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Systemic Functional Grammar: Interpersonal metafunction

System: paradigm

Example: English Mood

declarative interrogative imperative He tickled the baby. Did he tickle the baby? Tickle the baby!

declarative interrogative imperative

+ Finite; Subject ^ Finite + Finite; Finite ^ Subject + Nonfinite

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System: paradigm

Example: English Mood + tagging

not tagged tagged He tickled the baby. ...didn't he? Did he tickle the baby? ...did he? Tickle the baby! ...will you?

declarative interrogative imperative

declarative interrogative imperative

not tagged +Finite; Subject ^ Finite +Finite; Finite ^ Subject +Nonfinite

tagged ... Finite ^ Subject ... Finite ^ Subject ... Finite ^ Subject

Mood system

system system name declarative Subj ^ Finite interrogative (clause) MOOD imperative tagged not-tagged entry condition logical `and´ logical `or´ realization statement feature

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Mood structure

Subject (S), Finite (F), Predicator (P), Complement (C), Adjunct (A)

I Subject

am Finite

writing

handouts

for my students Adjunct

Predicator Complement

Mood structure

· The Subject and Complement are typically realized by nominal groups. · The Finite by the tensed element of the verb · The Predicator by the non-tensed (or nonfinite) element or elements of the verbal group · The Adjunct by an adverbial group or prepositional phrase.

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Mood structure

· We can also note that

­ the Subject has a relationship of grammatical concord or agreement with the finite element (in number) ­ the Finite and Predicator elements are both present in a simple finite verb: e.g., the verb write in 'I write handouts for my students' is both a Finite and a Predicator

Mood and Residue

I Subject

am Finite

writing Predicator

handouts for my students Complement Adjunct

Mood

Residue

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Mood and Residue: Composition

· Mood consists of Subject and Finite · Residue consists of Predicator, Complement, and Adjunct

I Subject

am Finite

writing Predicator

handouts for my students Complement Adjunct

Mood

Residue

Example: The Tyger

Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? Modal auxiliary Interrogative mood

No finite verb

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Interrogative mood

In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire?

Modal auxiliary?

Interrogative mood

And what shoulder, & what art, Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand? & what dread feet? Finite verb not found in the main clause

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Questions, but is this interrogative mood???

Lack of finite element

What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? Interrogative What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp?

Modal auxiliary?

When the stars threw down their spears, And water'd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? Interrogative mood

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Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye

No finite verb

Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? Modal auxiliary Interrogative mood

Example: Software manual

To create a multiline style Predicator Complement (NonFin) First open the Multiline Styles dialog box using one of these methods. Adjunct Predicator Complement From the Object Properties toolbar or the Data Menu, choose Multiline Style. Adjunct Predicator Complement From the Data menu, choose Multiline Style. Adjunct Predicator Complement Choose Element Properties to add elements to the style. Predicator Complement In the Element Properties dialog box, enter the offset of the multiline element. Adjunct Predicator Complement

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Analysis of mood structure

Select Add Predicator Complement Choose Color. Predicator Complement a) Then select the element's color Adjunct Predicator Complement to add the element.

from the Select Color dialog box. Adjunct

b) (less likely, but potentially possible) Then select the element's color from the Select Color dialog box. Adjunct Predicator Complement Choose Linetype. (cf. Choose Color)

Analysis of mood structure

Then select the element's linetype from the Select Linetype dialog box. (cf. Then select the element's color...) Repeat these steps to define another element. (cf. Select Add to add the element) Choose ok Predicator Complement to save the style of the multiline element

and to exit the Element Properties dialog box.

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Polarity and modality

· Polarity: positive/negative · Modality: certain/probable/possible

(yes)

perhaps, probably, maybe will, shall, should, can, could

(no)

· speaker`s stance concerning likelihood of a proposition

Polarity and modality

probability modalization MODALIZATION

TYPE

usuality

MODALITY TYPE

MODALITY (clause)

obligation modulation

MODULATION TYPE

inclination

POLARITY

positive negative

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Modality: examples

· modalization, probability: possibly, probably, certainly (modal Adjunct); will (finite modal operator); will certainly (both finite modal+Adjunct) · modalization, usuality: sometimes, usually, always (modal Adjunct); will (finite modal operator); will usually (both finite modal+Adjunct) · modulation, obligation: should (finite modal operator); allowed to, supposed to, required to (expansion of the Predicator); but not both together! · modulation, inclination: will (finite modal operator); willing to, anxious to, determined to (expansion of the operator); but not both together!

Assignment

· Chapter 4, Clause as exchange, Halliday MAK, 85/94; Halliday MAK (& CMIM Matthiessen), 2004. · Topic for presentation/term paper.

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