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IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LEARNING AREA TECHNOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF MIDDELBURG, MPUMALANGA

by

ANTONIE CHRISTOFFEL SMIT

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

MAGISTER TECHNOLOGIAE: EDUCATION

in the

Department of Educational Studies FACULTY OF HUMANITIES

TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Supervisor: H. van Dyk Co-supervisor: Prof C. J. White

December 2007

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the dissertation submitted for the degree Magister Technologiae: Education at the Tshwane University of Technology is my own original work and has not been submitted to any other institution of higher education. I further declare that all sources cited or quoted are indicated by means of a comprehensive list of references.

ANTONIE CHRISTOFFEL SMIT

©Tshwane University of Technology 2007

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DEDICATION

This study is dedicated to my wife Elna, for her support, encouragement and love.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It is only when you undertake a research project like this, that you realise the value of colleagues, fellow teachers, friends and family, and I would like to thank the following people for their inputs, support and encouragement: My supervisor, Ms. H van Dyk for all her assistance, even when I contacted her after hours; My co-supervisor, Professor C J White for his initial guidance; My campus manager at Mlumati, Mr. G M Sibiya for his support and help; My study partner, Elias Mbuyane for his assistance and positive comments; Brian Groenwald and Dr. Ron Kitney for their inputs; All the teachers who I interviewed and who willingly provided me with valuable information and of their time that enabled me to complete my research.

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ABSTRACT

When the Department of Education changed the national educational system in 1998 from rote learning to outcomes-based education, a new learning area, Technology, was introduced. The introduction of this new learning area saw many problems arising for teachers who started to teach this new learning area for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any factors that influenced the success of the implementation of Technology and the objectives are: To establish whether Technology teachers have a tertiary qualification in Technology; To ascertain what training is given to teachers by the Department of Education to assist them in teaching Technology; To find out what resources are available for teachers at their schools to teach Technology; To determine what support is given to Technology teachers from the Department of Education if they experience problems in teaching Technology; To verify whether teachers incorporate Technology in the other learning areas of learners. A qualitative research approach was used and the data was collected by means of a literature study and interviews. Teachers who are involved in teaching Technology in Middelburg, Mpumalanga were selected for this study and interviewed. Findings from this study highlighted the problems that were experienced by teachers with the implementation of Technology. These problems were mainly a shortage of resources and inadequate training of the Technology teachers. Recommendations to address the specific weaknesses found in this study are made.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES i ii iii iv v x

CHAPTER 1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE BACKGROUND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM RESEARCH QUESTIONS OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.6.1 Research design 1.6.2 Population and sampling 1.6.2.1 Population 1.6.2.2 Sample 1.6.3 Data-collection techniques 1.6.3.1 Literature study 1.6.3.2 Interviews 1.6.4 Data analysis 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY DEFINITIONS OF TERMS SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY EXPOSITION OF THE STUDY CONCLUSION

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CHAPTER 2

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

LITERATURE STUDY

9 10 11 13 14 15 17 18 20 20 21 21 22 22 23

INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY DEFINING TECHNOLOGY KEY CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY

2.4.1 Education 2.4.2 Technology 2.4.3 Society 2.5 2.6 GOALS OF TECHNOLOGY DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CURRICULUM FOR TECHNOLOGY 2.6.1 Introduction 2.6.2 Designing a curriculum for Technology 2.6.3 Developing a curriculum for Technology 2.7 LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR TECHNOLOGY 2.7.1 Learning outcomes of the Ort-Step Institute 2.7.1.1 General aims described in terms of conceptualisation, knowledge, skills and attitudes 2.7.1.2 Specific learning outcomes in technology described in terms of designing, making, testing, management, entrepreneurial and communication skills 2.7.2 Learning outcomes of the South African Department of Education 2.7.2.1 Technological processes and skills 2.7.2.2 Technological knowledge and understanding 2.7.2.3 The interrelationship between technology, society and the environment 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 TYPES OF ASSESSMENTS FOR THE LEARNING AREA TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGY TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY AND CHANGE CONCLUSION

24 25 25 26 26 27 28 30 31 32

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CHAPTER 3

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

RESEARCH DESIGN

34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 44 44 45 45

INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN POPULATIONS AND SAMPLING

3.3.1 Characteristics of qualitative research 3.4.1 Population 3.4.2 Sampling 3.4.2.1 Sample size 3.4.2.2 Non-probability sampling 3.4.2.3 Purpose sampling 3.5 DATA-COLLECTION TECHNIQUES 3.5.1 Literature study 3.5.2 Interviews 3.5.2.1 Interviewing styles 3.5.2.2 Developing an interview schedule 3.5.2.3 Guidelines to conduct interviews 3.5.2.4 Advantages of interviews 3.5.2.5 Interview records 3.6 DATA ANALYSIS 3.6.1 Preparation of research data 3.6.2 Steps to analyse qualitative research data 3.7 TRUSTWORTHINESS 3.7.1 Trustworthiness strategies 3.7.1.1 Credibility 3.7.1.2 Transferability 3.7.1.3 Dependability 3.7.1.4 Confirmability 3.8 CONCLUSION

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CHAPTER 4

4.1 4.2

FINDINGS

47 47 47 48 48 49 50 50 51 51 52 52 52 54 54 54 55 55 56 56 57

INTRODUCTION QUALIFICATION AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF TEACHERS

4.2.1 Teachers tertiary qualifications 4.2.2 Subjects teachers taught before the introduction of Technology 4.2.3 Teaching qualifications in Technology 4.2.4 Teaching experience 4.3 TRAINING GIVEN TO TEACHERS Technology 4.3.2 Adequacy of training given 4.3.3 Reasons for teaching Technology 4.4 AVAILIBILITY OF TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES AT SCHOOLS 4.4.1 Why are resources needed? 4.4.2 Resources that are needed 4.4.3 Availability of resources 4.4.4 Availability of finances 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 CURRICULUM SUPPORT GIVEN TO TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS INCORPORATION OF TECHNOLOGY INTO THE OTHER LEARNING AREAS OF LEARNERS USEFULNESS OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LEARNERS IN THEIR FUTURE CAREERS TEACHERS' FRUSTRATION IN TEACHING TECHNOLOGY PERSONAL INTEREST TEACHERS HAVE IN TECHNOLOGY CONCLUSION 4.3.1 Training given to teachers before and after they started teaching

CHAPTER 5

5.1 5.2

CONCLUSION

58 58 59 59 59

INTRODUCTION TEACHERS' QUALIFICATIONS

5.2.1 Conclusion 5.2.2 Recommendations 5.3 TRAINING OF TEACHERS BY THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

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5.3.1 Conclusion 5.3.2 Recommendations 5.4 AVAILABILITY OF TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES AT SCHOOLS 5.4.1 Conclusion 5.4.2 Recommendations 5.5 CURRICULUM SUPPORT 5.5.1 Conclusion 5.5.2 Recommendations 5.6 INCORPORATION OF TECHNOLOGY INTO OTHER LEARNING AREAS 5.6.1 Conclusion 5.6.2 Recommendations 5.7 5.8 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH CONCLUSION

59 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 64

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table 2.1: Relevant instructional strategies for Technology Table 4.1: Teachers' tertiary qualifications Table 4.2: Subjects teachers taught before the introduction of Technology Table 4.3: Teachers' qualifications in Technology Table 4.4: Suggested tools list Figure 4.1: The number of years teachers have been teachers and teaching Technology Figure 4.2: The number of days training was given to teachers before and after they started teaching Technology 50 49 30 47 48 48 53

ADDENDUM A

Letter of request for permission to conduct research in schools 73

ADDENDUM B

Interview questionnaires 74

ADDENDUM C

Transcription of the interviews 76

x

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1.1

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

When change occurs, whether planned or unplanned, problems may arise. Problems that arise during a planned change can have an adverse effect on the implementation phase and how these problems are managed, and can also have an adverse influence on the success of the planned change. When an organisation plans a change, like the Department of Education's educational system change from rote learning to outcomes-based education, there needs to be planning to make provision for all possible circumstances, especially when it accompanies the introduction of a new learning area Technology. For Deruntz and Turner (2003:6) "No matter how great the planning or implementation of a process, management's commitment is probably the most key factor of all. This commitment must not be restricted to the support of a concept. Management's commitment should look beyond the technical aspects of a project and to its organizational requirements for a successful implementation". The purpose of this study is to determine if there are any factors that influence the success of the implementation of Technology within the secondary schools of Middelburg in Mpumalanga Province.

1.2

BACKGROUND

Middelburg is part of a large rural area of Mpumalanga province, and was formerly known as Nasareth - meaning 'root from dry land'. It was established on the farm Sterkfontein in 1866 and the name was changed in 1872 to Middelburg to mark its situation midway between the two towns Pretoria and Lydenburg. The nearest city is Pretoria and it is about a hundred and thirty kilometres from Middelburg. The town's

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economy is mainly driven by agriculture and a few industrial enterprises. The majority of schools are financially dependent on subsidies from the Mpumalanga Department of Education. Recent changes in the South African school educational system from the traditional rote learning to outcomes-based education, saw the implementation of Technology in Middelburg schools in 1998, as a general formative learning area and it is compulsory from grades 0 to 9 and an optional subject from grades 10 to 12 that is either Civil, Electrical or Mechanical Technology. This learning area that was never before part of the South African education curriculum, presented many problems during the implementation stages, and teachers were affected in that it was a challenge for them who had never before taught Technology to prepare lessons to teach their learners. De Swardt, Ankiewicz and Engelbrecht (2006:1) point out that the majority of teachers were caught unaware when Technology was implemented in 1998 because they had not been trained to offer this new learning area. Another problem that they encountered with the implementation of Technology is that the learners require resources so that they can complete their practical tasks. These resources are not provided by the Department of Education and most schools do not have the financial capability to purchase the required resources (Potgieter, 2004:215).

1.3

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Technology was never offered as a learning area before 1998. No teachers were specifically trained to teach this learning area. Some teachers from various other learning areas were provided with in-service training to prepare them for the implementation of Technology. Technology education also requires as many resources as possible, which may have an impact on the finances of schools. If these resources are not available it may influence the quality of education that Technology learners are receiving.

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Policy documents were developed to assist teachers in teaching the new learning area Technology, but policy documents are theoretical in nature and cannot always predict problems that might arise when change occurs in an educational system.

1.4

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Main question: Which factors influence the implementation of Technology within the secondary schools of Middelburg?

Sub-questions: How qualified are teachers that have to teach Technology? What training is given to teachers by the Department of Education to assist them in teaching Technology? What resources are available for Technology teachers at their schools to teach Technology? What support is given to Technology teachers from the Department of Education if they experience problems in teaching Technology? How teachers incorporate Technology in the other learning areas.

1.5

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To establish whether Technology teachers have a tertiary qualification in Technology;

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To ascertain what training is given to teachers by the Department of Education to assist them in teaching Technology; To find out what resources are available for teachers at their schools to teach Technology; To determine what support is given to Technology teachers from the Department of Education if they experience problems in teaching Technology; To verify whether teachers incorporate Technology in the other learning areas offered to learners.

1.6

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.6.1 Research design A qualitative research design will be used and according to Struwig and Stead (2003:11), qualitative research uses an approach that seeks to understand phenomena in a particular environmental setting and the research produces results that are not determined by means of statistical procedures. Qualitative researchers seek enlightenment and comprehension of comparable circumstances.

1.6.2 Population and sampling

1.6.2.1 Population Welman and Kruger (1999:18) say that a population includes the whole group of cases that the researcher needs to probe for his research study. The population of this research will consist of teachers that are teaching Technology in Middelburg secondary schools.

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1.6.2.2 Sample Non-probability sampling will be used and according to White (2005:119), "...the researcher uses subjects who happen to be accessible or who may represent certain types of characteristics". A purposeful sample will be taken in that six teachers that teach Technology in Middelburg will be selected and for Struwig and Stead (2003:124) the selection of a sample is important in that it provides abundant relevant information to the researcher.

1.6.3 Data-collection techniques Data will be collected by means of a literature study and interviews.

1.6.3.1 Literature Study The following databases will be used, namely books, journals, the worldwide web and government reports.

1.6.3.2 Interviews Interviews will be standardised in that an interview schedule will be developed and used for all the respondents. Struwig and Stead (2003:98) state that the interviewer formally structures a standardised interview. The interviews will be conducted individually and will be semi-structured. Semi-structured interviews are used mainly in qualitative research and do not restrict the interviewer.

1.6.4 Data analysis The interviews will be recorded on a tape recorder and transcribed. The data captured will be analysed to determine any related words or concepts. The approach used to

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analyse the data will allow the researcher to categorise and bring sense to large quantities of data (Struwig & Stead, 2003:169).

1.7

DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Interviewing teachers teaching Technology in the Middelburg area only created a limitation for the study.

1.8

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Curriculum In a curriculum there are two important elements (i) the range of courses from which learners choose what subject matter they want to study, and (ii) a specific learning programme. In the latter case, the curriculum collectively describes the teaching, learning, and assessment materials available for a given course of study.

Learning area Traditionally learners studied subjects at school for example Mathematics or Science, but with the introduction of outcomes-based education the term subject was replaced by the term learning area in the GET band.

Learning area Technology Different countries use different terms to explain Technology, such as Technology Education, Design and Technology, and Technological Education. In this study these titles were considered to be synonymous and it was decided to keep to the term learning area Technology.

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Outcomes-based education Outcomes-based education is an educational system that is learner-centred. Teaching and learning is organised to consider the needs of learners. Outcomes-based education considers the process of learning as important as the content. Both the process and the content of education are emphasised by spelling out the outcomes to be achieved at the end of the process.

1.9

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The significance of this study is to determine if there are any factors that influence the success of the implementation of Technology in Middelburg. It is possible that the information collected, analysed and the recommendation that surface from this research study can help teachers and management in Technology.

1.10

EXPOSITION OF THE STUDY This chapter deals with the introduction to the research problem and the relevant research questions that will be asked.

Chapter 1:

Chapter 2: Chapter 3:

The outcomes of the literature review will be presented in this chapter. The research methodology used will be discussed, including the research design, data collection and the population and sample.

Chapter 4: Chapter 5:

The findings of the research data will be analysed and interpreted. Conclusions and recommendations will be discussed.

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1.11

CONCLUSION

This chapter started with a statement of the purpose of this research study, a background was provided of the recent changes in the South African educational curriculum. In the statement of the problem, in order to clarify what this research is about, it was indicted that this change in curriculum created certain problems for teachers. The research questions and objectives were stated in order to identify these problems and then the research methodology that will be qualitative was explained. Lastly the exposition of this study was explained. In chapter 2 the outcomes of the literature study will be presented.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE STUDY

2.1

INTRODUCTION

The learning area Technology involves the study of Technology and one of its main aims is technological literacy. It studies how to manage, understand and use Technology in all its forms and dimensions. Everything that we do today is based on Technology. Many people will not be able to exist without cell-phones, motor vehicles, fridges, radios, television, electrical stoves and hairdryers just to name a few. These devices do not exist naturally and were produced by man to make his everyday living conditions more comfortable for himself. The Department of Education (2002a:4), in the Revised National Curriculum Statement, says, "Technology has existed throughout history. People use the combination of knowledge, skills and available resources to develop solutions that meet their daily needs and wants. Some of these solutions have been in the form of products (e.g. shaping bones into fishhooks and needles, making clay cooking pots), while some solutions have involved combining products into working systems (e.g. bow and arrow, moving water and a wheel, pestle and mortar). Today people still have needs and wants. However, the knowledge, skills and resources used to find solutions are of a different kind because of accelerating developments in technology. Today's society is complicated and diverse. Economic and environmental factors and a wide range of attitudes and values need to be taken into account when developing technological solutions. The development of products and systems in modern times must show sensitivity to these issues". Although we are a society that is intensely dependent on Technology the majority of us are unaware about technological concepts and processes and we mostly pay no attention to this inconsistency in our educational system. Technological literacy is very important and a school curriculum must include Technology (Bybee, 2000:27).

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Marot in Foster (1994:26) stated that teachers are aware of the fact that Technology is an exciting activity, but unfortunately they think it is comprehensible only by certain people and this creates a misleading picture of Technology.

2.2

HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY

Technology has been in existence since the early 1900's, especially in first world countries like America, where large industries have been involved in the manufacturing of products for the consumer. It started off being known as `Industrial Arts' and only recently has it been renamed `Technology'. Society must have an understanding of the history of Technology to understand and be thankful for our past conflict with the natural world and also to know out limits with respect to the natural world (Wicklein, 1997:75). In the 1980s, in America, Technology Education came into its own in answer to an extensive view that Industrial Arts was outdated and no longer had any significance (Herschbach, 1997:22). It was introduced in Korea in 1970 and taught to secondary school learners and is known as `kisul' which directly translated means Technology. It imparts technological information and competence to learners, but problems emanated around the curriculum, teaching methods, and teacher training (Yi, 1997:42). The Education Reform Act was introduced in Britain in 1988, which included Technology as one of the compulsory foundation learning areas for the first time in history. According to Shield (1995:187), "Since this declaration of intent however, the pictures to emerge from attempts at implementing this resolution have shown, at best, confusion and at worst chaos. The subject has become a focus for conflict between "traditionalists" and "progressives", between the various factions representing the contributing subject areas and between those groups whose interests lie elsewhere, for example in gender issues or vocationalism".

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Technology became a compulsory part of the school curriculum in New Zealand in 1999 and is optional in Senior Secondary schools. Technology is one of the seven vital learning areas so that learners can achieve the knowledge and understanding that all New Zealanders require (Forret, Jones & Moreland, 2002:38). It was implemented in 1993 in the Netherlands in general education, as a compulsory learning area for all pupils in Lower Secondary schools (De Beurs, 2001:5). In South Africa Technology was proposed as one of the seven fields of study by the Department of Education in 1991 (Department of Education, 1991:4) and was introduced into the school curriculum in 1998. It was part of the drive by the Department of Education for a total curriculum change called Curriculum 2005. South Africa is a diverse society and has many different cultures some still living in third world conditions.

2.3

DEFINING TECHNOLOGY

There have been various definitions for Technology since its conception and one of the first definitions was by Bonser and Mossman (1923:5) and they defined Technology as, " ... a study of the changes made by man in the forms of materials to increases their values, and of the problems of life related to these changes". The first definition to include the term `society' was by Wilber (1948:2) where it states "those phases of general education which deal with industry - its organisation, materials, occupations, and products - and with the problems of life resulting from industrial and technological nature of society". Maley's (1973:2) definition was very similar to Wilber's in that Maley defined Technology as, "...those phases of general education which deal with technology, its evolution, utilization, and significance; with industry, its organization, materials, occupations, processes, and products; and with the problems and benefits resulting from technological nature of society".

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A document was published by Snyder and Hales (1981:1) in which they defined Industrial Arts (Technology) as, " A comprehensive, action-based educational programme concerned with technical means, their evolution, utilization, and significance; with industry, its organization, personal systems, techniques, resources and products; and their socio-cultural impacts". The American Industrial Arts Association (1985:25) issued the following definition, "...a comprehensive, action-based educational programme concerned with technical means, their evolution, utilization, and significance; with industry, its organization, personnel systems, techniques, resources, and products; and their socio-cultural impact". Wright, Israel and Lauda (1993:4) say, "Technology education is an educational program that helps people develop an understanding and competence in designing, producing, and using technology products and systems and in assessing the appropriateness of technological actions". This is affirmed by Ankiewicz (1993:125) where he defines Technology as, " The ability to: Understand the basic processes which determine the nature and form of the man­made environment; Critically consider the potential impact that Technology can have on the natural world, society and the individual's physical, economical, moral and general well­being; Develop/use generic skills and other resources to solve technological problems". The Technology Education Lab (2006) states on its website "Technology education is an integrated, experience-based instructional program designed to prepare learners to be knowledgeable about technology ­ its evolution, systems, technologies, utilization, and social and cultural significance".

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Various educational departments across the world have attempted to define Technology and for the New Zealand Ministry of Education (1995:6) "Technology is a creative, purposeful activity aimed at meeting needs and opportunities through the development of products, systems or environments. Knowledge, skills and resources are combined to help solve practical problems. Technological practice takes place within, and is influenced by, social contexts". The Department of Education (1997a:84) defines Technology as "... the use of knowledge, skills and resources to meet human needs and wants, and to recognise and solve problems by investigating, designing, developing and evaluating products, processes and systems". definitions and theories. The first definitions of Technology by Bonser and Mossman, Wilber, Maley, Snyder and Hales and the American Industrial Arts Association were more concerned with the materials and products that resulted from the use of improved Technology. Wright et al., Ankiewicz, the Technology Education Lab, the New Zealand Ministry of Education and the South African Department of Education started to include the designing, developing and evaluation of processes and systems, but more importantly they highlight the ability of learners to recognise and solve problems. The definition of the South African Department of Education is the most inclusive definition for Technology. When analysing the definition of the Department of Education it can be concluded that their definition is in line with the latest global

2.4

KEY CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY

By analysing the definitions in the previous section the following main concepts emerge namely, Education, Technology and Society (Foster, 1994:18). In a curriculum for Technology these concepts must feature strongly and will be explored further.

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2.4.1 Education Initially Technology was focused on vocational training but a subtle change has taken place during the last decade (Waetjen, 1989:1 and Cardon, 2002:142). According to Grubb in Johnson (1992:26) Technology has changed from being only a hands-on, practical orientated learning area to one where learners are also required to use and develop their intellectual abilities and have to think conceptually. Education seeks to bring about the improvement of a learner as an entirety because the learner must be empowered to contribute in the labour market and, in the process, become a responsible contributing citizen (Albannai, 1996:177). Technology, because of its character, provides learners with certain development opportunities to become resourceful and inventive problem solvers and to work together as part of a team. Street (1956:177) states that problem solving is an important part of Technology. According to Chakane (2003:108) "The content is made up of persistent problems encountered in our communities and that have Science and Technology dimensions. The great virtue of these programmes is that they attempt to deal directly with the world as it is, representing Science, Technology and society in contemporary concrete terms". The Department of Education (1997a:84) supports these views by stating that Technology seeks to develop the skills of learners to unravel technological problems by means of exploring, designing, developing and assessment. They must also be able to communicate in their mother tongue and other languages in different ways. The Department of Education (1997b:84) also says that Technology should focus on: Integration; Holistic development; Relevance; Participation and ownership; Accountability and transparency; Learner-orientated approach; Flexibility; Critical and creative thinking; Progression; Anti-biased approach;

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Inclusion of learners with special educational needs; Quality, standards and international comparability. Teachers should use an integrated approach because this will enable learners to connect ideas so that they can see the rationale of what is learned in order to understand how it all fits together (Herschbach, 1996:5). For Zuga (1988:71) "Teaching Technology education with an interdisciplinary approach has been explored by determining the nature of disciplines, discussing the uses of an interdisciplinary approach and planning ways in which to implement an interdisciplinary approach". Stombaugh (1936:148) states that reflection should take place on what influences Technology has on the other learning areas of learners. One of the objectives of this study is to establish whether teachers incorporate Technology in the other learning areas of learners.

2.4.2 Technology Technology is a human activity that has taken place since the beginning of the existence of mankind. Humans have always been busy designing and developing inventions to feed, make clothes and shelter their families. Technology is entrenched in our society and our daily lives, as quoted by Ankiewicz (1995:247) "In Technology the emphasis falls on humankind's purposeful mastery and creative use of knowledge and skills regarding products, processes and approaches in order to manage their environment". We live in a world where machinery and information allow us to benefit from technology and according to Naughton (1986:3) technology is the use of scientific and planned knowledge to accomplish practical work by pre-arranged systems that involve humans and equipment. Vohra (1987:415) says, "Technology is the knowhow and creative process that may utilise tools, resources and systems to solve problems, to enhance control over the natural and manmade environment in an endeavour to improve the human condition".

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According to Wicklein (1997:76) an important aspect of Technology is that it must provide opportunities for learners to be exposed to and to learn about specific careers related to technology in industry. The Department of Education (1997a:84) agrees with this view and adds to this that Technology must provide learners with a basic understanding of technology. The learners must also obtain the skills to harness technological knowledge, skills and values and must be able to work not only as individuals but also in teams as well. Ankiewicz (1993:126) writes that technology is: Development of ideas and communication of information; The management of information; Simulation of real or fictitious situations; Measurement of physical sizes and the control of movement; The application of Technology and how it links to society and the economy. Bjorklund (1988:121) states that communication, construction, manufacturing, and transportation are important for Technology, and for the Department of Education (1997a:86) learners should apply the technological process in respect of the following South African and global themes: housing, textiles, communications, water, transport, food, energy, tourism, agriculture, manufacturing, media, sport and recreation. Micham, as quoted by Custer (1995:219) states "... there is a need for solid conceptual examination of the seemingly familiar term technology .... A four dimensional framework for conceptualisation of the term ... includes technology as: Artefacts (tools, manufactured objects, etc.); Knowledge (scientific, engineering, uniquely technological "how to" knowledge, as well as insights from the social and physical sciences); Process (problem-solving, research and development, invention, innovation, etc.); Volition (ethics, technology as a social construction, technology as a force, etc.)".

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Of these four, process is the most relevant for this study as it relates well with the of Education's Department definition of technology.

2.4.3 Society Dopp (1902:100) wrote "Whatever activity we consider (for Technology) of whatever age, if it be a significant one we find that it is because of its relation to the natural and social environment" and Layton (1970:29) states that technology and society influence each other mutually. According to Siraj-Blatchford (1995:195) and Herschbach (1997:25) technology is often seen as forming society rather than being formed by it. Ankiewicz (1993:125) says Technology's goals are achieved by developing learners' understanding and awareness of the interrelationship between Technology, societies, cultures, economic processes and the natural environment and for the Department of Education (1997a:84) Technology seeks to develop a significant understanding of the relationship between technology, society, the economy and the environment. Society has different views of technology and depending on the community that surrounds a school, there can be different expectations concerning Technology. Heydenryck (2001:58) published an article in which society is divided into five groups according to how they view technology, namely: Functionalism, society considers the development of technology as beneficial and would be able to rationalise whatever consequences could be envisioned; Critical-dialecticism, society advocates a critical stance or balanced view of technology in one way or another; Radical structuralism, society is against the forces of domination and the power structures inherent in the development and implementation of technology; Humanism, society has a concern that its gods, as well as its stance on the subjective human world is being ignored and thus establishing a false consciousness about the benefits of technology;

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Oppositionalism, society prefers the "organic human existence" and its negative views on the future of society is imbued with technologies, which estrange human beings from themselves and their capabilities.

2.5

GOALS OF TECHNOLOGY

For Steven (1989:14), Gokhale (1995:23) and Johnson (1991:45) problem-solving and critical-thinking skills are some of the main goals of Technology education. According to Barak and Maymon (1998:4) one of the goals of Technology is to teach learners to work together in teams, and Korwin and Jones (1990:48) believe that the broadest goal of Technology is to teach learners how to manage their current world. Boser, Palmer and Daugherty (1998:4) state, "One of the goals of Technology education is to promote technological literacy of a broad and encompassing nature". Dugger and Johnson (1992:18) say that in the past one of the goals of Technology was to impart skills into learners that will provide them with opportunities for employment. The following extensive goals were identified from Zuga (1989:33), Johnson (1992:30), Wicklein (1993:62), Ankiewicz (1993:125), Alamäki (1999:11) and Rasinen (2003:33): Physical development and career exploration and vocation. These are goals that are concerned with preparing learners for: Developing hand and eye coordination by creating objects; An admission into a profession or entry into vocational education programmes by providing investigative activities that can be developed for vocational purposes in many work-related areas; Developing the prospects of learners for accountable work, relaxation, and citizenship roles in a technological society; Providing information and know-how in order that learners may choose a future career; develop leisure and occupational activities;

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Give experiences that will increase understanding of modern industry and that will lay the groundwork for and help settle career interests. Social skills. It is the assessment of the relationship between humans, society, and the natural outcomes of technology. Intellectual processes. These goals refer to those activities which: Develop creative resolutions to present and future social dilemmas using technical means; Develop critical thinking related to industry and industrial materials; Develop social understanding and the ability to work in groups; Develop the capacity to plan and complete projects; Develop leadership roles; How to communicate effectively with others. Skills development. These goals refer to the: Use of an assortment of tools and construction materials; Development of the capability to read and make working drawings, charts, and graphs; Development of the capability to maintain and service the common products of industry in a safe and well-organised manner. Critical consumerism. This concerns those goals that address the relationship of technology education with society through a variety of efforts, including: The capacity to be a wise consumer and a technologically literate citizen; Establishing values about the impact of industry and technology; How it changes our environment; Increasing admiration for good craftsmanship and design; Increasing buyer information for the purpose of choosing, buying, and using the products of industry; Developing the ability to be familiar with quality and design of merchandise from industry; Making more intelligent choosers and users of the merchandise of industry.

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Relationship between industry and technology. This refers to those goals that specify the study of industry and technology as a subject and the understanding and development of industry and technology. Integration of discipline. This concerns those goals, that provide for the correlation of technology education to other fields of study, and subject matter. Technological capability. This refers to the ability to use, control, and understand technology. The Department of Education's (1997a:84) goals of Technology are listed below. These have many similarities with those listed above: Understand and apply the technological process to solve problems and satisfy needs and wants; Apply a range of technological knowledge and skills ethically and responsibly; Access, process and use data for technological purposes; Select and evaluate products and systems; Demonstrate an understanding of how different societies create and adapt technological solutions to particular problems; Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of technology; Demonstrate an understanding of how technology might reflect different biases, and creates responsible and ethical strategies to address them.

2.6

DESIGN

AND

DEVELOPMENT

OF

A

CURRICULUM

FOR

TECHNOLOGY

2.6.1 Introduction There are four main concepts, aims and objectives, content, methods, and evaluation as identified by Wydeman (2004:132) that are very important in developing a curriculum. According to the Department of Education (1998:68-80), teachers must be competent to design a curriculum in order to accomplish the outcomes of the lesson and "... development starts with the formulation of the purposes of the learning

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and teaching and uses these as the criteria for further curriculum development and assessment" (Department of Education, 1997b:16). In addition, the minister of Education said in a statement "This is outcomes-based education rule number one: curriculum development is the task of the teacher" (Bengu, 1997:29).

2.6.2 Designing a curriculum for Technology For Cardon (2002:143) and Zuga (1989:37) the five main curriculum designs in Technology education are academic rationalism, technical curriculum, intellectual processes, social adaptation or reconstruction and personal relevance. The establishment of a curriculum development hypothesis for Technology was identified as one of the major concerns among teachers (Wicklein, 1997:71-72) and he continues by saying that in the United States of America there is very little dissimilarity between the present curriculum of Technology and the previous vocational training system that concentrated on the technical characteristics of certain equipment and materials. According to Hatch and Jones (1991:240), most teachers in America teach a technical content. Technology should assume a design which is process-based with a learner-centred approach and Joël (2004:2) states that depending upon the definition of Technology it can either be content-orientated or learner-orientated. There are five principles for designing a curriculum for Technology: Help learners organize their knowledge Build on what learners already know; Facilitate information processing; Facilitate `deep thinking'; Make thinking explicit (Thomas et al. in Foster, 1994:32-33).

2.6.3 Developing a curriculum for Technology The Department of Education (2002b:5) states that the following issues should be considered when developing a curriculum for Technology:

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Philosophy and policy. Outcomes-based education and other national and local policies must be considered. Principle underpinning the curriculum. Social justice, a healthy environment, human rights and inclusivity are important principles in working towards the goals of an education system. Time allocation and weighting. Teachers should be attentive to time allocation and weighting of a learning programme and how they convert it into hours and periods. Integration. Teachers should be attentive and look for chances for integration both within and across learning areas. Resources. In developing learning programmes resources for the learning programmes should be easily obtainable. Inclusivity and barriers to learning. An inclusive approach to teaching, learning and assessment should be used. Any barriers that learners may encounter must be addressed.

2.7

LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR TECHNOLOGY

2.7.1 Learning outcomes of the Ort-Step Institute The Ort-Sep Institute (1995) published a document where the following outcomes and general aims for Technology were proposed:

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2.7.1.1 General aims described in terms of conceptualisation, knowledge, skills and attitudes

Conceptualism Develop a balanced view on the nature of technology; Develop an awareness of the impact of technology on everyday life: past, present and future; Develop an awareness of the impact of technology on society, the economy and the environment; Develop an understanding of the interrelationship between subjects such as mathematics, science and technology.

Knowledge Acquire knowledge; develop understanding and capability in basic technological concepts and principles.

Skills Develop problem-solving skills through technological processes such as designing, making and evaluating; Identify and investigate individual/social/environmental needs, problems and opportunities and accordingly design and make appropriate products, systems and processes; Acquire mastery of skills required for the realisation of technological processes; Foster both innovative and creative thinking and decision making throughout the programme; Conduct research and investigation to solve design problems in a technological way; Develop personal techniques for information collection including, where possible, the use of electronic media; Develop communication skill and techniques; Develop entrepreneurial skills.

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Attitudes Develop a positive attitude towards the industrial sector and the world of work; Motivate learners to become self-confident and to encourage positive attitudes towards life in a changing technological environment; Emphasize the individual's contribution and impact on his/her technologically affected environment; Appraise their own and others' accomplishments as individuals in a group, suggesting modifications and/or improvements.

2.7.1.2 Specific learning outcomes in technology described in terms of designing, making, testing, management, entrepreneurial and communication skills

Design skill Design and/or select an optimal and marketable solution to a problem; Develop appropriate working prototypes using design processes; Select and use appropriate information, materials and equipment to solve problems; Consider and apply the ergonomics of the products and systems.

Making skills Use tools and equipment appropriately; Apply safety rules and regulations; Use appropriate equipment and systems according to written or oral instructions; Conduct quality assurance with specific reference to technological processes and products.

Testing/evaluating skills Asses whether the end product complies with needs and specifications; Analyse existing products with a view to suggesting improvements; Become a discerning consumer.

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Management skills Work individually and within a team, sharing responsibilities for technological tasks and projects; Plan and manage the realisation of technological processes.

Entrepreneurial skills Conduct and conclude market research for relevant assignments; Promote self-confidence and create an awareness of needs and opportunities.

Communication skills Use drawings/symbols, written explanations, models and other forms of communication to communicate technological information.

2.7.2 Learning outcomes of the South African Department of Education The Department of Education (2002a:5-9), in the Revised National Curriculum Statement, says that there are three learning outcomes for Technology which are interrelated and they are:

2.7.2.1 Technological processes and skills

Learning Outcome 1: The learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technologies. The learner engages in activities that investigate, design, make, evaluate and communicate solutions and they are defined as follows: Investigate. The learner gathers data and information, grasps concepts and gains insight, finds out about new techniques, and so on.

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Design. When a problem is comprehended, the design instructions needs to be written or drawn and possible answers should be created. Make- Learners utilise materials, tools and equipment to produce a working model of the known problem. Evaluate. Decisions, actions and results are continuously evaluated during the design procedure. Communicate. Communication can be done orally, in writing, graphically or in electronic form.

2.7.2.2 Technological knowledge and understanding

Learning Outcome 2: The learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly. There are three primary subject matter areas: Structures. The focus is on practical solutions involving supporting loads and strengthening products when forces are applied to them; Processing. The focus is on practical ways in which material is processed or manufactured; Systems and control. The subject matter is divided into mechanical and electrical systems.

2.7.2.3 The interrelationship between technology, society and the environment

Learning Outcome 3: The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science, technology, society and the environment.

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This outcome will ensure that learners are aware of: Indigenous technology and cultures; The impacts of technology; Biases created by technology. In analysing and comparing the outcomes from the Ort-Step Institute and the Department of Education it is found that they are similar.

2.8

TYPES OF ASSESSMENT FOR TECHNOLOGY

Doppelt (2005:10) states that teachers should implement new assessment methods for Technology, such as portfolio assessment, which is based on records of learners' activities. The portfolio might consist of such items as written material, computer files, audio and video media, sketches, drawings, models, and pictures. The portfolio reflects what learners have learned, how they question, analyze, synthesize, solve problems, and create new ideas, and how to design and build useful products or systems. The portfolio also shows how learners interact intellectually, emotionally, and socially with others. According to the Department of Education (2002b:1-2) "Assessment should always be fair to learners and all barriers preventing learners from expressing their knowledge, skills and values should be considered when assessing". The Department of Education continues by describing the following types of assessment that should be used for Technology: Baseline Assessment. Baseline assessment is assessment usually used at the beginning of a Phase, Grade or learning experience to establish what learners already know. It assists educators with the planning of learning programmes and learning activities. Formative Assessment. Formative assessment is developmental and is used to inform teachers and learners about their progress. Thus it improves teaching and learning by giving teachers direction and enables them to adapt to learners' needs. Formative

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assessment, or 'assessment for learning', involves both teacher and learner in a process of continual reflection and self-assessment. Formative assessment is interactive in that the teacher uses thought-provoking questions to stimulate learner thinking and discussion. Summative Assessment. Summative assessment gives an overall picture of learners' progress at a given time, for example, at the end of a term. It usually results in judgements about learner performance and can involve high stakes for learners (e.g. Senior certificate). There is still a place for summative assessment in the NCS, but its role will be reduced. Diagnostic Assessment. Diagnostic assessment is similar to formative assessment, but its application will always lead to some form of intervention or remedial action or programme. It shows up either learners' strengths and weaknesses or inappropriate teaching methodology. When it is used to find out about the nature and cause of medical barriers to learning it should be administered by specialists and is followed by expert guidance, support and intervention strategies. Systemic Assessment. Systemic assessment is an external way of monitoring the education system by comparing learners' performance to national indicators of learner achievement. It involves monitoring of learner attainment at regular intervals, using nationally or provincially defined measuring instruments. This form of evaluation compares and aggregates information about learner achievements so that it can be used to assist in curriculum development and evaluation of teaching and learning. For the General Education and Training Band Systemic Evaluation will be conducted at the Phase exit levels i.e. Grade 3, Grade 6 and Grade 9.

2.9

IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGY

For Wydeman (2004:166) "Much that is planned and developed often, does not get implemented due to the lack of an implementation plan. One reason for this may be that organisation and management problems receive more attention than implementation as a phase of curriculum development", and Potgieter (2004:205)

28

states that when a learning area like technology is implemented in a country's curriculum and it has never before been part the curriculum, there must be extensive in-service training of the teachers. The Technology Education Lab (2006) says that three major initiatives needs to be provided in order to implement Technology, and they are: Curriculum resources to teachers with integrated, hands-on activities; A staff development plan to support the curriculum resources; Recommendations for facilities and equipment to implement the revised curriculum. A number of hidden factors are influencing curriculum implementation. One of these is a lack of confidence among teachers when their role changed from information provider to facilitator (Peacock, 1994:105) and for Atkinson (1994:32) "In particular the implementation of NC Technology has led to a general undermining of confidence felt by many technology teachers. Beliefs that have been held, skills that have in the past been shared with pride have all been brought into question". According to Bussey, Dormody and van Leeuwen (2000:11) when teachers were asked what problems they encountered during the implementation of Technology, they indicated the following: Limited financial support; Insufficient resources; Insufficient facilities; Non-existing curriculum material; Apprehension of change; Limited support from management. It is imperative that teachers from disadvantaged communities be drawn into the implementation process as they can add positively to what is pertinent in Technology (Ankiewicz, 1993:126). Peacock (1994:107) states that in the United States of America "Power plays in the implementation of technology curriculum exhibit a myriad of levels of power and resistance, between National and State agendas, between school administrators and staff, among faculties and individual staff, and

29

between teachers and their classes as curriculum interpretations are negotiated and renegotiated to create a new experience of technology education".

2.10

TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR TECHNOLOGY

Teaching strategies adopted by teachers to meet examination deadlines and requirements influenced both performance and motivation (Atkinson, 1999:22). For Foster (1994:21-24) there are four basic strategies to teach technology: Integration, or the interdisciplinary approach; Emphasizing social/cultural impacts of technology; Problem-solving; Interpreting industry.

Table 2.1: Relevant instructional strategies for Technology More towards Behaviourism Teacher-centred High teacher-control More towards low learner thinking ­ learners participate "passively" Direct instruction Classroom discussion More towards Constructivist Learner-centred Low teacher-control High learner thinking ­ learners are forced to construct their own meaning Project work

APPROACH FOCUS TEACHER CONTROL THINKING

STRATEGIES

Small group Group work discussion

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De Swardt et al. (2006:14) state that teachers must use flexible teaching strategies for Technology and suggest the use of table 2.1 above. The teacher's application of teaching strategies must enable to and fro movement on the continuum when the situation demands it, in order to optimise learning opportunities for learners. Teachers must progressively shift the control and responsibility for learning to the learner through the use of direct instruction to project work. The participation of the teacher is more leading and noticeable during direct instruction and progressively decreases to where it is more understated and in the background during group and project work. The Department of Education (1997b:20) agrees with De Swardt et al. and states that outcomes-based education should meet the needs of learners through various teaching strategies. The Department of Education (2002b:26) also states that the following teaching strategies should be considered when teaching Technology: Project based. Logical units of work must be spread over an extended period of time. Multiple opportunities. Learners must be provided with multiple opportunities to demonstrate their competencies and the focus should be on transferable of skills. Learner centred. Teachers must bring in new ideas and give the learners support to understand for themselves. Experiential learning. Learning must be `Hands-on' and learners must learn through experience.

2.11

TECHNOLOGY AND CHANGE

The only constant factor of technology is change and this is happening at a faster rate as the human race constantly develops better technologies. What is considered today as being the latest `must-have' technology, is considered `out-dated' by tomorrow. Technology is a demonstration of human inventiveness (Lewis, 1999:46) and for Fahmy (2004:53) "This implies a needed change in our teaching methods and the

31

design of new applied teaching methods to explain the processes resulting in the development of technology in the `real' world". Technology is a constantly developing learning area, that is very important for mankind's future and as pointed out by Atkinson (1994:32), "The pace and extent of educational change in schools has been considerable, both for the school curriculum as a whole and for technology as a learning area in particular. The lack of time in which to consolidate, reflect and evaluate has impinged directly upon teachers who plan and deliver the curriculum". The current methods of teaching technology encourage certain aspects of learning but often large gaps and are not complete (Wicklein, 1997:77). Pullias (1992:4), in the United States of America, states that teachers will have to open their eyes and realise that Technology is new and completely different from the other learning areas.

2.12

CONCLUSION

Technology is part of our daily lives and is getting more entwined in what we do everyday. We as humans are becoming more dependent on Technology, but do not always understand what technology encompasses or entails. It is therefore obvious that Technology must be a compulsory part in any school curriculum. In analysing the Department of Education's policy documents on Technology, and when comparing it with global trends on technology education it can be seen that the Department of Education is on track in what it wants to achieve by implementing Technology. It is very important that an integrated approach should be used to teach Technology, because it will enable learners to apply the relevant technological knowledge they gain in all aspects of their lives and also to understand the interrelationship between technology, society and the environment.

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The next chapter will seek to describe the research methodology that was used to conduct the research. The chapter will also describe a suitable method to collect pertinent data and the trustworthiness of the research study.

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CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1

INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter the literature study related to Technology was dealt with. This chapter describes the research methodology that was used to conduct the research. The chapter will further describe a suitable method to collect pertinent data and the trustworthiness of the research study.

3.2

DEFINITION OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

One of the most important aspects of doing research is to decide what research methodology to use. Wellington (2004:22) defines research methodology as "... the activity or business of choosing, reflecting upon, evaluating and justifying the methods you use. No one can assess or judge the value of a piece of research without knowing its methodology".

3.3

RESEARCH DESIGN

The research design plays an important role in the ultimate effectiveness and success of a research study. McMillan and Schumacher (2001:166) describe a research design as a plan that indicates which subjects, research locations, and data-collection methods will be chosen to answer the research questions. The design indicates the place, time, venue, and persons that will be examined. The end result must be a research design that will present an outcome that is found to be credible. In this study a qualitative research design was used. Leedy and Ormrod (2005:133) say qualitative research covers various research methods that mainly concentrate on phenomena that happen in their natural surroundings and according to White

34

(2005:104) in the design of qualitative research, the researcher's preferences and activities determine the design. Struwig and Stead (2003:243) observe that a qualitative research includes a large variety of research methods and the main accent is on obtaining a clear picture of what is being studied.

3.3.1 Characteristics of qualitative research Many authors (Struwig & Stead, 2003:12-13, Wellington, 2004:133 and Leedy & Ormrod, 2005:95-97) have identified what they consider to be important characteristics of qualitative research and below are a combination of these authors' descriptions of the characteristics of qualitative research: It is a study of people to obtain their perceptions on certain issues; It is flexible in the way that the research is structured and the researcher decides on the methodology that is going to be used; The data collected by the researcher is descriptive and by examining this data patterns emerge that the researcher develops into concepts; The methods of data collection are interviews, observations, photographs and/or documents and involve fieldwork; The data are analysed by using an inductive research strategy; In reporting the findings, the researcher uses a more personal style of writing.

3.4

POPULATION AND SAMPLE

3.4.1 Population All the possible respondents in a research project are the population and a sample is drawn from the population of respondents (Struwig & Stead, 2003:242). According to White (2005:113) "A population is the sum total of all the cases that meet our definition of the unit of analysis. The population can be described as all possible elements that can be included in the research". The population of this research consisted of teachers that are teaching Technology in Middelburg secondary schools.

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3.4.2 Sampling A sample is a small part of anything that represents the whole (Wellington, 2004:58), and Imenda and Muyangwa (2000:118) say the subjects that have the most important characteristics of the population will be the research sample. The individuals about whom the information is gathered is the research sample. Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2002:92) state that there are four key factors in sampling namely; the sample size, the representativeness and parameters of the sample, access to the sample and the sample strategy to be used.

3.4.2.1 Sample size In qualitative research, the researcher is more concerned about whether the data collected from the sample is filled with of useful information and broad in description, than the extent to which the sample's data can be generalised to the population (Struwig & Stead, 2003:125), and according to White (2005:115) "Qualitative researchers view the sampling process as dynamic and suitable for specific situations. While there are statistical rules for probability sample size, there are only guidelines for purposeful sample size". Six teachers that teach Technology from grades 8 to 9 in Middelburg were selected as a sample for this study.

3.4.2.2 Non-probability sampling Non-probability sampling is often used in small-scale qualitative research and is used where it is not possible to state the probability of an element being included in the sample (Wellington, 2004:59-60 and Leedy & Ormrod, 2005:206). Cohen et al. (2002:102) write that the researcher who uses non-probability sampling is aiming for a specific group, the reason being that they are cheaper, not very complicated, and can demonstrate that they are sufficient. For this study, only teachers that teach Technology in Middelburg was selected as a sample.

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3.4.2.3 Purposive sampling Purposive sampling may be very fitting for a particular research problem and the people or elements are chosen for a specific purpose. According to White (2005:120) "This type of sampling is based entirely on the judgement of the researcher, in that a sample is composed of elements that contain the most characteristic, representative or typical attributes of the population". A purposeful sample was taken in that six teachers who teach Technology in Middelburg was selected.

3.5

DATA-COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

There are various data collection techniques and depending on the type of research study, some data collection techniques will result in the researcher obtaining more accurate and useful data. For this study, the use of a literature review and interviews were judged to be the appropriate techniques to collect data because the schools chosen for this study are close by, accessible and therefore makes the study affordable. Leedy and Ormrod (2005:88) define data as bits of information that the researcher collects during his research. Struwig and Stead (2003:237) define data as information that is collected in a prescribed scientific method. The information can be pictures, words, or numbers. Mouton (2005:87) and Struwig and Stead (2003:41) state that data can be collected by means of interviews. For this study interviews were used to collect empirical data in that six teachers that teach Technology in Middelburg, Mpumalanga will be interviewed.

3.5.1 Literature study The literature study entails searching; recognizing and examining documents containing data connected to the research problems (Struwig & Stead, 2003:38) and according to Leedy and Ormrod (2005:64) "Research proposals and research reports typically have a section that reviews the related literature. The review describes

37

theoretical perspectives and previous research findings regarding the problem at hand. Its function is to `look again' (re + view) at what others have done in areas that are similar, though not necessarily identical to, one's own area of investigation". For Mouton (2005:87) the importance of a literature study is to gain knowledge and insight from other researchers as to what hypotheses they used and how they put their research together. It will also help to show what their observations have been and what instruments yielded the best results for specific research. Leedy and Ormrod (2005:64-65), Struwig and Stead (2003:38-39) and Mouton (2005:87) state that a literature study has the following benefits: it can provide the researcher with new information, ideas and views, the researcher can obtain valuable information from other researchers who have conducted research in the same field and can discover key concepts, it can provide the researcher with methodology guidelines to assist the researcher in designing a research study, it will expose the researcher to new sources of data, it can assist the researcher in understanding and evaluating the data that is to be collected, it can boost the confidence of the researcher, it will make sure that previous studies are not simply duplicated and the researcher can discover an instruments that have proven validity and reliability.

3.5.2 Interviews Interviewing people can be very interesting and rewarding and for this study, face-toface interviews were conducted. Silverman in Leedy and Ormrod (2005:146) states that interviews can provide lots of valuable information and the researcher can ask questions connected to the following: Facts; People's beliefs and perspectives about the facts; Feelings; Motives; Present and past behaviour; Standards for behaviour; Conscious reasons for action or feelings.

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3.5.2.1 Interviewing styles Wellington (2004:75) and Berg (2004:81) render three interviewing styles namely, unstructured, semi-structured and structured. Wikipedia (2007:1) defines the interviewing styles as follows: An unstructured interview is a method of interview where questions can be changed or adapted to meet the respondent's intelligence, understanding or beliefs. A structured interview is a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research. The aim of this approach is to ensure that each interviewee is presented with exactly the same questions in the same order. A semi-structured interview is a method of research used in the social sciences. Semi-structured interviews are flexible, new questions can be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says, so the interview flows more like a conversation than a structured interview which has a set of questions. The interviewer may have a framework of themes that he wishes to explore. Semi-structured interviews were used for this study and for Struwig and Stead (2003:38-39) and Kumar (2005:124) `personal' or `one-on-one' interviews are the most versatile and flexible for the following reasons: interviews can be adapted to the situation and if required, both the interviewer and interviewee can provide further explanations or clarifications.

3.5.2.2 Developing an interview schedule A good interview schedule will assist the researcher to attain the research objectives and obtain comprehensive and precise information. Struwig and Stead (2003:89-90), and Leedy and Ormrod (2005:190-192) state that the following strategies will assist the researcher to develop a questionnaire: Phrase questions simply and clearly; Ask single questions, not double-barrelled questions;

39

Do not ask too many questions; Do not make it too long; Do not ask `why' questions; Start with the easy questions; Ask sensitive or personal questions last; Move from general to specific questions. For this study the researcher started with the easy questions and did not ask too many questions and questions that are too long. The questions were phrased in a simple and clear manner and the researcher only asked single questions and not double-barrelled questions.

3.5.2.3 Guidelines to conduct interviews In a qualitative research study interviews are hardly ever as structured as the interviews conducted in a quantitative study. They are normally semi-structured or unstructured. Leedy and Ormrod (2005:146-149) suggest the following guidelines to conduct a successful interview; identify some questions in advance, make sure your interview is representative of the group, find a suitable location, get written permission, establish and maintain a rapport, focus on the actual rather than on the abstract or hypothetical, don't put words in people's mouths, record responses verbatim, keep your reactions to yourself, remember that you are not necessarily getting the facts and when considering a focus group, take group dynamics into account.

3.5.2.4 Advantages of interviews Interviews have certain advantages and disadvantages. Sewell (2007) list the following advantages of interviews: The interviewer has the flexibility to prod for detailed answers and questions can be repeated that the interviewee does not understand;

40

The interviewee can answer using his or her own words and cannot be coached into answers by others and the answers may be more spontaneous; The interviewer has the answers quicker than a mailed questionnaire and can observe the non-verbal behaviour of the interviewee; Control over behaviour. An interviewer can standardise the interview environment by making certain that the interview is conducted in privacy, and that it is relatively quiet; The interviewer decides the order of the questions and can ensure that the interviewee answers all the questions.

3.5.2.5 Interview records A record of the interviews was kept. It is advisable to use a tape recorder and then to transcribe the interviews. This entails writing out each question and response from the interviewee using the recorded audiotape. In this study a tape recorder was used to record the interviews. For Wellington (2004:84) "The recording of interviews may involve note taking, more detailed record-keeping, tape recording or, in some cases photographic or video records". According to Wellington (2004:86) keeping a record of the interviews has the following advantages: preserves actual natural language; can be flattering for the interviewee; is an `objective' record; interviewer's contribution is also recorded and can be reflected upon; allows interviewer to concentrate, to maintain eye contact and to observe body language.

3.6

DATA ANALYSIS

The method used to analyse the data will enable the researcher to arrange and make sense of large amounts of data (Struwig & Stead, 2003:169) and according to White (2005:168) "Qualitative data analysis is primarily an inductive process of organising the data into categories and identifying patterns among the categories. Qualitative

41

analysis is a systematic process of selecting, categorising, comparing, synthesising and interpreting to provide explanations of the single phenomenon of interest".

3.6.1 Preparation of research data It is vital that the researcher spends time organising and preparing the data (Marshall & Rossman, 2006:157). In this study all the interviews were transcribed, the data was categorised according to the questions asked to each teacher. The response of the teachers were arranged in such away that the raw data was ready to be compared, analysed and then interpreted to find points of interest.

3.6.2 Steps to analyse qualitative research data The following steps to analyse qualitative research data are suggested by Wellington (2004:30) and Creswell in Leedy and Ormrod (2005:150): Read the data several times in depth to familiarise yourself with the content; Identify the main themes and organise the data accordingly; Break the data into smaller units if necessary; Assimilate and summarise the data; Present the data. In this study the data was read several times, organised into main themes and then summarised and the conclusions presented in chapter 4.

3.7

TRUSTWORTHINESS

3.7.1 Trustworthiness strategies Lincoln and Guba (1985:300) propose four strategies for evaluating qualitative findings and enhancing trustworthiness namely credibility, transferability,

42

dependability and confirmability. These strategies can be incorporated both into a research design and be used to assess qualitative findings.

3.7.1.1 Credibility This strategy is an assessment of the believability or credibility of the research findings from the perspective of the members or study participants. The inclusion of member checking the findings, that is, gaining feedback on results from the participants, is one method of increasing credibility. Credibility is analogous to internal validity, which is the approximate truth about casual relationships, or the impact of one variable on another.

Credibility strategy criteria Prolonged and varied field experience; Time sampling; Reflexivity (field journal); Triangulation; Member checking; Peer examination; Interview technique; Establishing authority of researcher; Referential adequacy. In this study the member checking criterion was used in that the respondents were provided with copies of their transcribed interviews to verify that the transcriptions are true and correct as to what they had said during their interviews. They indicated verbally that the transcriptions were a true reflection of their interviews. The peer examination criterion was also used in that the Deputy Chief Education Specialist from the directorate Further Education and Training Colleges in the Department of Education reviewed my questionnaire schedule and transcriptions.

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3.7.1.2 Transferability Transferability refers to the degree that findings can be transferred or generalized to other settings, contexts, or populations. A qualitative researcher can enhance transferability by detailing the research methods, contexts, and assumptions underlying the study. Transferability is analogous to external validity, that is the extent to which findings can be generalized.

Transferability strategy criteria Nominated sample; Comparison of sample to demographic data; Time sample; Dense description. Dense description is when the researcher explains the research design, data analysis and interpretations in detail and for this study the dense description criterion was used in that chapter 3 provides a detailed layout of the research methods to enhance the trustworthiness of this study.

3.7.1.3 Dependability Dependability pertains to the importance of the researcher accounting for or describing the changing contexts and circumstances that are fundamental to qualitative research. Altering the research design as new findings emerge during data collection may enhance dependability. Dependability is analogous to reliability, that is the consistency of observing the same finding under similar circumstances.

Dependability strategy criteria Dependability audit; Dense description of research methods; Stepwise replication; Triangulation;

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Peer examination; Code-recode procedure. For this study the peer examination criterion was used in that the Deputy Chief Education Specialist from the directorate Further Education and Training Colleges in the Department of Education reviewed my questionnaire schedule and transcriptions. The dense description was also used as a criterion in that chapter 3 provides a detailed layout of the research methods to enhance the trustworthiness of this study.

3.7.1.4 Confirmability Confirmability refers to the extent that the research findings can be confirmed or corroborated by others. Strategies for enhancing confirmability include searching for negative cases that run contrary to most findings, and conducting a data audit to pinpoint potential areas of bias or distortion. Confirmability is analogous to objectivity, that is the extent to which a researcher is aware of or accounts for individual subjectivity or bias.

Confirmability strategy criteria Confirmability audit; Triangulation; Reflexivity. For this study the confirmability criterion was used. The respondents were provided with copies of their transcribed interviews to verify that the transcriptions are true and correct as to what they had said during their interviews. They indicated verbally that the transcriptions were a true reflection of their interviews.

3.8

CONCLUSION

In this chapter an outline of the research methodology, which is qualitative, was given. This included the research design, population and the sampling, data-collection

45

technique, data preparation, data analysis, and trustworthiness. The next chapter will discuss and interpret the data collected during the interviews.

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CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS

4.1

INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter the research methodology was explained. Also, a suitable method to collect data and the trustworthiness of the research study was explained. This chapter will analyse the findings of this study. Six teachers from six different schools were selected for this study. The names of the teachers and schools will not be made public. They will only be identified as Teacher A, through to Teacher F. The teachers were interviewed at their schools in their classrooms over a period of two weeks.

4.2

QUALIFICATION AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF TEACHERS

4.2.1 Teachers' tertiary qualifications A synopsis of the teachers' qualifications is provided in table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Teachers' tertiary qualifications Teacher A

B.A. Teacher's Diploma

Teacher B

Secondary Teacher's Diploma

Teacher C

Higher Teacher's Diploma

Teacher D

Secondary Teacher's Diploma

Teacher E

Secondary Teacher's Diploma

Teacher F

Senior Primary Teacher's Diploma

Only one of the respondents interviewed possessed a degree as well as a teacher's diploma. The other five only had teaching diplomas.

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4.2.2 Subjects teachers taught before the introduction of Technology A synopsis of the subjects teachers taught before Technology was introduced is provided in table 4.2.

Table 4.2: Subjects teachers taught before the introduction of Technology Teacher A

Mathematics, General Science

Teacher B

Social Science, Natural Science, Afrikaans

Teacher C

Biology, Life Sciences

Teacher D

Mathematics, General Science

Teacher E

Home Economics, Consumer Science

Teacher F

Zulu

Five of the respondents have a science background, which would make teaching Technology more understandable as it has a partial scientific basis. Teacher F made the jump from teaching an indigenous language to Technology without the necessary training.

4.2.3 Teachers' qualifications in Technology A synopsis of the teachers' qualifications in Technology is provided in table 4.3.

Table 4.3: Teachers' qualifications in Technology Teacher A

Certificate in Technology Education

Teacher B

None

Teacher C

None

Teacher D

Certificate in Technology Education

Teacher E

None

Teacher F

None

Only two of the six respondents had tertiary qualifications in Technology. This they obtained through distance education. Potgieter (2004:205) confirms the fact that the majority of teachers who teach Technology do not have a formal qualification in Technology.

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4.2.4 Teaching experience A graph indicating the number of years the teachers have been teachers and teaching Technology is given in figure 4.1.

30 25 25 Number of years 20 15 10 6 5 0

Te ac he rA Te ac he rB Te ac he rC Te ac he rD Te ac he rE Te ac he rF

18

19 13 9 7 3.5 0.5 5 3 9 Number of years as teacher Number of years teaching Technology

Figure 4.1: The number of years teachers have been teachers and teaching Technology It is apparent from figure 4.1 that the two respondents (namely Teacher A and Teacher D) who are best qualified to teach Technology have been teaching it for the longest period of time. The respondent with an indigenous language background then follows and has been prepared to sacrifice his own time to receive some private training, as quoted by Teacher F, "Yes, we did receive training and even after that we received more training from the Mbele Zondibo project; he gave us more information than the Department of Education".

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4.3

TRAINING GIVEN TO TEACHERS

4.3.1 Training given to teachers before and after they started teaching Technology Figure 4.2 indicates the number of days teachers received training from the Department of Education before and after they started teaching Technology.

12 10 10 number of days 8 6 4 4 2 0 0

Te ac he rA Te ac he rB Te ac he rC Te ac he rD Te ac he rE Te ac he rF

Number of days training before implementation 5 4 4 55 44 Number of days training after implementation per year

00

Figure 4.2: The number of days training given to teachers before and after they started teaching Technology Figure 4.2 shows that four of the six respondents received four to five days training before the implementation of Technology. Teacher B received no training beforehand, but received training afterwards. Teacher C was the only one who received training at all.

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4.3.2 Adequacy of training given Four of the six respondents received four to five days training a year during previous years, but the respondents indicated that the training periods were too short and not adequate and this is confirmed by Khulisa in Engelbrecht, Ankiewicz and de Swardt (2006:2). The training in Technology was jammed into a day or two just before the respondents had to implement it. It was never on content and the respondents were never exposed to the practical application of the theory. They were only provided with general outlines of Technology. Practical work is very important in Technology because it provides opportunities for learners to experience real technological activities (Reddy, Ankiewicz, de Swardt, & Gross, 2003:128). According to the respondents the training was more a meeting/workshop kind of training than formal courses. Sometimes it was obvious to them that the training facilitator was not a subject matter expert. This year, 2007, seems to stand out in that no training was given to any of the six respondents interviewed, and this means that teacher C who only started teaching Technology this year has had no orientation for this learning area from the Department of Education. Teacher A said, "It was not adequate, in the sense that when we were trained we were immediately expected to go and implement. So whilst we were learning we must also go and apply. That has been a difficult thing to handle because sometimes you think you understand when you are in training; when you get to the real thing you realise it is not O.K.".

4.3.3 Reasons for teaching Technology The respondents indicated that they are teaching Technology because they find it interesting. It is practical and they want to help the learners understand technology so that the learners can learn to do things for themselves. Teacher A said, "So I find it to be an interesting subject that is related to daily issues".

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Teacher C was the exception and said, " They need a teacher for technology in this school. It is not my choice". When they were asked if they had a choice what would have been their preferred learning areas, four out of six indicated that it would be technology.

4.4

AVAILABILITY OF TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES AT SCHOOLS

4.4.1 Why are resources needed? In Technology the learners have to do projects which is the practical part of the learning area. Currently the respondents are doing the theory part and not the practical part as they have limited resources. Teacher D said, "I require them because as I have indicated technology is a hands-on thing and for learners to understand that it is a hands-on subject they really need to do something for themselves. I think it is very important to have the resources to make them understand the learning area".

4.4.2 Resources that are needed The Department of Education (2002a:51) in the Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R - 9 (Schools) for Technology very broadly states that the following resources are needed: Tools -- for working with various materials. Materials -- i.e. cardboard, paper, wood, plastic, textile, food, metal, etc. Reference Materials -- i.e. textbooks, encyclopaedia, electronic reference media, Internet, Discovery Channel, etc. In a policy document the KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Department of Education (2004:27-28) narrows the scope and suggest the following resources for Technology:

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Table 4.4 Suggested tools list No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Name / Short description Suggested quantity Glue gun ­ trigger type 5 Junior hacksaw ­ hardened steel frame 10 Pliers, multi purpose, 200mm long 3 Pliers, long nose, 200mm long 3 Screwdriver, 3-4mm blade 4 Screwdriver, Phillips, star 4 Pincer 3 Craft knife, retractable blade 15 Scissors, 200mm ­ 250mm, multipurpose 10 Bradawl, 150mm blade (Pocker) 6 Safety steel rule, 300mm long with groove for protecting 15 fingers Soldering iron, 220V 40W 2 Stand for soldering iron 2 Hammer, cross pein ± 85g 2 Hammer, cross pein ± 200g 3 Bench hook, small, wooden, for cutting with junior 10 hacksaw Hand drill 5 Drill bit 1,5mm 20 Drill bit 2,0mm 10 Drill bit 2,5mm 10 Drill bit 3,0mm 10 Drill bit 3,5mm 10 Drill bit 4,0mm 5 Drill bit 4,5mm 5 Drill bit 5,0mm 5 Drill bit 5,5mm 5 Drill bit 6,0mm 5 G-clamp, small 4 Stapler, medium, office type 1 Tullen snips 10 Toolbox, big enough to store the above equipment 1 First Aid kit, complete with medical items 1 Safety glasses 5 Safety gloves, leather/plastic/rubber 5 pairs

(Source: KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Department of Education, 2004:27-28) The KwaZulu-Natal Education Department then adds that various types of equipment for processing, such as spoons, knives, forks, pots, measuring equipment, bowls, chopping boards, plates and so on can also be added to the list, depending on what is available at the school.

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The respondents indicated that there is a real need for dedicated technology laboratories in their schools with equipment and material like gears, pulleys, hydraulics, old cars, sewing machines, drills, and/or electrical equipment, glue, wood and saws.

4.4.3 Availability of resources It is evident from the interviews that there are limited resources available to assist technology teachers to teach Technology. The only resource they have is learner support material that is supplied by the Department of Education. They try to borrow from friends and colleagues from other schools. They also try to find resources in their homes to assist them in teaching Technology.

4.4.4 Availability of finances The schools have limited finances available to assist teachers in purchasing the resources that are required. It was found that they budget between 0,002 % and 5% of their annual budget for Technology. One respondent indicated that his budget for Technology is a thousand Rand a year. Often the children are asked to contribute financially to purchase resources and if that is not successful the teachers purchase the resources themselves.

4.5

CURRICULUM SUPPORT GIVEN TO TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS

The curriculum implementers that are appointed by the Department of Education do give the respondents support by visiting them, arranging meetings and workshops, and providing them with assistance if they have any curriculum problems. Certain respondents indicated that they very seldom receive visits from the curriculum implementers and all respondents indicted they received no visits during 2007.

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The respondents have formed cluster groups with schools nearby and they meet regularly to discuss any problems they might have with Technology.

4.6

INCORPORATION OF TECHNOLOGY INTO THE OTHER LEARNING AREAS OF LEARNERS

Planning is done at certain schools to incorporate Technology into other learning areas but then the teachers are given new learning areas and this planning to incorporate Technology into other learning areas does not take place. Even though incorporation into the other learning areas do not take place, consultation between teachers do take place to best benefit the learners. Teacher A said the following, "Planning in the school is vital to any success and effective teaching. If you have planned well, then even the integration will fall into place. Planning is done but is not effective in the sense that whilst you've planned, you are changed from the learning area and you must go and prep some more whilst you're still learning the learning area they change you to a new one; you're starting afresh. That's what cancels all the planning. You have it on paper, it is good but practically its not there". The respondents admitted that duplication of other learning areas does exist but similar topics are handled in different ways because teachers also have different levels of understanding in doing the same topic. Some teachers are experts on certain topics whilst technology teachers are more generalists on a wider range of topics.

4.7

USEFULNESS OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LEARNERS IN THEIR FUTURE CAREERS

Five of the respondents were positive and indicated that Technology will assist the learners in the future. The reasons given were: Need of technologists; Learners will understand the environment and the world much better; It will assist learners in choosing their careers;

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Provides learners with skills to start their own businesses; It provides learners with information on how things operate; It helps learners to deal with life positively; It teaches learners to solve problems. One respondent said that the curriculum was outdated and that the learners are more interested in cell phones than pulleys.

4.8

TEACHERS' FRUSTRATION IN TEACHING TECHNOLOGY

The teachers in Technology identified the following frustrations: Lack of parental support and involvement; The attitude of learners; Lack of material; Lack of support; Large classes; Lack of practical projects.

4.9

PERSONAL INTEREST TEACHERS HAVE IN TECHNOLOGY

The personal interest that the respondents have in technology is varied but for the majority it is the practical part that interests them the most, which is either mechanical or sewing. Interestingly enough Teacher F is a lady and she indicated both mechanical and sewing, and said in her interview that she repairs her own vehicle. The respondents indicated that they think technology is beneficial to society and in chapter 2 it was stated that society is divided into five different groups according to how they view technology. From the respondents' answers it can be concluded that they all fall under the functionalism group in that they consider the development of technology beneficial and would be able to rationalise their viewpoint whatever consequences could be envisioned.

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4.10

CONCLUSION

In this chapter the data collected by means of interviews and questionnaires were analysed. Six teachers from different schools were probed. The names of the teachers were not made public, and their identities are represented by symbols. The respondents have received training in the form of workshops and meetings in the region of 5 days a year, but this according to them is not adequate. Certain respondents had received no training before they started to teach technology. There is a resource list available of what is required to teach Technology, but these resources are not provided to the respondents. The reason for this is a lack of finances at the schools. This makes it very difficult for the respondents to teach Technology in that they cannot do the practical part of the curriculum and therefore mostly concentrate on the theory. Curriculum support is provided to teachers by curriculum implementers who arrange meetings and workshops, but some respondents indicated that they seldom see the curriculum implementers. The respondents do plan to incorporate Technology into other learning areas, but in reality it does not take place. Five of the six respondents believe that Technology will be useful for their learners in their future careers. All the respondents have a special interest in Technology in that they all have hobbies that incorporate technology. In the next chapter the conclusion and recommendations of the findings will be discussed.

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

5.1

INTRODUCTION

In chapter four the focal point was on analysing the research findings of teachers that teach Technology in Middelburg, Mpumalanga. The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. The objective of chapter five is to reach conclusions and make recommendations that will be based on the findings of chapter four which originate from section 1.4 in chapter one and are as follows: How qualified are teachers that have to teach Technology? What training is given to teachers by the Department of Education to assist them in teaching Technology? What resources are available for technology teachers at their schools to teach Technology? What support is given to technology teachers from the Department of Education if they experience problems in teaching Technology? How teachers incorporate technology in the other learning areas.

5.2

TEACHERS' QUALIFICATIONS

How qualified are teachers that have to teach Technology?

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5.2.1 Conclusion All six respondents have tertiary teacher's qualifications, but only two are qualified to teach Technology.

5.2.2 Recommendation It is recommended that teachers who teach Technology have a tertiary qualification in Technology. If they do not have a tertiary qualification, the Department of Education should enquire who of them are interested to obtain a tertiary qualification in technology. The Department of Education should then make bursaries available for them so that they can improve their qualifications through distance education. There are many higher education institutions that offer distance education qualifications for Technology.

5.3

TRAINING EDUCATION

OF

TEACHERS

BY

THE

DEPARTMENT

OF

What training is given to teachers by the Department of Education to assist them in teaching Technology?

5.3.1 Conclusion Not all of the teachers were provided with training before the implementation of Technology and currently they only receive an average of five days training a year. The training is provided by facilitators that are not subject matter experts and consists only of general outlines of Technology and not subject content.

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5.3.2 Recommendation Teachers must be provided with more and better quality training an academic year in advance of implementation with training facilitators that are subject matter experts. Many higher education institutions have continuous professional teacher development centres, for example the University of Johannesburg has a centre called RAUTEC. One of the areas RAUTEC specialises in is Technology. Teachers can be sent there during their school holidays for training. The practical aspects of Technology needs much more attention as all the teachers that are teaching Technology are not practically inclined.

5.4

AVAILABILITY OF TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES AT SCHOOLS

What resources are available for technology teachers at their schools to teach Technology?

5.4.1 Conclusion There are very few of the required resources available for the respondents at their schools to assist them in teaching Technology. Firstly the respondents do not have laboratories for the learners to do their practical projects in. Secondly they do not have the resources as mentioned in 4.4.1 to do the practical project, mainly because there are no funds available in the schools. The Department of Education does not provide schools with dedicated funds to purchase the required resources for Technology. Certain schools are located in financially poor suburbs or farms and the majority of parents do not have the money to pay school fees. Some schools have even been declared no-fee schools and this makes it more difficult for the schools to provide teachers with the required resources. If the respondents do require resources they ask their learners to contribute financially or purchase the resources themselves. They also try to find resources from within their

60

own homes or try to borrow from colleagues in other schools. Some respondents even improvise by arranging fund-raising events in order to obtain the resources.

5.4.2 Recommendation The resources that are needed for the practical projects should be supplied by the Department of Education in the same manner that all learners are provided with learning support material.

5.5

CURRICULUM SUPPORT

What support is given to technology teachers from the Department of Education if they experience problems in teaching Technology?

5.5.1 Conclusion Curriculum implementers do visit the schools and arrange and provide training to the respondents in the form of a meetings or workshops, but for this year no visits have taken place and this leads to frustration among teachers as they are now left to their own devices. Respondents in schools that are near to each other have formed cluster groups and meet regularly to assist each other with their problems.

5.5.2 Recommendation Curriculum implementers should visit the schools more often and arrange and attend the cluster meetings. This will ensure that cluster meetings are held and the curriculum implementers will be there to assist the teachers if they have any problems.

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5.6

INCORPORATION OF TECHNOLOGY INTO OTHER LEARNING AREAS

How teachers incorporate Technology in the other learning areas.

5.6.1 Conclusion The respondents indicated that planning is done to incorporate Technology into the other learning areas, but unfortunately the execution thereof is not very successful.

5.6.2 Recommendation The incorporation of Technology into other learning areas must be done with caution. If teachers do not have the knowledge of the specialised fields, they could neglect the mathematical and scientific knowledge required for technological problem solving. This incorporation should be planned at a higher level, for example by the curriculum implementers of the various learning areas were Technology can be incorporated, and then be given to the schools to implement accordingly.

5.7

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

During the process of doing research for this study I came across only a few South African researchers that are doing research work in Technology and have published articles. There is a huge void in technology education for South African learners that must be filled. South Africa, because of the diversity of cultures, and the geographical location of certain schools is unique and using learning material from other countries will not always be suitable and useful. There is very little academic material available in Technology for South African teachers, and therefore the question is; How must educators prepare for their lessons in Technology if so little is available?

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I strongly suggest that further research be undertaken into what resources the learners can use for their project work that is cheap and even available in rural areas, and guidelines that show how these resources must be used in project work. A resource list with instructional guidelines can be produced for each project and then given to all teachers teaching Technology. This will then ensure that uniformity is established across all schools.

5.8

CONCLUSION

The implementation of Technology is not satisfactory. Not all of the teachers were provided with training to implement Technology. Only certain teachers were provided with in-service training and even that according to them was not adequate in that they were just provided with basic outlines of the learning area. Also facilitators that provided the training were not subject matter experts in Technology. Currently there are teachers who teach Technology who do not even have a tertiary qualification for this. There is a serious lack of resources for the teachers to do the project work required in Technology and this is because schools do not have financial capacity to purchase the required resources. Curriculum implementers do not visit the schools often enough and they must arrange and provide more regular training for the teachers. Planning to incorporate Technology into other learning areas does take place at some schools but that is as far as it goes. Technology is not incorporated into other learning areas.

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PULLIAS, D. 1992. What is technology education? The Technology Teacher, 51(4):3-4. RASINEN, A. 2003. An analysis of the technology education curriculum of six countries. Journal of Technology Education, 15(1):31-47. REDDY, K., ANKIEWICZ, P.J., DE SWARDT, A.E. & GROSS, E. 2003. The essential features of technology education: A conceptual framework for the development of OBE (Outcomes Based Education) related programmes in technology education. International Journal of Technology and Design Education 13(1):27-45. SEWELL, M. 2007. The use of qualitative interviews in evaluation. [Web:] http://ag.arizona.edu/fcs/cyfernet/cyfar/Intervu5.htm. [Date of access: 6 February 2007]. SHIELD, G. 1995. The process approach: a dilemma to be faced in the successful implementation of technology in the national curriculum. IDATER 95 Loughborough University of Technology. 187­194. SIRAJ-BLATCHFORD, J. 1995. Kelly's repertory grid: a technique for developing evaluation in design and technology. IDATER 95 Loughborough University of Technology. 195­200. SNYDER, J.F. & HALES, J.A. 1981. Jackson's Mill industrial arts curriculum theory. Charlestown WV: West Virginia Department of Education. STEVEN, C.C. 1989. The industrial arts paradigm: Adjustment, replacement, or extinction? Journal of Technology Education, 1(1):7-20. STOMBAUGH, R. 1936. A survey of the movements culminating in industrial arts education in secondary schools. New York: Teacher's College, Columbia University.

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WILBER, G. 1948. Industrial arts in general education. Scranton, PA: International Textbook Co. WRIGHT, R., ISRAEL, E., LAUDA, D. 1993. A decision-maker's guide to technology education. Reston, VA: International Technology Education Association. WYDEMAN, J.L. 2004. Curriculum studies for masters students. Pretoria: Ithuthuko Investments. YI, S. 1997. Technology education in Korea: Curriculum and challenges. Journal of Technology Education, 23(2):42-49. ZUGA, K. 1988. Interdisciplinary approach. In W. Kemp & A. Schwaller, (Eds.) Instructional strategies for technological education. Mission Hills, CA: Glencoe. 5671. ZUGA, K. 1989. Relating technology education goals to curriculum planning. Journal of Technology Education, 1(1):34-58.

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ADDENDUM A

Letter of request for permission to conduct research in schools

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ADDENDUM B Interview questionnaires Written Research Questionnaire

1) What tertiary qualifications do you have? 2) What qualifications do you have to teach the learning area Technology? 3) For how many years have you been an educator? 4) For how many years have you been teaching the learning area Technology? 5) What were you teaching before you started teaching the learning area Technology?

Oral Research Questionnaire

1) Why are you teaching the learning area Technology? 2) Before the implementation of the learning area Technology, did you receive any training from the Department of Education to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? 3) How many days training did you receive? 4) Since the implementation of the learning area Technology, have you receive any training from the Department of Education to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? 5) How many days training did you receive?

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6) Do you think the training you have received was adequate and what improvements do you suggest? 7) What resources are available at your school to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? 8) What resources do you require at your school to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? 9) Why do you think you require these resources? 10) What support is given to you as a Technology teacher from the Department of Education and your school if you need to obtain resources to teach the learning area Technology? 11) What support is given to you as a Technology teacher from the Department of Education and your school if you experience any problems in teaching the learning area Technology? 12) How do you think Technology should be incorporated in the other learning areas of your learners? 13) What do you think can be done to assist teachers to incorporate Technology in other learning areas? 14) Do you think the learning area Technology will assist/be useful to learners in their future careers? 15) What are your biggest frustrations in teaching Technology? 16) What personal interest do you have in Technology? 17) If you could have a choice, what would have been your preferred subject?

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ADDENDUM C Transcription of the interviews Written Research Questionnaire

1) What tertiary qualifications do you have? Teacher A: B.A. and Teacher's Diploma Teacher B: Secondary Teacher's Diploma Teacher C: Higher Teacher's Diploma Teacher D: Secondary Teacher's Diploma Teacher E: Secondary Teacher's Diploma Teacher F: Senior primary Teacher's Diploma

2) What qualifications do you have to teach the learning area Technology? Teacher A: Certificate in Technology Education Teacher B: None Teacher C: None Teacher D: Certificate in Technology Education Teacher E: None Teacher F: None

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3) For how many years have you been an educator? Teacher A: 18 years Teacher B: 25 years Teacher C: 19 years Teacher D: 13 years Teacher E: 7 years Teacher F: 9 years

4) For how many years have you been teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: 6 years Teacher B: 3,5 years Teacher C: 5 months Teacher D: 9 years Teacher E: 3 years Teacher F: 5 years

5) What were you teaching before you started teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: Mathematics and General Science

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Teacher B: Social Science, Natural Science and Afrikaans Teacher C: Biology and Life Science Teacher D: Mathematics and General Science Teacher E: Home Economics and Consumer Science Teacher F: Zulu

Oral Research Questionnaire Transcriptions

1) Why are you teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: When they introduced OBE, technology was one of the new subjects and it caught my eye in a sense that it takes a lot of subjects; like maths, arts & culture, science, life in general is technology. So I find it to be an interesting subject that is related to daily issues. Teacher B: I'm teaching this learning area in order to help learners to understand what's all about technology. Teacher C: They need a teacher for Technology in this school. It is not my choice. Teacher D: I'm teaching the learning area because I do think I have the expertise. I have the experience already in the learning area and for the fact that, like it is very practical you can always relate it to things that are happening every day. You know if you have to teach certain topics that could always relate to whatever that they are doing because technology is basically related to our day-to-day lives. Teacher E: I teach it because I saw the interest of the kids, like to say the knowledge and the skills that I saw for them and the resources and the needs and the wants of the children.

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Teacher F: The reason that I am teaching this subject is because as you can see like today, is based on science and technology so we must prepare our learners so that in future they can be able to do things themselves.

2) Before the implementation of the learning area Technology, did you receive any training from the Department of Education to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: Yes, we were called to meetings where they firstly explained the general format of OBE and they then came to specifics of learning areas. Teacher B: No, I never received any assistance. Teacher C: No training. Teacher D: Basically what we received was, some, it was sort of some lecture, some verbal lecture. Like workshops you attend them for a day or two whereby they give you an overview. But I wouldn't really say that I did get training because it was not sufficient. Even the people they sent were not technology orientated. It was people who have an idea of the subject but the training was not really sufficient. I didn't receive. Teacher E: Yes, I did. Teacher F: Yes, we did receive training and even after that we received more training from the Mbele Zondibo project; he gave us more information than the Department of Education.

3) How many days training did you receive? Teacher A: Plus minus 10 days for technology

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Teacher B: N/A. Teacher C: N/A. Teacher D: I think I had to go to a workshop for, if I can remember very well, it was something like, was it 5 days? I can't remember exactly but even at the end of the training I was, I did not get much information, it was just an overview. Teacher E: 5 days (one week). Teacher F: We used to have 4 days every year in June during our school holidays. We used the first week for training.

4) Since the implementation of the learning area Technology, have you received any training from the Department of Education to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: Yes, we were called in to discuss the policies itself, the methods how to plan your work and how you can improvise in a particular situation. Teacher B: Yes, I went to the workshops at centre whereby we were trained in the learning area. Teacher C: Only life sciences, not technology. Teacher D: Of course the Department has this programme on, whereby you have to enrol with Unisa and I did that certificate in technology education. That actually helped me in treating some of the topics that had to be done. Teacher E: Yes, since I've started, yes I did but this year we didn't have any when we went to the workshop it was not there. We left without and I didn't even see the CI this year of technology.

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Teacher F: Yes, we did receive it with the Department of Education; again we used to go for 4 days a year.

5) How many days training did you receive? Teacher A: 4 days per year. Teacher B: 4 days per year. Teacher C: N/A. Teacher D: Basically there is not much training offered from the Department `cause it is just, you will just be called in to tell you what is expected for moderation but you are never given a chance whereby you'd be trained on content. Usually a day, maybe once a quarter ­ 4 days a year. Teacher E: 5 days a year. Teacher F: 4 days a year.

6) Do you think the training you have received was adequate and what improvements do you suggest? Teacher A: It was not adequate, in the sense that when we were trained we were immediately expected to go and implement. So whilst we were learning we must also go and apply. That has been a difficult thing to handle, because sometimes you think you understand when you are in training; when you get to the real thing you realise it is not O.K. So I suggest that teachers be trained a year in advance, an academic year in advance. Like next year, if you are going to do something new you go for training this year and we try to apply it as sort of a pilot, small-based, then when we have problems we go back to learning and explain our problems.

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Teacher B: The training was relevant but now time was limited. My suggestion was that we're supposed now to have enough time like what I'm doing now with the University of Limpopo. Teacher C: There was training for the life sciences but not for technology. Teacher D: It was never adequate `cause as I have indicated it was never on content. I think if the Department would organise workshops whereby content training is being looked into `cause when you look at technology as a subject itself, it is a subject which there are some drawings and if you had been tackled and haven't done any drawings it becomes very difficult to treat diagrams. Learners draw different perspectives from different views of course. It has also the science part which of course if you are not into science it becomes very difficult to teach the subject. As a result one would end up having to make/having to treat topics and relate them to technology that especially food technology than the other part when you have to do mechanical, hydraulics and all that, it becomes really a problem. attention is to be put into that. Teacher E: The training, what I can say the training is it good enough? It is moderate because when I see some, those that are teaching us technology, they don't have that experience of it and see maybe the material to look at it because even now we don't even know how. I'm just using my discretion that last year we're dong this and this and this. But for this year we don't have any. I think they must do especially the theory part, now the practical part of it. We're not just going to do the theory without the practical, maybe they must train us what it would be like those bridges that they must just show us and then I myself I must do it in from them so that they can appreciate whatever so that they can see my mistakes. Teacher F: The training was not adequate, we still need some improvements because the number of days for instance they're not enough. Days, and help us about doing the experiments and all those things. We need more time on that. I think more

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7) What resources are available at your school to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: We only have textbooks which the government has adequately supplied to us, but from then there is nothing. Teacher B: Learner support materials, some notes from the learning are file, few kits for materials supplied by the Department especial for research. Teacher C: Two tins of paint ­ nothing else. No overhead projector, look at the screen that is available (poor condition). Teacher D: As a school we only have textbook as our resources. Basically as an educator you just have to improvise especially if you look at the subject being a practical subject. One or other learner would have to, at the end of the technological process they will have to make a model. You just have to improvise. Either you let the learners go and look for recycled material/material to do the project or you try and gather some funds maybe get those materials for them to do the project. Teacher E: No, we don't have. I must just create them and maybe tell the kids, they must come with wood, something like this so that we can make some bridges or whatever. We don't have. Teacher F: We, in fact, we don't have resources, the only resources that we've got were supplied by those fella's on the projects and besides them we have nothing. Because; whenever if we want our learners to do their projects, they must provide their own.

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8) What resources do you require at your school to assist you in teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: A technology lab will be much of assistance where there will be the necessary equipment like sewing machines, drills, or electrical equipment for them to understand technology. Teacher B: I'd like to have enough material like technology kits for different learning areas. Consumables & non-consumables: drills, examples of gears, pulleys and other. Teacher C: Funds: to buy paint, pencils. Ons het `n biblioteek maar dit werk nie eers nie. As ek Tegnologie aanbied kan ek begin met skarniere. Kan ek begin met werk. Op die oomblik werk ons met karton, ons soek `n karton boks en knip uit `n karton boks uit. Teacher D: I think it would be nice to have equipment whereby you would be in a position to, it's like when you have to treat the mechanical processing ­ you have to do mechanical technology, you should be having something that you can demonstrate to the learners that they can use themselves to understand what mechanical is all about. You know the gears they should understand when you talk about the gears. What exactly what are you talking about? You should also have some electrical circuits of course, if you are dealing with the electrical part. Have pneumo, that is hydraulics something that operates with hydraulics. Having to explain the gears of a motorcar it is very abstract especially with grade 9 level. They don't understand much about cars. More than anything, the topics that are to be treated. We should be having some sort of material that would actually make it easier for us to demonstrate or even if you give the learners, make it easier for them to assemble, to understand the topic. I think they would relate it much better to their everyday lives. Teacher E: We must have our classroom for when we do the practical for technology so that we can use the equipment that we are using. Sometimes it makes noise so we need a place like a lab where we can stay with the kids. This cycle we are doing this so at least we don't disturb other kids.

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Teacher F: For the science part of it, there are resources but for making projects and other things if they can provide us with the necessary material. For instance let's say our learners in most cases they used to make bridges and whatever, if we can get glues, wood, saws and the necessary tools and equipment and then it will help.

9) Why do you think you require these resources? Teacher A: Because most of the time we do theory teaching which does not really help the kids a lot. Because if they do practicals their understanding level increases a lot. Teacher B: So that during practical part, learners would be able now to observe and be able now to know what they're doing. Teacher C: Poor community, no money in the community. Teacher D: I require them because as I have indicated technology is a hands-on thing and for learners to understand that it is a hands-on subject they really need to do something for themselves. For the fact that at the end they would have to do a project it is not only theory that they have to learn. They have to design, they'll have to do the planning part and at the end come up with a model of the solution. I think it is very important to have the resources to make them understand the learning area. Teacher E: So that we can help the kids because some other kids they are slow, they need assistance in their skills so that they can see this one is good in this so that maybe they can take this channel to the tertiary level. Teacher F: We need them because if we don't have them and ask our learners to go and do things, providing their own material they don't do it. And so they don't gain any skills and so if we have them here at school we will have enough time to use them so that they will be motivated and so if we haven't got these resources, they are not motivated and they loose interest in the subject.

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10) What support is given to you as a Technology teacher from the Department of Education and your school if you need to obtain resources to teach the learning area Technology? Teacher A: So far, the Department hasn't supplied anything except information and workshops and the school is just that last year we never planned very well, but this year in our budget we've budgeted for departments and technology falls under science. So we have a budget although small but there is something that we have for technology. Normally we improvise as teachers, either I bring my equipment from home if something that we have got so that we can do it. Teacher B: I was provided with addresses for different places, which can supply us with different material e.g., Protec. I'm having information where one can order those materials. I get quotations, they send us a kit and especially if we buy, we order them. As a teacher I'm requesting learners to improvise, to contribute some few cents so that we can buy such material. Teacher C: Nothing at all. Improvise. Go to a shop like Shoprite or Checkers and ask them for cardboard boxes and everything. Then you improvise. Friends at the schools in the surrounding area, at Kanonkop High and places like that. They help me with equipment, borrow it to me to use it. Teacher D: To be honest, I wouldn't blame my school, not much resources. We don't get any resources from the school of course: the reason being the unavailability of funds. And as for the Department, they always promise that they will give you resources. We don't get anything from their side. So as a result you just have to improvise. The only thing we get from the Department are the textbooks, but the equipment that are needed for the practical purposes, they're never given to us. Maybe like for me, we are a technical school so it becomes easier if you go to the electrical workshop, you get some of the equipment and whatever that I do not get, I always make sure that I go and even if I have to pop out of my pocket and buy some materials to make that particular project work and you always go out and find if you talk about gears if they are not there at school you always find quite a lot of utensils in the kitchen, some that are using gears. You look for those in the house and you bring

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them to school. So you can make them understand what it is that you're talking about. Teacher E: They just give the textbooks, the teacher's guide and the learner's guide. Just the books, only that we get. I went to my HOD and talk to them that I need it and they will talk to the principal. I must make some means with the kids, make a donation maybe we make some cakes, then we sell those cakes and we get that money to buy the thing that we need. Teacher F: They've given us nothing, we only go for the workshop that is all, concerning the resources they send us nothing. I compromise, if I want to use it and so there is no way of getting it. If there is something that we must buy, we bring it with the learners, we ask the learners to contribute.

11) What support is given to you as a Technology teacher from the Department of Education and your school if you experience any problems in teaching the learning area Technology? Teacher A: We have clusters in our circuits and in the clusters we also have curriculum implementers that come and we discuss our challenges as technology teachers. Where you have a particular problem in terms of concepts, you can raise it and it can be explained or taught in the workshops. model C schools, because I don't know anybody there. Teacher B: I'm always contacting the CI and also contacting other different resources like books and files, which are available at our school and go to the library also to get other information. The other schools, we used to come together during the class for meetings, discuss and organise what they will organise. Teacher C: Textbooks I have, I don't have a pacesetter. I don't have anything else except a textbook. Ek het pacesetters gekry by my pelle, by die Departement kry jy niks. Support from other schools; Kanonkop and Middelburg Hor. Support: the

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I as far as resources are

concerned, the schools that I am used to, also have nothing. I haven't tried the old

pacesetters and all the information from the Education Department I get from them, not from the school. We have informal discussions over a beer. Teacher D: The department I think more than anything, we rely and get information from your peers, to try and find out how they tackle certain topics and all that. Unfortunately I haven't had a problem whereby I had to go to the CI. Although what I have observed with other people, we rather rely on the next teacher in the department because even the people who are heading the subject are not that well conversant with the content so it is just juggling around and seeing what you can do. Teacher E: From my school they did give us that support, especially because we have that centre of home economics, if I want to make some, especially when we are busy with food and nutrition in the chapter of technology which is easy for me to go to the centre. Yes we do get support from the Department sometimes; not really, like I'm saying my CI now I didn't saw him this year. So sometimes when we go there and we just chat with other colleagues. How do you do your things, then I can see to them and they see to mine and we can help each other. Teacher F: Usually when we have cluster meetings, we used to come up with the problems and then they note it down and then we discuss them, how to solve them.

12) How do you think Technology should be incorporated in the other learning areas of your learners? Teacher A: Integration, meaning that if we treat a concept then all other learning areas should treat it simultaneously so that they see that these things are related.. Teacher B: According to our peers all these other learning areas are to be integrated and as a result it is easier for us as educators to observe and also now to make a follow-up for the learners that now what ever they are learning in one learning area is integrated with another learning area. I should think if certain sections are to be presented in technology only to find out there in MS, that section is also there, we

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need to consult with the educator whose teaching that learning area is so that we can be on the same level. Teacher C: Ek weet nou nie. Ek het nie "life sciences" lank gegee nie ek kan hom nie daar insit nie. Dalk by aardrykskunde kan ek hom bysit, by HSS ook. By "mathematics" maar ek is nie `n wiskunde onderwyser nie. Teacher D: To other learning areas. I think incorporating technology very well. I think it all goes back to the planning part; you know, as different educators if we happen to plan together, then it becomes very easier because if I am supposed to teach measurement, maybe I will have to treat drawing a certain structure according to scale. Then it becomes easier if I know that a maths teacher would be busy with measurement. You know doing measurement so that they understand the scale when I talk about 10cm exactly what is it that I am talking about. And I think above all it is planning together, if we treat a certain topic in different learning areas they are treating the topic that are more related to what I will be treating in technology. I think that will make it even easier. We try to plan together but of course you'd understand that different subjects have different needs and you find that with what I will have to treat, the topic is to the point. I will have just to let learners know 1, 2, 3 and the other one has a lot to treat so as a result we cannot move together. We cannot move all at once. Because I want to move forward with my learners, I can't wait for the other teachers to move together with you. Teacher E: They can mix them but like for instance if I am having a problem in a certain chapter it is natural science or whatever I go to that lady who is teaching that natural science. Please help me with this chapter because it is difficult for me, how can I treat it? Then you'll explain to me or I ask them to come to my class and to help me with that chapter. Teacher F: Technology, especially when it comes to science and HSS is always there. Most of the content in my natural science book is technology so it suits well in other learning areas. Not even though we repeat it, but not in the same manner. You introduce another topic which is going to include the same thing, but in a different way.

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13) What do you think can be done to assist teachers to incorporate Technology in other learning areas? Teacher A: Planning in the school is vital for any successful, effective teaching. If you have planned well, then even the integration will fall into place. Planning is done but it is not effective in the sense that whilst you've planned, you are changed from the learning area and you must go and prep some more whilst you're still learning the learning area they change you to a new one; you're starting afresh. That's what cancels all the planning. You have it on paper, it is good but practically its not there. Teacher B: Educators meetings should be held, especially meetings related to learning areas ­ different learning areas. That will help. Teacher C: Better training, workshops in school hours. Teacher D: I think as I have indicated, I think other educators in other learning areas you sometimes if they could have an overview of what is being done in the subject I think somehow they would, there are certain subjects which are teaching certain topics and you feel if somebody who are to treat that was a technology educator it was going to be easier. So I think my co-operation from the educators if they co-operate it would be very easy to assist each other in the teaching of the subject and of course so that we do not repeat one and the very same thing. You find that I am teaching this differently because I do not understand it, then somebody who is very conversant with it is teaching it the way it is supposed to be. I know I have a technical drawing educator, I rather prefer that educator to demonstrate to the learners when it comes to drawings rather that myself doing it because I'm not that conversant with drawing. Teacher E: I think by getting more materials that can help. Teacher F: I think we must do the same thing. If you are busy maybe with

measurement in science, and then again in technology and then again in HSS.

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14) Do you think the learning area Technology will assist/be useful to learners in their future careers? Teacher A: I think so yes, because it opens their minds to opening their own businesses. You know technology is how you solve your problems with what you have. So it opens your mind to doing things that can help them. So that in itself is life. So it is helping them to deal with life positively. Teacher B: Exactly, that is very important because these nowadays we are in need of technologists and as a result that is why our learners, they need to know more about it and they need to go and pay a visit to places like Vestec, whereby they will be given enough information about this because some of them in the near future will be engineers and so on and technologists. As a result they must be acquainted with that learning area. Teacher C: Not grade 9 Technology no. It's basics, these learners don't know anything about a pulley because they don't use pulleys any more. They use the cell phone. That's the technology. So this learning area about teaching and their world are two different worlds. The stock old systems we're teaching they don't work with pulleys. Teacher D: Today's world is technologically orientated and I think it is a very good subject because in a way learners are being exposed to what is happening around, they get to understand like when you talk about things, which are products of technology. The process they have to go through before they are actually manufactured or constructed. I think in a way it gives them some information on how things work. They understand the environment and the world much better. I think in choosing their careers of course, it becomes very easy. Teacher E: Yes it is. Because I can see the skills of the children in the class that the skills are here or this and that other.... We can differentiate the kids. Teacher F: Yes, it is useful because nowadays life is based on science and technology. As I am looking today, we don't prepare our learners so that maybe after

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they have finished school they must go and seek jobs. They will be the ones who will be providing jobs to other people and so without science and technology, they won't be able to do it.

15) What are your biggest frustrations in teaching Technology? Teacher A: Lack of parental support and involvement. The attitude of learners in general, not necessarily for technology, but they've got everything free so they don't put effort in anymore. Teacher B: Lack of material. Teacher C: I don't have equipment, I don't have materials, I don't have the backup. Teacher D: I think my biggest frustration is having large numbers in classes. When you have to teach big classes and you have to explain, especially if you have to demonstrate something it becomes practically impossible to attend to a lot of learners at the very same time. So I think it is mostly frustrating even if you make a project yourself which is working and you want everyone to see and have a hands-on experience whereby they would hold and operate it. It just becomes practically impossible. Teacher E: The practical of it. That is why I am saying if we can get a place of our own where we do not disturb other classes when we are busy with the practical work. Teacher F: My biggest frustration: The black schools, we've got a problem, our learners are unable to understand the language. They cannot carry out instructions properly. They are lazy, they do not want to do things on their own. If you give them maybe a research topic, only the intelligent ones will go and research and then the rest they don't do their work. And so that is frustrating, especially when it comes to projects. Every day you'll request for the projects, but they won't submit.

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16) What personal interest do you have in Technology? Teacher A: I find it a very interesting subject in the sense that it is practical. It has also helped me to realise that I've got an interest in a skill, maybe in sewing. Teacher B: The possible interest I have is that I'm exposed to so many things that I have never been exposed to in the past. We used to see things but we never knew how to go deeper and deeper and uproot how did they come about; but now these days we are aware. The personal interest I have in Tech. is how to do/make a certain project following the correct channel/instructions which guide you to know more about that, even how to complete your portfolio. I play guitar and organ and have a computer. Teacher C: Mechanical stuff like motor cars and that's all. Teacher D: I think I like fixing things. I'm inquisitive by nature; I like to get an understanding of how it happened that somebody would come up with a certain idea. I think that is what make me more interested in technology. I'm this kind of person who wants to understand. How does one come up with such a brilliant idea, where did it all start and the process that was involved? Teacher E: Sewing is my special interest because I can make my curtains and at school also make for them ­ free. So it is my hobby. Teacher F: I like the mechanical part of it and again I like the designing part of it. I am a dress designer and I like it. When I was still driving my skorro-skorro car you know, some of the things I used to fix I did on my own.

17) If you could have a choice, what would have been your preferred subject? Teacher A: Technology deals with music as well, as part of the concept. Music is one of my favourite subjects.

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Teacher B: My preferred subject is supposed to be Technology. Teacher C: Life sciences and science. Teacher D: I wouldn't change technology for any other subject it's very interesting, especially that you can relate it to everything. Starting from the classroom when you teach structures; looking at the classroom. Looking at how we live our lives and we are taking the definition.... then you understand a lot of things. It has taught me a lot as a subject. I don't think I would change it for any other subject. Teacher E: Technology and life orientation. Teacher F: That will be technology, meeting science.

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