelovneba, Tb., 1977. 2. g. buxnikaSvili, baTumis Teatri, Tb., 1979. 3. gaz. `droeba~, 1979, # 4. 4. gaz. `droeba~, 1980, # 70. 5. gaz. `baTumis furceli~, 1920, # 22. 6. gaz. `uwyebani~, 1921, # 62. 7. gaz. `sabWoTa aWaristani~, 1936, # 37. 8. s. gersamia, baTumis Teatri, baT., 1949. 9. v. kiknaZe, qarTuli dramatuli Teatris istoria, I, Tb., 2001. 10. T. komaxiZe, aWaris kulturis istoria, baT., 1999. 11. a. zambaxiZe, `iusuf kobalaZe~, baT., 1980. 12. l. lorTqifaniZe, `merab xinikaZe~, baT., 1980. 13. n. modebaZe, `nunu TeTraZe~, baT., 1980. 14. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi. aWara, t. III, baT., 2008. 15. Jurnali `xelovneba~, 1926, # 25. 16. Jurnali `Teatri da cxovreba~, 1920, # 28. 17. av. cagareli, komediebi, Tb., 1936. 18. n. jafariZe, `asi welia gulSi xar~, Tb., 1981.

Ermile Meskhia (Batumi, Georgia) At Batumi theatre background Summary In 1879 on 8-20 of July the first georgian performance was staged in Batumi. We don't consider when researchers of theatre history confront this date with opening of Batumi Drama Theatre, because there is no connection between these historical events. It will be logical and legitimated to call the year of 1879 as revival of Batumi theatre traditions.

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tariel WiRvaria

(quTaisi, saqarTvelo)

baTumbaTum-quTaisis Teatris istoriisaTvis

qarTvel xalxs dramatul sanaxaobaTa kultura uZvelesi droidan modgams. Teatrisadmi gansakuTrebuli siyvaruli badebda ubadlo talantebs. isic cnobilia, rogori movla-patronoba da saTuTi mofrTxileba sWirdeba am siyvaruls. Teatris macocxlebeli energia arasodes ar unda daiSritos. am energiis saTave ki CvenSia, Cvens sulier cxovrebaSi. saqarTvelos Teatralur kulturas fesvi Soreul warsulSi aqvs gadgmuli. igi uZvelesi droidan arsebobs da antikur xanas ukavSirdeba. XIX saukuneSi ganaxlebuli qarTuli Teatris winsvla XX saukuneSi axali gziT warimarTa, rasac Tan sdevda rTuli procesebi, Tumca brwyinvale reJisorTa da msaxiobTa ZalisxmeviT mTeli epoqa Seiqmna da msoflio Teatralur xelovnebaSi sakuTari sityva iTqva. 1872 wlis 8 ivniss yvarelSi daibada axali Teatraluri skolis fuZemdebeli kote marjaniSvili, xolo 1886 wlis 14 aprils anagaSi (siRnaRi) _ aleqsandre axmetelaSvili (sandro axmeteli). SemdgomSi am ori xelovanis urTierTobam bevri ram gansazRvra qarTul Teatralur sivrceSi. k. marjaniSvili ruseTis sxvadasxva qalaqSi (moskovi, petrogradi, kievi, riga) ocdaxuTwliani moRvaweobis Semdeg, 1922wels, samSobloSi dabrunda erovnuli Teatris istoriaSi udidesi misiis Sesasruleblad. didi reJisoris moRvaweobis dasawyisi sayovelTaod cnobilia, amitom am sakiTxze aRar SevCerdebiT. 1926 wels k. marjaniSvilma datova rusTavelis Teatri da xelmZRvanelad dainiSna reJisori s. axmeteli, romelic Teatrs saTaveSi edga 1935 wlamde. rogor moxda, rom k. marjaniSvili Teatrs miRma aRmoCnda? yvelasaTvis cnobilia, ras niSnavda saqarTveloSi, da ara marto saqarTveloSi, XX saukunis ociani wlebi. istorikosisaTvis, Tuki erTxel gaiazrebs brZolis peripetiebs, romelic im dros mimdinareobda yvela sferoSi da maT Soris Teatraluri xelovnebis sarbielzec, iqneb, erTi SexedviT, advilic iyos movlenaTa da faqtTa Sefaseba, magram sabWouri istoriografia am movlenebs sul sxvagvarad afasebda _ bolomde daCagruli, gasresili glexis da mCagvreli, gadagvarebuli Tavadis an aznauris warmoCena e.w. ,,did reJisuras"

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qmnida. amgvari daZabulobis fonze gadawyda korporacia ,,durujis" Seqmna, romelSiac ZiriTadad bolSevikurad ganwyobili, magram niWieri axalgazrdoba ikribeboda. maSin ar iqneboda advili politikuri elferis danaxva. am gadasaxedidan ki politikuri momenti aSkarad ikveTeba, rac kargadaa gacxadebuli cnobili reJisoris d. anTaZis CanawerSi: ,,sabolood mainc momwifda Cveni organizaciuli gaerTianebis aucilebloba, ramac daaCqara misi Camoyalibeba, miT ufro, rom TandaTan mwvavdeboda konfliqti ,,mamebsa da Svilebs" Soris. es konfliqti atarebda ara imdenad asakobriv, ramdenadac Rrma principul xasiaTs" (ra imaleba am principul xasiaTSi?) [anTaZe: 1962]. am droisaTvis k. marjaniSvili irxeva Zvelsa da axals Soris. amis erTi magaliTia ,,studiurobisadmi" mxardaWera. ,,Tavisufal TeatrSi man manifestic ki gamoaqveyna, sadac Camoayaliba ara imdenad SemoqmedebiTi, ramdenadac eTikuri principebi da Tanamoazreebs erTobisaken mouwoda. rusTavelis Teatris muSakTa erTma jgufmac Seqmna manifesti, romelic a. vasaZem 1924 w. 29 ianvars gaacno mayurebels. masSi gamokveTili iyo ,,Zveli" Teatris miuReblobis sakiTxi. ,,Zveli Teatris nangrevebSi" _ ase iwyeboda manifesti _ marjaniSvili daibna. rogor moqceuliyo aseTi donis xelovani, romelic im dReebSi Tavis statiaSi werda: ,, me vicnob Cveni profesionali aqtiorebis TiTqmis yvela Taobas da unda vTqva, rom Cven gvyavdnen didi msaxiobebi... uZlieresi pleada: nato gabunia, mako safarova, babo avaliSvili, elisabed CerqeziSvili, vaso abaSiZe, lado mesxiSvili, kote yifiani da sxv. [guguSvili 1972: 203-204]. es pleada, aRniSnavs k. marjaniSvili, SemoqmedebiTi xelweriT SCepkinis SesaniSnav skolas miekuTvneba. miuxedavad amisa, didi reJisori mainc ver gaemijna manifestis avtorebs, igi mxars uWerda ,,durujs" da sazogadoebis erTi nawilis risxvisagan icavda mas. arada, rac unda paradoqsulad gveCvenebodes, swored ,,duruji" gaxda rusTavelis Teatridan marjaniSvilis wamosvlis erT-erTi mizezi. korporaciam dasSi ganxeTqileba gamoiwvia, zogierTma Zvelma msaxiobma Teatri datova. amaSi nawilobriv xelmZRvanelobasac edeboda brali. cnobili Teatrmcodne e. guguSvili. imowmebs ra d. anTaZes, wers, rom korporacia arafers ar uTmobda da amiT sabrZolvelad iwvevda mas. marjaniSvils aSkarad gauWirda Seqmnil situaciaSi orientireba. CaiSala gastroli soxumsa da baTumSi. momdevno sezonis repertuarze uTxres, movifiqrebTo da a.S.

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unda vifiqroT, rom korporantebis miswrafeba Zalauflebisaken ewinaaRmdegeboda marjaniSvilis eTikur normebs, amitom, 1926 wlis 4 ivliss, ,,durujis" krebaze, romelic missave saxlSi gaimarTa, gaakeTa gancxadeba, rom Zalian uWirs koleqtivSi muSaoba. sami dRis Semdeg ki dass oficialuri gancxadeba gaugzavna gadadgomisa da Teatridan wasvlis Sesaxeb. unda aRiniSnos, rom korporantebma saswrafod mimarTes sapasuxo weriliT, romliTac bodiSs ixdidnen, erTgulebas eficebodnen da dabrunebas sTxovdnen. werils xels awerdnen: s. axmeteli, a. xorava, a. vasaZe, S. RambaSiZe, u. CxeiZe, d. anTaZe, k. patariZe, a. gvelesiani, T, WavWavaZe, e. donauri, g. daviTaSvili, d. mJavia, g. sarCimeliZe, p. koriSeli. ori wlis Semdeg xelmomwerTa umravlesobam TavianTi gulwrfeloba daadastura, datova Teatri da maswavlebels gahyva. k. marjaniSvilma cota xans kinoSi imuSava. es imanac ganapiroba, rom 1913 wels m. andreevam gorkis TanxmobiT kinostudiis sasceno ganyofilebis muSaobaSi Caaba, magram marjaniSvili ise axlos iyo TeatrTan, rom kinomatografma iq saxarbielo persreqtivebi ver gadauSala. kinomatografiaSi muSaoba k. marjaniSvilma faqtobrivad saqarTveloSi daiwyo. aq Seqmna man eqvsive filmi: ,,qariSxlis win", ,,samaniSvilis dedinacvali", ,,gogi ratiani", ,,kanoni da movaleoba", ,,krazana", ,,komunaris Cibuxi". miuxedavad warmatebebisa, reJisoris ocneba kvlav Teatri iyo. es survili auxda 1928 wels, rodesac moaxerxa quTaisSi Teatris daarseba. imdroindeli quTaisis presa Cveuli iumoriT werda: iseve, rogorc rusTavelis Teatrs, quTaissac esaWiroeba Tavisi marjaniSvilio. marTlac, TviT marjaniSvili ewvia quTaiss, sadac jer kidev Wabukma daiwyo SemoqmedebiTi gza qarTuli realisturi Teatris korifeebis locvakurTxeviT. Sesabamisma organoebma gadawyvites, 1928 wlis Semodgomidan quTaisSi amuSavebuliyo meore saxelmwifo Teatri, romelic ,,baTumsac moemsaxureboda". ras niSnavs ,,baTumsac moemsaxureboda? baTumi erT Teatrs ver Seqmnida? magram mogexsenebaT, ra viTarebac sufevda. didi dro ar iyo gasuli, rac aWara erTi imperiidan meore imperias gadaeca... Semdeg XX saukunis dasawyisis rTuli kataklizmebiT aRsavse periodi, pirveli msoflio omi, revoluciebi... marTla saWiro iyo marjaniSvilisa da axmetelis msgavsi, yvela sikeTiTa da profesionalizmiT savse adamiani. aseT rTul periodSi k. marjaniSvilma da sazogadoebis erTma nawilma gadawyvita Seqmniliyo baTumquTaisis Teatri. migvaCnia, rom es iyo kidev erTi dasabuTeba

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am ori qalaqisa da regionis axlo urTierTobisa da sulieri daaxloebisa. msaxiobTa ZiriTadi birTvi, romelTac quTaisSi wasvlisa da marjaniSvilTan muSaobis survili gamoTqves, Tbilisis muSaTa Teatris dasSi moRvaweobda. maTi wasvla TeatrisaTvis katastrofa iyo, magram imdenad didi saqme keTdeboda, rom Teatris xelmZRvanelma mixeil Wiaurelma yovelgvari yoymanis gareSe daTmo dasis wevrebi. amrigad, 1928 wlis 7 agvistos dasi quTaisSi Seikriba da baTum-quTaisis axlad Seqmnilma Teatrma sezonis gaxsnisaTvis mzadeba daiwyo. SesaniSnavma msaxiobebma mxolod ori weli iRvawes quTaissa da baTumSi, Semdeg TbilisSi gadavidnen da k. marjaniSvilis Teatris saxeliT ganagrZes arseboba. ase rom, dRevandeli k. marjaniSvilis Teatri quTais-baTumis Teatris memkvidre gaxlavT. Tu gavixsenebT ori saTeatro sezonis ganmavlobaSi ra SemadgenlobiT moRvaweobda Teatri, advili warmosadgenia misi sidiade. eseni iyvnen: v. anjafariZe, T. kiknaZe, c. wuwunava. T. WavWavaZe, k. abesaZe, s. zaqariaZe, a. imedaSvili, a. kvantaliani, s. JorJoliani, g. SavguliZe, u. CxeiZe, S. xoneli da sxv. reJisorebi gaxldnen: d. anTaZe, v. abaSiZe, g. suliaSvili. k. marjaniSvilma quTais-baTumis TeatrTan Semoikriba dramaturgebi, poetebi, kritikosebi da mTargmnelebi: S. dadiani, p. kakabaZe, d. Sengelaia, a. quTaTeli, k. kalaZe, g. baazovi, d. Cianeli, i. griSaSvili, g. buxnikaSvili, s. Ciqovani, v. gafrindaSvili, k. mayaSvili da sxv. quTaisSi Teatri funqcionirebda xaraziSviliseul saxlSi. dasma pirvelive speqtakliT did gamarjvebas miaRwia. es iyo ,,hopla, Cven vcocxlobT". amis Semdeg bevrjer Sedga premiera baTumsa Tu quTaisSi, magram gansakuTrebiT gamoyofen p. kakabaZis ,,yvaryvare TuTabers". yvaryvares rolze JorJoliani iyo damtkicebuli, magram moulodnelma avadmyofobam xeli SeuSala da Secvala u. CxeiZem, romelmac brwyinvaled iTamaSa. speqtaklis premiera didi anSlagiT Sedga baTumSi. saerTod, es Teatri iyo moZravi. speqtaklebi ZiriTadad quTaisSi mzaddeboda da Semdeg orive qalaqSi idgmeboda. maSindeli reJimis avma mcdelobam, daecilebina ori didi xelovani da emarTa isini ,,gaTiSe da ibatones" principiT, cudTan erTad kargic gaakeTa, saqarTveloSi erTmaneTis mxardamxar ukve ori didi dramatuli Teatri iRvwoda, erTs xelmZRvanelobda s. axmeteli, meores k. marjaniSvili. gadasaxedi ki ara, mTlianad Tavidanaa Sesaswavli da sinamdvilisaTvis dasabrunebeli am ori didi adamianisa da xelovanis piradi urTierTobac da moRvaweobac. s. axmeteli

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iyo damoukidebeli saqarTvelos parlamentis wevri, opoziciaSi edga n. Jordanias da mis mTavrobas. mas miaCnda, rom am mTavrobaSi ar cocxlobda Zlieri erovnuli suli, riTac niadagi eyreboda bolSevikuri ruseTis Semosvlas saqarTveloSi. am momentamde ori kviriT adre s. axmetelma dadga speqtakli ,,rac ginaxavs, veRar naxav", rasac, misive SefasebiT, dacinviT Sexvdnen. reJisori male Teatridan wavida da cota xans Teatraluri sazogadoebis ganyofilebis gamgis S. dadianis moadgile iyo. marjaniSvilis Camosvlis Semdeg kvlav daubrunda Tetrs, monawileobda 1924 wlis ajanyebis momzadebaSi, rogorc samxedro centris aqtiuri monawile, risTvisac daapatimres da sikvdili miusajes, magram k. marjaniSvilisa da sxvaTa avtoritetma da daxmarebam gadaarCina. Tumca, rogorc vTqviT, mavanT ar awyobdaT aseTi urTieToba da SeiTxza aTasgvari Wori, TiTqosda axmetelma kotes sawinaaRmdegod ,,durujis" wesdebaSi Caawerina fraza: ,,korporanti saubrobs qarTvelebTan aucileblad qarTulad, sxvebTan ki maTTvis gasageb enaze." cnobilia, rom kote rusulad atarebda repeticiebs. iqneb maT sxvadasxva Sexeduleba hqondaT raime sakiTxze, magram gamoricxulia, es maTi samudamod daSorebisaTvis sakmarisi yofiliyo. amis dasturad zemoT moyvanil werilSi axmetelis erTi fraza SeiZleba gamoviyenoT: ,,me vici spetak megobrad darCena brZolis drosac ki, me davikave Seni adgili mxolod im azriT, rom adre Tu gvian dagabruno Sens sayvarel TeatrSi, oRond ki Sen moisurve..." dromac ar acala am or bumberaz xelovans kvlav daaxloeba. k. marjaniSvili 1933 wels gardaicvala, xolo s. axmeteli, rogorc xalxis mteri, 1937-Si daxvrites.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. d. anTaZe, dReebi axlo warsulidan, Tb., 1962. a. axmeteli, dokumentebi da narkvevebi, t. I, Tb., 1978. g. buxnikaSvili, Teatraluri quTaisi, Tb., 1976. n. gvaraZe, Teatraluri memuarebi, t. II, Tb., 1952. e. guguSvili, kote marjaniSvili, Tb., 1972. v. kiknaZe, qarTveli reJisorebi, Tb., 1968. s. WeiSvili, Teatraluri Studiebi, quT., 2007. eleqtronuli enciklopedia ,,vikipedia," www. wikipedia.com

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Tariel Chigvaria (Kutaisi, Georgia) From The History of Batumi-Kutaisi Theatre Summary Georgian theatrical culture has an ancient history. The advancement of the renewed Georgian theatre in the 19th century was successfully continued in the 20th century that was followed by some knotty processes. But with the help of the de luxe directors and actors the whole epoch was formed. In 1922, in the critical period for Georgia, the eminent director Kote Marjanishvili returned in mother country. Unexpectedly he left the Rustaveli theatre in 1926 and Sandro Akhmeteli was appointed. Marjanishvili's retiring was connected with the organization "Duraji". We should think, that corporant's struggle for the power was against the ethical norms of the great director, that's why on the 4th of July, in the meeting of the "Duraji" board he declared about his retiring. Despite of the leaders request he didn't change his decision. Though he was great success in Cinematography, he returned in his beloved theatre. It was decided to start a new state theatre in Kutaisi from the end of the 1928 that would serve to Batumi as well. Tbilisi's worker's theatre moved in Kutaisi and Kote Marjanishvili became their leader. It was a mobile theatre and the performances were staged in both cities.

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ekonomika da turizmi ECONOMICS AND TOURISM

aleqsandre TvalWreliZe

(Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

baTumi da navTobi

mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris dasawyisisTvis baTumi patara provinciuli qalaqi iyo. misi navsadguri ar iyo gankuTvnili saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis gadazidvebisTvis1 (sur. 1).

sur. 1. baTumis sazRvao navsadguri XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi

baTumis aRmavloba iwyeba 1878 wlidan, roca baTumi portofrankod gamocxadda2. baTumisa da sazRvao sanaosnos ganviTareba azerbaijanSi navTobis bumiT iyo gamowveuli. azerbaijanisa da, kerZod, baqos navTobis industria Caisaxa XIX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi. 1871 wlisaTvis baqo gaxda umsxvilesi navTobmompovebeli centri ­ msoflioSi warmoebuli 4.4

Sps baTumis sazRvao navsadguri, http://www.batumiport.com baTumi _ qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, t. 2, Tb., 1977, gv. 148­149; baTumis sazRvao navsadguri, iqve, gv. 151.

2

1

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milioni t navTobidan 45% baqoSi moipoveboda3. 1873 wels baqoSi dafuZnda Zmebi nobelebis sanavTobo kompania (Nobel Brothers Oil Extracting Partnership), romelic myisve gaxda erT-erTi lideri msoflio navTobmompovebel kompaniebs Soris. am kompanias ekuTvnoda azerbaijanis umsxvilesi bibi-eibaTis navTobis sawarmoebi (sur. 2). navTobis mopoveba primitiuli meTodebiT warmoebda (sur. 3). mopovebuli navTobi xis kasrebiT ­ barelebiT4 ­ xSirad saWapne transportis gamoyenebiT gadaizideboda odesaSi, sadac igi tankerebSi5 itvirTeboda.

sur. 2. bibi-eibaTis sawarmoebi 1870-ian wlebSi.

3

Aliyev N., The history of oil in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan International, No 2.2, 1994, p. 22-23; Mir-Babayev M.F., Brief chronology of the history of Azerbaijan's oil business. Sabah Publishers, Baku, 2004, 200 p. 4 sxvaTa Soris, zustad ase Caisaxa navTobis moculobis bareliT gansazRvris tradicia. 5 sanavTobo tankeris proeqti alfred nobels ekuTvnis.

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sur. 3. burRviTi samuSaoebi bibi-eibaTis sawarmoebze

XIX saukunis 70-iani wlebis bolosTvis, roca, rogorc aRiniSna, baqoSi navTobis mopovebam wliurad 2 milion tonas gadaaWarba, navTobis gadazidvis aseTi sqema araracionaluri aRmoCnda da Zmebi nobelebis kompania veRar uZlebda konkurencias Royal Dutch Shell-Tan. XIX saukunis bolos baTumisa da misi sazRvao sanaosnos ganviTareba swored am logistikuri problemiT iyo ganpirobebuli. baTumis Tanamedrove qalaqad gadaqceva, ZiriTadad, sami adamianis moRvaweobiT ganisazRvra. eseni arian:

sur. 4. saxmeleTo gza baqodan odesamde

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1. 2. 3.

alfred nobeli (sur. 5) ludvig nobeli (sur. 6) da baroni alfons de rotSildi (sur.

7).

sur. 5. alfred nobeli

sur. 6. ludvig nobeli sur.

7. baroni alfons de rotSildi

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1876 wels, baTumis porto-frankod gamocxadebisTanave, baron alfons de rotSildis iniciativiT dafuZnda saaqcio sazogadoeba, romelSic masTan erTad gaerTiandnen Zmebi nobelebi, xaji zeinalabdin taRievi, manTaSevi da sxva "navTobis princebi". saaqcio sazogadoebis mizani iyo baqo-baTumis rkinigzis mSeneblobis lobireba da Tanadafinanseba. rkinigzis mSenebloba 1878 wels daiwyo da 1883 wels dasrulda6.

sur 8. baqo-baTumis navTobsadenis marSruti

navTobsadenis teqnikuri parametrebia7: 1. sigrZe ­ 835 km; 2. diametri ­ 200 mm (7.9 duimi); 3. simZlavre ­ 3 milioni t. weliwadSi; 4. sakompresoro sadgurebis raodenoba ­ 16. im droisTvis es yvelaze grZeli, mZlavri da Tanamedrove navTobsadeni iyo msoflioSi8. rkinigzis amoqmedebis Semdeg baTumi gaxda navTobis saeqsporto mniSvnelovani porti, xolo navTobsadenis mSeneblobam igi msoflioSi umsxviles sanavTobo portad gadaaqcia. 1883 wels

Oil industry of Azerbaijan ­ 160 years history. International Bank of Azerbaijan, Moscow, 2007, 75 p. 7 , http://bse.sci-lib.com/article081477.html 8 Ibid.

6

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baTumidan gaizida daaxloebiT 54 aTasi t navTobi, xolo 1913 wels ­ 1.5 milion tonaze meti9. saqarTvelos gasabWoebis Semdeg baTumis roli TandaTanobiT ecema. marTalia, 1929 wels rotSildebis qarxnis bazaze gaixsna baTumis navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana, romelic 13 qveyanas awvdida Tavis produqcias, magram rusebma aqcenti novorosiiskis portze gadaitanes. dRes baTums axali SesaZlebloba eZleva.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, t. 2, Tb., 1977. 2. Sps baTumis sazRvao navsadguri, http://www.batumiport.com 3. Aliyev N., The history of oil in Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan International, No 2.2, 1994. 4. Mir-Babayev M.F., Brief chronology of the history of Azerbaijan's oil business. Sabah Publishers, Baku, 2004. 5. , http://bse.sci-lib.com/article081477.html 6. Oil industry of Azerbaijan ­ 160 years history. International Bank of Azerbaijan, Moscow, 2007.

Alexandre Tvalchrelidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Batumi and Oil Summary At the beginning of the second half of 19th century Batumi was a small provincial town. Its port was not intended for international transportation (Pic. 1). Development of Batumi begins from 1878 when it was announced as Porto Franco. The process of the Shipping Company development was caused by the oil boom in Azerbaijan. The oil industry in Azerbaijan, especially in Baku, started in 1850s. By 1871 Baku had become the large-scale oil extracting center ­ out of 4.4 million tons of oil produced throughout the world 45% was extracted in Baku. In 1873 the company - Nobel Brothers Oil Extracting Partnership ­ was founded in Baku, immediately becoming one of the leaders among the world oil-extracting companies. The company owned the enterprises of the largest Bibi-Eibat oil

9

baTumi _ qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, t. 2, Tb., 1977, gv. 148-149; baTumis sazRvao navsadguri, iqve, gv. 151; Sps baTumis sazRvao navsadguri, http://www.batumiport.com

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enterprises in Azerbaijan (Pic. 2, 3). Often the extracted oil was transferred to Odessa in wood barrels by using cartage transport where it was loaded into tankers (Pic.4). By the end of the 1870s oil extraction in Baku exceeded 2 million tons annually. Such scheme of the oil transportation appeared to be irrational and Nobel Brothers' company could no longer compete with Royal Dutch Shell. At the end of 19th century the development of Batumi and its Shipping Company was preconditioned by this very logistic problem. Turning Batumi into a modern city was determined by the activities of three people. These are: Alfred Nobel (Pic. 5), Ludwig Nobel (Pic. 6) and Baron Alfonse de Rothschild (Pic. 7). In 1876, immediately after announcing Batumi the Porto Franco, a joint stock company was founded by the initiative of Baron Alfonse de Rothschild including apart from him Nobel Brothers, Haji Zeinalabdin Taghiev, Mantashev and other "oil princes". The aim of the joint stock company was to lobby and finance the construction of BakuBatumi railroad. The construction of the railroad began in 1878 and finished in 1883. By that time it was the longest, most powerful modern oil pipe in the world. After putting the railroad into action Batumi became a significant oil exporting port while the construction of the pipeline made it into the world largest oil ports. After Georgia became a Soviet country, the role of Batumi gradually decreases. Although on the basis of the Rothschild factory the Batumi Oil Processing Factory was opened in 1929 transferring its product to 13 countries, the Russians still transferred the accent onto the Novorossiysk port. Today Batumi is given a new opportunity.

241

Temur tunaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumi baTumi da navTobmrewvelTa amxanagoba ,,Branobel" "

Savi zRvis samxreT-dasavleT yurem, sadac baTumi mdebareobs, ZvelTaganve miipyro gansakuTrebuli yuradReba, rogorc bunebrivad mSvidma, Rrma da mosaxerxebelma sazRvao navsadgurma. qalaqis ganaSenianebis erT-erTi winapirobac es garemoeba gaxda da im didi interesis mizezic, rasac misdami avlendnen msoflios didi saxelmwifoebi. XIX saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi baqos navTobmrewvelobis swrafma ganviTarebam ganapiroba gasaRebis axali bazrebis Zieba da baqos CarTva navTobiT vaWrobis saerTaSoriso arealSi. am garemoebam axali mniSvneloba SesZina baTums da xeli Seuwyo mis swraf ganviTarebas. baTumis meSveobiT navTobiT vaWrobis Tema mraval aspeqts moicavs, rogorc politikur-ekonomikuri, aseve, socialuri da kulturuli TvalsazrisiT. am kuTxiT XIX saukunis 70-iani wlebidan XX saukunis 20-iani wlebis CaTvliT periodi mraval saintereso sakiTxze msjelobis saSualebas iZleva da uamrav kiTxvasac badebs. mocemul SemTxvevaSi Cveni dainteresebis sagania navTobmrewvelTa amxanagoba ,,Branobel"-is saqmianobidan gansakuTrebuli aqcenti gavakeToT im sakiTxebze, romlebic uSualod baTums exeba an masTanaa dakavSirebuli. Sved gamomgonebelTa ojaxis, maT Soris navTobis mefeebad wodebuli Zmebi nobelebis saqmianoba rTuli, mSfoTvare da mravalmxriv sainteresoa. maT didi wvlili miuZRviT kacobriobis ganviTarebis istoriaSi. garda nobelis premiisa, rac didi stimulia mecnierebis araerTi dargisaTvis, aRsaniSnavia, aseve, maTi miRwevebi navTobmrewvelobaSi, ramac mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina samxreT kavkasiis, maT Soris baTumis samrewvelo ganviTarebaze. XIX saukunis 70-iani wlebidan baqoSi iwyeba navTobmrewvelTa gaerTianeba da msxvili kompaniebis Camoyalibeba, romlebic miznad isaxavdnen vertikalurad integrirebuli sistemis Camoyalibebas navTobis mrewvelobaSi. sul 1889 wlisaTvis afSeronis naxevarkunZulze navTobmrewvelis xarisxSi registrirebuli iyo 28 firma da 41 individualuri mewarme. maT Soris

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msxvili, vertikalurad integrirebuli kompaniebi1 baqos navTobis 42,2 % awarmoebdnen [, 2006: 35]. kavkasiis erT-erTi umsxvilesi navTobsamrewvelo amxanagoba "Zmebi nobelebi," igive ,,Branobel", daarsda 1879 wlis 25 maiss (axali stiliT 6 ivniss) baqoSi. amxanagobis daaarsebis ideis avtorebi iyvnen sami Zma nobelebi: ludvigi, roberti, alfredi da maTi megobari, artileriis polkovniki petre aleqsandres Ze bilderlingi. maT Soris navTobis mimarT gansakuTrebul enTuziazms iCenda ludvig nobeli, romelic pirvelive saorganizacio krebaze sxdomis Tavmjdomared airCies da SemdgomSic igi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda kompaniis saqmianobaSi. amxanagobis ZiriTadi kapitali 3 mln. rubls Seadgenda, romelic Semdegi TanafardobiT iyo warmodgenili: # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 damfuZneblebi l. nobeli p. bilderlingi i. zabelski alfred nobeli robert nobeli a. bilderlingi f. bliumbergi m. beliamini a. sundgreni b. vunderlixi sawilo Senatanebis raodenoba (aTasi rubli) 1 610 930 135 115 100 50 25 25 5 5

evropaSi rusuli navTi pirvelad Cndeba 1882 wels. am procesTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa 1883 wlis aprilSi Zmebi nobelebis amxanagobis angariSi aqcionerTa saerTo Sekrebaze, sadac xazgasmiT iyo aRniSnuli Semdegi: ,,kompania flobs mniSvnelovan upiratesobas baqos navTobze amerikelebis winaSe da rusul navTs aqvs farTo areali... kompaniis amocanas warmoadgenda gaeZevebina amerikuli navTi rusuli bazridan, xolo Semdgom daewyo rusuli navTis gatana sazRvargareT...

1

amgvar kompaniaTa rigs miekuTvnebodnen: 1. ,,baqos menavTobeTa sazogadoeba" (Camoyalibda 1874-1873 wlebSi); 2. Zmebi nobelebis navTobmrewvelTa amxanagoba (Camoyalibda 1879 wels); 3. ,,baTumis navTobsamrewvelo da savaWro sazogadoeba" (1883 w.) romlis sakontrolo paketi 1886 wels gadavida baroni rotSildis xelSi da Camoyalibda, rogorc ,,kaspiaSavizRvispireTis navTobsamrewvelo da savaWro sazogadoeba"; 4. rusuli mineraluri zeTebisa da sxva qimiuri produqtebis sawarmoo kompania ,,. . ." (1884 w.); 5. 1886 wels Camoyalibda navTobsawarmoo da savaWro sazogadoeba ,, " (, 2006:30-31).

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amerikuli navTi ukve ar monawileobs rusul bazrebze, xolo gasul wels kompaniam daiwyo baqos navTis Setana avstriasa da germaniaSi" [, 2006: 17]. kompania branobelis mniSvnelovanma warmatebebma ruseTis imperiis Sida bazarze, bunebrivia, dRis wesrigSi daayena sazRvargareT baqos navTisa da sxva navTobproduqtebis eqsportis sakiTxi. am kuTxiT nobelebi arasdros gamoricxavdnen amierkavkasiis rkinigzis mniSvnelobas, magram sanam es sarkinigzo qseli Camoyalibdeboda, manamde nobelebs navTis eqsportis ramdenime proeqti hqondaT. erT-erTi proeqtis mixedviT, navTobproduqtebi unda gaetanaT baltiis zRviT. ludvig nobeli am mimarTulebas amarTlebda im garemoebiT, rom ruseTisaTvis ufro mogebiani iqneboda gaetana navTi baltiis zRviT 70-80 kapikad da SeiZleba ufro Zviradac, vidre Caebarebina igi baTumSi ucxoeli gadamzidebisaTvis 40 kapikad. ludvig nobelma organizeba gaukeTa baltiis zRviT navTis eqsports da iq sakuTari tankeri Seiyvana (amxanagobis mmarTvelobam ludvigis sikvdilis Semdeg am tankers misi saxeli uwoda). navTobproduqtebis gatanis es mimarTuleba SemdgomSic iqna SenarCunebuli. mas garkveuli upiratesobebic gaaCnda [... 1904: 80]. igi iTvaliswinebda Sida ruseTis sarkinigzo xazebis gafarToebas da masTan dakavSirebuli infrastruqturis ganviTarebas. baTumis gavliT saqoneli ruseTis teritoriaze gaivlida mxolod 840 verss (amierkavkasiis rkinigzaze), maSin, roca CrdiloeTis gziT gamavali navTobi gaivlida ramdenime aTas verss _ kaspiis zRvis, volgisa da Semdgom ruseTis sarkinigzo xazebis saSualebiT. germaniaSi rusuli navTi erTi da imave fasiT iyideboda, ganurCevlad imisa, baTumis gavliT gavidoda Tu CrdiloeTis gziT. marTalia, baTumTan SedarebiT CrdiloeTiT gamavali navTis fasi 17 kapikiT matulobda, magram es sxvaoba rCeboda isev ruseTis mosaxleobaSi, vinc dakavebuli iqneboda gadazidvebze rkinigziT Tu gemiT da a.S. CrdiloeTis gza ZiriTadad emsaxureboda CrdiloeT evropas da aRmosavleT germanias. amitomac, SemdgomSi, amxanagobam seriozuli yuradReba dauTmo baTums. baqo-baTumis sarkinigzo xazis amoqmedebamde, geografiuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, baqos navTobi ZiriTadad emsaxureboda ruseTis Sida bazars. ruseTis xelisufleba miemxro navTobmrewvelTa interesebs da Tavdapirvelad amoqmedda baqoTbilisis sarkinigzo xazi, romelic SeuerTda Tbilisi-foTis sarkinigzo magistrals. 1883 wlidan ki samtredia-baTumis

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rkinigziT Seikra baqo-baTumis monakveTi [... 1904: 81].2 baqo-baTumis sarkinigzo xaziT dakavSirebam dRis wesrigSi daayena baTumis portis mowyobis sakiTxi. am mizniT Seiqmna komisia quTaisis samxedro gubernatoris general smekalovis (1830-1890) xelmZRvanelobiT. am komisiaSi ludvig emanuelis Zem gansakuTrebuli roli Seasrula. man Semoiara baTumis portis Semogareni, daaTvaliera reidi da gaecno yvela SesaZlo pirobas, rac ki sasargeblo iqneboda saeqsporto vaWrobisaTvis. mis winadadebebsa da rCevebs yovelTvis didi pativiscemiT iTvaliswinebda komisia. misi uSualo xelmZRvanelobiT daitanes gegmaze navTobis sawyobebi, romlebic dayofili iyo ubnebad quCebis aRniSvniT, sarkinigzo xazebi da maTi ganStoebebi da a.S. ludvigis mier SeTavazebuli gegma komisiam moiwona, magram sabolood porti gansxvavebuli gegmiT ganviTarda da mniSvnelovnad dacilda Tavdapirvel saproeqto variants. 1885 wels ludvigi xelaxla Camovida baTumSi da Tavisi Sexedulebebi gaacno maSindel kavSirgabmulobis ( ) ministrs, reidis gawmendis, sarkinigzo estakadebis mSeneblobis da a.S. Sesaxeb. amjerad ludvigis winadadebebi mxedvelobaSi iqna miRebuli [... 1904: 82]. baqo-baTumis sarkinigzo xazi 1883 wels dasrulda, magram 1888 wlamde arsebiTi sargebeli kerZo mewarmeebsaTvis ar moutania, radgan Tavdapirvelad maT ar darTes sakuTari vagonebis gamoyenebis neba. aseTi nebarTva gaica mxolod 1888 wels. aRniSnuli rkinigzis wliuri gamtarunarianoba 5 mln fuTs Seadgenda. erTi mxaris dafarvas eSeloni, romelic 9 vagon-cisternisagan Sedgeboda, andomebda 60-70 saaTs. 1888 wlisaTvis amxanagoba ,,Branobel" flobda 465 kerZo vagons, romlebic baqo-baTumis rkinigzisaTvis iyo gaTvlili. am droidan ufro TvalSisacemi gaxda aRniSnuli sarkinigzo xazis mniSvneloba, magram satranzito tvirTebis moculobas aferxebda rkinigzis dabali gamtarunarianoba, rasac liandagebis simciresTan erTad ganapirobebda suramis uReltexili. am sirTulis dasaZlevad nobelebma gadawyvites moewyoT suramze navTis sakuTari milsadeni _ mixailovodan (xaSuri) yvirilamde. misi sigrZe 62 versi iyo, romlis mSenebloba amxanagobas 650 aTasi maneTi daujda. es iyo navTobis milsadenis pirveli warmatebuli mSenebloba ufro didi manZilisa da simaRlis gaTvaliswinebiT. SemdgomSi es milsadeni amxanagobam daSala da sxva saWiroebisaTvis gamoiyena [... 1904: 83].

amierkavkasiis sarkinigzo qselisa da masSi baTumis CarTvis Sesaxeb ix. bendianiSvili, 2008:223-228.

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im droisaTvis, roca baTumis saSualebiT baqos navTi saerTaSoriso konkurenciaSi CaerTo, evropaSi gabatonebuli mdgomareoba eWira kompania ,,standart oilis" mier warmoebul amerikul navTs. jon rokfelersa da baqos navTobmrewvelTa, gansakuTrebiT nobelebs Soris konkurenciis istoria xangrZlivi da, garkveulwilad, daundobelic iyo. jon rokfeleris erT-erT upiratesobas misi monopolisturi mdgomareoba warmoadgenda, riTac igi axerxebda evropaSi navTis fasebiT TamaSs [tunaZe, mJavanaZe, 2008]. ludvig nobelma gansakuTrebuli simkacre daawesa warmoebuli navTis xarisxze, ramac mas mniSvnelovani warmatebebi moutana. navTTan erTad man ZiriTadi aqcenti gaakeTa evropaSi sapoxi zeTebis eqsportze. 1885 wlisaTvis amxanagobam baTumidan gaitana 717 aTasi fuTi (11745 tona) sapoxi zeTi, xolo SemdgomSi am saxis eqsportma 11 mln fuTs gadaaWarba [... 1904: 86-89]. es sakiTxi am etapze scildeba Cveni Temis farglebs,3 aRvniSnavT mxolod, rom navTobproduqtebis saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi baTumis ports gansakuTrebuli roli eniWeboda, magaliTad amxanagobas germaniaSi navTis 75% gahqonda baTumidan, xolo 25% ru-seTis CrdiloeTi sazRvrebidan, razec zemoTac iyo saubari. nobelebs germaniaSi navTi baTumidan gahqondaT sakuTari tankeriT _ «», romlis tevadoba 5500 tona iyo [... 1904: 84]. Zmebi nobelebis amxanagobas baTumSi gaaCnda specialuri struqturuli erTeuli ,,baTumis kantora", romelic, ,,novorosiiskis kantorasTan" erTad, organizebas ukeTebda navTis eqsports Sav zRvaze [... 1904: 129]. Zmebi nobelebi mudmivad cdilobdnen gadaexalisebinaT sawarmoo da satransporto teqnologiebi. mraval gamogonebaTa Soris, romelTa raodenoba samass aRwevs, baTumTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa milsadenis mSenebloba. baqo-baTumis navTobsadenis agebis idea ludvigma ruseTis xelisuflebas jer kidev 1884 wels SesTavaza, magram uari miiRo. SemdgomSi Tavad ludvigma suramis uReltexilis xaSuri-zestafonis monakveTze 62 versis navTsadeni mili gaiyvana, es iyo pirveli warmatebuli cda navTis gadaqaCvisa, romelmac SemdgomSi xeli Seuwyo udidesi navTobsadenis Seqmnas baqo-baTumis monakveTze. milsadenis mSeneblobis sakiTxi mogvianebiT kvlav daisva, magram amjerad milsadeniT surdaT nedli navTobi gadaeqaCaT baTumSi da iqidan gaetanaT sazRvargareT. nedli navTobis eqsporti evropaSi baqos navTobgadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobisaTvis, faqtobrivad, gakotrebis tolfasi iqneboda. es idea

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amerikuli (pensilvaniis) da rusuli (baqos) navTis konkureciis Sesaxeb ix.: bendianiSvili, 2008:260-261; tunaZe, mJavanaZe, 2008

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navTobis saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi arsebuli konkurenciis erTerTi Semadgeneli nawili iyo, romlis saTaveebTan jon rokfeleri idga. maSin am ideas mniSvnelovani winaaRmdegoba Sexvda Zmebi nobelebisagan. am saqmeSi mniSvnelovani damsaxureba miuZRvis m. beliaminsa da v. ragozins, romlebmac nobelebis davalebiT moaxerxes da CaSales baTumidan nedli navTobis eqsportis idea [... 1904: 144]. Tumca, milsadenis mSeneblobis sakiTxi mainc idga dRis wesrigSi, rac mniSvnelovnad iyo ganpirobebuli baqo-baTumis rkinigzis arasakmarisi gamtarunarianobis gamoc. milsadenis mSenebloba 1897 wels daiwyo da 1906 wels dasrulda. misi wliuri gamtarunarianoba 60 mln. fuTs udrida. baTumSi Semomavali baqos navTi ZiriTadad eqsportisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili, mxolod mcire nawili gahqondaT ruseTSi. 1900-1913 wlebidan baTumidan gaziduli iqna sul 448,7 mln. fuTi navTi, maT Soris 68,9 % gem-cisternebiT, xolo 31,3% _ Tunuqis bidonebiT. navTobis eqsporti baTumidan umaRles niSnuls aRwevs 1903 wels, SemdgomSi, gansakuTrebiT ki 1905 wlidan, Zlier mcirdeba. amdenad, miuxedavad imisa, rom Zmebi nobelebis baTumSi saqmianobis da maTi ,,baTumis kantoris" Sesaxeb mwiri dokumenturi cnobebi mogvepoveba, calsaxaa, rom nobelebma mniSvnelovani roli Seasrules baTumis samrewvelo-ekonomikuri da, saerTod, saqalaqo ganviTarebaSi.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. al. bendianiSvili, sarkinigzo transporti, _ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, aWara, III, baT., 2008; misive: vaWroba da sabanko-sakredito urTierTobani, _ dasaxelebuli krebuli, baT., 2008. 2. T. tunaZe, e. mJavanaZe, evraziul amerikuli navTobis konkurenciis istoriidan, _ IV saerTaSoriso komferencia amerikismcodneobaSi, quT., 2008. 3. . ., XIX , ­ - « XIX », ., 2006. 4. o ­ 1879-1904, -, 1904. 5. .., 60-80 XIX , ­ - « XIX », ., 2006. 6. .., , ­ , ., 1906.

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Temur Tunadze (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi and The Petroleum Production Company "Branobel" Summary Fast development of Baku Oil Industry in the 1870-80s and the search for the market connected Baku and Batumi. This unity was depicted in realizing the Caucasus railway roads including Baku­Batumi railway and oil pipeline. The work depicts various aspects of the activity the Petroleum Production Company "Branobel" of the Swedish Nobel Brothers which was connected to Batumi. Batumi was the only harbour at the Black Sea that attracted their attention. Due to Batumi it became possible to involve Baku oil into the international competition of the oil market, which made Batumi into the port of international importance, the population of the town increased, the infrastructure developed, organization of public services and amenities.of the town improved, The Petroleum Production Company "Branobel" namely Ludvig Nobel contributed greatly to the planning of the Batumi Port nad development of the entire town.

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aslan maxaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

saqmis sabanko saqmis ganviTareba baTumSi

sabanko saqmis Camoyalibeba-ganviTareba yovelTvis ukavSirdeba ekonomikuri saqmianobis mzard masStabebs. amis klasikuri magaliTia sabanko-sakredito urTierTobebis forsirebuli ganviTareba q. baTumSi me-19 saukunis bolos. 1878 wels baTumi tipiuri aziuri qalaqi iyo, xolo 1890 wlisaTvis, ruseTis imperiaSi vaWroba-mrewvelobis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, erT-erTi dawinaurebuli qalaqi gaxda. aRniSnul periodSi qalaqSi rkinigzis Semosvlam da vaWroba-mrewvelobis ganviTarebam ganapiroba sabanko-sakredito sferos Camoyalibeba. 1886 wels Seiqmna ''saxelmwifo bankis baTumis ganyofileba". igi awarmoebda sakredito bileTebis gacvlas, kuponebisa da procentiani qaRaldebis ganaRdebas, gadasaxdeli Tanxebis miRebas organizaciebisa da kerZo pirebisagan, Rebulobda procentian anabrebs da sxva. 1901 wels daiwyo sazRvargareTis operaciebi. 1903 wels wliuri brunva Seadgenda 84 320 049, xolo 1904 wels _ 140 mln rublze mets. rogorc saxelmwifo bankis saqmianobidan Cans, am droisaTvis ruseTis imperiaSi, iseve rogorc sxva qveynebSi, jer kidev araa gamijnuli saxelmwifo (centraluri) da komerciuli bankebis saqmianoba. saxelmwifo banki asrulebs komerciuli bankis rig funqciebs. bunebrivia gacxovelebuli ekonomikuri aqtivobis dros marto saxelmwifo banki ver Seasrulebda biznesis srulfasovani ganviTarebis uzrunvelmyof yvela sabanko-safinanso funqcias. sabanko momsaxurebaze moTxovnis gadidebam ganapiroba komerciuli bankebis struqturuli erTeulebis Seqmna-ganviTareba maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuri funqciebiT. 1890 wels Seiqmna ,,Tbilisis komerciuli bankis baTumis ganyofileba", romelic emsaxureboda vaWrebsa da mrewvelebs, awarmoebda sasaqonlo-sasesxo operaciebs. 1895 wels wvrili mwarmoeblebisa da vaWrebis farTo fenebisaTvis Camoyalibda specialuri daniSnulebis banki _ ,,baTumis urTierTdaxmarebis sakredito sazogadoeba". 1896 wels gaixsna ,,samxreT ruseTis samrewvelo bankis ganyofileba". misi klientebi iyvnen ara marto baTumis vaWrebi da mrewvelebi, aramed quTaisis, foTis, WiaTuris da samtrediis warmomadgenlebi.

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1903 wels amoqmedda ,,ruseT-CineTis bankis baTumis ganyofileba". Semdgom wlebSi revoliciurma gamosvlebma da muSaTa ajanyebebma baTumis ekonomikuri ganviTareba sagrZnoblad Seaneles, Sesabamisad, daeca sabanko-sakredito saqmianobis aqtivobac. qalaq baTumSi sabanko saqmianobis Semdegi etapi sabWoTa ekonomikis TaviseburebebiTaa nakarnaxevi. rogorc cnobilia, aRniSnul periodSi sabanko momsaxurebas eweoda saxelmwifo banki erTiani sqemiT, miuxedavad imisa, rom calkeul periodebSi funqcionirebda specializebuli dargobrivi bankebi. sabWoTa periodSi sabanko saqmianobaSi SedarebiT arsebiTi cvlilebebi daiwyo 1987 wels skkp centraluri komitetisa da ministrTa sabWos 17 ivlisis # 821 dadgenilebiT "qveyanaSi bankebis sistemis srulyofisa da ekonomikis efeqtianobis amaRlebaze maTi zemoqmedebis gaZlierebis Sesaxeb". dadgenilebis safuZvelze ganxorcielda moqmedi bankebis reorganizacia da axali specializebuli bankebis Seqmna, rasTan dakavSirebiTac 1988 wlis 1 ianvridan baTumSi fuqcionireba daiwyo bankebis axalma sistemam Semdegi SemadgenlobiT: - ssrk saxbankis aWaris respublikuri sammarTvelo; - ssrk samrewvelo-samSeneblo bankis aWaris respublikuri sammarTvelo; - ssrk agrosamrewvelo bankis aWaris respublikuri sammarTvelo; - ssrk sabinao komunaluri meurneobis ganviTarebis bankis aWaris respublikuri sammarTvelo; - ssrk mosaxleobis SromiTi danazogis da dakreditebis bankis aWaris respublikuri sammarTvelo. ssrk daSlasa da saqarTvelos damoukidebeli suverenuli saxelmwifos SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT 1991 wlis bolos daiSala yofili ssr kavSiris saxelmwifo sabanko sistema da saqarTveloSic Seiqmna axali sabanko sistema. saqarTvelos respublikis sakuTrebad gamocxadda ssrk saxelmwifo bankis saqarTvelos respublikuri banki, ssrk Semnaxveli bankis, agromrewvbankisa da mrewvmSenbankis saqarTvelos respublikuri bankebi maTi qseliT. saqarTvelos respublikuri bankis bazaze Seiqmna saqarTvelos erovnuli banki, xolo yofili ssrk Semnaxveli bankis, ssrk mrewvmSenbankis, ssrk agromrewvbankisa da ssrk binsocbankis saqarTvelos respublikuri bankebi gardaiqmna saxelmwifo-komerciul da saaqcio-komerciul bankebad. Tumca es procesi metad mtkivneulad mimdinareobda.

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liberalurma sakanonmdeblo bazam da mzardma hiperinflaciurma procesebma xeli Seuwyo komerciuli bankis minimaluri sawesdebo kapitalis metismet Semcirebas ucxour valutaSi. Tavdapirvelad es Tanxa 500 mln kupons Seadgenda, romlis ekvivalenti 700 aTasi aSS dolari iyo. hiperinflaciis pirobebSi 1994 wels komerciuli bankis minimaluri sawesdebo kapitalis Rirebuleba 500 aSS dolaramde daeca. Sedegmac ar daayovna da 1995 wels saqarTveloSi ukve 230 komerciul banks hqonda licenzia. 1996 wels komerciuli bankis minimaluri sawesdebo kapitali gaizarda 100 aTas aSS dolaramde, Sedegad 2 naxevar weliwadSi arseboba Sewyvita registrirebuli bankebis 80%-ma anu 180 bankma. zemoT aRniSnuli mkveTri cvlilebebi ganapirobebda q. baTumSi komerciuli bankebis da maTi filialebis gaxsna-daxurvis process. 1990 wels gaixsna: - komerciuli bankis "krediti" baTumis filiali; - moskovis sazRvao saaqcio bankis baTumis filiali; 1992 wels: - ssk bankis "kavkasia" baTumis filiali; - komerciuli banki "baTumi"; - komerciuli banki "liberti"; - komerciuli banki "koba" 1993 wels: - saaqcio komerciuli bankis "saqarTvelo" baTumis filiali; - saaqcio sazogadoeba "saqarTvelos sazRvao banki"; 1995 wels: - saaqcio komerciuli banki " Savi zRvis auqcionis banki"; 1996wels: - saq. saaqcio komerciuli banki "olimpis" baTumis # 1 filiali; - saq. saaqcio sazogadoeba "inteleqtbankis" q. baTumis filiali. 1997 wels: - ss "Tbilkombankis" baTumis filiali; - ss "saqkurortbankis" qobuleTis filiali; 1999 wels: - ss "kavkasionis bankis "baTumis filiali, amJamad ss "pirveli komerciuli banki";

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2000 wels: - ss "ea bankis" baTumis filiali (yofili ss "saqkurortbanki"), SemdgomSi ss "abreSumis gza" baTumis filiali, Semdgom ss "bta silq roud bankis~ baTumis filiali; 2001 wels: - ss mikrosafinanso bankis `baTumis filiali~, amJamad "ss prokreditbankis" baTumis filiali; 2004 wels: - ss "Tibisi bankis" baTumis filiali; - ss "gaerTianebuli bankis" baTumis filiali; 2005 wels: - ss "banki respublikas" baTumis filiali; - ss " banki qarTus" baTumis filiali; 2007 wels: - ss "korstandartbankis" baTumis filiali; amave periodSi sabanko kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa uxeSi darRvevisaTvis licenziebi CamoerTvaT: 1993 wels: - moskovis sazRvao saaqcio sazogadoebis baTumis filials; 1996 wels: - saq. komerciuli bankis "saqarTvelo" baTumis filials; - saq. skb "kavkasiis" baTumis filials; - komerciul banks "baTumi"; - komerciul banks "koba". 1999 wels ss "olimpi" bankis baTumis 1 filials. 2000 wels skb "Savi zRvis auqcionis banks"; 2001 wels ss kb "liberti" banks; 2004 wels ss "saqarTvelos sazRvao banks"; 2006 wels ss "inteleqtbankis" baTumis filials. dReisaTvis baTumis sabanko sistema moicavs 14 sabanko dawesebulebas, mikrosafinanso organizaciebis CaTvliT. vardebis revoluciis Semdeg, iseve rogorc mTlianad qveyanaSi, baTumSic sabanko saqmianoba dastabilurda da mTlianobaSi xasiaTdeba mkveTri zrdis tendenciiT. kerZod, 2008wels 2005 welTan SedarebiT gacemuli sesxis moculoba 1307 procentiT gaizarda. 2009 wels baTumSi moqmedi komerciuli bankebis filialebis _ ss banki "respublika", ss "bazis banki", ss "prokredit banki", ss "qarTu banki", ss "saqarTvelos banki", ss "saxalxo banki", ss "BTA" banki, ss "korstandart banki", ss "taoprivat

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banki", ss "Tibisi banki", ss "viTibi banki" da mikrosafinanso organizacia "finka saqarTvelo", "konstanta" da "kredos" sakredito portfelma Seadgina 417,529 milioni lari, aqedan 78% biznessesxebia, xolo 22% samomxmareblo sesxebi. 2008 wels grZelvadiani dakrediteba 30%-iT gaizarda da 233,6 milion lars gautolda.

cxrili #1 baTumis komerciuli bankebis mier gacemuli biznes-sesxebi dargebis mixedviT (01.01.2008-31.12.2008) (aTasi lari) gacemuli dargebi % sesxebi aTasi lari soflis meurneoba, metyeveoba, TevzWera mrewveloba mSenebloba vaWroba sastumroebi da restornebi transporti da kavSirgabmuloba finansuri Suamavloba operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, kvlevebi, komerciuli saqmianoba saxelmwifo marTva, Tavdacva ganaTleba jandacva da socialuri momsaxureba momsaxurebis sxva saxeebi sul aWara 18 302,20 84 469,20 327 459,60 623,5 15 046,80 69 082,40 99 574,40 30 574,50 2 090,90 155,9 7 270,10 269,7 0,2 4,6 21,1 30,4 9,3 0,6 0,1 2,2 0,1 0,1 5,6 25,8

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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dakreditebis mTlian moculobaSi yvelaze didi xvedriTi wili vaWrobis sferoze modis ­ 30,4% 199,6 mln lari. am maCveneblis mixedviT meore adgilzea momsaxurebis sxva saxeebi ­ 25,8%. dasaqmebis TvalsazrisiT sesxebis zrda gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania iseT kvlavwarmoebad dargebSi, rogoricaa mrewveloba. dargSi 2008 wels, wina welTan SedarebiT, gacemuli sesxebis moculoba 5-jer gaizarda, xolo mTlian sesxebSi misma xvedriTma wilma 4,6% Seadgina. 2009 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT gacemuli sesxebis 73,6 da miRebuli depozitebis 77,7 procenti Tavmoyrilia 4 bankis filialis xelSi (ix. cxrili #2), miuxedavad imisa, rom bankebis universalurobis xarisxi izrdeba da sabanko konkurencia mcirdeba.

cxrili #2 gacemuli sesxebisa da depozitebis moculobis xvedriTi wili (aTas larebSi da procentulad) 2008 wlis mixedviT bankebis sesxebi depozitebi dasaxeleba aTasi lari % aTasi lari % saqarTvelos banki 62, 907 21,4 27 241 22,9 prokredit banki 58,, 217 19,8 36 954 31 Tibisi banki 72, 991 24,9 20 297 17 banki respublika 22, 122 7,5 9165 7,7 sul 293721 73,6 118 936 77,7

2009 wlis 1 ianvrisaTvis q. baTumSi funqcionirebda 121 valutis gadamcvleli punqti. maTi raodenoba wina welTan SedarebiT gazrdilia 29 erTeuliT. serviscentrebis raodenoba gaizarda 9 erTeuliT da 2008 wlis bolosTvis baTumSi funqcionirebda 36 sabanko serviscentri da 68 bankomati. bankomatebis gazrdam xeli Seuwyo plastikuri baraTebis raodenobis gazrdas da 2008 wlis 31 dekembrisaTvis komerciuli bankebis mier dabeWdili plastikuri baraTebis raodenobam 92 aTas erTeuls gadaaWarba.

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Aslan Makhadze (Batumi, Georgia) Development of banks in Batumi Summary In this work banking occurrence in Batumi by the end of the XIX centuries is studied, the reasons and the conditions causing demand for bank services are shown, specificity and features of functioning of the state and private banks of that time is explained. It is noticed that in the Soviet period the state bank system functioned on united scheme. The following analyses are shown in the article: banking development and transformation in independent Georgia, level of development of bank system in Batumi, dynamics of credit and depositary operations during the last years, a credit portfolio on separate branches. In Batumi function branches and banking establishments from which it is revealed that more than 75% of active and passive operations carry out 4 universal bank branches.

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zviad eliziani (baTumi, saqarTvelo) kurt raici (berlini, germania)

baTumis adgili aWaris turistuli industriis ganviTarebaSi

baTumis, rogorc turistuli qalaqis ganviTarebis perspeqtiva ganxiluli unda iqnes aWaris turistuli seqtoris da, zogadad, saqarTvelos turizmis ganviTarebis strategiis WrilSi. aWaraSi ganviTarebis kargi perspeqtivebi aqvs ara marto tradiciul saplaJo turizms, aramed, aWaris maRalmTianeTSi, ekoturizms, agroturizms da eTnokulturul turizmsac. Sesabamisad, am tipis damsveneblebisaTvis baTumi SeiZleba moazrebul iqnes, rogorc erTgvari sabazo centri. saqarTveloSi organizebuli turebis (10-14 dRiani) farglebSic baTumi warmodgenilia rogorc erT-erTi turistuli adgili, sadac SeiZleba 2-3 dRe gaCerdes turisti. baTumSi turistuli ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba gamoiyos Semdegi ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi: _sazRvao/saplaJo turizmi _ zRvis plaJze dasveneba, rac sazRvao/saplaJo sazRvao/sapl am etapze baTumSi Camomsvleli turistebis ZiriTadi moTxovnaa. ZiriTadi klientura ­ Sida turistebi, somxeTi, azerbaijani, SemdgomSi, infrastruqturis gaumjobesebasTan erTad etapobrivad SesaZlebelia turistebis mozidva sxva regionebidanac - Sua azia (yazaxeTi), ukraina, baltiispireTi. am kuTxiT evropeli turistebis mozidva naklebsavaraudoa. _kongres turizmi / MICE turizmi ­ sxvadasxva saxis konkongres ferenciis, kongresebis, gamofenebis organizeba, rogorc qveynis, ise regionaluri da saerTaSoriso masStabis RoniZiebebi. _festivalebi _ baTums sxvadasxva saxis festivalebis festivalebi Catarebis kargi perspeqtiva aqvs ­ kino, musika, Teatri da a.S. es procesebi ukve dawyebulia da mravali festivali tardeba. _kulturuli turizmi ­ istoriuli adgilebis, arqiteqtukulturuli ruli Zeglebis monaxuleba baTumSi da mis garSemo. Gulisxmobs aseve adgilobrivi folkloris gacnobasac. _sakruizo turizmi _ kargi marketingis da organizebis sakruizo pirobebSi, es mimarTulebac sakmaod perspeqtiulia. aq igulisxmeba rogorc Savi zRvis auzis teritoriaze sakruizo marsrutebSi baTumis integracia, ise saerTaSoriso sakruizo

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kompaniebTan TanamSromlobiT saerTaSoriso sakruizo gemebis Semoyvana _kazino turizmi _ samomavlod es mimarTulebac SeiZleba kazino iqces baTumSi turizmis industriis erT-erTi mniSnvelovan nawilad. mravali sastumro kompleqsi, romelic baTumSi Sendeba an dagegmilia aSendes, proeqtis farglebSi iTvaliswinebs kazinosac. amasTan, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom mezobel qveynebSi ­ Aazerbaijani, TurqeTi, aseve irani da israeli, kazino biznesi akrZalulia, kargi strategiis pirobebSi SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovani raodenobis turistebis mozidva. baTumSi turizmis ganviTarebis kuTxiT SeiZleba gamovyoT xelSemwyobi da xelisSemSleli faqtorebi. Zlieri mxareebi da xelSemwyobi faqtorebi: _Savi zRva ­ rogorc mniSvnelovani rekreaciuli resursi. _geografiuli mdebareoba ­ evropa/aziis gzajvaredini, rac mdebareoba aiolebs transportirebas. _subtropikuli hava. _sinTezi sxvadasxva dadebiTi faqtorebis sinTezi ­ zRva, qalaqi, istoria, kultura. ­ _qalaqSi mimdinare infrasturqturuli proeqtebi etapobrivad xdeba qalaqis infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba. susti mxareebi da mosalodneli safrTxeebi: _turistuli servisis dabali done _ servisis arsebuli done mniSvnelovnad Camouvardeba ara marto evropul, aramed mezobel qveynebSi (mag. TurqeTi) arsebul servisis standartebsac. _maRali fasebi ­ dasveneba baTumSi (da zogadad aWaris regionis kurortebze) Rirs Zalian Zviri. SedarebisTvis ­ TurqeTis sazRavao kurortebze dasveneba saSualod orjer ufro naklebi jdeba. aseve, praRaSi dasvenebac, SeiZleba iTqvas, 30-35%-iT naklebi Rirs. aviatransportze _maRali fasebi aviatransportze _ aviabileTebi evropidan saqarTveloSi Rirs Zalian Zviri. mag: germaniidan saqarTveloSi aviagadafrena (ormxrivi gza) daaxloebiT igive jdeba, rac germaniidan antaliaSi 1 kviriani turistuli paketi, raSic Sedis ­ aviagadafrena, sastumro, kveba. _ekologiuri problemebi _ Sav zRvaze ekologiuri kuTxiT sakmaod problematuri situaciaa. ucxoeli eqspertebis kvlevebic adasturebs, rom mavne nivTierebebis arseboba zRvis wyalSi (gansakuTrebiT baTumis garSemo) ramdenjerme aRemateba

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dasaSveb normebs. ekologiur problemad SeiZleba CavTvalod qalaqis sasmeli wyliT momaragebis sistemaSi am etapze arsebuli xarvezebic. _uxvnaleqianoba / xSiri wvimebi ­ zafxulis sezonze wvimiani amindebi uaryofiTad moqmedebs turistebze. nakleboba _gasarTobi infrasqtruqturis nakleboba ­ garda zafxulis periodisa, baTumSi Zalian mcirea gasarTobi saSualebebi, sadac turists SeeZleba saRamoTi gasvla da dasveneba/garToba. _marketingi / brendingi _ miuxedavad garkveuli sareklamosainformacio saqmianobisa, baTumi mainc naklebad aris cnobili saerTaSoriso turistuli bazrisaTvis. ar momxdara baTumis, rogorc turistuli qalaqis, brendingi. _strategiuli gegmis ararseboba ­ praqtikuli samoqmedo gegma, romlis mixedviTac moxdeboda ganviTareba, jer kidev ar aris SemuSavebuli. turizmis ganviTareba da baTumis Camoyalibeba erT-erT mniSvnelovan turistul centrad moiTxovs qmediTi RonisZiebebis gatarebas am mimarTulebiT. baTumSi turizmis ganviTarebis nabijebi/rekomendaciebi: _ekologiuri problemebis mogvareba ­ zRva, zRvis sanapiro. turis istuli amaRleba _turistuli servisis amaRleba ­ am kuTxiT aucilebelia Sesabamisi saswavlo programebis, gansakuTrebiT ki profesiuli ganaTlebis programebis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba. _fasebis daregulireba ­ konkurentunariani turistuli produqtis Seqmna dakavSirebulia racionaluri safaso politikis formirebasTan. _saSualo fenaze orientirebuli sastumroebis mSenebloba ­ mxolod maRali klasis sastumroebis mSenebloba naklebad mizanSewonilia, aucilebelia ganviTardes saSualoSemoasvlian segmentze orientirebuli sastumroebi ­ racionaluri safaso politikiTa da Sesabasami servisis doniT. atraqcion onebis _sxvadasxva saxis atraqcionebis Seqmna _ gasarTobi dawesebulebebi. _kulturuli RonisZiebebi ­ festivalebis, koncertebis organizeba. _sareklamo / sainformacio saqmianobis gaumjobeseba _ internet- reklamis / onlain-marketingis aqtiuri gamoyeneba; baTumis, rogorc turistuli adgilis warmoCena internetsivrceSi.

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_brendingi _ baTumis, rogorc mniSvnelovani turistuli centris imijis formireba.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. "turizmis ganviTarebis strategia", aWaris ar turizmis da kurortebis departamentis masalebi, baT., 2008. 2. "Invest in Adjara", Adjara AR government, Batumi, 2008. 3. "National Tourism Development and Investment Strategy for Georgia", by The America-Georgia Business Council and SW Associates, LLC, Washington DC, 2008. 4. "Republic of Georgia Tourism Development Site Visit", by Thomas Tait and Bob Miller, Las Vegas (USA), 2007. 5. "Report on Advisory Services to the Adjarian Government for the Compilation of a Master plan in order to Develop the Adjara Coast under Consideration of Social, Ecological and Tourist Aspects", by Eike Otto, Consultant for Regional Development and Tourism; Batumi, 2008.

Zviad Eliziani (Batumi, Georgia) Kurt Heinz Reitz (Berlin, Germany) The place of Batumi in Tourism Sector Development of Adjara Region Summary Batumi as a city has good perspectives for tourism development and this of course should be planned in coordination and as part of overall tourism industry development of Adjara region and whole Georgia. The following forms of tourism have best potential for Batumi ­ Vacation on beach (mainly domestic and neighboring countries), MICE tourism, cultural tourism, Cruises, Casino etc. There are many positive factor that creates the good basis for the tourism development ­ Black sea as recreational resource, good geographical location (cross-road between Europe and Asia), subtropics climate, ongoing improvement of infrastructure etc. Although, to achieve the creation of highly developed tourism sector several steps should be taken such as: improvement of ecological situation of black sea, upgrading the tourism service level, establishment of rational price policy (right now the prices at hotels, on air tickets are too high), creating of diverse entertainment industry, improving of advertisement/information campaign and branding of city as tourism destination etc.

259

omar JiJavaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis axali adgili saerTaSoriso turizmis rukaze

saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTareba XIX saukunidan iwyeba. gulrifSis sanatoriumi udidesi iyo mefis ruseTSi. aSenda sakurorto kompleqsi gagraSi, soxums mieniWa sazRvao kurortis statusi, mogvianebiT sakurorto dawesebulebebi gaSenda aWaris SavizRvispireTSi. cneba `turi~ Semotanili iqna 1750 wels. termini `turisti~ mogzaurs aRniSnavs. mogzaurobaTa aRwera jer kidev herodotedan iwyeba. saerTaSoriso turizmis `mamad~ miCneuli ingliseli reformatori Tomas kuki (1808-1892) orTqlmavals qalaqis mosaxleobis qalaqgareT gasaseirneblad, gamofenebsa da ralize samogzaurod iyenebda. turizmi did rols asrulebs msoflio ekonomikaSi. ekonomikis es dargi viTardeba swrafi tempebiT da mosalodnelia, rom gaxdeba misi mniSvnelovani seqtori. baTumis, rogorc sakurorto qalaqis mniSvneloba XX saukunis bolos gaizarda, rodesac ruseTis wyalobiT daikarga afxazeTi. 2008 wlis agvistoSi dawyebuli ruseT-saqarTvelos omis Semdeg, rogorc cnobilia, ruseTma moaxdina afxazeTis da samaCablos okupacia. aseT pirobebSi baTumis da mTlianad aWaris SavizRvispireTis ganviTareba saqarTvelosaTvis pirveli rigis prioritetad iqca. baTumze, rogorc sazRvao kurortze saubrisas, is unda ganvixiloT, rogorc zona maxinjauridan sarfis CaTvliT. am zonis erT-erT ZiriTad sakurorto faqtors warmoadgens klimaturi pirobebi. samTo da sazRvao klimatis Serwymis wyalobiT baTumis zRvispireTi Seudarebelia. igi xasiaTdeba rbili zamTriTa da cxeli zafxuliT. banaobis sezonis xangrZlivoba saSualoze metia. klimatoTerapia maRalefeqturia mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi. damatebiT sakurorto faqtorad iTvleba mineraluri wyaroebi (maxinjauri). mdidaria floriT, romelic warmodgenilia farTofoTlovani tyiT, maradmwvane mcenareebiT. bevria Semotanili tropikuli da subtropikuli jiSebi. vardebis revoluciis Semdeg baTumi mTlianad Seicvala. qalaqis savizito baraTia Tanamedrove doneze aRWurvili axali aeroporti. ramdenime weliwadSi dasruldeba avtobanis

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mSeneblobac, romelic kidev ufro gazrdis ucxoeli turistebis raodenobas. mniSvnelovnad gaizarda da galamazda baTumis bulvari. sruliad Seicvala baTumis centri. qalaqi mTlianad xaraCoebSia moqceuli. qveynis xelisuflebisa da ucxoeli investorebis wyalobiT, baTumi ara mxolod saqarTvelos, aramed mTlianad Savi zRvis regionis margalitad iqca. Qalaqma axali adgili daikava saerTaSoriso turizmis rukaze. saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis faqtorebia: a) bunebrivi resursebi, istoriul-kulturuli Zeglebi; b) kapitali; g) SromiTi resursebi. sazRvargareTis qveynebis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTareba mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli Siga turizmis bazarze. Siga turizmze moTxovnebis maRali done qmnis sasurvel atmosferos da pirobebs saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis _ iqmneba damatebiTi turistuli adgilebi, viTardeba satransporto kavSirebi, turizmis bunebrivi da istoriul-kulturuli centrebi. bunebrivia, rom qveynebi, romelTac xelewifebaT marTon didi Siga moTxovnebi, mzad arian daakmayofilon saerTaSoriso standartebi. aqedan gamomdinare, saerTaSoriso turistuli gacvlebis moculoba metia im qveynebs Soris, romlebsac gaaCniaT Siga turizmis maRali done da erTnairi struqtura. saqarTvelos gaaCnia SesaniSnavi pirobebi Siga turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas SeuZlia Svebulebebis gatareba SavizRvispireTSi, Tavis mxriv, baTumisa da mTlianad zRvispireTis mosaxleobas SeuZlia daisvenos mTaSi. didi arCevani aqvT mogzaurobisa da alpinizmis moyvarulebsac. baTumis zRvispira zona da misi mimdebare teritoriebi SedarebiT naklebad mdidaria kulturul-istoriuli ZeglebiT. Tumca, rac aris, isic ucnobia turistebisaTvis saTanado reklamis uqonlobis gamo. amasTan dakavSirebiT saWiroa garkveuli Zalisxmeva, feradi cnobarebis, prospeqtebis gamoSveba, romlebSic aisaxeba kulturul-istoriuli Zeglebis istoria, lamazi legendebi. kargad SerCeuli feradi slaidebi da frTiani sareklamo frazebi kidev ufro metad miizidaven ucxoel turistebs. saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebas aferxebs turistuli kompaniebis nakleboba. adgilobrivi turoperatorebi faqtobrivad ucxoeli turoperatorebis danamats warmoadgenen. ar iqmneba axali turistuli produqtebi, rac gamowveulia dargSi konkurenciis dabali doniT. baTumSi Camosuli turisti faqtobrivad qalaqSi, sastumroSia Caketili. amitom momavalSi is CvenTvis, rogorc turisti, dakargulia.

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turizmis mesveurebma baTumSi kargad unda gaacnobieron, rom am sferoSi ganviTarebisaTvis msoflio turistul bazarze baTumis farTo reklamirebaa aucilebeli. am mizniT saWiroa sxvadasxva qveyanaSi saqarTvelos saelCoebTan TanamSromloba, gamofenebis mowyoba, axali sareklamo rgolebis damzadeba-datrialeba da a.S. SesaZlebelia yovelwliuri kinofestivalis, safexburTo turniris, konkursis da a.S. Catareba. gavixsenoT, rom safrangeTis saxelganTqmuli kurortebi TavianT popularobas msgavsi saSualebebiT zrdidnen. abaSiZis reJimis pirobebSi baTumis da mTlianad aWaris reputacia sakmaod Seilaxa, amitom saWiroa reklamis meSveobiT baTumisaTvis saTanado imijis Seqmna. meore msoflio omis Semdeg saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis mizniT germanelebma sareklamo plakatebze goeTe gamosaxes da msoflios hkiTxes: `germania! rogor mogewonebaT Tqven igi?~ bulgarelebma sareklamo rgolebSi antikuri xanis Trakieli momRerali orfeosi gamoiyenes. Tanamedrove donis turistuli centris Camoyalibeba, romelic saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebis aucilebeli pirobaa, SeuZlebelia dargSi investiciebis mozidvis gareSe. mxolod Cveni qveynis bunebrivi pirobebi am mimarTebiT garantad ar gamodgeba. arc Siga turstuli bazris ganviTareba iZleva gansakuTrebul imedebs, radganac mosaxleobis Semosavlebi dabalia, amasTan, dargSi arsebuli konkurencia kidev ufro aZnelebs problemis gadawyvetas. baTumis turistuli centri unda gaxdes saqarTvelos turistuli centris Semadgeneli nawili da iTanamSromlos danarCeni regionebis turistul centrebTan, turizmis ganviTarebis erTiani koncefciis safuZvelze. arc Tu ise didi xnis winaT qveyanaSi visi interesebic imarjvebda, misive koncefcia mtkicdeboda, ris gamoc bevrjer iZala revoluciurma cvlilebebma. amitom unda vimedovnoT, rom turizmis koncefciis ganviTareba miiRebs ara revoluciur, aramed evoluciur xasiaTs. Siga turizmis ganviTareba uzrunvelyofs qalaqSi sastumroebis qselis ganviTarebas, restornebis qselis keTilmowyobas da axali turistuli kompleqsebis mSeneblobas, rac xels Seuwyobs baTumSi evropuli donis turistuli centris Camoyalibebas. baTumSi saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTareba moiTxovs industriisa da misi Sesabamisi infrastruqturis ganviTarebas. amasTan erTad aucilebelia Tanamedrove msoflio standartebis donis turistuli centris arseboba-ganviTareba Semdeg ZiriTad elementebTan erTad: _ sastumroebi;

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_ restornebis qseli; _ kruizebi, gasarTobi saSualebebi; _ Suamavlebi, turistuli kompaniebi. aqedan gansakuTrebuli mnSvneloba sastumro meurneobis ganviTarebas eniWeba. sastumroebi turistuli nakadebis ganmsazRvrelia. sastumroebis biznesi pirdapir an iribad qmnis samuSao adgilebs da iTvleba ucxouri valutiT xazinis Sevsebis mniSvnelovan saSualebad. msoflioSi mudmivad mimdinareobs axali sastumroebis mSeneblobisa da Zvelis modernizaciis procesi. baTumSi am mimarTulebiT mniSvnelovani samuSaoebi tardeba. ucxouri investiciebis wyalobiT qalaqs emateba hiltonis, Seratonis, redisonis sastumroebi. mravladaa patara, moxdenili sastumroebic. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom baTumis Zvel ubnebSi agebuli sastumroebi mouxerxebelia infrastruqturis TvalsazrisiT da ver akmayofileben komfortis moyvaruli turistebis moTxovnebs. arada, isini swored maRalSemosavlian turistul segmentzea gaTvlili. sastumroebis mSeneblobisas gauTvaliswinebelia `momcro qisis~ mqone turistebis moTxovnebic. amasTan dakavSirebiT, baTumis zonaSi arsebul sastumroebTan erTad, mizanSewonili iqneba Semdegi tipis sastumroebis mSenebloba: a) kotejebi, soflis saxlebi, romlebic ganlagebuli iqnebian sakurorto gzis axlos. evropaSi komfortabelurobiT isini karg sastumroebsac ar Camouvardebian; b) motelebi (otel-kafe-restornebi) romlebic ganlagebulia saavtomobilo gzis axlos da emsaxureba avtoturistebs; g) kempingebi, dasasvenebeli saxlebi, bungaloebi, soflis saxlebi; d) apartament-oteli; evropaSi gansakuTrebiT popularulia soflis turizmi, romlis ganviTareba baTumis sakurorto zonaSi advilad mosaxerxebelia. garkveuli problemebia mosagvarebeli sarestorno qselSi, romelic ZiriTadad maRalSemosavlian turistebzea gaTvlili, Tumca maTi done zogierTi gamonaklisis garda saSualoze dabalia. dasaxvewia meniu, romelic ZiriTadad qarTuli, tradiciuli kerZebiTaa warmodgenili. restornebi naklebad komfortabeluria da momsaxure personali dabalkvalificiuria. saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTareba baTumis sakurorto zonaSi da mTlianad saqarTveloSi ualternativoa. SavizRvispireTSi turizmis ganviTareba gamoiwvevs axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas. turizmis gavlena dasaqmebulTa ricxvis

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zrdaze ganmsazRvreli iqneba ara mxolod baTumis sakurorto zonis, aramed mTeli qveynis mosaxleobisTvisac. ZiriTadi turistuli faqtoris _ zRvis efeqturad gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, baTumi mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi moemsaxureba turistebs. skeptikosebi miiCneven, rom Savi zRva civia da amitom baTumi ver gaxdeba maRali donis sazRvao kurorti. Tanamedrove epoqaSi aseTi midgoma mcdaria, rasac adasturebs erT-erT germanul JurnalSi moyvanili Canaweri: `CrdiloeTis zRvis kunZulis sanapiro zoli uamindobis miuxedavad, yovelTvis damsveneblebiTaa savse. maT wyalgaumtari labadebi acviaT da mSvidad daseirnoben sanapiroze. saerTod, germaniis zRvispireTi, holandiidan poloneTamde, arasdros aris carieli. zafxulis cxel dReebSi ki, aq nemsic ar Cavardeba. igi odiTganve dasvenebis klasikur adgiladaa miCneuli. restornebis farTo qseli da suvenirebiT movaWre jixurebi sxva mraval gasarTob saSualebebTan erTad, did rols TamaSoben damsvenebelTa mizidvaSi. maTi biznesi metad momgebiania da cxadia, saxelmwifo biujetSi soliduri Tanxa Sedis. sanapiroze mowyobili kompleqsebi didi popularobiT sargebloben damsvenebelTa Soris. albaT, lamazia imis SegrZneba, roca uzarmazari palmebis qveS nebivrob da irujebi, xolo mis iqeT wvima modis da qari boboqrobs.~ zemoT xsenebuli Canaweri odnavi cvlilebis SetaniT gacilebiT damajerebel saxes miiRebs baTumis zRvispira zonasTan dakavSirebiT.

Omar Zhizhavadze (Batumi, Georgia) Batumi ­ the new plase on the world tourism map Summary The significance of Batumi as a sea resort has increased since late 20l century when Abkhazia was lost owing to Russia. After the Rose Revolution the development of Batumi and generally the whole Adjara Black sea coastline has become the first rate priority for Georgia. The Batumi littoral is beyond comparison owing to the combination of mountainous and marine climate. It is characterized by warm winter and hot summer. Climatotherapy is highly effective throughout the year. The factors for the development of international tourism are: natural resources, historical and cultural monuments, capital and labor resources.

264

The development of international tourism in Batumi depends on internal tourism market. The existence and development of a tourist center of European standards is essential for the tourism development. The following are the main elements of such a center: hotels, chains of restaurants, cruises, entertainment facilities, mediators, tourist companies. Thanks to the government and foreign investments Batumi has turned into a Black Sea pearl. It has secured a new place on the map of international tourism.

265

arqiteqtura ARCHITECTURE

maia WiWileiSvili

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis Zveli baTumis arqiteqturis mxatvruli stilis zogierTi sakiTxi

baTumis, rogorc qalaqis sivrciTi organizaciis specifika ganpirobebuli iyo misi bunebrivi adgilmdebareobiTa da reliefis xasiaTiT, rac, ZiriTadad, efuZneboda landSaftisa da met-naklebad mowesrigebuli, geometriuli urbanuli ganaSenianebis Tanxvedris princips. XIX s-is 90-ian wlebSi ukve gansazRvruli iyo baTumis dagegmarebis xasiaTi, sivrcis Taviseburebebi da qalaqmSeneblobis ZiriTadi parametrebi. XIX saukunis dasasruli da XX saukunis dasawyisi saqarTveloSi xasiaTdeba burJuaziuli cxovrebis wesis, arqiteqturis axali funqciuri, sivrcul-moculobrivi Tu mxatvrul-stilisturi Taviseburebebis damkvidrebiT. istoriuli baTumis met-naklebad avTentikuri saxe saSualebas gvaZlevs warmovaCinoT Zveli qalaqis mxatvruli stilisa da arqiteqturuli mTlianobis Taviseburebani. winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens istoriuli baTumis (XIX saukunis dasasruli da XX saukunis dasawyisi) stilisturi Taviseburebebis, Zveli qalaqis mxatvruli iersaxis specifikis gaazrebis pirvel cdas. 1890-ian wlebSi baTumis ganaSenianebaSi gamoiyofoda ramdenime zona: 1. samrewvelo, romelic moicavda ports, sanapiro zolis samxreT-aRmosavleT nawils da, ZiriTadad, mufTies ubans, sadac ganTavsebuli iyo samrewvelo sawarmoebi, navTobis rezervuarebi; 2. savaWro-saqmiani zona, istoriuli aziziesa da axmedies ubnebi; 3. sazogadoebrivi, saparko da sacxovrebeli zona, romelic, umTavresad, aerTianebda bulvars, aleqsandrovis parks da "nuries" axalgaSenebul Tanamedrove ubans ganieri quCebiT [, 1890]. amdenad, baTumis ganaSenianebaSi Tavs iCenda burJuaziuli qalaqebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis Sesabamisi diferencireba, rasac, dagegmarebis xasiaTTan erTad, gansazRvravda urbanuli qsovilis uwyveti ganviTarebis ritmi, zomieri masStabebi da mxatvrul-stilisturi mravalferovneba.

266

mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT baTumi, iseve, rogorc saqarTvelos sxva qalaqebi, XIX-XX ss-is mijnis ruseTisa da evropis qalaqebis specifikas misdevs. arqiteqturis "evropeizacia" da "kosmopolitizmi" gamoxatulebas hpovebs fsevdomimarTulebisa da modernis stilis formebSi. XIX s-is miwurulsa da XX s-is dasawyisSi saqalaqo arqiteqturis stilisturi suraTi TiTqmis yovelgvar logikas aris moklebuli, radgan am periodis xuroTmoZRvrebas safuZvlad aRar edo gamaerTianebeli idea. aWaris saxelmwifo arqivis masalebisa da dRemde moRweuli nimuSebis mixedviT irkveva, rom mxatvrul-stilisturi TvalsazrisiT, Zveli baTumis arqiteqturuli iersaxis CamoyalibebaSi upiratesoba eniWeba XIX-XX ss-is mijnis fsevdoklasicisturi da fsevdobarokuli ekleqtizmis nakads. igi Tavs iCens sazogadoebrivi da sacxovrebeli saxlebis umravlesobaSi. am stilisturi nakadis Zeglebi emyareba nagebobaTa fasadebis met-naklebad ubralo, sada kompoziciur gadawyvetasa da dekoratiuli morTulobis aprobirebuli formebis gamoyenebas. klasicistur-barokuli stilizaciis mqone tipobrivi fasadebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia mxatvruli gadawyvetis dasrulebuloba, fanjrebis, Sesasvlelebisa da farTo Riobebis mowesrigebuli, zomieri ritmi, kedlis sibrtyeebisa da pilastriseburi Sverilebis paraleluri RarebiTa da kanelurebiT damuSaveba, sworkuTxa, TaRovani da brtyelTaRiani sarkmlebis martivi naZerwi sapireebiT Semkoba, "ioniuri" da "korinTuli" orderis variaciebi, zomierad gamoyenebuli barokuli morTulobis detalebi _ saWeqi qvebis imitaciebi, sada profilis reliefuri sandrikebi, ornamentuli karnizebi da sxv. aseT nimuSebad SeiZleba miviCnioT 1902, 1903 wlebis sacxovrebeli saxlebis proeqtebi mixeilisa (dRevandeli z. gamsaxurdias) da komarovos (d. Tavdadebulis) quCebze (sur. 1; sur. 2) [acsa , f. i-6, an. 2, s. 463; 521].

sur. 1

sur. 2

267

XIX-XX ss-is mijnis saqarTvelos qalaqebis nagebobaTa garegnuli saxe mTlianad mowmobs ekleqtizmis srul gamarjvebas [v. beriZe, 1963: 112]. baTumis arqiteqturaSi ekleqturi stilizaciis nimuSs warmoadgens yofili vaJTa gimnaziis (dRevandeli baTumis sax. universiteti) Senoba (sur. 3). zRvisaken orientirebuli nagebobis mTavari fasadis vrceli sibrtyeebi danawevrebulia kesonirebuli, stilizebuli pilastrebiT, ritmulad ganTavsebuli TaRovani da sworkuTxa fanjrebiT. centraluri nawilSi mZlavri rizalitia, romelSic gaWrilia Sesasvleli. kari flankirebulia mZlavri, Sewyvilebuli svetebiT, romelsac karapani eyrdnoba. morTulobis iseTi detalebi, rogoricaa oTxkuTxa niSebSi Cadgmuli TaRovani Riobebis motivi, isruli TaRovani formebi, mravalsafexurian yelze aRmarTuli xaxvisTava gumbaTi, mowmobs, rom Senobis fasadi, Tavdapirvelad, iTavsebda rusuli, klasicisturi da, aseve, islamuri stilis niSnebs. nageboba Cvenamde rekonstruirebuli saxiTaa moRweuli (mesame sarTuli daSenebulia, darRveulia Riobebis formebi centraluri rizalitis nawilSi, aRar ikiTxeba naZerwi Seisruli TaRebi, aRar arsebobs xaxvisTava gumbaTi da sxva detalebi). misi amJamindeli saxe ki ufro "evropulia". irkveva, rom vaJTa gimnaziis Senobis proeqtis Sedgena daevala TbilisSi moRvawe polonel arqiteqtors aleqsandre SimkeviCs. gimnaziis Senobis ageba daiwyo 1899 wels da dasrulda 1903 wels. saswavlebeli gaixsna 1904 wels [ ..., 1906: 601-603].

sur. 3. yofili vaJTa gimnazia

al.SimkeviCi, sxva Tanamedroveebis msgavsad, tipuri ekleqtikosia. misi proeqtebiTaa agebuli yofili sasamarTlo palatisa da saolqo sasamarTlos (dRevandeli saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos - 1894 w.), aseve, 1901-1904 wlebSi aSenebuli yofili samusiko skolis (axlandeli Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoria) Senobebi, romelTa fasadebis morTuloba iTav268

sebs renesansul-barokuli stilis niSnebs. mis SemoqmedebaSi stiluri mravalferovnebis magaliTia 1898-1901 wlebSi TbilisSi moRvawe rus arqiteqtor k. tatiSCevTan erTad agebuli yofili saartisto sazogadoebis (dRevandeli S. rusTavelis sax. akademiuri Teatris) Senoba da sacxovrebeli saxli daviT aRmaSeneblis prospeqtze (# 79), romlebic barokosa da rokokos stilis niSnebs warmoaCenen [v. beriZe, 1963:183; m. mania, 2006: 34-38]. stilisturad mravalferovan da TviTmyofad, tipologiurad ki Tbilisur suraTs gvixatavs al. SimkeviCis mier aSenebuli sacxovrebeli saxlebi TbilisSi: al. SimkeviCis sakuTari saxli sololakSi ­ 1888 w., sacxovrebeli saxli p. ingoroyvas q. #6. islamuri da evropuli stilizaciis nimuSebs warmoadgens misi proeqtiT agebuli sacxovrebeli saxlebi: samsarTuliani saxli d. uznaZis quCa #19, aseve, arqiteqtor k. tatiSCevis sakuTari saxli l. asaTianis q. #18 [m. mania, 2006: 100-106]. al. SimkeviCis proeqtiT agebul sazogadoebriv SenobaTa Soris mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs kavkasiis saabreSumo sadguris mTavar nagebobas, romelic aSenebulia 1892 wels. Senobis arqiteqtura tradiciaTa Serwymis saintereso suraTs iZleva, igi "rusuli stilis", evropuli arqiteqturuli morTulobis da islamuri elementebis sinTezis gamovlinebaa [m. mania, 2006: 42-44]. mxatvruli gadawyvetis TvalsazrisiT baTumis vaJTa gimnaziis Senobis fasadi gamoZaxils swored am nimuSTan poulobs. al. SimkeviCisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli aseTi ekleqtikis miuxedavad, misi qmnilebebi mainc avlenen avtoris maRal profesionalizms.

sur. 4. wminda aleqsandre nevelis eklesia. 1902-1905 ww.

rogorc cnobilia, XX s-is dasawyisis yvela saeklesio nageboba ugulebelyofs adgilobriv "qarTul" tradiciebs da marTlmadidebluri taZari iRebs rusuli eklesiis saxes, Tumca stilis siwmindeze laparaki ar SeiZleba. Zveli baTumis arqiteqturaSi aseT gamovlinebad SeiZleba miviCnioT wm. aleq269

sandre nevelis saxelobis eklesia, romelic bulvarSi idga (taZari daangries sabWoTa xelisuflebis periodSi. am adgilas 1939 wels aSenda sastumro "inturisti" ­ arqiteqtori a. Susevi). Tavisi zomebiTa da masStabiT nageboba warmoadgenda qalaqis erT-erT xuroTmoZRvrul dominants (sur. 4), Tumca mxatvrul­stilisturi TvalsazrisiT masSi araferi iyo erovnuli. Tbilisis wminda al. nevelis saxelobis samxedro taZrisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic "rusul-bizantiuri" stilis nimuSi iyo [v. beriZe, 1963: 66-67; m. mania, 2006: 33-34],1 baTumis taZari metad avlenda gviani Sua saukuneebisa da XIX s-is "rusuli stilis" mxatvrul Taviseburebebs. nageboba moklebuli iyo plastikur gamomsaxvelobas, radgan taZris ramdenadme tlanqi arqiteqturuli masebis monotonuri ritmi, SedarebiT damjdari proporciebi, xaxvisTava gumbaTebisa da rusuli arqiteqturuli dekoris elementebis siuxve gansazRvravda ara plastikuri, aramed saerTo kompoziciuri gadawyvetis dekoratiul xasiaTs. igi, iseve, rogorc XIX-XX ss-is saqarTveloSi agebuli ekleqturi stilis matarebeli sxva taZrebi, Tavisi arsiT ucxo elementad rCeboda qarTul garemoSi. cnobilia, rom baTumis wm. al. nevelis taZari aigo warmoSobiT germaneli arqiteqtoris, oto simonsonis vaJis vladimer simonsonis proeqtiT. taZris mSeneblobas v. simonsoni 1902 wlidan 1905 wlis 1 ivnisamde xelmZRvanelobda [m. mania, 2006: 128-129].2 mxatvruli stilis TvalsazrisiT, baTumis arqiteqturaSi klasicistur-barokuli stilis fasadebTan erTad gvxvdeba renesansul-barokuli stilis nimuSebic. magaliTad, fosta-telegrafis Senobis fasadebi datvirTulia nalesobaSi gamoyvanili renesansul-barokuli dekoraciuli elementebiT. pirveli sarTulis kedlebi damuSavebulia horizontaluri RarebiT, ritmulad Carigebuli da sadad morTuli sworkuTa RiobebiT. meore sarTulis kedlebi gacxovelebulia sibrtyidan amoziduli horizontaluri zolebiT, skulpturuli gamosaxulebebiTa da ornamentuli CanarTebiT. nagebobas asrulebs wreebis

Tbilisis wm. aleqsandre nevelis samxedro taZari aSenda 1871-1889 wlebSi. misi "rusul-bizantiuri" ieri ruseTis imperiis am drois taZrebis zogadad damaxasiaTebeli niSania. arqiteqtorebi iyvnen daviT grimi da robert gedike. d. grimi gaxldaT bizantiuri arqiteqturis profesori, peterburgis saimperatoro akademiis sapatio wevri. 2 v. simonsoni daibada 1864 wels. man profesiuli ganaTleba da inJinerarqiteqtoris wodeba miiRo rigis politeqnikur institutSi. garkveuli periodi v. simonsoni msaxurobda baqosa da erevanSi. 1901 wels igi baTumis sabaJo olqis arqiteqtoris movaleobas asrulebda. 1902 wlidan iyo olqis arqiteqtori, xolo 1903 wlidan - baTumis saolqo nawilis inJineri. 1904 wels v. simonsoni iRebs titularuli mrCevlis wodebas.

1

270

mwkriviT damuSavebuli parapeti, Tevzis qercliseburi safariT daxuruli maRali mansarda mrgvali sarkmlebiT, xolo CamokveTili kuTxe dagvirgvinebulia Spiliani gumbaTiT. fostis Senoba sainteresoa, rogorc kavSirgabmulobis funqciis mqone erT-erTi uZvelesi nageboba. igi sayuradReboa qalaqgegmarebiTi TvalsazrisiTac, radgan warmoadgens ubnis ganaSenianebis erT-erT mTavar dominantsa da maorganizebel elements. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia misi maRali mxatvruli gadawyveta da samSeneblo ostatoba. aWaris saxelmwifo arqivSi daculi dokumentiT irkveva, rom Tavdapirvelad am adgilas arsebuli saxli ekuTvnoda Zmeb ­ iakobaSvilebs, romlebic vaWarTa fenas miekuTvnebodnen. nagebobis safosto kantorad gadakeTebis proeqti Sesrulda 1913 wels arqiteqtor mixeil neprincevis mier [acsa, f. i-6, an. 1, s. 747]. cnobilia, rom mixel nikolozis Ze neprincevma 1902 wels daamTavra peterburgis samoqalaqo inJinerTa instituti. igi 1902-1914 wlebSi msaxurobda amierkavkasiis fosta-telegrafis olqis mTavar arqiteqtorad da xelmZRvanelobda mSeneblobebs rkinigzis uwyebisaTvis (sadguris Senobebi da rkinigzasTan dakavSirebuli sxva nagebobebi). baTumis fostis Senobis proeqtic misi sarkinigzo-safosto sistemaSi muSaobis periodSia Sesrulebuli. m. neprincevis Semoqmedeba, iseve rogorc am periodis sxva arqiteqtorebisa, ekleqtizmis stilisturi niSnebis matarebelia [v. beriZe, 1963: 174-175]. garda aRniSnuli fsevdostilisturi mimarTulebebisa, Zveli baTumis xuroTmoZRvrebaSi gamoxatulia renesansulklasicisturi ekleqtizmis xazic, romlis erT-erTi nimuSia 26 maisis q. #7 mdebare 1893 wliT daTariRebuli orsarTuliani Senoba. fasadis rustirebuli zedapiri, profilirebuli sapireebiTa da saWeqi qvebiT Semkuli mSvilda da TaRovani fanjrebi, sarTulebis gamyofi profilirebuli karnizebi, frontonebiTa da aJuruli kronSteinebiT gaformebuli sadarbazos Cardaxi, meore sarTulis CakveTilzedapiriani pilastrebi renesansuli da klasicisturi stilis repertuaridanaa aRebuli. nagebobas gamomsaxvelobas matebs aJuruli moajiris, liTonis svetebisa da frontonis gamWvirvale, haerovani dekoris mqone aivani. ekleqtizmis gamoxatulebas warmoadgens, aseve, ninoSvilis q. # 23 mdebare orsarTuliani Senoba, romelSic amJamad n. berZeniSvilis samecniero-kvleviTi institutia ganTavsebuli. nagebobis fasadebi klasicistur-barokuli stilis niSnebTan erTad Seicavs modernis stilis elementebsac (sur. 5).

271

sur. 5. nageboba ninoSvilis q. # 23

modernis stili saqarTveloSi XIX s-is miwurulidan Semodis, rac, Tavis mxriv, kosmopolitizmis gamoxatuleba iyo. niSandoblivia, rom es mxatvruli siaxle warmoadgenda ara stilizacias, aramed axlad SemuSavebul stils, romelsac axasiaTebda siaxlis Zieba. miuxedavad amisa, moderni male gadaizarda sruliad pirobiT, dekoratiul stilad. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebul am stilSic, iseve, rogorc sxva mxatvrul mimarTulebebSi, v. beriZis SefasebiT, qarTuli araferi iyo. moderni, umTavresad, gaxda ucxoeTSi SemuSavebuli nimuSebis mibaZva, romelsac gaaCnda fasadTa saerTo kompoziciis, kar-sarkmelTa, karnizebis, parapetis, aivnis moajirisa da kedlis sibrtyeTa damuSavebis Taviseburi asortimenti. modernis popularoba saqarTveloSi zenits 1910 wlisaTvis aRwevs, Semdeg ki mxolod recesivebis saxiT gvxvdeba [v. beriZe, 1963: 82-83]. aWaris arqivSi daculi, 1911 wliT daTariRebuli proeqti, gviCvenebs sada, mkacri stiliT gadawyvetili nagebobis [acsa, f. i-6, an. 2, s. 502] modernistuli formebiT gaxalisebis mcdelobas.3 naZerwi sapireebis mqone kar-fanjrebiT danawevrebuli nagebobis fasadi gacocxlebulia modernis stilisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli rustirebuli cokolisa da fasadis gluvi sibrtyeebis faqturuli kontrastiT, aivnis antablementis murdiT, dinamikuri siluetiT, talRiseburi parapetiT, liTonis moajiris alaTebiTa da kar-fanjrebis morTulobis detalebiT. imave niSnebs avlens ezos Robe-kedeli, romlis msgavsi nimuSebi dRemdea SemorCenili baTumis Zvel ubnebSi. baTumis arqiteqturaSi modernis stilis araerTi nimuSis gamovlenaa SesaZlebeli: sabaevis yofili maRazia _ m. kostavas (oglobJisaxli mdebareobda dRevandeli baraTaSvilisa (yofili Tbilisis quCa) da m. abaSiZis (Zveli marinis prospeqti) quCebis gadakveTasTan axlos. proeqti Sedgenlia panteleevis (an panteleeviCis?) mier. nageboba dRes ar dgas.

3

272

nis) q. #20, 1908 weli [acsa, f. i-6, an. 2, s. 505]; kinoTeatri "apolo" _ m. abaSiZis (marinis) prospeqti #20, 1906 w.; sacxovrebeli saxli _ m. abaSiZisa (marinis) da general mazniaSvilis (erisTavis) quCebis kveTa #10/1, 1912 w.; sacxovrebeli saxlebi _ m. abaSiZis (marinis) prospeqtze #12/14, 1912 w., #41; #49; orsarTuliani nageboba _ i. gogebaSvilis (sanapiros) quCa #16 da sxv. XIX-XX ss-is mijnis baTumis ekleqtur arqiteqturaSi, mxatvrul stilTa aseTi mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, mainc SeiZleba aRiniSnos ramdenime Tavisebureba. sainteresoa, rom am periodis Tbilisis xuroTmoZRvrebaSi, garkveulwilad, adgili hqonda qarTuli tradiciebis, erovnuli arqiteqturuli motivebis stilizaciis gamovlinebas, rac TvalsaCino iyo rogorc sakulto (qaSveTis eklesia, 1904-1910 ww., arqiteqtori l. bilfeldi), aseve, sazogadoebrivi (qarTuli bankis Senoba, arqiteqtorebi a. kalgini da mxatvari h. hrinevski; i. WavWavaZis saflavis Zeglis arqiteqtura; saufliswulo uwyebis Rvinis sardafi, arqiteqtori a. ozerovi da sxv.) da sacxovrebeli saxlebis arqiteqturaSi [v. beriZe, 1963: 83-94]. baTumSi aseT mcdelobebs gamovlineba ar hqonia. Zveli qalaqis arqiteqturaSi istorizmisa da "neoromantizmis" erTaderT gamoxatulebad SeiZleba miviCnioT dRevandeli z. gorgilaZisa (yofili asaTianis) da p. meliqiSvilis (voznesenskis) quCebis gadakveTaSi mdebare, aw ukve dangreuli, gumbaTovani taZari, romlis Sesaxeb dResdReobiT Zalze mwiri informacia mogvepoveba (sur. 6).

sur. 6. qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesia baTumSi

aRsaniSnavia isic, rom XIX-XX ss-is mijnis Tbilisis arqiteqturaSi SedarebiT xSirad mimarTavdnen mavruli da isla273

muri xuroTmoZRvrebis motivebs [v. beriZe, 1963: 76]. baTumSi mxolod erTeulebis saxiT dasturdeba aseTi stilis arsebobis magaliTebi. SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba "fsevdomavruli" stilis nagebobebi, xolo islamuri da goTuri motivebis mqone Senobebi gvxvdeba mxolod gamonaklisebis saxiT, umTavresad, sakulto ZeglebSi (fsevdogoTuri stilis RvTismSoblis, yofili qarTul-kaTolikuri eklesia _ 1898-1902 ww.; islamuri motivebis mqone sinagoga _ 1912 w.). Tbilisis xuroTmoZRvrebaSi islamuri arqiteqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebisadmi swrafva, ruseTis mxridan, amierkavkasiis aRmosavlur da samxreTul samyarosTan asocirebiT iyo ganpirobebuli, Tumca niSandoblivia, rom "egzotikur" stils dedaqalaqSic ar eWira mniSvnelovani adgili. XIX-XX ss-is mijnis Tbilisis xuroTmoZRvrebaSi, ZiriTadad, simtkices inarCunebs renesansul-barokuli ekleqtizmis is xazi, romelic Caisaxa klasicizmis gadagvarebis Semdeg. baTumis arqiteqturul iersaxeSi ki, ufro metad, klasicistur-barokuli ekleqtizmi ikafavs gzas. es Taviseburebebi, Tavis mxriv, mowmobs, rom, baTumi Tavidanve gaiazreboda rogorc "evropuli" qalaqi, romlis arqiteqturul gadawyvetaSi sWarbobda "dasavleTidan" momdinare mxatvrul stilTa elementebi. XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze warmoqmnili burJuaziuli baTumi urbanuli ganaSenianebiT Camoyalibda axali tipis saqalaqo dasaxlebad, romelSic erovnuli arqiteqturis damkvidrebisaTvis naklebad iyo Sesaferisi socialuri da politikuri pirobebi.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. aWaris centraluri saxelmwifo arqivi (acsa), fondi i-6, anaweri 1, saqme 747. 2. acsa, f. i-6, an. 2, s.s. ## 463; 502, 505; 521. 3. v. beriZe, Tbilisis xuroTmoZRvreba, I, Tb., 1960; II, Tb., 1963. 4. m. bulia, m. janjalia, saqarTvelos Zveli qalaqebi - Tbilisi, Tb., 2006. 5. m. bulia, m. janjalia, saqarTvelos Zveli qalaqebi ­ quTaisi, Tb., 2006. 6. m. mania, evropeli arqiteqtorebi TbilisSi, Tb., 2006. 7. c. kilaZe, m. meZmariaSvili, T. gersamia, Tbilisuri sadarbazoebi, Tb., 2008. 8. m. sioriZe, baTumis sabaJo, baT., 2003. 9. r. uzunaZe, baTumis istoriidan, baT., 2001. 10. , ., 1906. 11. .., , ., 1890.

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Maia Chichileishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Some Issues of Artistic Style of Old Batumi Architecture Summary From the artistic point of view Batumi, like other cities of Georgia, follows the specificity of Russian and European cities of the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. "Europeanization" and "cosmopolitism" of architecture finds its expression in the forms of pseudo-trend and modern style. In the architectural aspect of Batumi classicistic-Baroque eclectics paves its way that in its turn testifies that from the very beginning Batumi was realized as a "European" city in the architectural rendering of which the elements of the "Western" artistic styles prevailed. The bourgeois Batumi created at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries was formed with the urban constructions as a new type of urban settlement where there were little relevant social and political conditions to establish national architecture.

275

jemal miqelaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis safortifikacio nagebobani

baTumi safortifikacio nagebobebiT uZvelesi droidanaa cnobili, romelTa nawili antikuri periodisaa, nawili feodalur xanas ukavSirdeba [T. yauxCiSvili, 1987: 109-117], xolo didi nawili ki mecxramete da meoce saukuneebiT TariRdeba. dimitri baqraZis cnobiT, ,,baTumi adreuli epoqidanve cnobili iyo BATHY-s saxelwodebiT. igi romaelTa samxedro sadguri iyo da II saukuneSi Cv.w.aR-is Semdeg imperator adrianes dros, aq romaelTa garnizoni idga" [d. baqraZe, 1878: 23]. aRniSnuli cnobis mixedviT, imdroindeli baTumi, rogorc Cans, romaelebs hqondaT mikuTvnebuli da maTi garnizoni Sesabamis cixesimagreSi unda mdgariyo. baTumis cixesimagre, romelic Tamaris cixis saxeliTaa cnobili, mdebareobs mdinare yoroliswylis Sav zRvasTan SeerTebis maxlobel gorakze. baTumis Tavdapirveli dasaxleba aRniSnuli simagris mimdebare teritoriaze yofila, rasac werilobiTi wyaroebi da aq aRmoCenili nivTieri masalebi adastureben. me-15 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi baTums swvevian mogzauri misionerebi iosifa barbaro da ambrozio kontarini. maT yuradReba gaumaxvilebiaT baTumSi arsebul cixeebzec. iosifa barbaros aRweriT, ,,Savi zRvis piras aris 2 cixe _ baTumi da sebastopoli da, agreTve sxva koSkebi da mcire cixeebi". Ambrozio kontarinis aRweriT _ ,,baTumi cixea da mcire qalaqi" [x. axvlediani, 1943: 166]. me-18 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi vaxuSti bagrations uweria: ,,baTumi mcire qalaqi da cixe kargi" [qarTlis cxovreba, 1973: 176]. 1804 wlis monacemebiT baTumis cixeSi idga osmalTa 121 kaciani garnizoni [, 1868: 876]. me-18 saukunis meore naxevridan iwyeba adreuli baTumis mosaxleobis intensiuri gadanacvleba samxreTisaken zRvispira yures mimarTulebiT, iq sadac didi perspeqtivis mqone, moxerxebuli da usafrTxo navsadguri iyo [, 1905: 41]. 1842 wlis maisSi samxedro misiiT baTumSi imyofeboda ruseTis armiis oficeri polkovniki i. proskuriakovi. man saintereso Canawerebi dagvitova baTumis navsadgurisa da simagreebis Sesaxeb. ,,sakmaod Rrma yure metad moxerxebulia sa276

vaWro xomaldebis napirze misadgomad. baTumis bunebrivi yure, romelic kargad aris daculi CrdiloeTisa da aRmosavleTis qarebisagan, iTvleba saukeTesod sinopis Semdeg. igi warmoadgens TavSesafar punqts Savi zRvis aRmosavleTis sanapirosaken mimavali yvela gemisaTvis. yures sanapiro dablobze gaSlilia qalaqis mSenebloba... qalaqis teritoriaze aris simagre qongurebiani galavniT" [ ., 1905: 3]. baTumi, rogorc aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis qveynebs Soris savaWro urTierTobebis damakavSirebeli WiSkari, Tavidanve iqcevda TurqeTis, ruseTis, inglisis, safrangeTisa da sxva saxelmwifoTa did yuradRebas. osmalebis aWaraSi batonobis periodSi daiwyo baTumisa da gonios cixeebis gamagreba da axali simagreebis aSeneba. 1853 wlis monacemebiT baTumSi Tavmoyrili osmalTa jari iTvlida 10 aTas kacs [r. uzunaZe, 1997: 19]. yirimis omis dros saomar moqmedebasTan dakavSirebiT, baTumSi idga osmalTa 30 aTasiani korpusi [S. megreliZe, 1974: 25]. xmeleTidan qalaqi gamagrebuli iyo xis morebisgan agebuli TavdacviTi nagebobiT da garsSemovlebuli TxriliT [, 1885: 757]. mogvianebiT osmalebis mier baTumSi aSenebuli iqna ori forti _ ,,sari su" da ,,burun Tabia". ,,sari su" mdebareobda amJamindeli portis teritoriaze, sadac moedineboda patara mdinare ,,sari su" [, 1882: 48]. 1885-1886 wlebSi ,,sari su"-s forti dangreul iqna navsadguris rekonstruqciasTan dakavSirebiT [r. uzunaZe, 1997: 20]. ,,burun Tabia"-s forti aSenebul iqna zRvis sanapiroze arsebuli koncxis teritoriaze. aRniSnul fortTan dakavSirebiT Jan murie wers: ,,es yazarmis msgavsi qvis Senobaa, romelSic Teqvsmeti zarbazania da itevs eqvs polks da saomari tyvia wamlis marags" [J. murie, 1962: 21]. unda aRiniSnos, rom baTumis fortebs Soris yvelaze didi ,,burun Tabia" iyo. vidre dasavleT saqarTvelos SavizRvispira sanavsadguro punqtebi TurqeTis xelSi iyo, ruseTis SavizRvispira regionebs mtris Tavdasxmis safrTxe yovelTvis eloda. amitom ruseTi yvela xerxs da Rones xmarobda, rom aRmosavleT SavizRvispira zoli xelSi Caegdo da uzrunveleyo Tavisi teritoriebis usafrTxoeba. meore mxriv, sazRvao gziT ruseTs saSualeba eZleoda ufro moxerxebulad ganeviTarebina urTierToba amierkavkasiasTan da, amave dros, uzrunvelyofili iqneboda savaWro derefnis amoqmedeba aRmosavleTis qveynebidan evropaSi gasasvlelad saqarTvelos gziT [ . ., 1836: 9].

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amitom amierkavkasiaSi ruseTis strategiul gegmaSi upirvelesi adgili eWira baTumis dakavebis sakiTxs. aqedan gamomdinare, me-19 saukuneSi TurqeTTan warmoebul omebSi ruseTis kavkasiis armiis erT-erT mTavar samiznes baTumi warmoadgenda. amis miuxedavad, 1806-1812, 1828-1829 da 1853-1856 wlebis omebi am mxriv ruseTisaTvis uSedego aRmoCnda [m. sioriZe, 2003: 37]. ruseTma dasaxul mizans mxolod 1877-1878 wlebis ruseTTurqeTis omis damTavrebis Semdeg miaRwia. am omis Sedegad dadebuli ruseT-osmaleTis zavis pirobebi iTvaliswinebda baTumis Tavisufal navsadgurad, portofrankod gamocxadebas da ruseTisavis gadacemas [x. axvlediani, 1980: 11-12]. saqarTvelos istoriaSi baTumma pirvelma miiRo Tavisufali qalaqis statusi, xolo ruseTis imperiaSi ki es mesame SemTxveva iyo, rodesac qalaqs porto-frankos statusi eniWeboda [m. sioriZe, 2003: 51-53]. baTumi, rogorc axalSemoerTebuli zRvispira qalaqi, saWiroebda axlebur dagegmarebasa da ganaSenianebas, amitom rusma kartografebma gadaiRes, Seiswavles qalaqis mimdebare landSafti da Seadgines misi ganaSenianebis proeqti, romelic 1878 wliT aris daTariRebuli [r. gogitiZe, 1980: 76]. rusebi ,,burun Tabia"-s forts Sesabamisi rekonstruqciis Semdeg samxedro sazRvao TavdacviTi funqciebiT iyenebdnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom frangebis mier aSenebuli ,,burun Tabia"-s forti rusebisaTvis sanimuSo aRmoCnda da mogvianebiT maT mier aSenebul iqna ardaganis sazRvao TavdacviTi forti, barcxanis sazRvao TavdacviTi forti da mejiniswylis saxmeleTo forti. pirvel etapze ruseTis samxedro sazRvao uwyebam baTumis sanapiros fortebze ganalaga SedarebiT msubuqi da axlomsroleli qvemexebi, magram mokle droSi, samxedro sazRvao flotebis mZime da Sorsmsroleli qvemexebiT SeiaraRebis Semdeg, baTumis samxedro xelmZRvaneloba iZulebuli gaxda baTumis zRvispira yvela forti (burun Tabias, barcxanisa da ardaganis) gadaekeTebina mZime da Sorsmsroleli qvemexebis dasayeneblad. amiT, marTalia, Semcirda qvemexebis raodenoba, magram samagierod gaizarda maTi sacecxle qmediTunarianoba. im droisaTvis Tanamedrove teqnikis saSualebiT ganxorcielda fortebis eleqtrifikacia, ramac uzrunvelyo qvemexebis Wurvebis miwodebis avtomatizacia, rac qvemexebiT srolis siswrafes zrdida. am fortebze ganlagebul qvemexebs Tavisuflad SeeZloT gaekontrolebinaT mTeli sanapiro zoli xofidan foTamde.

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Sorsmsroleli artileria, romelic am fortebze iyo dadgmuli, sakuTari SesaZleblobebiT swvdeboda 25-30 kilometriT daSorebul sazRvao mcurav obieqtebs. amave mizniT agebuli iyo sazRvao sanapirodan daSorebuli urexis sazRvao TavdacviTi forti, romelic mofarebuli iyo mosalodnel mtris sazRvao xomaldebs, Tumca, mis Sorsmsrolel qvemexebs Tavisuflad SeeZlo mtris samxedro mcuravi obieqtebis Sori manZilidan ganadgureba. amJamindeli baTumis goraze da samebis mTaze ganlagebuli iyo saTvalTvalo da saartilerio cecxlis marTvis punqtebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofda zRvis mxridan mosalodneli mtris Semotevis ukugdebas. qalaqis bulvaris gaswvriv, ardaganis dasaxlebaSi, ganTavsebuli iyo sanapiro dacvis saartilerio divizionis Stabi, romelsac eqvemdebareboda ardaganisa da urexis batareebi. ardaganis forti Sedgeboda masiuri, betoniT Camosxmuli bunkerebisagan, romlebic zevidan miwayriliT iyo dafaruli, rom mtris TvalisaTvis SeumCneveli yofiliyo. bunkerebSi iaraR-saWurveli da tyvia-wamali inaxeboda. bunkerebis zemodan fortis mTel sigrZeze, daaxloebiT erTi km manZilze, ganlagebuli iyo Sorsmsroleli mZime artileriis oTxi SeniRbuli qvemexi. mis marjvniv aRmarTul, rkinabetoniT Camosxmul saTvalTvalo koSkSi damontaJebuli iyo sazRvao manZilsazomi. iqve, mis ZirSi da mimdebared ganlagebuli iyo ramdenime betonirebuli TavSesafari. ardaganis ubnis mimdebare vrceli farTobi samxedroTa sawvrTnelsa da sasroleTs warmoadgenda. urexis fortis samxedro saTavsoebis didi nawili mTaSi iyo ganTavsebuli, romlebic amave dros sando TavSesafars warmoadgenda. amJamad zRvispira zoli mTlianad moqceulia qalaqis ganaSenianebis zonaSi da mimdinareobs yvela Zveli nagebobis dangreva da teritoriis gasufTaveba. sayuradReboa, rom samxedro TavdacviTi nagebobebi cixesimagreebis saxiT ganlagebuli iyo baTumis irgvliv arsebul gorakebze, romlebic, ratomRac yovelgvari gansjis gareSe, gasuli saukunis ormocdaaTian-samocian wlebSi ganadgurebul iqna, Tumca SeiZleboda maTi SenarCuneba da turistul saCvenebel obieqtebad gamoyeneba, romelTa naklebobas Cveni qalaqi Zalian ganicdis. baTumi samxedro TvalsazrisiT imdenad kargad yofila gamagrebuli da daculi, rom 1888 wels ruseTis imperatori aleqsandre III Tavisi ojaxiT swvevia qalaqs da mounaxulebia misi RirsSesaniSnavi adgilebi.

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imperatori ewvia baTumis saqalaqo baRs (amJamindeli 6 maisis parki), sadac man da misi ojaxis wevrebma darges magnolia da ori libanis kedari (fiWvi). amis Semdeg parks aleqsandres parki ewoda. imperatori marines prospeqtis (axlandeli memed abaSiZis prospeqti) gavliT mivida burun Tabias simagris saartilerio batareaSi. ewvia samxedro hospitals, gaiseirna sanapiroze da gvian saRamos datova baTumi [m. sioriZe, 2003: 97-102]. baTumis safortifikacio nagebobebis mSeneblobam uZvelesi droidan dRemde udidesi roli Seasrula da xeli Seuwyo qalaqis mosaxleobis dasaqmebas, usafrTxoebas, stabilurobas, ekonomikis ganviTarebas, safortifikacio kulturis aRmavlobasa da sxv.

280

1878 wlis baTumis ganaSenianebis gegma

`burun-Tabia~-s forTis gegma

281

ardaganis fortis xedebi

282

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. x. axvlediani, narkvevebi aWaris istoriidan (me-16-19 ss), baT., 1943. 2. x. axvlediani, asi weli ganTavisuflebidan, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos arqiteqturuli Zeglebi, baT., 1980. 3. d. baqraZe, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, sankt­peterburgi, 1878. 4. r. gogitiZe, baTumis dagegmarebis istoriidan, samxreTdasavleT saqarTvelos arqiteqturuli Zeglebi, baT., 1980. 5. S. megreliZe, saqarTvelo aRmosavleTis omebSi, Tb., 1974. 6. J. murie, baTumi da Woroxis auzi, baT., 1962. 7. m. sioriZe, baTumis sabaJo, baT., 2003. 8. r. uzunaZe, baTumis istoriidan, baT., 1997. 9. qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV, Tb., 1973. 10. T. yauxCiSvili, antikuri wyaroebi q. baTumis istoriisaTvis ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XIV, Tb., 1987. 11. (), . II, ., 1868. 12. , . . ., 1885. 13. , , , . XVIII, ., 1980. 14. ., ... . . XXV. . 1905. 15. . . 1867-1868, 1869 1872 , ., 1882. 16. .., 1828-1829 .., -., 1836.

Jemal Mikeladze (Batumi, Georgia) Fortresses in Batumi Summary Archeological sources reflect quite important, ancient defenses in Batumi. Italian missioners: Yosef Barbaro, Ambross Contarini describe the items, concerning to the fortresses in Batumi (15 c.). Barbaro considered, that among small towers there were two main fortresses situated on the coastline of the Black Sea in Batumi. Late, along the seashore, two fortresses were constructed by Ottomans. They were: ,,Sari Su" and ,,Burun Tabia". In the 19 c. (1877-1878y.) during the war between Russia and Turkey, according to Berlin Congress decision Batumi was given to Russia. It was the cityPorto-Franco, the first free- trade city in the history of Georgia.

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Except for the fortresses mentioned above Russia also built the new fortresses on the territory of Ardagani and Bartskhana Seaside districts in the hills of the villages Sameba, Urekhi, Mejinistskali, Batumi hill. All these fortresses defended Batumi city from the sea and from the land. Since the ancient period, Batumi fortresses played the most important part in economic and cultural development of the country and people's employment.

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toponimika TOPONYMY

guram Caganava

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTomis" toponim "baTomis" warmomavlobisaTvis

toponim baTumis (baTomi Sesaxeb mravali mosazreba baTumis baTomi baTomi) arsebobs; maT Soris Cveni yuradReba miiqcia q. CxataraSvilis Tvalsazrisma, romlis Tanaxmad, es toponimi Wanuris niadagze ixsneba _ ,,baTomi erqva mxares (Tems), cixes (masTan mdebare mcire dasaxlebiT), mdinares da tbas". baba- prefiqsis gamoyofis gareSe SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda toponim baTomi-s axsna araTu Wanuris safuZvelze, aramed baTomisaerTod. ba- prefiqsisa da misi nairsaxeobebis (b-, bi-, be-, bo-, bab bi- be- bobu- fubu-, fu-) Seswavlis sakmaod didi tradicia arsebobs. jer kidev niko mari Tavis rCeul SromebSi miuTiTebda qarTul "rTul" sityvebze, romlebSic bo (mo), bi formantebi gamoiyofa: bo-kver-i, bi-Za [ ., 1933: 36]. WanurSi prefiqsad gvevbo-kverlineba p-, rac igive b- aris [ , 1910: 7]. am problematikis SeswavlaSi gansakuTrebiT didi wvlili miuZRvis ivane javaxiSvils [iv. javaxiSvili, 1937: 190, 215] da arnold Ciqobavas [arn. Ciqobava, 1938: 62,115; misive, 1942: 179; misive, 1979: 130-131]. babaprefiqsianebs miakuTvneben Semdeg sityvebs: ba-v-Sv-i; ba-Ran-a; ba- Svba-Ranba-tkanCx-ilba-tkan-i; f-r-Cx-il-i (aq f- b-s fonetikuri qarTuli variantia); megruli bi-r-cx-a (bu-cx-a)- "frCxili"; Wanuri bu-cx-a, agreTve bi- cx- bu cxbubu-cxfu-tk-arbu-tk-ujfu-tk-ar-i; Sdr. zanuri bu-tk-uj-i da sxva. arn. Ciqobava wers: es prefiqsi (b-, ba-, bu-) sxva kavkasiur b ba- buenaTagan SeTvisebuli klas-kategoriis niSani unda iyos,... vgulisxmobT CaCnuri jgufisa da daRestnis rig enebs, sadac b- klas-kategoriis niSnad amJamadac gvaqvs; yvelgan esaa nivTis kategoriis niSani da ganekuTvneba mesame klass" [arn. Ciqobava, 1942: 179]. iv. javaxiSvils miaCnda, rom prefiqsi buasakoTa aRmniSvneli formantia [iv. javaxiSvili, 1937: 190-215]. kvleva-Ziebam daadastura, rom megrulSi sakmaod bevria babaprefiqsiani da aseTi prefiqsis gareSe sityvebi, romelTa mniSvneloba xSirad identuria anda gramatikuli struqtura imdenad axlos dgas erTmaneTTan, rom maTi warmoSobis TvalsazrisiT dakavSireba did sirTules ar unda warmoadgendes. qvemoT mogvyavs ramdenime TvalsaCino magaliTi:

285

1. ba- prefiqsiani _ ba-caf-i ,,fexakrefiT, neli nabijiT baba-cafsiaruli". ix. ba-c-u-a [o. qajaia, 2001: 229]. baca-cafcaba- prefiqsis gareSe _ ca-caf-i igivea, rac ca-c-u-a 1. ,,fexis wverebze neli siaruli, Cumad misvla, miparva". 2. cacuni (xelisa) [o.qajaia, 2001: 565]. 2. ba- prefiqsiani _ ba-rjg-i ,,boZi, sari, boZkinti; orkapiani baba-rjgjoxi" [o. qajaia, 2001: 225]. ba-rjgba-rjg-u-a ,,mZlavri, Ronieri siaruli" [o. qajaia, 2001: 225]. barjg-im-in- rjg-im-inba- prefiqsis gareSe _ rjg-im-in-i rjg-im-in-u-a saxeli irjg-im-in-anrjg-im-in-an-s zmnisa _ ,,amayad yureba, breqioba" [o. qajaia, 2002: 565]. 3. ba- prefiqsiani _ ba-rCx-al-i ,,kaSkaSi, brwyinva, bzinva, baba-rCx-alelvareba, sxivebis frqveva" [o. qajaia, 2001: 224]. barCx-alba- prefiqsis gareSe _ o-rCx-al-i, orCxeSi ,,sarecxi, sarcxi" [o. qajaia, 2002: 555]. CxanCxan-a mze, ,,mzis sxivi, mziani dRe, sicxe" (qajaia, 2002:326). 4. ba- prefiqsiani _ ba-rdR-al-a ,,visac bardRali, bJuturi baba-rdR-alsCvevia, bJutura" [o. qajaia, 2001: 221]. ba-rdR-alba-rdR-al-i 1. bavSvis mier enis adgma da raRacis Tqma"; 2. ,,uazro, uSinaarso, daufiqrebeli laparaki; daufaravad yvelafris Tqma, bJuturi" [o. qajaia, 2001: 221]. bardg-ab-alrdg-ab-al-anba- prefiqsis gareSe _ rdg-ab-al-i saxeli rdg-ab-al-an-s zmnisa _ ,,layboba, tartali, tlikini" [o. qajaia, 2001: 517]. rdR-ab-alrdg-ab-alrdR-ab-al-i ix. rdg-ab-al-i _ tartari, layboba" (iqve, 518); rdg-ab-al-a ,,visac rdg-ab-al-i (layboba) sCvevia" [o. qajaia, dg-ab-al2001: 517]. 5. ba- prefiqsiani _ ba-rg-u-a saxeli ba-rg-un-s zmnisa baba-rg,,margvla, pirveli Toxna" [o. qajaia, 2001: 220]. lazurSic ba- prefiqsi enacvleba sxva prefiqsebs (masalebi bawarmodgenilia i. bujakliSisa da uzunxasanolus lazurTurquli leqsikonis mixedviT): 1. b-Rir-i (viwuri) _ m-Rir-i (aTinuri) _ ,,mRvrie" RirRirdasturdeba b- da m- formantebis urTierTSenacvlebis SesaZlebloba. 2. b-xuj-i (xofuri) _ m-xuj-i (arTaSenuli) _ ,,mxari" xujxuj3. b-J-a (xofuri) _ m-Ja (aTinuri) _ ,,rZe" 4. b-Jol-i (xofuri) _ m-Jol-i (arTaSenuli) _ ,,TuTa" JolJol5. bo-bol-a (aTinuri) _ bo-m-bul-a (arqabuli) _ ,,Wia" (Sdr. bo-bolbo- bulguruli bo-bol-i _ ,,abreSumis Wia"). bunebrivia, rom "bo" aq bo-bolorive SemTxvevaSi prefiqsia. sayuradReboa, rom inlautSi ganviTarda -m-. aseTive SemTxvevebi gvaqvs sxva sityvebSic: a. o-Ca-m-b-r-e _ on-Cam-ur-e (xofuri) _ ,,Camuri". Caon-Cam-ur286

b. o-xomb-u _ o-xom-u (arqabuli) _ ,,gaSroba, gaxmoba, daWkxombxomnoba". g. o-koWamb-u (aTinuri) _ o-koWab-u (arqabuli) _ ,,dawebeba". koWambo-koWabrogorc vxedavT, erT SemTxvevaSi, (o-koWamb-u) b-s win dasturdeba m, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi, m ar aris ganviTarebuli. sayuradReboa, rom b- formanti zogjer megrulSic ikargeba. magaliTad, bzakali zakali _ ,,palma" [i. yifSiZe, 1994: 60]. ,,mb" bzakali//zakali mb" kompleqsSi b-s dakargva albaT imiTac aris ganpirobebuli, rom megruli, iseve, rogorc Wanuri, gaurbis ramdenime Tanxmovnis erTad yofnas [i. yifSiZe, 1994: 61]. toponim baTomSi yvelaze rTulia Tom Ziris warmomavloba. vfiqrobT, rom is zanur toba, tiba (lazuri) ,,tba, gubura, Rrma" da toba, tobo (megruli) _ tba, Rrma leqsemebs unda ukavSirdebodes. TiTqos Tom-is pirvandeli forma unda yofiTomliyo tobi (toba). SemdgomSi, rogorc es lazurSi dadasturda, b-s win unda ganviTarebuliyo m da miviRebdiT tombi (tomba tomba)-s. mniSvnelovania, rom sityva ,,tomba" dadasturebulia tomba megrulSi ,,Rrmas" mniSvnelobiT. amave dros h. fenrixi da z. sarjvelaZe miiCneven, rom ,,guruli tomboyo da aWaruli tomtompoyo//tomboyo (,,wyliani ormo; damdgari wyali; wumpe") megrul-lazuridan nasesxeb tombo fuZes gamoavlenen" [h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, 1990: 291]. ba- prefiqsis darTvis Semdeg unda bayofiliyo savaraudod _ batombi. zemomoyvanili magaliTebiT irkveva, rom megrulSi babaprefiqsi ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba, xolo lazurs ufro metad b- axasiaTebs. zemoT agreTve davinaxeT, rom sityvis SigniT b-s win dadasturebuli m- xSirad -b-s gaqrobas iwvevs. arc is aris gamoricxuli, rom Cven mier navaraudev sityvaSi yofiliyo kompleqsi -bn- mb-s nacvlad, romelic SeiZleba m-d gadaiqbn- mbceoda (Sdr. yona m-Calupti (b-n-Calufti) _ ,,yanas vmkidi" [g. b Calufti kartozia, 2005: 54]. zustad aseT SemTxvevasTan unda gvqondes saqme Cven mier navaraudev batombi batombi-sTanac. aq droTa ganmavlobaSi b daikarga da miviReT ,,batomi", romelSic SemdgomSi mkveTri ,,t" Seicvala fSvinvieri ,,T"-Ti. e.i. *ba-tob-i>*ba-tombbabat T ba tob- ba tombi>*ba-tom-i>ba-Tom-i. ba-tom- ba-Tomba ba

gamoyenebuli gamoyenebuli literatura

1. z. Tandilava, SuamTobis tradiciebi da folklori, Tb., 1980. 2. g. kartozia., lazuri ena da misi adgili qarTvelur enaTa sistemaSi, Tb., 2005. 3. i. sixaruliZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos toponimika, II, baT., 1959.

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4. h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 1990. 5. o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. I, Tb., 2001. 6. o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. II, Tb., 2002. 7. o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni, t. III, Tb., 2002. 8. i. yifSiZe, rCeuli Txzulebani, Tb., 1994. 9. v. SamilaZe, cnebisaTvis "mTuri mesaqonleoba". _ aWaris mosaxleobis yofisa da kulturis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1967. 10. v. SamilaZe, alpuri mesaqonleoba saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1969. 11. v. SamilaZe, agrarul-religiuri dResaswaulebis istoriidan aWaraSi, _ aWaris mosaxleobis sameurneo yofis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1971. 12. arn. Ciqobava, Wanur-megrul-qarTuli SedarebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1938. 13. arn. Ciqobava, saxelis fuZis uZvelesi agebuleba qarTvelur enebSi, Tb., 1942. 14. arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1979. 15. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba, Tb., 1937. 16. .., , ., 1957. 17. . ., . ., , ., 1984. 18. . ., , ., 1994. 19. ., , . I. ., 1933. 20. ., () , ., 1910. 21. . ., - - , ., 1979.

Guram Chaganava (Batumi, Georgia) The Orgin of the Toponymic Name Batomi Summary In work it is shown that fairly well wide-spread prefix - ba- in Zanian language allows to select presence of the parallel forms close in nature and importance of the words. In some cases became possible to offer some language reconstructions.. As a result of reconstructions of the toponymic name BATOMI by us is chosen prefix BA and initial base TOMBI -TOMBA,which was subsequently converted in TOMI and was as a result formed toponymic name BATOMI (BATUMI).

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mamia faRava

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

kvlav toponim baTumis etimologiisaTvis

geografiuli saxelis _ baTumi _ etimologiis ramdenime cda arsebobs qarTul mecnierebaSi. TiToeuli maTgani garkveuli mecnieruli gansjis Sedegia da, bunebrivia, arsebobis Rirsic. kvlevis procesSi Camogviyalibda baTumis etimologiis Cveneuli versia, romelsac qvemoT gTavazobT. vidre Cvens ZiriTad saTqmels SevexebodeT, mokled ganvixiloT specilur literaturaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebani. I. T. yauxCiSvili aRniSnavs, rom baTumi beTea||baTos formiT gvxvdeba Zv. w. aRricxviT IV saukunis berZnul wyaroebSi. aris toteles cnobiT, ,,baTisTan zRvas ganusazRvreli siRrme aqvs. baTisTan baTisT jer aravis SeZlebia iq Casvla da fskeris aRmoCena" [T. yauxCiSvili, 1969: 10-14]. flavius arianes (II saukunis I naxevari) ki moxsenebuli aqvs baTisi specialistTa erTi nawilis azbaTisi. riT, swored ,,baTis fuZe aris Cadebuli baTum baTis" baTum'Si da niSnavs baTis ,,Rrmas Rrmas". Rrmas baTumis berZnulidan momdinareobis hipoTezas mxari dauWira zurab WumburiZem, magram arc is gamoricxa, rom igi SeiZleba romelime qarTuli sityvisagan iyos miRebuli [z. WumburiZe, 1987: 427]. baTumis berZnulidan momdinareobis versia gaiziara ioseb beqiriSvilmac [i. beqiriSvili, 1999; misive, 1982: 53; misive, 2001: 199-204]. aRniSnuli mosazrebis Sesaxeb SeiZleba iTqvas Semdegi: baTis'i baTis Rrmas rom niSnavs da masalobrivadac nawilobriv emTxveva baTum fuZes, es jer kidev ar niSnavs, rom meore pirvelisagan momdinareobs da sakiTxic gadawyvetilia. aq SeiZleba Zireuli masalis fonetikur damTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme. cnobilia isic, rom berZnebi baTisis, baTeas, batas saxeliT moixsenebdnen adgils novorosiiskTanac, magram msgavsi toponimi iq ar Seqmnila. angariSgasawevia erTi garemoebac: xSirad wyaroebma ama Tu im toponimis, eTnonimisa Tu hidronimis ori saxelwodeba icis: erTi adgilobrivTa Serqmeuli, meore ­ ucxoelTa mier. amis magaliTebia: rioni ­ fasisi, : baTisi... Woroxi ­ akamfsisi, yoroliswyali ­ baTisi... analogiur faqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas T. yauxCiSvili ioseb flaviosis Txzulebaze msjelobisas: ioseb flaviosi xSirad tomTa or saxels iZleva, ,,erTs imas, rac maT eTnarqosis mixedviT erqvaT da meores imas, rac imave toms elinebma daarqves:

289

galatebi, medebi. gomarebi ­ galatebi, magogebi ­ skviTebi, madeebi ­ medebi tomTa meore jgufi, romelSic Teobelebi da mesxebi Sedian, aseve or-ori saxeliT aris moxsenebuli..." [T. yauxCiSvili, 1983: 49]. bunebrivia, dagvebados kiTxva: baTumTan mimarTebaSic xom imave movlenasTan ar gvaqvs saqme? baTisi||baTea - berZnuli da baTis'idan dasaSvebia baTumi||baTomi ­ qarTuli? meorecaa da, baTis baTum'is miReba? (s:m monacvleoba qarTvelur enebSi dasaSvebi baTum s:m ar aris). II. pirvelad simon yauxCiSvilma scada baTum baTum'is mniSvneloba qarTvelur enaTa monacemebiT aexsna. mkvlevarma masSi gamoyo um mawarmoebeli da baT Zireuli masala, es ukanaskneli ki daukavSira svanur b@C (qva, klde) fuZes [s. yauxCiSvili, 1965: C 60]. es varaudi ar gaiziara s. janaSiam [s. janaSia, 1949: 31-32]. momdevno periodSi s. yauxCiSvili kidev erTxel Seexo sakiTxs da gamoTqva mosazreba, rom baTis||baTÂs fuZe qarTulia, magram berZnulad gaazrebuli, rogorc ,,baTus _ Rrma [s. yauxCiSbaTus" baTus vili, 1951: 22]. amave Tvalsazriss iziareben jemal CxeiZe [j. CxeiZe, 1959: 17] da aslan inaiSvili [a. inaiSvili, 1976: 77-86]. problemasTan dakavSirebiT saintereso dakvirveba aqvT amiran kaxiZesa da daviT xaxutaiSvils: ,,s. yauxCiSvilis mixedviT, baTumi Zveladve arsebobda da saxelic igive hqonda. berZnebs adgilobrivi saxeli berZnulad gauazrebiaT da miuRiaT saxeli baTus rac Rrmas niSnavs. magram Rrma SeiZleba baTus, wyali yofiliyo da amitomac es saxeli im mdinarisaTvis miuweriaT, romelic qalaqis maxloblad Camodioda. magram baba Tumis maxloblad ar iyo mdinare, romelic siRrmiT gamoirCeoda. berZnebma mdinares uwodes baTÂs imis gamo, rom mas ase eZaxda adgilobrivi mosaxleoba" [a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, 1989: 22]. diax, berZnebma mdinares (SeiZleba xeobasac ­ m.f.) uwodes baTÂs, imitom rom mas ase (an fonetikurad masTan miaxloebul saxels ­ m.f.) eZaxda adgilobrivi mosaxleoba. erTi sityviT, moyvanili TvalsazrisiT, baTÂs ( (ufro baTumi) araa berZnuli sityva, rac mniSvnelovania. Cans, es saxeli erqva ara marto mdinares, garkveul geografiul punqtsac. baTum'is etimologiiT dainteresda maqsime qaldanic. moviybaTum vanoT misi msjeloba: ,,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom baC saerToqarTveluri saxelia... amasTan baT da baC orive svanuri enis kuTvnilebas unda warmoadgendes. maT Soris baT Zvelia, baC gviandeli. marTali Cans akad. s. yauxCiSvilis is ZiriTadi debuleba, rom berZnuli petra qarTveluri baT sityvis Targmans warmoadgenda, radganac es baT an kldes an qvas aRniSnavda kldes, qarTvelur enebSi" [m. qaldani, 1983: 84-86].

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moyvanili mosazrebidan sayuradReboa, rom mocemulia cda baTum'is qarTvelur enaTa safuZvelze axsnisa da isic, rom baTum saanalizo toponimSi gamoiyo -um sufiqsi. aqve unda SevexoT erT momentsac, kerZod: baT||baC svanuria da qvas an klde kldes niSnavs, petra ki _ baT||baC fuZis berZnuli Targmaniao, iTqva. aq winaaRmdegobaSi movdivarT: erT SemTxvevaSi berZnebma qarTveluri baT||baC (qva) fuZe berZnulad Targmnes _ petra (petra cixea qobuleTTan da lazeTSi, TurqeTis lazeTSi), meore SemTxvevaSi ki igive baT||baC fuZe berZnul baTÂs (Rrma) baTÂs's daukavSires da ase uwodes mdinares Tu xeobas. aqve imasac vityviT, rom Tu baT||baC svanurad qvas, kldes niSnavs, xolo baTÂs baTÂs Tavdapirvelad mdinares erqva (qviani mdinare?-m.f.), da es mdinare yoroliswyalia awindeli, romelic aseve qvasTan unda iyos kavSirSi (yorol fuZes ukavSireben qarTul yores yores; yorol mdinares, yoroliswyali qvian mdinares yorolisTavi ki _ qvis, yoris Tavs unda niSnavdes), ratom gaxda saWiro erTi da igive mdinarisaTvis ori qarTveluri saxeli (baTisi, yoroliswyali baTisi, yoroliswyali) ewodebinaT? gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom yoroliswyalic iseve Zveli Cans, rogorc baTumi. safiqrebelia, rom baTumi (Tavisi variantebiT) Tavdapirvelad ar unda yofiliyo mdinaris saxeli (hidronimi), igi adgilis saxeli (toponimi) Cans. III. baTum baTum'is Sesaxeb mosazreba aqvs gamoTqmuli i. kalfoRlus: ,,saxelwodeba baTumi aris udavod Turquli gadakeTeba. iseve rogorc Turqebma amisos' amisos'agan miiRes samsoni heraksamsoni, heraklea'sagan ­ heragli, keisari lea heragli keisari'sagan ­ kaiseri da a.S. cnobilia, isari rom Turqebis mier trapezuntis aRebamde (1461) baTumi sofeli iyo, romelic iwodeboda ,,baTis ,,baTis", anu ,,baTi ,,baTi", magram mTeli olqi am sofliTurT gadavida qarTveli erisTavebis gamgeblobaSi, sofeli bata iwoda ­ patomi da ganagrZobs: ,,qarTupatomi" li saxelwodebidan patomi Turqebma Seqmnes forma patum... patum Tavisi saxelwodeba ki mdinare baTum baTum'ma miiRo havani havani'sagan, romelic iwodeboda ,,Rrma havani (Bathus limen) ..." [ .., Rrma havani" 1906: 40-41] (i. kalfoRlus Sroma mogvawoda profesorma nodar kaxiZem, risTvisac madlobas movaxsenebT mas). SevniSnavT, rom i. kalfoRlu iumoriT ixsenebs i. dakiSeviCisa da a. xicunovis Sromebs [a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, 1989: 15], magram arc misi mosazrebaa realur faqtebze agebuli, igi ufro avtoris fantaziis nayofia. xariton axvlediani baTum Turquli baTTum baTum's baTTum'isagan momdinared miiCnevs, rac ,,Casaflob, Waobian adgils niSnavso". baCasaflob, Tum's batims" (talaxi, Waobi) ukavSirebs m. svaniZec Tum Turqul ,,batim batim [m. svaniZe, 1999]. baTum'is Turqulidan momdinareobis hipoTeza jer kidev baTum 1959 wels uaryo iuri sixaruliZem. misi SeniSvniT, saxelwo291

deba baTumi aq Turqebis gamoCenamdec iyo cnobili [i. sixaruliZe, 1959: 86]. zemoTqmuli rom SevajamoT, vnaxavT, rom qarTvelologiaSi baTum'is Sesaxeb gamoTqmulia Semdegi mosazrebebi: baTum' 1. baTumi momdinareobs berZnuli baTea||baTos formisagan da baTumi niSnavs ,,Rrmas Rrmas"; Rrmas 2. baTumi momdinareobs Turquli baTTumi, batimi batimi'sagan da niSnavs talaxs, Waobs, saflobs saflobs; 3. baTumi momdinareobs svanuri b@C' C'isagan da qvas, kldes C' niSnavs; ; 4. arsebobs baTumis kolxuriT axsnis cdac. CvenTvis mniSvnelovania, rom baTum'Si gamoiyo baT baTum Zireuli masala da -um sufiqsi. baTomi||baTumi. baTumi gvxdeba ori formiT: baTomi||baTumi masSi gamoiyofa om||om//-om||-um sufiqsi. saqarTvelos teritoriaze dasturdeba -om//-um sufiqsiT gaformebuli ramdenime sageografio saxeli: cxumi (pavle ingoroyva adasturebs cxomi formasac [p. ingoroyva, 1954] ), cxumari (svaneTi), cxmori (*<cxumori raWa), cxmorisi cxumori. cxumori (*<cxumorisi aWara), cxomareTi cxumareTi (romelTa Zireucxumorisi. cxomareTi(//*cxumareTi cxumareTi)... cxumorisi li masala cx ukavSirdeba fitonims rcxila leCxumi (le-Cxrcxila), lele Cxumum-i, masSi gamoiyofa Cx (igivea, rac qarTuli cx da isic fitonimuri Ziria), borjomi (borj-om-i), Rorjomi||Rorjumi borjborj om(Rorj-om-i||Rorj-um-i. Rorj fitonimuri Ziri Cans. Sdr. naRorRorjnaRorRorj om-i||Rorj-umjomali (saZovari vakijvarSi) da Rorjonali (*<Rorjomnali ­ Rorjomnali qeda, namonastrevi). dasaSvebad migvaCnia, Rorj'is RvarZl'Tan Rorj RvarZl dakavSireba: RvarZl>RorZl>Rorj l's CavardniTa da Z||j RvarZl>RorZl>Rorj. bgeraTmonacvleobiT), kapreSumi (kapreS-um-i. ukavSirdeba fitokapreSkapreS umnims kapraSa||kapreSa beSumi (beS-um-i. ukavSirdeba fitonims kapraSa||kapreSa), beSbeS umbeSbeSura (beS-ur-a)... [m. faRava, 2009: 3-14]. yvela CamoTvlili beS urgeografiuli saxelis Zireuli masala fitonimia, mcenareTa saxelia. Cans, -um//-om sufiqsi fitonimuri Zirebidan awarmoebum//da geografiul saxelebs. amave rigisaa baTumic baTumic. baTum||baTom saxelur fuZeSic, rogor aRvniSneT, gamoiyofa um// //-um//-om mawarmoebeli da baT Ziri. es ukanaskneli ki SeiZleba davukavSiroT mcenaris saxels baTura (saxelwodeba mogvawoda batonma aziz axvledianma, risTvisac madlobas movaxsenebT mas). baTumi//baTomi is adgilia, sadac baTura xarobs. sxvaTa Soris, baTum baTum'is maxloblad ramdenime fitonimuri warmoSobis toponimi dasturdeba: barcxana rac Cirgvnars, barcxnars barcxana, (barcxvanas) niSnavs [g.eliava 1977: 103; g. bedoSvili 2002: 78], kapreSumi... baTuras axsenebs Tavis baladaSi batoni SoTa kapreSumi zoiZe: ,,... maT Soris erTi asuli, WalaSi iyo wasuli,

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tansruli, Tanac werweta, mindvris balaxebs eZebda. korkotina da moloka, jer daynosa da moloka, ki ar moloka, akoca, foTlebs akoca da roca, xSir balaxebSi funTula TiTebi mouTaTuna, miagno saqmiT garTulma, kelaptara da baTura baTura..." amdenad, baTumi, rogorc sxva -um/-om sufiqsiani geografiubaTumi, um/li saxelebi fitonimuri warmoSobisaa da ukavSirdeba mcenaris saxels baTura (baT-ur-a). baTbaT urda bolos, baTumis maxloblad, yoroliswylis xeobaSi mdebareobs orTabaTumi. igi uZvelesi dasaxlebaa ramdenime sofliT: kapreSumi, Celta, salibauri, winsvla, wiqareuli, kapreSumi, agara... masauri, yorolisTavi, Winala, agara orTabaTumi kompozitad miaCniaT da ase daSlian: orTa (Turq. _ Sua da baTumi niSnavs Sua) baTumi, SuabaTumi. SuabaTumi Tu orTabaTumis mdebareobas gavixsenebT, warmoudgenelia misTvis Sua baTumi ewodebina vinmes. sadac ar unda yofiliyo istoriulad baTumi sulerTia, orTabaTumi mainc baTumi, misi ganapira sofeli Tu dasaxleba iqneboda da aramc da aramc Sua. maS, ratom ewoda sofels es saxelwodeba? SesaZlebelia, arcaa orTabaTumi Turqul (orTa - qarTuli (baTum orTa) baTumi) orTa baTum fuZeebis kompoziciiT miRebuli geografiuli saxeli da sulac qarTulia? vinc ki Sexebia orTabaTumis etimologias, yvela moiSveliebs analogiuri (garegnulad mainc) yalibis geografiul saxelebs: orTa Wala (Sua Wala), orTa mehele (Sua ubani)... orTaWala aris Sua Wala, orTamehele ­ Sua ubani, orTaxoxna Wala ubani xoxna... Sua xoxna (xuTversian rukaze analogiuri yalibis ocamde sofelia dafiqsirebuli), magram xom SeiZleba orTabaTumi ar iyos Turqul-qarTuli fuZeebis gaerTianebiT miRebuli toponimi da sulac qarTuli saxeli iyos _ orTa (oris) baTumi baTumi? xomaa SesaZlebeli es sofeli oris kuTvnileba iyo? Tumca saamiso raime istoriuli sabuTi ar arsebobs (yovel SemTxvevaSi CvenTvis ucnobia). toponim orTabaTumis Sedgeniloba da etimologia, vfiqrobT, damatebiT kvlevas moiTxovs.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. g. bedoSvili, qarTul toponimTa ganmartebiT-etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2002.

293

2. i. beqiriSvili, narkvevebi baTumis istoriidan, baT., 1982. 3. i. beqiriSvili, rodis da rogor warmoiSva kaxaber-baTumis dablobi? _ gaz. ,,aWara PS," 16-23 ivlisi, 1999. 4. i. beqiriSvili, aWaris geografiul saxelTa leqsikoni, baT., 2001. 5. g. eliava, abaSisa da gegeWkoris toponimia, Tb., 1977. 6. p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, Tb., 1964. 7. a. inaiSvili, baTumis etimologiisaTvis, aWaruli dialeqtis dargobrivi leqsika, t. I, Tb., 1976. 8. a. kaxiZe, d. xaxutaiSvili, masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis I, _ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, t. XVIII, Tb., 1989. 9. .., , _ . , . XVIII, . 1, . 1906. 10. m. svaniZe, gaz. ,,kaxaberi," 15-31 ivlisi, 1999. 11. i. sixaruliZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos toponimika, naw. II, baT., 1959. 12. m. faRava, -um/-om sufiqsi qarTul toponimebSi da zogierTi geografiuli saxelis etimologiis cda, _ rsu humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis Sromebi, t. XIII, baT., 2009. 13. m. qaldani, kvlav baTumis etimologiisaTvis, Jurn. ,,Woroxi," baT., 1983, 2, 14. z. WumburiZe, dedaena qarTuli, Tb., 1987. 15. j. CxeiZe, baTumis istoriisaTvis, baT., 1959. 16. T. yauxCiSvili, berZeni mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, t. II, Tb., 1969. 17. T. yauxCiSvili, berZeni mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, t. V, Tb., 1983. 18. s. yauxCiSvili, antikuri masalebi baTumis istoriis Sesaxeb, _ quTaisis pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi, t. IV, quT., 1951. 19. s. yauxCiSvili, bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, _ georgika, t. II. Tb., 1965. 20. s. janaSia, Sromebi, t. V, Tb., 1949.

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Mamia Paghava (Batumi, Georgia) Again on the etimology of Batumi toponymy Summary An artick provides a critical analysis of the opinions about stem ,,Batum" existing in Georgian science. An attempt of relating ,,Batum" to Greek Batea||Bathos (deep) is negated, as well as to Svanuri Bach (stom) and Turkish Battum||Batim (march, peat) stems. The suffixes ­um//-om an ,,Bat" stem are singeed out in the Batum//Batom stem, on the basis of which it was estimated that toponyms are derived from vegetation stems by the suffixes ­um//-om. According to the author's viewpoint, Batum', is a toponym derived from tho vegetation stem (related to the phytonym Batura (Bat-ur-a)).

295

mixeil qamadaZe

(baTumi, saqarTvelo)

baTumis toponimia

arqeologiuri monacemebis mixedviT varaudoben, rom baTumis teritoriis garkveuli monakveTebi dasaxlebuli unda yofiliyo jer kidev Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasawyisidan. amis eWvmiutaneli mowmobaa Tamaris cixis saxeliT cnobili baTumis gora-samosaxlo [inaiSvili, xaxutaiSvili, 1962; inaiSvili, 1964; kaxiZe, 1971: 25; kaxiZe, xaxutaiSvili, 1989: 56-57], romelic mdebareobs md. yoroliswylis SesarTavTan, dRevandeli baTumis CrdiloeTiT. lazi informatoris xasan-aRa muradoRlis gadmocemis mixedviT, d.baqraZe wers, rom warsulSi baTumi mdebareobda did movakebulze, yoroliswylis marcxniv. mkvlevris mogzaurobis dros am adgilze SemorCenili yofila didi kedlisa da eqvsiSvidi eklesiis naSTi [baqraZe, 1987: 27]. Zveli baTumis mdebareobaze amave azris iyvnen i. alfoRlu, T. uspenski, s. kakabaZe [sixaruliZe, 1959: 81]. Jan murie aRniSnavda, rom baTumi cnobili iyo 400 wlis winaT Cvens eramde [Jan murie, 1964: 22], am saxelwodebis siZveleze sxvebic miuTiTebdnen (n.dakiSeviCi, p.xecinovi...) [sixaruliZe, 1959: 79]. Tumca ar asaxeleben saTanado wyaros. T. yauxCiSvilis mixedviT, pirveli werilobiTi cnoba baTumis Sesaxeb aqvs ukve aristoteles Zv.w. IV saukuneSi. Semdegi xanis berZen-romaeli avtorebi (pliniusi, ariane, anonimi) moixsenieben mdinare baTiss [yauxCiSvili, 1987: 109-112], romelic gaigivebulia Tanamedrove md. yoroliswyalTan [yauxCiSvili, 1950-1951: 19, yauxCiSvili, 1987: 115; sixaruliZe, 1959: 8081]. Sua saukuneebis ZeglebSi (daaxl. XIV s-dan) saxelwodeba "baTumi" araerTxel moixsenieba. "axali qarTlis cxovrebaSi" gvxvdeba "baTomi", mogviano qarTul wyaroebSi ki Turqulis gavleniT gvaqvs "baTumi" [yauxCiSvili, 1987: 115]. s.yauxCiSvilis varaudiT, berZnul wyaroebSi moxseniebuli "baTÊs" mdinarea, mis SesarTavTan ki yofila amave saxelwodebis qalaqic [yauxCiSvili, 1964: 57]. manve erT-erTma pirvelma miaqcia yuradReba baTumis etimologiis sakiTxs. misi TvalsazrisiT, "baTumi" isea nawarmoebi, rogorc borjomi, wromi, TorTomi da a.S. e.i. -om aris sufiqsi da baT-Ziri, romelic unda ukavSirdebodes svanur sityvas "baC" (qva) [georgika, 1965:

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106]. mecnieri erT-erT Tavis naSromSi "petras" da "baTumis" igiveobaze msjelobda. kerZod, aRniSnavda, rom petra berZnulad qvas, kldes niSnavs da unda vifiqroT, rom sityvaSi baTom-i "baT"­fuZe erT-erT qarTvelur enaSi niSnavda "qvas" [yauxCiSvili, 1964: 58-60]. sxvagan ki miuTiTebda, rom "saxelwodeba "baTÊs" warmoSobiT qarTuli sityvaa (baT-om-i), magram gaazrebulia, rogorc berZnuli "baTÊs", "Rrma" [yauxCiSvili, 1950-1951: 23]. m. qaldanis azriTac "baT" Zirs kavSiri unda hqondes svanur "baC"-Tan, orive svanuri enis kuTvnilebaa; "baT" Zvelia, "baC" ­ gviandeli, berZnuli petra qarTveluri baT sityvis Targmans warmoadgens, radgan baT an kldes, an qvas aRniSnavda qarTvelur enebSi [qaldani, 1983: 85]. "baT" Ziris svanur "baC"-Tan dakavSirebas mxars uWeren, agreTve, a. inaiSvili [inaiSvili, 1976: 73-86] da T. mibCuiani [mibCuani, 1989: 240]. i.sixaruliZe ki Tvlis, rom am Zirebis dakavSirebas dabrkolebas uqmnis svanur-qarTuli enebis bgeraTSesatyvisobis kanonzomiereba [sixaruliZe, 1959: 87]. T.yauxCiSvili aRniSnavs, rom "toponimi "baTumi" ueWvelad qarTulidanaa nawarmoebi. Ziria "baT", xolo "om" sufiqsia. qarTulSi gvaqvs am warmoebis toponimebi: diRomi, borjomi, Rorjomi, TorTomi, Rromi, wromi. yvela am Ziris (diR. borj. Rr. wr.) etimologia gaurkvevelia. igive unda iTqvas "baT"-is Sesaxebac... specialistebi "baT" Zirs ukavSireben svanur "baC"-s (qvas), magram lingvisturi analizi amis SesaZleblobas ar unda iZleodes"... [yauxCiSvili, 1987: 115-116]. r. gordeziani aRniSnavs, rom "-am/ -m qarTuli sufiqsi, romelic saerTo qarTvelur donemde aRdgeba (megr.-Wan. -um/ im; svan. ­ -em), aris Tavisi warmoSobiT Tematiuri zmnuri sufiqsi, romelic sakmaod farTod gamoiyeneba qarTul sityvawarmoebaSi. vfiqrobT, am sufiqsaluri elementis variaciasTan gvaqvs saqme qarTvelur toponimebSi -am dabolovebiT: Tez-am-i, boJ-am-i, laR-am-i, xarj-am-i da sxv. amave sufiqsis variantebs vadasturebT toponimebSi: borj-om-i, baT-um-i..." [gordeziani, 1985: 111]. sayuradReboa, rom i.Wyonias leqsikonis mixedviT, "baTomi" Wanurad Waobian adgils, miwas niSnavs [Wyonia, 1910: 5]. amasTan "baT" Ziri araa ucxo qarTveluri gvarebisa Tu sakuTari saxelebisaTvisac. mag., baTi, baTa, baTaia, baTia... [Rlonti, 1986: 80], baTaZe, baTiaSvili... amrigad, "baTumis" etimologiasTan dakavSirebiT naTelia mxolod is, rom saxelwodeba qarTuli agebulebisa da uZvele-

297

si warmomavlobisaa. ucnobia "baT" Ziris mniSvneloba, daudgenelia -om- sufiqsis funqcia. baTumis Sesaxeb werilobiTi wyaroebi sakmaod mogvepoveba, magram qalaqis ubnebisa da mimdebare teritoriebis Sesaxeb aseTi wyaroebi iSviaTia da metwilad axali periodisaa. baTumi araerT mkvlevar-mogzaurs aqvs aRwerili. XVIII saukuneSi vaxuSti baTumis Sesaxeb wers: "zRÊs SesarTavzed da Woroxis CrdiloT kidurzed ars baTomi, mcire qalaqi da cixe kargi, aw upyravT osmalTa" [batoniSvili vaxuSti, 1973: 792]. 1807 wels baTumi aRwera adrian diuperem. misi aRweriT maSin aq 2000-mde mcxovrebi yofila (gafantuli saxlebiT) da ufro did sofels hgavda, vidre qalaqs. araviTari simagre ar icavda mis reids. qvis saZirkvelze agebuli erTaderTi xis koSki, TxrilSemovlebuli da uqvemexo, aRmarTuliyo bazris SesasvlelTan [baqraZe, 1987: 23]. baTumis Zveli toponimia aravis ara aqvs aRwerili. Mogvepoveba mxolod gviandeli, kerZod, osmalebis batonobis periodis aRweris masalebi. am masalebSi moxseniebulia qalaqis ubnebisa Tu gareubnebis saxelebi, romlebic ZirTadad araa qarTuli warmomavlobis. osmalebis batonobis xanaSi da SemdgomSic aWaraSi, gansakuTrebiT mis zRvispira zolSi (ra Tqma unda, baTumSic), sxvadasxva warmomavlobis xalxi mosula da dasaxlebula. es viTareba toponimiaSic kargad aris asaxuli. kerZod, amJamad zRvispira aWaraSi gvxvdeba geografiuli saxelebi: "qurTluRi", "naqurTvali" (qurTebis nacxovrebi adgilebi), "xemSiluRi" (mahmadiani somxebis nacxovrebi adgili), berZnulia "neoxor", "liforlux" da a.S. XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan ki intensiurad iwyeba rusi kolonistebis dasaxleba. ris Sedegadac aWaris zRvispira zolSi gaCnda saxelwodebebi: kaganovi, ribkovis baRi, iliCovi, sinicini, kalancovi, gubanovi, karenini, guCkovi, bulgarski, bikovi da a.S. es rusi kolonistebis gvarebia, romlebic mamulebs flobdnen am mxareSi. amJamad maTi gvarebis mixedviT iwodeba es adgilebi. osmalebis batonobis periodSi baTumis mosaxleoba ar iyo mravalricxovani. mxolod SemoerTebis (1878 wlidan) Semdeg daiwyo misi swrafi zrda. baTumis saqalaqo meurneobis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb Sedgenil Tavis narkvevSi i.mesxi qalaqis Semdeg ubnebs asaxelebs: mTavari quCa ­ pirveli sanapiro maSin iwodeboda "ali-kiisi", paralelurad mas mihyveboda quCebi da Sesaxvevebi: "jami-arasi" (meCeTis Sesaxvevi), "Cixmas-soxaxi", "amam-soxaxi" (abanos Sesaxvevi), "aWaris-soxaxi" (Turquli bazridan mimavali quCa, romlis saxeli maSin iyo "mezerlux-baSi"), imdroindeli svia298

topolk-mirskaias quCa iwodeboda "azizie-soxaxad", navmisadgomTan mimavali quCa ­ "burun-baSi-soxaxi", mixailovskaias quCas ­ "telegraf-soxaxi", berZnebis quCas ­ "urum-soxaxi", "nurie-soxaxad" iwodeboda nuriesTan mimavali quCa. qalaqis maSindeli nawilebi iwodeboda: pirveli policiis ganyofileba ­ "azizie-mexlese"; meore policiis ganyofileba­"axmedfaSa-mexlese"; imdroindeli mesame policiis ganyofileba ­ "mufTie-mexlese" da "nurie-mexlese", afxazTa gareubani ­ IV policiis ganyofileba da sari-su ­ imdroindeli saqarxno nawili [, 1906: 463]. aq SecdomiTaa "mexlese", unda iyos "mehele". CamoTvlili saxelebis garda x.axvlediani Tavis narkvevSi asaxelebs, agreTve "abaza-mehelesi" da "sari-su-mehelesi" [axvlediani, 1944: 174]. osmaluri reJimis periodSi baTums mcire teritoria eWira. amJamindeli WavWavaZis quCis iqeTa mxare mTlianad Waobi iyo. mWidro dasaxleba arc "nurie-gelis" ubanSi iyo. q. baTumis teritoriaze arsebuli toponimebi:

baTumis tba. TurqeTis batonobis periodSi am adgilebs

(tbis mimdebare teritoriebs) ewodeboda nurie (ubani, tba da bazari). igi cnobili iyo ori saxeliT: "nurie" da "nurie gel". eZaxdnen, agreTve golbaSs. golbaSi _ "tbebis meTauri", meTauri Tu mTavari tba; baTumSi sxva tbebicaa da maT Soris esaa mTavari tba. sabWoTa periodSi tbis garSemo pionerTa parki gaSenda da am tbasac pionerTa parkis tbas eZaxdnen. amJamad baTumis tbas uwodeben. legendis mixedviT, baTumis tbaSi damxrCvala bavSvi. bavSvis saxeli yofila nuri. e.i. Turq. "nuri-gel" qarTulad niSnavs "nuris tba" [alasania, 1958: 219]. SeniSnulia, rom "nurigel" niSnavs "nuri modi", "nuris tba" Turqulad unda iyos "nuri-giol" [sixaruliZe, 1959: 87-88]. aseve SeniSnulia, rom Turquli reJimis periodSi bevri qarTuli toponimi Seicvala, an Turqulad iqna gagebuli. ase unda iyos "nuriec". es saxeli qarTuli warmoSobisaa da "nurie" ki ara "norio" unda iyos [sixaruliZe, 1959: 88-89]. Waobi// //Waoba Waobi//Waoba ­ baTumis erT-erTi ubnis adrindeli saxelia. amJamindeli WavWavaZis quCis iqeTa mxare urexamde Waobs eWira da saxelic amis mixedviT erqva. boni ­ q. baTumis erT-erTi ubania. misi sruli saxelwodebaa "batumskoe neftsnaba". Semdeg ewoda "batumskoe tovarno­ transportnoe upravlenie neftesnabsbita". am ubans mosaxleoba amJamad mxolod bonis saxeliT icnobs.

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garadoki//gorodoki ­ qalaqis erT-erTi msxvili ubania. samxedro dasaxleba iyo. revoluciamde erqva "slobodaxolodnaia". barcxana ­ qalaqis ubani. saxelwodebis amosavali unda iyos mcenaris saxeli barcxi: barcxana<barcxvana<barcxovana. benze ­ Semoklebuli formaa rusuli sityvebisa "batumskoe neftepererabativaiuSCi zavod". navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana amJamad aRaraa, magram saxeli darCa. Tamara ­ mdebareobs md. yoroliswylis SesarTavTan. Mdinaris marcxena mxares SemaRlebul borcvs ewodeba Tamara. gadmocemiT, aq cixe augia Tamar mefes, swored es teritoria miiCneva q. baTumis Tavdapirvel adgilad. stefanovka ­ adre sofeli iyo. Tavis droze ruseTis xelisuflebam aq afxazebi daasaxla. am ubans saxeli hqvia baTumis okrugis imdroindeli ufrosis gvaris (stefanovi) mixedviT. Zveli saxeli yofila "deda-bera" [WiWinaZe, 1913: 188]. ormanTala ­ Turqulia da niSnavs "tyis yana". amJamad qalaqis mimdebare teritoriaa, qveda angisaSia, nawili ukve qalaqSia moqceuli. abaara ­ qveda angisaSia. abaara afxazuria da dampals niSnavs. aris aarcti "gamoRma" da nrcti "gaRma" abaara. misi nawili ukve qalaqSia moqceuli. Jilinskis arxi//Jilinis arxi ­ amJamad es arxi qalaqsa da sof. angisas Soris gadis da uerTdeba zRvas. axlaxan moxda misi rekonstruqcia. arxi vinme Jilinis proeqtiTaa gakeTebuli da saxelic amis mixedviT hqvia. sineq mehele ­ Turq. "buzis ubani". qalaqis mimdebare adgilia angisaSi. souq-su ­ Turq. "civi wyaro". amJamad aq sasaflaoa. souqardagani ­ qalaqis erT-erTi ubnis saxelia. aq artaanidan gadmoyvanili rusuli jari ganTavsda da amitomac uwodes ardagani. strelbiSa//sasroleTi ­ qalaqis ubania. es saxelic rusul samxedro nawilTanaa dakavSirebuli. aRniSnuli saxelebi metwilad umarTebulodaa damkvidrebuli. Tanac maTi umetesoba qarTuli warmomavlobis araa. samwuxarod, es procesi dResac grZeldeba. kerZod, meqanikurad fexs ikidebs iseTi saxelebi, rogoricaa: wriuli//kalcavoi, xofa (Wanuri sofeli xofa amJamad TurqeTis sazRvrebSia. bolo periodSi iq Cadiodnen aqaurebi da vaWrobdnen, Semdeg baTumSi gaixsna savaWro centri, romelsac analogiiT Searqva xalxma xofa); satransporto saSualebebzec gaCnda warwerebi: "avtosadguri _ xofa", "bazari _ xofa"... yovelive es saWiroebs yuradRebas. SeiZleba rekomendaciebic gakeTdes. SeiniSneba

300

iseTi tendenciac, roca Zvel saxels axali, ufro marTebuli saxeli enacvleba. mag., qalaqis erT-erT ubans inasariZis quCis saxelis mixedviT inasariZis dasaxlebas eZaxian; leoniZis quCis mixedviT ­ leoniZis dasaxlebas da a.S.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. a.inaiSvili, d.xaxutaiSvili. qarTuli materialuri kulturis sayuradRebo Zeglebi. gaz. "sabWoTa aWara", 2.VIII, 1962. 2. a.inaiSvili, baTumis Zveli istoriis sakiTxisaTvis axali arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Suqze, ­ saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis baTumis samecniero­kvleviTi institutis mesame samecniero sesiis Tezisebi, 1964. 3. a.kaxiZe, saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTis antikuri xanis qalaqebi, Tb., 1971. 4. a.kaxiZe, d.xaxutaiSvili, masalebi baTumis Zveli istoriisaTvis, ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, XVIII, Tb., 1989. 5. i.sixaruliZe, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos toponimika, II, baT., 1959. 6. d.baqraZe, arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, baT., 1987. 7. Jan murie, baTumi da Woroxis auzi (frangulidan Targmna iza lorTqifaniZem), baT., 1962 8. T.yauxCiSvili, antikuri wyaroebi q.baTumis istoriisaTvis, ­ samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi, XVI, Tb., 1987. 9. s.yauxCiSvili, antikuri masalebi baTumis istoriisaTvis, ­ al.wulukiZis sax. quTaisis pedinstitutis Sromebi, t.X, quT., 1950-1951. 10. s.yauxCiSvili, ras gviamboben Zveli berZnebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tb., 1964. 11. m.qaldani, kvlav baTumis etimologiisaTvis, ­ Jurn. "Woroxi", N# 2, 1983. 12. a.inaiSvili, baTumis etimologiisaTvis, ­ "aWaruli dialeqtis dargobrivi leqsika", I, Tb., 1976. 13. Teimuraz mibCuani, dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTvel mTielTa eTnogenezis, gansaxlebisa da kulturis istoriidan, Tb., 1989. 14. r.gordeziani, winaberZnuli da qarTveluri, Tb., 1985. 15. i. Wyonia, sityvis kona, 1910. 16. batoniSvili vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa, ­ qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV (teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s.yauxCiSvilis mier), Tb., 1973. 17. , .. , , ., 1906. 18. x.axvlediani, narkvevi aWaris istoriidan, baT., 1944. 19. q.alasania. aWaris assr dasavleTi nawilis landSaftebi.­rusTavelis saxelobis baTumis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi. t. VI, baT., 1958.

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20. z.WiWinaZe, musulman qarTveloba da maTi soflebi saqarTvenloSi, Tb., 1913.

Mikheil Kamadadze (Batumi, Georgia) Toponymy of Batumi Summary There are enough ancient writing sources about Batumi, but information about certain districts of the town is of a new period. There we meet the names of Batumi districts, which are of foreign origin.

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demografia DEMOGRAPHY

Tamaz futkaraZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) gabriela belova (blagoevgradi, bulgareTi)

demografiuli mdgomareoba qalaq baTumSi 2002 wlis aRweris mixedviT

sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg saqarTveloSi ganviTarebulma procesebma (ekonomikuri krizisi, eTnikuri konfiqtebi) ganapiroba cxovrebis donis mkveTri dacema, gaizarda umuSevroba, gaCnda ltolvilTa didi raodenoba, samuSaos saZebnelad ucxoeTSi wavida uamravi adamiani. Yyovelive aman ganapiroba mosaxleobis socialuri struqturis, eTnikuri Semadgenlobis da sxva parametrebis cvlilebebi. amitom dRis wesrigSi dadga axali aRweris Catarebis aucileblobis sakiTxi. 2001 w. ,,sayovelTao aRweris Sesaxeb" miRebuli kanonis safuZvelze 2002 w. ianvarSi saqarTveloSi Catarda pirveli sayovelTao aRwera, ramac SesaZlebeli gaxada Seqmniliyo demografiuli da social-ekonomikuri xasiaTis farTo sainformacio baza. 2002 w. aRweris mixedviT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis raodenoba 1989 welTan SedarebiT Semcirda 857,6 aTasi kaciT [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 52]. cvlilebebi Seexo aWarasac. regionSi mosaxleobis raodenoba 1989 welTan SedarebiT Semcirda 392707-dan 376016-mde [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 52]. Mmosaxleobis kleba ganpirobebuli iyo migraciuli procesebis gaaqtiurebiT, mokvdaobis zrdiT, Sobadobis SemcirebiT da a. S. aWaraSi kleba ZiriTadad Seexo qalaqis mosaxleobas da wina aRwerasTan SedarebiT Semcirda 181768-dan 166827-mde, soflis mosaxleobis raodenoba ki umniSvnelod Seicvala (210939-dan 209004-mde) [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 55]. baTumSi mosaxleoba Semcirda 14803 kaciT (136609-dan 121806 kacamde) [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 66]. Seicvala sqesTa Tanafardobac. Tu 1989 w. monacemebiT, 204438 qalze modioda 188269 mamakaci, 2002 w. monacemebiT 194887 qalze modis 180944 mamakaci [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 55], sruliad saqarTveloSi yovel 1000 kacze 1120 qali modis, maSin roca q. baTumSi sxvaoba ufro maRalia da Seadgens 1168 erTeuls [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 66]. yovelive aman xeli Seuwyo qarTveli qalebis araqarTvel mamakacebze gaT303

xovebis zrdis tendenciis damkvidrebas. aris trefikingis calkeuli SemTxvevebic. sagrZnoblad Semcirda sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivoba. imata sikvdilianobis maCveneblebma axalgazrda asakis mosaxleobaSi. bolo aRweris monacemebiT, baTumSi 100 da meti wlis mxolod ori adamiani cxovrobs (mTlianad aWaraSi 99, maTgan qedis raionSi 15, SuaxevSi ­ 23, xuloSi ­ 22, xelvaCaurSi ­ 20, qobuleTSi ­ 31) [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 104]. cvlilebebi Seexo mosaxleobis erovnul Semadgenlobasac. cnobili mizezebis gamo araqarTuli mosaxleobis nawili (berZnebi, rusebi, ebraelebi...) nebayoflobiT daubrunda Tavis istoriul samSoblos. bolo aRweris mixedviT aWaris mosaxleobis erovnuli Semadgenloba Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba: aWaris mosaxleobis erovnuli Semadgenloba mixedviT): (2002 w. aRweris mixedviT

sul aWaris a. r. q. baTumi 121806 qedis r-n 20024 qobuleT 88063 is r-ni Suaxevis 21850 r-ni xelvaCau 90843 ris r-ni xulos 33430 r-ni qarT- afxa- osi somexi rusi Aazerba- berZeni ukrai- qisti iezidi veli zi ijaneli neli 376016 351132 1558 208 8848 9073 542 2168 1056 8 76 104313 800 19908 15 83367 50 21796 88321 33377 25 645 23 142 2 36 5 19 4 7517 8 958 5 355 5 6300 301 26 7 1642 79 14 1 587 1487 1 91 2 770 3 176 2 103 2 8 69 7 -

1029 12 3

2002 wlis aRweris masalebSi pirvelad gamovlinda mosaxleobis konfesiuri Semadgenloba. aRweris mixedviT, aWaraSi cxovrobs 240552 marTlmadidebeli, 683 kaTolike, 3162 grigorianeli, 161 iudeveli, 115161 musulmani [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 133]. mkveTrad daeca Sobadobisa da, Sesabamisad, bunebrivi matebis maCveneblebi. Bbolo aRweris monacemebiT aWaraSi 15 wlisa da ufrosi asakis 151 176 qalidan bavSvi ar hyavda 7098-s, erTSviliani iyo 20227, orSviliani ­ 42981, samSviliani ­ 25326 da a. S. 10 da meti bavSvis dedaa mxolod 501 qali [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 153], maSin roca wina aRwerebis periodSi maRalmTian regionebSi, gansakuTrebiT xulos raionSi TiTqmis yoveli mesame-meoTxe qali mravalSviliani iyo. Sobadobis Semcirebaze, sxva faqtorebTan erTad, gavlenas axdens dauqorwinebelTa, daqvrivebulTa, ganqorwinebulTa raodenobrivi zrdis tendencia. aRweris Sedegad gairkva, rom

304

aWaraSi 15 wlisa da ufrosi asakis qalTagan arasdros yofila qorwinebaSi 75065, daqvrivda 25643, xolo ganqorwinda 7012 qali. ganqorwinebaTa raodenoba SedarebiT mcirea maRalmTian raionebSi, xolo maRali maCveneblebiT gamoirCeva qalaqebi da saqalaqo tipis dasaxlebebi [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 142]. q. baTumSi arasodes yofila qorwinebaSi 12897, daqvrivebulia 7933, ganqorwinebulia 3165 qali [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 142]. TandaTan mkvidrdeba erTSvilianobis tendencia. Svilis sqesis dadgenis Tanamedrove saSualebebi xels uwyobs ojaxis dagegmarebas, erTSvilianobis maCveneblebis zrdas. cnobilia, rom qarTul ojaxSi vaJis gaCenas zogadad ufro met upiratesobas aniWeben. jerjerobiT qalTa raodenoba sWarbobs mamakacebisas, magram perspeqtivaSi igi SesaZloa sqesobrivi disproporciis erT-erT ganmapirobebel faqtoradac mogvevlinos. saintereso statistikaa mSobliuri enad qaruli enis aRiarebis TvalsazrisiTac. aWaris saqalaqo dasaxlebebSi 166398 adamianidan sakuTari erovnebis enas mSobliur enad Tvlis 163861 kaci. araqarTvelTagan qarTuli ena mSobliurad miaCnia 427-s, azerbaijanuli 1-s, rusuli 2075-s, somxuri 1-s, aravin miiCnevs afxazursa da osurs mSobliur enad [saqarTvelos mosaxleobis..., 2003: 117], rac badebs eWvs aRniSnuli statistikuri monacemebis realobaSi. ueWvelia, rom es transformacia 1990-ni wlebis Semdgom periodSi mimdinare movlenebiT ganpirobebul fsiqologiuri faqtorebiT aris ganpirobebuli. uaxlesi statistikuri monacemebis mixedviT, 30 wlamde asakis aseulaTasobiT axalgazrdas arsad arasodes ar umuSavia. asea aWaraSic. AaseTi adamianebi indiferentuli, pasiuri, sazogadoebis mimarT agresiuli xdebian. umuSevroba damangrevlad moqmedebs adamianis fsiqikaze. Aamas emateba daZabuli cxovrebis ritmi, ganaTlebis done, ojaxuri faseulobebisadmi interesis Sesusteba (raSic didia masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis wvlili), bolodroindeli omebis demografiuli Sedegebi da sxva faqtorebi, rac TavisTavad uaryofiTad aisaxeba bunebrivi matebis maCveneblebze. Bbolo aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi sruliad saqarTveloSi mateba 10-15 aTasi kacia. Bbunebrivi matebis maCveneblebis aseTi Semcireba ar yofila meore msoflio omis drosac ki. maSin TiTqmis yoveli mesame kaci frontze gaiwvies, magram Sobadobisa da mokvdaobis sxvaoba dadebiTi saldoTi iyo warmodgenili da 150 aTas kacs Seadgenda. Mmosaxleobis ase erTbaSad Semcireba Cveni istoriis manZilze arasodes momxdara. Llekianobam, adamianebiT vaWrobam, gamudmebulma omianobam welSi gatexa qveyana, magram

305

dRevandelisagan gansxvavebiT, maSin demografiuli cnobiereba ar damsxvreula. qveyanaSi arsebuli demografiuli situacia udavod iZleva gangaSis safuZvels. saqarTveloSi iwyeba ,,myofobidan armyofobisaken midreka sxeulTa", rasac mecnieruli terminologiiT depopulacia, anu gadaSeneba hqvia. Pprognozi metad damafiqrebelia. Sobadobis amaRleba TiToeul dabadebul bavSvze socialuri daxmarebis gawevis SemTxvevaSic aRar moxdeba, xolo daxmarebis gawevis gareSe Sedegi kidev ufro katastrofuli iqneba. Mmale qveyanaSi mosalodnelia SromiTi resursebis deficiti, rasac Sedegad moyveba metad saSiSi, arasasurveli imigraciuli procesebi. Ees ki kidev ufri gaamZafrebs demografiuli katastrofis saSiSroebas. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba dgas realuri demografiuli krizisis, mosaxleobis demografiuli daberebis safrTxis winaSe. demografebis prognoziT Sobadobis Semcireba piks miaRwevs 2020 wlisaTvis. arsebuli demografiuli situaciis SenarCunebis SemTxvevaSic ki gardauvalia depopulacia, mosaxleobis demografiuli dabereba. Aamitomacaa saWiro qveyanaSi Seiqmnas dasaqmebisa da axaldaqorwinebuli ojaxebisaTvis Sesabamisi pirobebi, mravalSvilian ojaxebs daukanondes mudmivi daxmareba, rogorc damsaxurebuli jildo. saxelmwifom Tavis Tavze unda aiRos bavSvTa mkurnalobis xarjebi, kidev ufro gamartivdes Svilad ayvanis procedura, SemoiRos mniSvnelovani SeRavaTebi orsuli da mSobiare qalebisaTvis. aRniSnuli problemebi saxelmwifosaTvis unda iqces upirveles prioritetad. Aam da sxva problemebis gadawyvetisa Tu aqtiuri demografiuli politikis gatarebis SemTxvevaSi Cven am procesis mxolod SeCereba SegviZlia.

gamoyenebuli literatura

1. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis pirveli sayovelTao aRweris Sedegebi, t. 1, Tb., 2003.

306

Tamaz Putkaradze (Batumi, Georgia) Gabriela Belova (Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria) Demographical situation in Batumi according to the describtion da-to-of 2002 Summary National composition of the population of Batumi and ethno-demographical processes according to the description da to of 2002 are discussed in the article. Also the given research analises the main reasons of the reduction of the number of the population. The basic questions of the religious and gender structures of the population are analised in the given work.

307

krebulSi Sesuli avtorebi Authors of the Articles wyaroTmcodneoba da istoriografia Source Studies and Historiography

gogitiZe simon gogitiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis istoriis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli Simon Gogitidze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Senior Scientific Worker, Department of History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute emzar kaxiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori Emzar Kakhidze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History Tamaz beraZe (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriis da eTnologiis institutis samecniero sabWos Tavmjdomare Tamaz Beradze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Council Chairman, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology zaza SaSikaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos samecniero-kvelviTi centri Zaza Shashikadze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Scientific Research Center of Southwestern Georgia, Shota Rustaveli State University nebi gumuSi (rize, TurqeTi) rizes universitetis profesori Nebi Gumushi (Rize,Turkey) Professor, Rize University goCa saiTiZe (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, saqarTvelos xelnawerTa centris departamentis ufrosi Gocha Saitidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Head, Department of National Center of Manuscripts of Georgia iza aRlaZe (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) germanisti, Tsu, ufrosi maswavlebeli

308

Iza Agladze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Germanist, Senior Teacher, Tbilisi State University gia gelaSvili (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli Gia Gelashvili (Tbilisi, Georgia) Chief Scientific Worker, Department of New and Newest History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology

istoria History biWiko diasamiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis istoriis ganyofilebis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori Bichiko Diasamidze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Chief Scientific Worker, Department of History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute revaz uzunaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori Revaz Uzunadze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History malxaz sioriZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis istoriis ganyofilebis ufrosi Malkhaz Sioridze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Head, Department of History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute xaTuna qoqraSvili (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli Khatuna Kokrashvili (Tbilisi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Chief Scientific Worker, Department of New and Newest History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology vaJa CoCia (gori, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, goris saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori. Vazha Chochia (Gori, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor, Gori State University

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dodo WumburiZe (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli Dodo Chumburidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Professor, Chief Scientific Worker, Department of New and Newest History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology oTar gogoliSvili (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori. Otar Gogolishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associated Professor, Shota Rustaveli State University gela saiTiZe (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli Gela Saitidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Scientific Worker, Department of New and Newest History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology jemal karaliZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori Jemal Karalidze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History oleg jibaSvili (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis istoriis ganyofilebis mecnieri TanamSromeli Oleg Jibashvili (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Scientific Worker, Department of History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute uCa oqropiriZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis istoriis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri-TanamSromeli. Ucha Okropiridze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic doctor of History, Chief Specialist, Department of History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute lela saraliZe (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli

Lela Saralidze (Tbilisi, Georgia)

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Academic Doctor of History, Chief Scientific Worker, Department of New and Newest History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology nodar muSkudiani (quTaisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori Nodar Mushkudiani (Kutaisi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Full Professor, Akaki Tsereteli State University oTar TurmaniZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis istoriis ganyofilebis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli Otar Turmanidze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Chief Scientific Worker, Department of History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute

arqeologia arqeologia Archeology amiran kaxiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, baTumis arqeologiuri muzeumis direqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori Amiran Kakhidze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor, Shota Rustaveli State University; Director, Batumi Archeological Museum nino inaiSvili (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis arqeologiisa da xelovnebis istoriis ganyofilebis ufrosi Nino Inaishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Head, Department of Archeology and Art History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute SoTa mamulaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori Shota Mamuladze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Full Professor, Shota Rustaveli State University rezo uzunaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori Revaz Uzunadze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History

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giorgi TavamaiSvili istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis arqeologiisa da xelovnebis istoriis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri-TanamSromeli Giorgi Tavamaishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Senior Scientific Worker, Department of Archeology and Art History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute

eTnologia Ethnology nodar kaxiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis eTnologiis ganyofilebis ufrosi Nodar Kahidze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Head, Department of Ethnology, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute naila CelebaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis eTnologiis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli Naila Chelebadze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Senior Scientific Worker, Department of Ethnology, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute Tamila lomTaTiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis eTnologiis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli Tamila Lomtatidze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Senior Scientific Worker, Department of Ethnology, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute nugzar mgelaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori Nugzar Mgeladze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, full professor, Shota Rustaveli State University manuCar loria (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori Manuchar loria (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History

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ganaTleba ganaTleba da kultura Education and Culture ruslan baramiZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis direqtoris moadgile Ruslan Baramidze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Deputy Director, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute sergei rumiancevi (baqo, azerbaijani) sociologiis mecnierebaTa kandidati, azerbaijanis mecnierebaTa akademiis filosofiis, politologiisa da sociologiis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli. Sergey Rumyancev (Baku, Azerbaijan) Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Senior Scientific Worker, Institute of Philosophy, Political Science and Sociology, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences caca CxartiSvili (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis mecnieri TanamSromeli Caca Chkhartishvili (Tbilisi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Scientific Worker, Department of New and Newest History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology megreliSvili merab megreliSvili (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori Merab Megrelishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History ermile mesxia (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, baTumis xelovnebis saxelmwifo saswavlo universitetis reqtoris movaleobis Semsrulebeli Ermile Meskhia (Batumi, Georgia) s Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Acting Rector, Batumi Art State University tariel WiRvaria (quTaisi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori Tariel Chigvaria (Kutaisi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Associated Professor, Akaki Tsereteli State University

ekonomika da turizmi Economics and Tourism aleqsandre TvalWreliZe (Tbilisi, saqarTvelo) ekonomikis saerTaSoriso eqsperti, ssip TvalWreliZis kavkasiis mineraluri nedleulis instituti

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Alexandre Tvalchrelidze (Tbilisi, Georgia) International Expert on Economics, A. Tvalchrelidze Caucasian Institute of Mineral Resources Temur tunaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis akademiuri doqtori, Zmebi nobelebis saxelobis baTumis teqnologiuri muzeumis direqtori Temur Tunadze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Director, Brothers Nobel's Batumi Technological Museum aslan maxaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, sazRvao akademiis sruli profesori Aslan Makhadze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of Economics, Full Professor, Batumi State Maritime Academy zviad eliziani (baTumi, saqarTvelo) biznesis administrirebis magistri - kaliforniis saxelmwifo universiteti; aWaris turizmis asociaciis Tavmjdomare Zviad Eliziani (Batumi, Georgia) MBA, California State University; Chairman, Adjara Tourism Association kurt raici (berlini, germania) turizmis eqsperti Kurt Heinz Reitz (Berlin, Germany) Tourism Expert omar JiJavaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) ekonomisti, saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis ufrosi specialisti Omar Zhizhavadze (Batumi, Georgia) Economist, Senior Specialist, National Bank of Georgia

arqiteqtura Architecture maia WiWileiSvili (baTumi, saqarTvelo) xelovnebaTmcodneobis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis arqeologiisa da xelovnebis istoriis ganyofilebis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori Maia Chichileishvili (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of Art Criticism, Chief Scientific Worker, Department of Archeology and Art History, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute; Full Professor, Shota Rustaveli State University

jemal miqelaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo)

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istoriis akademiuri doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis eTnologiis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli Jemal Mikeladze (Batumi, Georgia) Academic Doctor of History, Senior Scientific Worker, Department of Ethnology, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute toponimika Toponymy guram Caganava (baTumi, saqarTvelo) fsiqologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis ekonomikur da socialur urTierTobaTa kvlevis ganyofilebis mecnieri TanamSromeli Guram Chaganava (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Scientific Worker, Department of Investigation of Economic and Social Relations, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute mamia faRava (baTumi, saqarTvelo) filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori Mamia Paghava (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Philological Sciences, Full Professor, Shota Rustaveli State University mixeil qamadaZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, niko berZeniSvilis institutis folklorisa da dialeqtologiis ganyofilebis ufrosi Mikheil Kamadadze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Philological Sciences, Head, Department of Linguistics and Folklore, Niko Berdzenishvili Institute

demografia Demography Tamaz futkaraZe (baTumi, saqarTvelo) istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, aWaris saarqivo departamentis direqtoris moadgile Tamaz Putkaradze (Batumi, Georgia) Doctor of Historical Sciences, Deputy Director, Adjara Records Department gabriela belova (blagoevgradi, bulgareTi) blagoevgradis "neofit rilskis" universitetis profesori Gabriela Belova (Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria) Professor, South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Faculty of Humanities

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sarCevi Contents Sesavali wyaroTmcodneoba da istoriografia Source Studies and Historiography simon gogitiZe, emzar kaxiZe baTumi antikuri xanis werilobiT wyaroebSi Simon Gogitidze, Emzar Kakhidze Batumi in Antique literaru Sources 3

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Tamaz beraZe XIII-XV saukuneebis baTumis sakiTxi evropul istoriografiaSi 13 Tamaz Beradze European Historiography on Batumi in XIII ­XV cc 21 zaza SaSikaZe baTumi XVI s-is meore naxevarSi Zaza Shashikadze Batumi in the second half of XVI century nebi gumuSi socialuri urTierTobebi rize-baTums Soris me-19 saukunis dasasrulsa da me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi (rizes SariaTis reestrebis mixedviT) Nebi Gumushi Social relations between Rize and Batumi in the end of 19th century and beginnings of 20th century (in the light of the muslim court recordds of Rize) goCa saiTiZe, iza aRlaZe avstrieli mecnieri da mogzauri amand fon Svaigerlerxenfeldi baTumisa da aWarlebis Sesaxeb (XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebi) Gocha Saitidze, Iza Agladze The Austrian Scientist and Traveller Amand von Shveiger-Lerchenfeld about Batumi and the Ajarians (The 80-ies of the 19th Century) gia gelaSvili luiji villari 1905 wlis baTumis Sesaxeb Gia Gelashvili Luigi Villari about Batumi in 1905

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istoria History biWiko diasamiZe baTumis adgili XVIII-XIX saukuneebis ruseTis samxedro-politikur gegmebSi Bichiko Diasamidze Batumi in XVIII-XIX Military plans of Russia

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uzunaZe revaz uzunaZe Tanamedrove baTumis saqalaqo dasaxlebis formirebaganviTarebis pirveli nabijebi (XIX s. damdegi - 70-iani wlebi) 59 Revaz Uzunadze First Steps towards Formation and Development of Urban Settlements in Modern Batumi (Early 19th c._ 1870es) 64 malxaz malxaz sioriZe ucxoeTis qveynebis sakonsuloebi baTumSi Malkhaz Sioridze Foreign Countries Consulates in Batumi xaTuna qoqraSvili giorgi yazbegi baTumis strategiuli mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb Khatuna Kokrashvili Giorgi Kazbegi About the Strategic Importance of Batumi vaJa CoCia 1878 wlis san-stefanos zavi da baTumis sakiTxi berlinis kongresze Vazha Chochia 1878 San-Stephano truce and issue of Batumi on Berlin congress dodo WumburiZe gazeTi `droeba~ baTumis dakavebis Sesaxeb Dodo Chumburidze Magazine "Droeba" About the Occupation of Batumi

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oTar gogoliSvili baTumis ganaSenianebis istoriisaTvis me-19 saukunis damlevs (g. rCeuliSvilisa da p. lipinskis proeqtebi) 96 Otar Gogolishvili The Architectural Project of the Town of Batumi at the End of the XIX Century (The Projects Composed by G. Rcheulishvili and P. Lipinski) 100 gela saiTiZe petre surgulaZe da baTumis sazogadoeba Gela Saitidze Petre Surguladze and the Society of Batumi

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jemal karaliZe ivane andronikaSvili - baTumis qalaqisTavi Jemal Karalidze Ivane Andronikashvili _ Batumi City Head oleg jibaSvili baTumis ubnebis istoriidan _ barcxana Oleg Jibashvili From History of Batumi Districts ­ Bartskhana uCa oqropiriZe baTumis mosaxleobis erovnuli Semadgenloba da erTaSorisi urTierTobebis zogierTi sakiTxi (XX s­is pirveli ocwleuli) Ucha Okropiridze Some Questions of National Structure and National Relation of the Population of Batumi (The first tventy Years of the XX -th century ) lela saraliZe osmaleTis okupaciis periodis baTumis istoriidan (1918 w) Lela Saralidze From the history of period of Ottoman occupation of Batumi (1918) nodar muSkudiani germanuli delegaciis saqmianoba baTumSi 1918 wels Nodar Mushkudiani The German Delegation's Activities in Batumi in 1918 oTar TurmaniZe gemTmSeneblobis ganviTareba baTumSi Otar Turmanidze Shipbuilding Development in Batumi

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arqeologia Archeology amiran kaxiZe baTumi da misi Semogareni Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi (baTumis cixe) 146 Amiran Kakhidze Batumi And Its Suburbs (Batumi Fortress) in I Millennium BC 151 nino inaiSvili baTumi bizantiur xanaSi (arqeologiuri dazvervebi yoroliswylis xeobasa da baTumis midamoebSi) Nino Inaishvili Batumi in Early Byzantine Period

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SoTa mamulaZe, rezo uzunaZe baTumi Sua saukuneebSi (werilobiTi wyaroebisa da arqeologiuri masalebis mixedviT) Shota Mamuladze, Revaz Uznadze Batumi In The Middle Ages (According to Written Sources and Archaeological Materials)

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giorgi TavamaiSvili gviani Suasaukuneebis arqeologiuri masala baTumis cixidan 166 Giorgi Tavamaishvi Archaeological Materials of Late Middle Ages from Batumi Fortress 170

eTnologia Ethnology nodar kaxiZe uiliam jiford palgrevi baTumis Sesaxeb Nodar Kahidze William Dzhiford Paligrev about Batumi naila CelebaZe baTumi e. eriqsonis naSromis mixedviT Naila Chelebadze Batumi in the works of E. Ericson Tamila lomTaTiZe eTnokulturul RirebulebaTa transformaciis zogierTi aspeqti Tanamedrove baTumSi Tamila Lomtatidze Some aspects to transformation of ethno cultural values in modern Batumi nugzar mgelaZe, manuCar loria baTumis Tanamedrove religiuri portreti (kaTolikeebi, grigorianelebi, muslimebi, iudevelebi, marTmadidebeli berZnebi) Nugzar Mgeladze, Manuchar Loria Current Religious Picture of Batumi (Catholics, Gregorian, Muslims, Jewish, Orthodox Greeks)

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ganaTleba da kultura Education and Culture ruslan baramiZe, sergei rumiancevi baTumis meCeTebi (warsuli da Tanamedroveoba) Ruslan Baramidze, Sergey Rumyancev Batumi Mosques (Past and present)

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caca CxartiSvili baTumis kulturuli cxovreba XIX saukunis 80-90 wlebSi (presis masalebis mixedviT) Caca Chkhartishvili Cultural Life of Batumi in 1880s-1890s according to Printed Media merab megreliSvili baTumis TviTmmarTvelobis kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba XIX saukunis damlevsa da XX saukunis dasawyisSi Merab Megrelishvili The Cultural and Educational Activities of Batumi Self-Government at the Boundary of XIX-XX Centuries ermile mesxia baTumis Teatris saTaveebTan Ermile Mekxia At Batumi theatre background tariel WiRvaria baTum-quTaisis Teatris istoriisaTvis Tariel Chigvaria From The History of Batumi-Kutaisi Theatre

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ekonomika da turizmi Economics and Tourism aleqsandre TvalWreliZe baTumi da navTobi Alexander Tvalchrelidze Batumi and Oil Temur tunaZe baTumi da navTobmrewvelTa amxanagoba ,,Branobel" Temur Tunadze Batumi and The Petroleum Production Company "Branobel" aslan maxaZe sabanko saqmis ganviTareba baTumSi Aslan Makhadze Development of banks in Batumi zviad eliziani, kurt raici baTumis adgili aWaris turistuli industriis ganviTarebaSi Zviad Eliziani, Kurt Heinz Reitz The place of Batumi in Tourism Sector Development of Adjara Region

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omar JiJavaZe baTumis axali adgili saerTaSoriso turizmis rukaze Omar Zhizhavadze Batumi ­ the new plase on the world tourism map

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arqiteqtura Architecture maia WiWileiSvili Zveli baTumis arqiteqturis mxatvruli stilis zogierTi sakiTxi Maia Chichileishvili Some Issues of Artistic Style of Old Batumi Architecture jemal miqelaZe baTumis safortifikacio nagebobani Jemal Mikeladze Fortresses in Batumi

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toponimika Toponymy guram Caganava toponim "baTomis" warmomavlobisaTvis Guram Chaganava The Orgin of the Toponymic Name Batomi mamia faRava kvlav toponim baTumis etimologiisaTvis Mamia Paghava Again on the etimology of Batumi toponymy mixeil qamadaZe baTumis toponimia Mikheil Kamadadze Toponymy of Batumi demografia Demography Tamaz futkaraZe, gabriela belova demografiuli mdgomareoba qalaq baTumSi 2002 wlis aRweris mixedviT Tamaz Putkaradze, Gabriela Belova Demographical situation in Batumi according to the describtion da-to-of 2002

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gamomcemlobis direqtori _ nana xaxutaiSvili gamomcemlobis redaqtori _ lali konceliZe mxatvruli redaqtori _ jemal miqelaZe teqnikuri redaqtori _ eduard ananiZe

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fasi saxelSekrulebo

daibeWda universitetis stambaSi q. baTumi, ninoSvilis 35

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