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SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti

Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature

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Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani 350

Anniversary Collection

Tbilisi 2009

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sulxan-saba orbeliani _ 350

saiubileo krebuli

Tbilisi 2009

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redaqtori irma ratiani saredaqcio kolegia: ivane amirxanaSvili maka elbaqiZe gaga lomiZe teqnikuri redaqtorebi: solomon tabucaZe miranda tyeSelaSvili kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa: TinaTin duglaZe zviad tyeSelaSvili mxatvari nodar sumbaZe ISBN © SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti, 2009.

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sarCevi

irma ratiani sulxan-saba orbeliani Tanamedrove recefciebis WrilSi........................................................................7 zaza firaliSvili saba da qarTuli kosmosi..............................................................10 malxaz xarbedia 20 mokle mogoneba `mogzauroba evropaSi~ _ teqstis arqeologiis mcdeloba..........................................................................................30 Teimuraz doiaSvili sulxan-sabas `dialogebi~............................................................56 levan bregaZe tradiciuli fabula _ axali Sinaarsi....................................75 giorgi gaCeCilaZe renesansi da baroko (wanamZRvrebi `vefxistyaosnisa~ da `sibrZne sicruisas~ SedarebiTi analizisTvis)....................................80 TinaTin bolqvaZe sulxan-sabas leqsikonis semiozisi..........................................92 lia bakuraZe arTroni da misi erTi funqcia sabas leqsikonis mixedviT..........................................................................................116 merab RaRaniZe `samoTxis karis~ teqstis istoria: wyaroebi, redaqciebi, konfesiuri poziciebi.....................137

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darejan menabde sulxan-saba orbeliani ucxour enebze.................................150 rostom CxeiZe `sibrZne sicruisa~ da `TeTri daTvi~ (sulxan-sabas arakTa postmodernistuli versiebi).........188 rCeuli anotirebuli bibliografia.........................................204 pirTa saZiebeli................................................................................257

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sulxan-saba orbeliani Tanamedrove recefciebis WrilSi

saqarTvelos istoriaSi arian pirovnebebi, romelTac saetapo roli Seasrules qarTul samwerlobo da samecniero, politikur da sazogadoebriv asparezze. erT-erTi upirvelesTagania sulxan-saba orbeliani, romlis dabadebidan 350 wlis iubile gasul, 2008 wels sagangebod aRiniSna SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutSi. sulxan-saba orbelianis gansakuTrebuli wvlili saqarTvelos kulturul da politikur cxovrebaSi mravali mniSvnelovani faqtoriT aris gansazRvruli: sabam ara marto uerTgula sakuTar sazogadoebriv principebs, aramed, xeli Seuwyo mTeli saqarTvelos politikuri orientaciis Camoyalibebas sakmaod rTul da winaaRmdegobriv epoqaSi; ara marto imogzaura evropaSi, aramed moaxdina evropeistuli azrovnebis rekonstruqcia saqarTveloSi _ aRmosavluri kulturuli modelisadmi ganwyobil qarTul saazrovno da literaturul sivrces damajereblad SesTavaza evropuli neoklasikuri kulturis tendenciebi; misi teqsti `mogzauroba evropaSi~ iqca ara marto kulturul-samecniero, geografiul, istoriografiul da literaturul-Janrul movlenad, aramed _ inteleqtualur orientirad sabas Tanamedrove evropul kulturaSi. metic, sabaseuli mogzaurobis teqstma dasabami misca interkulturuli komunikaciebis literaturul tradicias saqarTveloSi da safuZveli Cauyara uaRresad saintereso da mravalferovan qarTul samogzauro narativs, romelmac Semdgom epoqebSi gagrZeleba hpova grigol orbelianis, ilia WavWavaZis, aleqsandre yazbegis da sxvaTa SemoqmedebaSi. sulxan-saba orbelianis mxatvruli teqstebis, leqsikonebis, religiuri xasiaTis Sromebisa Tu qadagebanis literaturuli da sarwmunoebrivi, erovnuli da politikuri mniSvneloba ar SemoisazRvra mxolod misi droiT, aramed SeinarCuna aqtualoba dResac. msgavsi sicocxlisunarianoba ki sulxan-sabas mier organizebuli literaturuli da saxelmwifoebrivi paradigmis konceptualuri da strategiuli mniSvnelobis maCvenebelia. is iyo gamorCeuli gemovnebisa da xedvis mqone mwerali, gansakuTrebuli siRrmisa da masStabis leqsikografi, ubadlo komentatori da redaqtori. Sesabamisad, savsebiT motivirebulia Tanamedrove qarTveli mecnierebis didi intere-

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si sabas pirovnebisa da memkvidreobisadmi. mravali sakiTxi, dakavSirebuli sulxan-sabas Semoqmedebasa Tu biografiasTan moiTxovs siRrmiseul Seswavlas, gadasinjvas, reviziasa da reinterpretacias, iqneba es misi konfesiurobis sakiTxi, mwerlis biografiasTan Tu imdroindel politikur cxovrebasTan asocirebuli araerTi sadavo epizodi, ama Tu im nawarmoebis daweris TariRis siswore, zogierTi igavis genezisis problema da sxva. Tanamedrove qarTuli literaturaTmcodneoba valdebulia, scados am kulturul-literaturul bundovanebaTa kvalificiuri ganmarteba uaxlesi filologiuri standartebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rac gulisxmobs literaturuli procesebisa da figurebis ara marto literaturaTmcodneobiT analizs, aramed interpretacias farTo kulturologiur WrilSi. qarTuli literaturaTmcodneoba, iseve rogorc yoveli sxva progresirebadi dargi mecnierebisa, iTxovs axali xedvebis danergvas, kvlevis horizontebis gafarToebas, konceptualur da struqturul inovaciebs, raTa mkiTxvel sazogadoebas SesTavazos qarTuli literaturis istoriisaTvis mniSvnelovani movlenebisa da personaJebis Tanamedrove recefcia. swored am amocanis daZlevis warmatebul mcdelobas warmoadgens winamdebare krebuli, romlis erT-erT upirveles amocanad da strategiul siaxled unda ganisazRvros kvleva im ideologiuri, politikuri da kulturuli konteqstisa, romelSic aRmoCnda qarTuli kultura da misi didi moamage. sulxan-saba orbelianma erT-erT yvelaze rTul da naklebad wakiTxul epoqaSi icxovra. es aris dro axali qarTuli identobisa da kulturuli strategiebis formirebisa, romlis fonzec kardinalur aRorZinebasas iwyebs qarTuli literaturuli procesi. erTi mxriv _ aRmosavleTi misi esTetikuri principebiTa da literaturuli kanonebiT, meore mxriv _ dasavleTi, erTxel ukve daZleuli gamocdileba, misi konceptebiT, religiuri tradiciebiTa da poetikuri novaciebiT. ra roli Seasrula sulxan-sabam am istoriuli da kulturuli transformaciebis epoqaSi? rogor SeiZleba aRiweros da ganisazRvros epoqis polikulturuli konteqsti? rogori iyo sabas mogzaurobis koncefcia, istoria da geografia? ramdenad marTebuladaa Sefasebuli sabaseuli teqstebi? xom ar dadga dro, wavikiTxoT isini Tanamedrove kvleviTi meTodologiebis WrilSi? krebulis avtorebi Seecdebian, pasuxebi gascen am rTul da masStabur kiTxvebs, magram, rac mTavaria, ecdebian daasa-

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buTon, rom yoveli Rirebuli teqsti Sreobrivi sistemaa da mudmivad ganaxlebad recefcias eqvemdebareba. am miswrafebis erT-erTi dadastureba aris rCeuli anotirebuli bibliografia, romelic erTvis krebuls (iseve rogorc am seriis pirvel wigns _ `ilia WavWavaZe 170. saiubileo krebuli") da saSualebas aZlevs sulxan-sabas cxovrebiTa da SemoqmedebiT dainteresebul mkiTxvels, Tvali gadaavlos ZiriTad samecniero literaturas, SearCios misTvis sasurveli masala, gaecnos, giazros da dafiqrdes kvlevis axal perspeqtivebze. sulxan-saba orbelianisadmi miZRvnili samecniero krebulis gamocema, vfiqrobT, mniSvnelovani movlenaa qarTuli literaturaTmcodneobis istoriaSi da maCvenebelia imisa, rom didi moRvawis naazrevi, misi pirovnuli Tu SemoqmedebiTi principebi kvlavac inarCunebs aqtualobas da iwvevs mecnierTa farTo wris interess. irma ratiani

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zaza firaliSvili

saba da qarTuli kosmosi

winaTqma

warsulSi iolad SeiZleba sakuTari Tavs SevxvdeT da gaviazroT, rom sulis is reliefi, romlis matarebelnic aq da axla varT, odesaRac sxva samosSi, sxva niSanTa arsenaliT gamoiTqmoda. amiT warsulis gagebasa da awmyoSi yofnas Soris TiTqos sazRvari qreba. sabas samyaroc, pirvel rigSi, albaT, imiTaa saintereso, rom mis koturebSi Cveni dRevandeli yofis prefiguraciebi iCens Tavs, masSi gansxvavebuli samosiT mosil sakuTar Tavs amovicnobT da mis winaSe myofebs uneblied gagvielvebs: `me Sen gicani~. warsuli awmyosTan xom ucnauri ZafebiTaa mibmuli da am bmaze verc visaubrebdiT `aq~ da `axla~-Si misi raRacnairi monawileobis gareSe. Cven rom marTlac SegveZlos warsulis ukan motoveba da misi sadRac ukan, ganvlilSi, ganTavseba, maSin es bmac ar iarsebebda. arada, bma arsebobs da TiTqos erTxel da samudamod mitovebuli warsuli kvlav da kvlav cdilobs awmyos sxeulSi gacocxlebas. miuxedavad Cveni mcdelobisa, gaveqceT mas, an, bolos da bolos, momxiblavi niRbebiT SevmosoT da ase miviviwyoT, igi kvlav da kvlav TvalTmaqcurad imoseba Cveni niRbebiT da dabrunebas cdilobs _ awmyos saufloSi, iq, sadac Cven varT. es raRaciT hgavs pirvelyofil rwmenas, rom gardacvlilTa sulebi SeiZleba cocxalTa sxeulebSi Casaxldnen da mxolod jadoqarTa gansakuTrebuli ZalisxmeviT Tu ganidevnebian isini TavianT samaradiso samyofelSi. amotomacaa, rom zogjer arsebobis imgvar reliefSi aRmovCndebiT xolme, romelic, erTi SexedviT, ukve karga xania ukan movitoveT da aRaraferi gvakavSirebs masTan. raRac Sinagani da amoucnobi kanonzomierebebis ZaliT gamJRavnebas iwyebs is dinamikuri Zalebi da arsebobis formebi, romlebic, zrele SexedviT, Tu gvexeba, mxolod rogorc Cveni naSTi da meti araferi. im TaobisaTvis, romelmac saqarTveloSi 80-iani wlebis dasasrulsa da 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi icxovra, Zneli warmosadgeni ar unda iyos sabas epoqa. Tu gavixsenebT politikaSi paranoialuri Tavnebobisa da bandituri moralis gabatonebas; Tu gavixsenebT 90-iani wlebis `tyveTa syidva-

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Si~ saxelmwifos umaRlesi pirebis monawileobas; Tu gavixsenebT saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis im eroziasa da sabediswero deficits imisa, rasac aristotele froneziss uwodebda, anu deficits praqtikuli sibrZnisa, romlis momarjvebiTac sazogadoebam saxelmwifoebrivi formebis Sesaqmnelad radikalur ganwyobilebebs Soris unda gaaRwios da calkeulTa Tavneboba daZlios; dabolos, Tu gavixsenebT sagareo da saSinao patronisa da saswaulTmoqmedis mudmiv Ziebas, rac sxva araferia, Tu ara sakuTari uunarobis aRiareba, Zneli gasagebi ar iqneba, ras vgulisxmobT. SeiZleba isic iTqvas, rom 80-iani wlebis bolos gancxadebuli lozungi: `yvelaferi unda daviwyoT 1801 wlis saqarTvelodan~ ara mxolod ar iyo sazriss moklebuli, aramed, ufro metic, igi Cveni bedisweris gamomxatvelic gaxldaT: gvsurda Tu ara, Cvenive moqsovili bediswera mainc gvamogzaurebda warsulis labirinTebSi da gvaiZulebda, kidev erTxel mogvexila is, rac XVIII saukunis bolos mxolod qronologiurad movitoveT ukan, rodesac mivxvdiT, rom fizikuri gadarCenisaTvis erTxans mainc unda amovvardniliyaviT istoriidan, radgan arsebobis is formebi, romlebic Cvens sagareo mtrebTan erTad SevqmeniT, garduval daRupvas gviqaddnen. warsulis amgvar mobrunebas araferi an TiTqmis araferi aqvs saerTo qristianul rwmenasTan imis Taobaze, rom adamianis amqveyniuri svla sxva araferia, Tu ara uflis mier imTaviTve nawyalobevi naTlisaken svla da rom es naTeli saxeTa da formaTa mravalferovnebaSi ikvalavs gzas. amgvari svla sulis gaTavisuflebas gulisxmobs im maxeebisagan, romelTac Tavadve qmnis Tavisi mTvlemarebiTa da umweobiT. warsulis is mobruneba, romelzec vsaubrobT, sxva araferia, Tu ara masSi, rogorc maxeSi mibruneba da iq CarCena. sxvagvarad amas sulis TviTmumificirebas vuwodebdiT, romelsac SeiZleba nebiTac veweodeT da uneburadac. amiT warsulis ideas TiTqos vaormagebT: erTis mxriv, igi warmoadgens imas, rac ukan mogvitovebia, rogorc naSTi da erTgvari narCeni, meores mxriv, igi aris is, rac jer ver gagvimJRavnebia da rac, rogorc RvTis madli, dResac gvamoZravebs. igi erTicaa da meorec. gadamwyveti, albaT, is aris, romels mivapyrobT Cvens yuradRebas da romels gavabatonebT Cveni sulis sivrceze: warsuls, rogorc CvenSi imTaviTve Cadebul naTels da misi gamJRavnebis diad precedentebs (sabas cxovrebac xom swored amgvari diadi precedenti iyo), Tu im warsuls, romelic sxva araferia, Tu ara

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naTlisaken saval gzaze motovebuli narCeni, Tavis erTxel da samudamod ganxorcielebul gamJRavnebaSi Caketili suli, maradi meoradi gadamuSavebis produqtad rom uqcevia sakuTari Tavi. gavixsenoT, Tu rogor xSirad meordeba qarTul zRaprebSi imperativi, gmirs ukan mixedvas rom ukrZalavs, radgan ukan mibruneba gaqvavebas, TviTmumificirebas niSnavs. Tu pirveli gveqneba mxedvelobaSi, maSin haidegeris kvaldakval SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom momavlisaken svla, arsebiTad, warsulisaken svlaa. xolo meore is warsulia, romelic, ukve am gagebisagan gansxvavebiT, mumificirebiT gvemuqreba da romelic Cvenma ugunurma Zalisxmevam da istoriis ulmobelma demonebma moqsoves, rogorc RvTisagan boZebuli naTlis Cixi da, maSasadame, boroteba _ maxe, romelsac Cvens konkretul SemTxvevaSi qarTuli sulierebis sami negatiuri metaforiT _ luarsabiT, yvaryvareTi, kvaWiT da maTi maradi beladiT, maTi fsevdoepiuri kloniT, maTi meoreuli da mesameuli gadamuSavebisa da SeniRbvis produqtiT _ staliniT aRvwerT (igulisxmeba ara stalini, rogorc realuri politikuri aqtori, aramed is xateba, romelic am aqtorisagan koleqtiurma sazogadoebrivma mucliTmezRapreobam Seqmna). amitomac aris Rirebuli warsulis Seswavla da gageba. igi ar SeiZleba mxolod yalbi nacional-mistikuri da nacional-utopiuri romanebisa Tu Teoriebis sagnad gadavaqcioT. is zneobrivi da inteleqtualuri krizisi, ufro ki, wyvdiadi, romelic saqarTveliSi XV saukunis Semdeg mefobda, xelaxla gancdas da gagebas saWiroebs da ara idealisti JamTaRmwerelis pietetsa da miTismTxzvelobas; am ukanasknelis Zalisxmeva am SemTxvevaSi xom, umal, damcirebulis mier Rirsebis SenarCunebis mcdelobas moemsaxureba, vidre _ gaTavisuflebasa da axali perspeqtivebis gaSlas.

sabas samyaro

ra Tqma unda, sabas epoqis wina saukunebSi SeiZleba dasaxeldes ara erTi movlena, romelTac gansazRvres qveynis bedi da qarTuli saxelmwifosaTvis savalalo Sedegi iqonies. aseTi iyo monRolTa Semoseva, Turquli tomebis moZaleba dasavleTiT da, sabolood, 1453 wels konstantinopolis dacema, rac aRmosavleT-qristianuli sulieri samyaros ngrevas niSnavda da bunebrivia, politikur da ekonomi-

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kur mizezebsac rom ar earseba, saqarTvelos mainc gadmoswvdeboda. cnobilia, rom geopolitika bizantiuri religiurobis ganuyofeli nawili iyoda igi mTeli qristianuli samyaros erT religiur-politikur mTlianobad Sekvris ideiT iyo gaJRenTili. amiT iyo ganpirobebuli bizantiuri politikis eWviani damokidebuleba ara mxolod dasavluri qristianobis, aramed im marTlmadidebeli saxelmwifoebis mimarTac, romlebic suverenitetisaken miiswrafodnen da uars ambobdnen bizantiis politikuri pirvelobis aRiarebaze. miuxedavad am Sinagani winaaRmdegobisa, es samyaro mainc warmoadgenda erT sulier mTlianobas, romelsac politikuri urTierTobebis xasiaTi ver azaralebda. konstantinopolis dacema (raSic gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa bizantiis mimarT Camoyalibebulma uaryofiTma damokidebulebam) aRmosavleT qristianuli samyaros marcxis niSani iyo, romelsac inerciiT misi SemorCenili fragmentebis ganadgureba Tu ara, maTi istoriul movlenaTa periferiaze gadasrola unda mohyoloda. miuxedavad saqarTvelosa da bizantias Soris arsebuli mudmivi qiSpisa da berZenTa mcdelobisa, rom saqarTvelo yofiliyo ara mxolod bizantiuri sulieri kosmosis, aramed politikuri wesrigis nawilic; miuxedavad ybadaRebuli bizantiuri siveragisa da mudmivi SeTqmulebisa yvelasa da yvelafris winaaRmdeg, (raSic mas araCveulebrivad daemsgavsa misi TviTmarqvia memkvidre _ rusuli mesianisturi azrovneba); miuxedavad bizantiuri politikuri samyaros mimarT mudmivi undoblobisa, konstantinopolis dacema aRmosavleT qristianuli samyaros haerSi gamokidebul da muslimur samyaroSi gafantul nawilebad daSlas niSnavda. Cveni qveyanac, gadarCenisaken mimarTuli mcire mcdelobebis Semdeg, damangraveli istoriuli stiqiebis tyveobaSi aRmoCnda. kacobriobis istoriam icis araerTi faqti, Tu rogor Sobda aRsasrulis koleqtiuri molodini Tavis borot nayofs zneobrivi da religiuri relativizmis saxiT. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos ramdenime saukunis ganmavlobaSi swored amgvar zneobriv inerciaSi mouwia arseboba: qveynis daSlis dadasturebidan 1490-iani wlebSi 1801 wels istoriuli kapitulaciis momentamde. situacia ufro da ufro emsgavseboda qveynierebis dasasrulis molodiniT aRZrul TavaSvebulobas. aRmosavleT qristianuli kosmosis ngrevam ucnauri wesiT ormagi moraliT cxovrebis unari gaamarTla, am uka-

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nasknelma _ tyveTa syidva Sva _ umZimesi zneobrivi fenomeni nebismieri qristiani Tu araqristiani xalxisaTvis, amasTan erTad ki _ misi komuflirebias unari nacional-fetiSisturi ritorikiT. aq laparaki ar aris, ubralod, monebiT vaWrobis Taobaze, risi saxadic, ase Tu ise, yvela xalxs mouxdia. laparakia swored sakuTari Tavis jiSiani monebis wyarod qcevaze, im borot SemarTebaze, romliTac qarTuli aristokratiisa Tu sasuliero fenis warmomadgenlebma es fenomeni komerciad aqcies da amiT cxadi gaxades, rom qarTuli suliereba mZime seniT iyo daavadebuli. makari antioqielis mogonebebidan: `Cven vnaxeT episko-

posi, romelmac erT kacs coli da oTxi Svili waarTva. oTxive Svili Turqebs mihyida, qali ki sxva kacs miaTxova. ( . . .) Cven isic gavigeT, Tu rogor waarTva am kacs zemoTxsenebulma episkoposma coli da, Tumca qals qmari cocxali hyavda, igi erT mRvdels SerTo colad (. . .) Cven vnaxeT am qalis qmari. igi gveaxla da SemogvCivla Tavisi mdgomareoba~ (makari antioqieli 1982: 97). `sakuTari TvaliT nanaxsa da sakuTari yuriT mosmenils mogaxsenebT, rom zogierTi qarTveli mRvdelmTavari yidis Tavisi samwysos lamaz gogo-biWebs, pirmSvenier qaliSvilebsa da yvelas, visac Tavs misi risxva daatydeba. tyveebiT movaWrenic mas saamisod aqezeben. saqme iqamde mivida, rom kacs Tvalwin cols uyidian, anda kacs yidian colis Tvalwin~ (makari antioqieli 1982: 97-98). Cven vnaxeT, rogor gayida marto erT weliwadSi marqvis episkoposma, saxelad andriam, Tavisi samwysos samoci kaci. ocdasami gayida qobuleTis navsadgurSi, guriis qveyanaSi romaa, danarCeni ki, yvelani erTad, Savi zRvis sxva navsadgurSi. es wyeuli movkveTe, gadavayene da episkoposad axali Rirseuli kaci vakurTxe~. Cven gviambes: ormoci wlis win erT Tavads naTesavi mokvdomia. mas TavisTan mezobeli mRvdlebi daubarebia. sul daaxloebiT ormocdaaTi mRvdel-diakvani Sekrebila. amaT am Tavadis gardacvlili naTesavis saxelze uwiravT. amis Semdeg Tavads mRvdel-diakvnebisaTvis usmev-uWmevia, mere ki msaxurebisaTvis ubrZanebia _ yvelas xel-fexi SeukariT, Tav-wveri moparseT da gayideTo~ (makari antioqieli 1982:

98). tyveTa syidva, sasaxleebSi gabatonebuli garyvnileba, pirveli Ramis ufleba, yovelgvar zneobriv da racionalur motivebs moklebuli sasaxlis karis SeTqmulebebi da, vin

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icis, kidev ra, Cvens Tvalwin Slis dramas dasneulebuli sxeulisa, romelic sakuTari asoebis glejis vnebas miscemia da am vnebis sixaruliT tkbeba. es is situaciaa, rodesac zneoba, goneba Tu adamianuri Rirsebis rwmena pragmatuli da yoCaRi biWebis dacinvis sagnad gadaqceula, ufro metic, isini swored erTeulTa adamianur Rirsebaze ageben sakuTar bnel saqmeebs. bzarebi, romlebic erTiani saxelmwifoebriobis cnobierebaSi gaCnda, mcire xnis inerciis Semdeg erTiani saxelmwifoebriobis erTgvarma groteskulma anareklebma Seavses. aq igulisxmeba erozia im yalibisa, romelSic saxelmwifoebrivi azri unda Camosxmuliyo. amis Sedegad mTeli qarTuli sinamdvile saxelmwifoebriobis simulirebis im viTarebaSi aRmoCnda, romelsac axladwarmoSibili juja samefoebi da samTavroebi ganasaxierebdnen da es ukanasknelebic ramdenime saukunis ganmavlobaSi TamaSobdnen karnavals, umal provinciul TeatrSi dadgmul Seqspirs rom mogagonebda, vidre amaRlebul saxelmwifoebriv warmodgenas. sagareo mteric urigdeboda misTvis xelsayrel am saxiobas, ufro metic, xelsac uwyobda mas, radgan es iyo dapyrobilTa damorCilebis universaluri xriki, juja mefeebsa da mTavrebs, morCilebis sanacvlod, saxelmwifoebrivi warmodgenis TamaSis ufleba eZleodaT. makari antioqielis mogonebebidan: `roca qarTveli mefe

omSi midis, mas Tan mihyveba yvela mRvdelmTavari da mRvdel-monazoni TavianTi mrevliT. isini ebrZvian Zmebs _ aseTive episkoposebs, mRvdlebsa da mezobel qristianebs. Tu erTma mxarem meores sZlia, maSin gamarjvebuli episkoposebi da mRvdlebi atyveveben damarcxebulebs da ar dagideven, vinaa maTi tyve: episkoposi, mRvdeli Tu ubralo mrevlTagani. isini damarcxebulebs ufro cudad eqcevian xolme, vidre barbarosi -- qristians; Tu moindomeben, tyveebs mihyidian Turqebs an sparselebs. gansakuTrebiT Raribebis saxlebs arbeven, atyveveben da hyidian; an ara da ymebad ixdian, vidre isini didZali fuliT Tavs ar gamoisyidian~ (makari

antioqieli 1982: 95-96). am viTarebaSi saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba ubralo adamians Tu SerCenoda Tavisi Seumcdari saxelmwifoebrivi instiqtiT. kidev _ gandobilTa mcirericxovan jgufebs, romlebic jerac cdilobdnen islamis aboboqrebul zRvaSi motortmane es dabzaruli sxeuli erTiani saxelmwifoebrivi ideiTa da sakomunikacio sivrciT SeekraT. magram am etapze

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maT ukve sruliad gansakuTrebul mterTan uwevdaT brZola _ ybadaRebul qarTul TviTnebobasTan, Cveni qveynis istoriaSi erT-erT yvelaze destruqciul ZalasTan, romelic dRemde erT-erT yvelaze damangrevel, erT-erT yvelaze damRupvel Zalad rCeba, romlis gamoc Cvens sazogadoebas jerac ver umarTavs Tavisi arc ise didi sxeuli da ver mouxerxebia Tavisi moZraobis koordinireba. *** XII-XVII saukuneebis evropaSi (espaneTSi, germaniaSi, safrangeTsa da inglisSi) daZrwodnen boganoTa jgufebi, romlebsac kompraCikosebs an komprapekenosebs eZaxdnen. isini itacebdnen bavSvebs, sagangebo formis Tixis WurWelSi didi xnis manZilze CamwyvdeviT amaxinjebdnen da Semdeg, rogorc cocxal karikaturebs, didgvarovanTa karze yiddnen. aris raRac banaluri da borotad ganmeorebadi imaSi, Tu rogor gadaaqcevs adamianuri sisuste RvTisagan boZebul naTels amave naTlis maxinj yalibad da Tavadve rogor awydeba Semdeg sakuTari ZalisxmeviT nageb kedlebs. luarsabi, yvaryvare da kvaWi sakuTar Tavze amgvari koleqtiuri Zaladobis nayofia, Zaladobisa, rodesac sakuTari Tavidan sakuTari Tavisve sapyrobiles Zerwav. da Tu maTSi jer kidev uxvadaa karikaturis salaRobo elementebi, rac maTgan distancirebis saSualebas gvaZlevs, didi iosebi ukve mtrul samyaroze SurisZiebis arqimonumentur simbolod gvevlineba. karikatura jer kidev tovebs moZraobisa da sicocxlis sivrces. stalinis monumenturoba ki ukve saSiSi simptomia imisa, rom karikaturas karikaturad veRar aRiqvam da igi SenTvis yofierebasTan urTierTobis mTavar iaraRad gadaqceula. am samma metaforam, mniSvnelovnad gansazRvra qarTuli sinamdvilis raoba mTeli mecxramete da meoce saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi. gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg ki pirvel rigSi swored maT SegvaSveles Tavi, rogorc yavarjnebma, rogorc samyaroSi yofnis WeSmariti strategiis TvalTmaqcma ganmasaxiereblebma. aRmoCnda, rom istoriulma bedisweram da masze morgebulma Cveni sulis bevrma ugvano potenciam imgvar yalibSi mogvaqcies, rom sxva veraferi gveSva. ase aages istoriulma bedisweram da Cvenma maradma umwifarobam Cvenive sulis es sami ucnaurad myari forma. Cans, rom swored sabas epoqaSi ikveTeboda da ibadeboda es sami koleqtiuri demoni, romelTac Cveni zerelobis

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wyalobiT eweraT, mTeli Cveni sakomunikacio sivrce gaeJRinTaT. kvdomasac aqvs Tavisi saxe. Cvens SemTxvevaSi mas ucnauri da boroti samsaxovneba SeuZenia _ sulis cxovelmyofelobis im sami imitaciisa, romlebic saimisod, rom iolad ver amovicnoT, sagangebod Semosilan egzotikur-eTnografiuli samosiT. kacobriobis mteri arasodes klavs adamianebsa da kulturas maTTvis ucxo garemoSi. piriqiT, Tu klavs _ swored nacnobsa da axlobelSi. swored amitom aris amgvari kvdomis forma yalbi da kunstkameruli eTnografiuloba. swored amitomac iRebs eTnografiul samuzeumo saxes amgvari kulturis arseboba, xolo adamianebi `WeSmarit~ kulturasTan da rwmenasTan identobas eTnografiul TojinebTan msgavsebaSi poveben. ase iwyeben moZraobas Cveni kulturis sxeulSi `fexze mosiarule micvalebulebi~ _ luarsabi, rogorc mumificirebul sulis gastronomiuli metafizikis gansaxiereba; yvaryvare, rogorc laCari da agresiuli umecreba, `RvTis sikvdilis~ epoqis produqti, romelsac aRaraferi uSlis xels, rom sruli metafizikuri kompetencia ikisros, Tavi demiurgosad warmoidginos da mTeli Tavisi ugunuri, ugvani fantaziebi realur proeqtebad aqcios; bolos kvaWi, sruli da yovlismomcveli zneobrivi relativizmis es erT-erTi yvelaze srulyofili gansaxiereba. is, rac, rogorc seni, Cvens erovnul sxeulSi farulad iyo ganabuli (iseve, rogorc nebismieri sxva kulturisa), qarTuli sulierebis wyvdiadis am epoqaSi -- sabas epoqaSi, iwyebs kulturis mTeli sakomunikacio sivrcis gajerebas, radgan swored maSin gaxda dasaSvebi da SesaZlebeli, rom adamianebs zneobisa da gonebis kanonebis gareSe earsebaT. kacobriobis mterma TiTqos es sami niRabi arCia saimisod, rom TviTkmayofili kvdomisaken gagvZRoloda. rogori Znelic ar unda iyos amis aRiareba, XIX da XX saukunis istoria didwilad am sami metaforis fsiqo-socialuri qmediTobis istoriaa. *** sabas im samyaroSi ganuCina bedisweram arseboba, romelSic, Tu gandobilTa mcirericxovan jgufebs ar miviRebT mxedvelobaSi, araferi an TiTqmis araferi xdeba da Tuki movindomebT mas raime Sefaseba gamovuZebnoT mas, ganwirulebis ideas Sors ver gavcdebiT. am samyaroSi, marTlac araferi xdeboda, xolo is, raSic araferi xdeba, is, rac sakuTa-

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ri cxovelmyofelobisa da Rirsebis dadasturebas `aq~ da `axla~ ar cdilobs, mxolod sakuTar ngrevas adasturebs da meoradi moxmarebis produqtad gadaaqcevs yvelafers, rasac igi aqamde warmoadgenda -- ukan datovebul im Jams, rodesac sakuTari Rirsebis gancdiT iyo aRsavse da swamda, rom RvTis sityva, RvTaebrivi logosi swored misi gavliT unda ganfeniliyo amqveynad. araferi xdeba da arc SeiZleba moxdes imgvar samyaroSi, romelic mxolod sakuTari warsulis utilizaciiT aris dakavebuli da samyaros mxolod amave warsulis moZvelebul da gacveTil niRbebad qceul fragmentebs sTavazobs. istoriis amgvari subieqti aRar aris `aq~ da `axla~ da amiT sakuTar sxeulSi sivrces uTavisuflebs mraval uzneobasa da ugunurebas. ngreva, rogorc sneuleba da istoriuli bedisweris ganCineba ulmoblad mosdebia mis sxeuls da mTeli is sakomunikacio sivrce, kulturis mTeli is erTiani lingvistika dauSlia, romelic odesRac mis mTlianobasa da cxovelmyofelobas qmnida. amgvari dangreuli lingvistikis pirobebSi ki, cxadia, araferi ar SeiZleba moxdes da arc xdeba, Tu zogierT fragments ar gavixsenebT, romlebic umal Camqrali varskvlavebis cials mogvagoneben, vidre kulturis uwyveti istoriuli industriis nayofs. isini Tavisi arsebobiT umal gvaxseneben, rom aq, am samyaroSi araferi xdeba da igi mTlianad inercias aris mindobili. mas aRar gaaCnia is RerZuli ideebi da arc unari, rom uerTgulos am RerZul ideebs, rogorc es odesRac iyo, rodesac igi qristianuli samyaros am kideze erTiani qristianuli kosmosis nawilad da mis forfostad grZnobda Tavs. mefeTa simravle da pragmatuli rjulTmonacvleoba, sasuliero liderTa ampartavneba da zneobrivi relativizmi meTodurad da Tanamimdebrulad angrevs im qristianul da raindul aristokratizms, romelic odesRac sufevda masSi da mis Rirsebas qmnida. cxadia, am samyaros gadarCena mxolod arakonteqstualur Zalisxmevas SeeZlo. amitomac Canan sabaca da vaxtang meeqvsec aseTi arakonteqstualurebi da uadgiloebi am garemoSi. gmirTa da wmindanTa Zalisxmeva xom yovelTvis uadgiloa. isini arsebobisaken mogiwodeben maSin, rodesac Tavad arseboba absurdia. isini ibrZvian maSin, rodesac ara mxolod brZolaa usazriso, aramed isic aRar Cans, ris gamoc unda ibrZolo. esenia maradi ymawvilkacebi, romlebsac bavSvurad swamT, rom boroteba aucileblad damarcxdeba da saimisod, rom es aRsruldes, galuri andazisa ar iyos, sanam

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cocxali xar, ar unda gabedo sikvdili da ar unda gaxde momakvdavi sxeulis agoniuri bodvis nawili. ufro metic, isini da maTi Tanamzraxvelebi axerxeben sicocxle gaaRviZon iq, sadac yvelaferi amgvari mcdelobis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli.

diadi Zalisxmeva: eris sulieri konstituciis aRdgenis cda

konstantinopolis dacemam da muslimi mezoblebis gaZlierebam qveyana geopolitikur da sulier CixSi moamwyvdia. swored am Cixidan Tavis daRwevis paTosiT iwyeba sabas, vaxtang meeqvsisa da sxvaTa `amovardna~ fataluri istoriuli konteqstidan. amitomac aris SeuZlebeli rom, gadavaWarboT im Zalisxmevis masStabebis Sefasebisas, romelic sabam Casdo, raTa rRvevad sulier cxovrebaSi myari wertilebi da konfiguraciebi Seeqmna da rogori saocari iyo misi SemarTeba: WeSmaritad xom gmirobaa, pozitiurad moRvaweobde im sxeulSi, romelic kvdomis ucnauri JiniTaa Sepyrobili da gaavebiT uwevs winaaRmdegobas mkurnalobis yovelgvar mcdelobas. am viTarebaSi sabac da sxvebic umal SeTqmulebi iyvnen am TviTmkvlelobis boroti sixaruliT Sepyrobil garemoSi, vidre moRvaweni da Semoqmedni. es iyo umal ekzorcizmi _ boroti da damangreveli sakomunikacio demonebis gandevna, vidre mxolod literaturuli Rvawli an diplomatiuri kirTeba; umal _ pyrobilis gamolocva, vidre sazogadoebis aRzrda misi progresuli ganviTarebis mizniT. am saqmis saboloo wertili Tu mwvervali gaxldaT `sityvis kona~, raTa am kvaramSi CaZiruli da qarTuli yofierebis saxlad qceuli ena kvlav RvTis sityvis gamJRavnebad gadaqceuliyo da misi meSveobiT qarTul kosmosSi kvlav garkveuloba damkvidrebuliyo. maSin, rodesac aq, am samyaroSi araferi xdeboda, swored saba aRmoCnda is pirovneba (cxadia, ara mxolod is), romelmac Tavisi Zalebis titanuri mokrebiT SeZlo ganecxadebina, rom aq jer kidev SeiZleba raRac momxdaryo da rom es samyaro jer kidev SeiZleba Sekruliyo RvTis sityvis gamamJRavnebeli metyvelebiT. am ZalisxmeviT saba meore didi qarTvelis -- iliasi winamorbedi iyo. rogorc erTis, ise meoris dros qarTuli suliereba hgavda im uiRblobiT da-

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qancul falavans, bedis ukuRmarTobis gamo TandaTan uars rom ambobs arsebobaze da am uars fsevdoerovnuli da yalbad monumenturi formebiT niRbavs. dRes Znelia SevafasoT, Tu ra gavlena moaxdines kaTolike misionerebma bizantiis dacemis Semdgom qarTul sulierebaze. Tumca ki dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom swored maTi wyalobiT inarCunebda qarTuli azrovneba qristianuli kosmosis mTlianobisa da Zalmosilebis rwmenas da im viTarebaSi swored es iyo yvelaze mniSvnelovani. mTavari iyo rwmena imisa, rom cocxali da qmediTi iyo is samyaro, romelsac qveyana sakuTar Tavs miakuTvnebda. albaT, swored maT Seasrules gadamwyveti roli imaSi, rom mTeli qarTuli qristianuli suliereba iranuli azrovnebis CuqurTmovnebaSi ar Cakarguliyo da masSi `sityvis konisa~ da `daviTianis~ msgavsi Sedevrebi dabadebuliyo. swored sabac cxovrebam gaxada naTeli, rom qarTuli suliereba, miuxedavad im wyvdiadisa, romelSic aRmoCnda, Tavis Rrmad dafarul SreebSi, axali identobis ZiebaSi iyo. sulxan-sabas cxovreba mTlianad am Ziebis radikaluri gamoxatulebaa. amitomac aris, rom Tu gvsurs, am epoqas raime gavugoT, swored am adamianis SromiTa da ZiebebiT, sasowarkveTiTa da fuWi imedebiT aRsavse cxovrebas unda mivmarToT, romelic uCveulo precendenti iyo imisa, Tu rogor cdilobda es lamis martokaci qaosiT mocul da struqturuli TvalsazrisiT amorful qarTul cxovrebaSi zneobrivi da racionaluri identobebi Seetana _ im sulier garemoSi, romelsac TandaTan da ulmoblad eufleboda uRirs awmyosTan Seguebisa da am Semgueblobis miTismTxzvelobiT damalvis seni. aRarafers vambobT imaze, Tu rogor daudo safuZveli misma naRvawma meTvramete saukunis qarTul ganmanaTleblobas da ra roli iTamaSa imaSi, rom mecxramete saukunis qarTuli suliereba istoriuli kapitulaciis gziT ar wasuliyo. rogorc vTqviT, es iyo fragmentirebuli sazogadoebrivi yofa, romelic, sulxan-sabas msgavs gamonaklisebs Tu ar miviRebT mxedvelobaSi, sakuTar Tavs umal istoriis naSTad ganicdida, vidre subieqtad da igi dakarguli identobis ZiebaSi sul ufro xSirad mimarTavda imas, rac Semdgom saukuneebSi istoriidan da realobidan gaqcevis universalur qarTul asparezad gadaiqca _ sufras, rogorc legendebiTa da iluziebiT arsebobis sivrces da rogorc zneobrivi dakninebis yvelaze mZime Jamsac ki Rirsebisa da Rirseulo-

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bis niRbis momarjvebis saSualebas. didi da warmatebuli imperiebiT garemoculi sazogadoeba mxolod sufraze Tu povebda Tavisi arsebobisa da mniSvnelobis dasturs. swored am samyaroSi Cndeba saba, Tavisi memkvidris - ilias msgavsad mTeli arsebiT rom cdilobs, iyos iq, sadac aris, gansxvavebiT mTeli misi garemomcveli samyarosagan, romelic gajerebuli iyo adamianebiT, romlebic iq ar iyvnen, sadac iyvnen. fatalur qarTul TavnebobasTan erTad, albaT, swored am epoqaSi gacxadda mTeli simZlavriT meore sazogadoebrivi senic, romelic dRemde xel-fexs uborkavs qveyanasac da sazogadoebasac _ aq da axla yofnis unaris nakluloba. Tu am TvaliT SevxedavT `sityvis konasa~ da `sibrZne sicruisas~, mivxvdebiT, Tu ra titanuri amocana itvirTa am adamianma. marTalia, Znelia laparaki warmatebiT tvirTebaze, magram man rom sxva oriode adamianTan erTad Seqmna precendenti imisa, rom aq, Cvens istoriul sivrceSi, am qarTuli kamaloka-s (utyvi aCrdilebis samefos) dros SeiZleba raRac mniSvnelovani momxdariyo da qarTuli cxovreba ar warmoadgenda mxolod istoriuli naSTebis konglomerats. swored amitomac mimarTa Tavisi Zalisxmeva Cvens sakomunikacio sivrceSi enobrivi da zneobrivi garkveulobis refigurirebisaken, rac kulturis lingvistikis aRdgenis igivuria. es maSin, rodesac sazogadoeba nawil-nawil yidda sakuTar sxeuls. swored amitomac sabas epoqa SeiZleba aRiweros, rogorc sakuTari sulierebis Cixis boroti Zerwvisa da misgan Tavis daRwevis mcdelobaTa ori urTierTsapirispiro veqtoris xana. vfiqrobT, sxvagvarad saba SeiZleba verc gavigoT da Cveni mcdeloba umal morigi narcisuli dekoris agebas daemsgavseba, riTac savsea Cveni istoriografia. cudad gagebuli istoria, cudad gaazrebuli warsuli, rodesac am gaazrebis mizani mxolod sakuTari raobis `esTetikuri qirurgiaa~ (Jan bodriari), xom is sapyrobilea, romelic mraval qimerasa Tu cru mizandasaxulebas Sobs, Semdeg ki istoriul nacvalgebas, rogorc pasuxs Cvens mier uflis mier boZebuli naTlis dafvlasa da datyvevebaze.

arsebobs movlenebi, romlebic sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi simbolur mniSvnelobas iZenen. kidev erTxel gavixseneb, Tu gasuli saukunis 80-iani da 90iani wlebis mijnaze rogor dadioda ormociode adamiani Tbilisis quCebSi Wreli, e.w. sagvareuloTa droSebiT xelSi da iberiis gasabrwyineblad e.w. mrgvali soflebis agebisaken mogviwodebdnen. sulierebis Cixma ase SeiZleba Svas qimeruli istoriuli proeqtebi. (romlebiTac, Tu kargad gavixse-

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diadi Zalisxmeva: evropa

sabas dakavSireba kaTolikur eklesiasTan, garda religiuri motivebisa, cxadia sxva mizeziTac iyo ganpirobebuli. Tu daviT aRmaSenebeli papi urban II-is mier 1095 wels gamocxadebuli jvarosnuli omis Semdeg uars ambobs bizantiis saimperatoro karis wodebaze, rac igivea, uars ambobs qristianobis berZnul geopolitikur interpretaciaze da dasavleTidan momaval raindebze _ qristianobis am unikaluri da, SeiZleba iTqvas, erT-erTi umaRlesi gamJRavnebisaken miapyrobs yuradRebas, sabasaTvis bizantiuri qristianobis marcxi ukve faqti iyo. misTvis romis episkoposis taxtis pirvelobis aRiareba qarTuli samyaros saerTo qristianul konteqstSi dabrunebas niSnavda. unda vivaraudoT, rom es idea qarTul sazogadoebriv elitaSi mudmivad cirkulirebda. sabas nabiji erT-erTi pirveli mniSvnelovani nabiji iyo, magram, mas gamarjveba ar ewera. erTis mxriv, igi waawyda winaaRmdegobas sasuliero pirebisa, romlebic cocxlad inaxavdnen bizantiisagan memkvidreobiT miRebul siZulvilsa da undoblobas romis episkoposis taxtis mimarT; meores mxriv, Tavad evropac naklebad Tu mogagonebdaT im qristianul samyaros, romlis xsovnac saqarTveloSi jvarosnuli omebisa da misionerTa monayolebis wyalobiT SeiZleba yofiliyo. sabasaTvis, cxadia, ucnobi da ucxo iyo is metamorfozebi, romelsac mis epoqaSi frangul gemovnebas micemuli evropa ganicdida. is axali evropuli inteleqtualuri paradigmebi, romlebsac aRtacebaSi mohyavT Cveni Tanamedroveebi, umal, calkeul naTel wertilebs warmoadgendnen im socio-kulturul qsovilSi, romelic Wirveulad Tavisufldeboda sakuTari warsulisagan da metafizikur zerelobaSi efloboda. Zneli warmosadgeni ar aris, ra gancda daeufleboda mas rodesac aRmoaCenda, Tu rogor ar hgavda misionerTa mier aRwerili dasavleTi im mxares, romelSic mouwia mogzauroba: raindi ukve Canacvlebuli hyavda ucnebT, im xanaSi savse iyo Cveni atmosfero, sakmarisia, yvela araqarTvelis istoriul samSobloSi gasaxlebis idea, demografiuli viTarebis gamosasworeblad araqarTvelTa sterilizacia da mravali sxva msgavsi gavixsenoT) da adamianebi mTeli seriozulobiT aRiZvrebian mis gansaxorcieleblad. stalinis istoriuli voluntarizmi xom didebuli nimuSi iyo imisa, rom yvela bodviTi idea SeiZleboda ganxorcielebuliyo, Tuki sakmaris nebisyofas movikrebdiT.

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naur, parikian, pudrSefrqveul, fexis wverebze welSi moxriT mosiarule arsebas, romlisTvisac RvTismaZiebeli azri fuWsityvaobis galanturi figurebiT Secvliliyo. Tuki aRmaSeneblis epoqaSi idealur dasavlels warmoadgenda kurtuaziuli siyvaruliT, sikeTisa da RvTis maZieblobiT aRWurvili, cxenze amxedrebuli asketi, romelic mTels Tavis arsebobas sikvdilTan mezoblobaSi atarebda da saocari siioliT gadalaxavda sikvdil-sicocxlis mijnas, sabas TanamedroveobaSi RvTis maZieblobiT daRlili evropuli aristokratia sul ufro da ufro meti xalisiTa da gulaxdilobiT qmnida Teoriebs, romelic mefeTa Tu aristokratTa sasaxleebis karze gabatonebul hedonizms gaamarTlebda, xolo uflis saxels umal iSveliebda, rogorc erTgvar inteleqtualur an socialur dekors, vidre gonebis garduval obieqts. sabas evropaSi mogzaurobis dros parizSi batonobda markiza de rambuiesa da dramaturgi JorJ skiuderis dis _ madlenas salonebSi Sobili gemovneba, qcevisa da azrovnebis wesi, sadac rainduli morali yalbi Tavazianobisa da fuWi maxvilsityvaobis paTosma, etiketiTa da uxvad Sepudruli, grZelparikiani qalbatonebisa da vaJbatonebis galanturma jambazobam Caanacvla. swored am saukuneSi aRmoaCina pirvelad evropulma kacobriobam, rom diplomatias, galanturobasa da yalb moralizirebas nebismieri mankierebisa da gulgrilobis SeniRbva ZaluZs. Tavad ludoviko, `mefe mze~, galanturi maxvilsityvaobis didostati da Tavisi drois TvalsaCino baleroni, `samefos yvelaze lamazi fexebiT~ rom amayobda, am samyaros erT-erTi udidesi Semoqmedi iyo da yvelaze ukeT am saukunes Tavadve ganasaxierebda. zerele ganaTlebuloba da zerele morali am epoqis niSnad gadaiqca. ganaTlebas, rogorc sulis sxvagvar mdgomareobas (maqs Seleri) cvlida e.w. erudicia, romelic saubris ostaturad warmarTvis xelovnebis nawili gaxldaT, enciklopedizmis ideologiis Canasaxebs sulis sinaTle da Rirseba unda Caenacvlebina. ukve Sobiliyo sulierebis es ucnauri Cinuri duqani, romelSic mTels samyaros macdurad epatiJebodnen; masSi, erTi SexedviT, yvelaferi iyo, rasac ki adamiani isurvebda da, amavdroulad yvelafer amas zerelobis, warmavlobis, nayalbevobisa da cru feradovnebis elferi dakravda. evropaSi ukve galantur avantiuraTa epoqa damdgariyo. tyuilad ki ar warmoadgendnen mis tipiur warmomadgenlebs avantiuristTa aseulebi, romlebic iseve

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daexetebodnen evropis gzebze, rogorc erT dros `macxovris saflavisa~ Tu `Savi gedis~ ordenTa raindebi. Tumca ukanasknelni uflis Ziebis gzaze iyvnen gamosulni, pirvelebi ki _ zerele, aqa iq yurmokruli ganaTlebiTa da e.w. `galantiT~ saSovrisa da warmatebis mopovebis imediT da mzad iyvnen, gadaberebul aristokrat qalbatonTa nebismieri axireba daekmayofilebinaT. sabas mogzaurobis Semdeg sul ramdenime aTeul weliwadSi odesRac RvTismaZiebeli evropis modis kanonmdeblebad iqcen _ gaurkveveli warmoSobis jakomo kazanova, romelsac ver gaerkvia da arc ainteresebda gansxvaveba Teologiasa da kabalistikas Soris da utifari TaRliTobiT iSveliebda odesRac da sadRac yurmokruls Tu buduarebSi nebivrobebs Soris zereled gadakiTxuls da kaltajorones benediqtianelTa monasterSi aRzrdili alesandro kaliostro, romelmac araCveulebrivi ostatobiT gamoiyena TanamedroveTa `religiuri smenis daqveiTeba~ (riCard rorti) da sruliad vulgaruli okultizmiT abiTurebda yvelas. evropaSi italiuri avantiurizmis am ori tipiuri produqtis morali batondeboda. isini warsulisa da Tanamedroveobis sulier monapovars Tuki iyenebdnen, mxolod saimisod, rom aristokratul wreebs mikedlebodnen da im zerele metafizikiT esunTqaT, gaCarCebuli evropis axal ideologiur safanelad rom yalibdeboda da romelsac veraferi gauxerxa verc kaTolikurma Teologiurma azrma da verc luTerul Teologiad aRiarebulma germanulma idealizmma. sabas epoqis evropa ukve dasneulebuli iyo molieriseuli `sasacilo Zvirfasebis~ fsiqologiiT da RvTis Ziebis garduvalobas azrisa Tu qcevis cru karnavalurobiT niRbavda. am evropas aRar ganasaxierebdnen Teologebi an macxovris saxelisaTvis Tavdadebuli pirovnebebi. yvelaferi es zerele da brWyviala erudiciiT iyo Canacvlebuli, xolo dekartesTana erTeulebs garemomcvelTa aseulebi umal inteleqtualur dekoraciad aRiqvamdnen, an, raRac manqanebiT, sakuTari zerelobis gamarTlebad da ara mwveli Ziebebis gansaxierebad. yovelive amis xilvis Semdeg sabas aRarc gaukvirdeboda vnebebis dakmayofilebiT gamomSrali da gamocarielebuli luis diplomatiuri uari daxmarebis gamo. es ukanaskneli xom didostati iyo imisa, Tu rogor eTqva `ho~ ise, rom Tanamosaubres naTqvamSi `ara~ amoecno. cru dapireba `galantis~ normebis Tanaxmad xom sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara saubris

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warmarTvis xelovnebiT nakarnaxevi savaldebulo figura da winaparTagan miRebuli inercia. vin icis, msgavs `qristianul~ dapirebebs yoveldRiurad ramdens gascemda. xolo Tuki vinme gabedavda da Seaxsenebda maT, umal imas ifiqrebda, Tu ra gulubryvilo yofila misi Tanamosaubre, vidre uxerxulobas igrZnobda. am epoqis dasavleTi umal kazanovas memuarebiT aRiwereboda, vidre mefe arTuris cxovrebis aRmweris _ Tomas meloris kalmiT. am epoqas sicruis mimarT hqonda ara metafizikuri SiSi an rainduli zizRi, aramed wminda instrumentaluri damokidebuleba. misTvis ukve tipuri iyo frensis bekonis msgavsi personebi, bekonisa, romelmac inglisis lordi kancleris Tanamdeboba TaRliTobasa da qrTamSi braldebis gamo dakarga, xolo Semdeg `axal organonSi~ idolebis Teoriis Seqmnisas Tavisi winamorbedi Tanamogvare sqolastis _ rojer bekonis ideebs sesxulobda. saba, albaT xvdeboda yvelafers amas, Tundac es mixvedra mTeli misi imedebisa da Zalisxmevis ngrevis Tanazomadi yofiliyo. man, albaT, ludovikos kariskacTa ironiuli Rimilic SeniSna, rodesac maT qristianuli samyaros bedis gamo wuxils axsenebda. isic ise moiSores Tavidan, rogorc yoveldRiurad, albaT, asobiT mTxovnels iSorebdnen. Semdeg ki sabas Sexvedra klimenti XI-sTan. es ukanaskneli ukve aRar iyo im papTagani, romelic qristiani xalxis bedis gamo wuxiliT mzad iyo dasavleTisaTvis brZolisaken moewodebina. is iyo protestantizmisa da aTeisturi ideologiebiT, parizuli salonebis moralisa da antiaristoteluri azrovnebis gavrcelebiT Sewuxebuli adamiani, romelic aRar warmoadgenda im Zalas, erTi qadagebiT istoriuli stiqiebis aRZvra rom SeeZlo. rogorc Cans, im epoqis qristianul evropas Tavad udgeboda Tavisi kama-loka. dRes mxolod mkiTxaoba ZalgviZs im gulgatexilobaze, romelic sabas evropaSi mogzaurobis Jams xvda wilad, im utifar cinizmze, romliTac dasavleTis mesveurebi arwmunebdnen am sasowarkveTili xalxis jer kidev imedian Svils, rom, rogorc ki xelsayreli viTareba dadgeboda, aucileblad gauwevdnen daxmarebas, an ubralod, aseTive cinizmiT iSorebdnen Tavidan. maT xom warmodgenac ara hqondaT da

yalbismqnelobisadmi frensis bekonis midrekilebas Tu gavixsenebT, albaT, arc is aris SemTxveviTi, rom ,,WeSmariti Seqspiris" maZieblebi swored mas asaxeleben Seqspiris tragediebis avtorad.

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arc ainteresebdaT im tragediis masStabebze, romelSic es qristiani xalxi cxovrobda da rom scodnodaT kidec, umal venecieli vaWris pragmatizmiT Sexedavdnen misi daxmarebis saqmes, rogorc usarfos.

ruseTi, rogorc bediswera

aseTive gulgatexiloba eloda sabas CrdiloeTSic, sadac igi vaxtangis davalebiT 1724 wels gaemarTa. mesame romis ideiT dasneulebuli es uzarmazari motortmane imperia, marTalia, Znelad zidavda Tavis sxeuls, mainc mucelRmerTis gaSmagebiT epotineboda axal-axal miwebs. ruseTi bizantiuri sulierebis hansvursti iyo saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi da Tavisi pirvelsaxis daRupvis Semdeg ki sakuTar Tavze aiRo misi roli. gavixsenoT akiro kurosavas kagemuSa; meTeqvsmete saukuneSi mcxovreb am qurdsa da TaRliTs diadi da Zlevamosili mmarTvelis takedas rolis TamaSi mouwevs mxolod imis wyalobiT, rom garegnulad hgavs mas. swored aseve aRiWurva bizantiuri saimperatori atributikis fragmentebiT moskovi da sakuTari Tavi mesame romad SesTavaza samyaros. konstantinepolis dacemamde da manamdec romis memkvidreebi aRmosavleT qristianul samyaroSi yovelTvis bevri iyo. manamdec, jer kidev XIV saukuneSi TavianT samefoebs romis memkvidreebad serbTa mefe duSani da bulgarelTa mefe ioane-aleqsandre acxadebdnen. bulgarelebma konstantinopolis dacemidan sul mcire xanSi mesame romad Tavisi dedaqalaqi tirnovo gamoacxades. aRarafers vambobT istoriaSi Cakargul sxva pretenziebze. sabolood yvela pretenzia gadafara CrdiloeTSi dabadebulma axalma istoriulma Zalam, Tavisi giganturi sxeulis RelviTa da rxeviT rom miiwevda yvela mxares da gzad yvelafers spobda: xalxebs, kulturebs, religiebs, saxelmwifoebs Tu, ubralod, damoukidebel samTavroebs, sazogadoebebs, romlebic Cakarguliyvnen ukidegano stepebsa da tyeebSi an kavkasiis xeobebSi da arc gaaCndaT garkveuli sazRvari; xalxebs, romlebic monRolTa batonobis Semdeg naSTebad iyvnen mimofantulebi mTels am sivrceze; asobiT mcire toms, romlebsac warmodgenac ara hqondaT imaze, Tu ras niSnavs saxelmwifoebrioba da mTlianad TavianTi RmerTebisa da winaparTa sulebis msaxurebas uZRvnidnen Tavis arsebobas; Sua aziis saxelmwifoebs, romelTac aTasw-

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lovani istoria hqondaT da romelTa mospobac mxolod skviTur gonebas Tu mouvidoda azrad. modioda Zala, romelsac Tavisi mravalsaxa sxeulis gamo arc istoriuli vinaoba gaaCnda da arc raime kulturuli garkveuloba, ise gadaWdobiliyo masSi slavuri, bizantiuri, evropuli, monRoluri sawyisebi sxva mravalricxovan sawyisTan erTad. Tuki raime aerTianebda mas, mxolod eqspansiis daucxromeli vneba, romelsac saxelad Tavadac da sxvebic ruseTs uwodebdnen. amgvar gigantur, iracionalur sxeuls arseboba SeeZlo mxolod sakuTari Tavis axali da axali miwebiT gamokvebiTa da sakuTar TavSi mudmivi CakvliT imisa, rac mas raime garkveulobas mianiWebda. ase spobda igi sakuTar TavSi sabas epoqaSi bizantiur da monRolur sawyisebs, mecxramete saukuneSi slavur sawyiss, xolo meoce saukuneSi _ evropul sawyiss kvlav da kvlav bizantiurisa da monRoluris sasargeblod. sabolood, im mravalTava arsebas, daemsgavsa romelsac mxolod maSin SeuZlia arseboba, Tu es Tavebi erTmaneTiT ikvebebian da spoben yvelafers, rac SexvdebaT. es giganturi sxeuli mudmivad sakuTari garkveulobis ZiebaSia, magram, imavdroulad, gaavebuli iSorebs Tavidan nebismier garkveulobas, rac ki SeiZleba istoriam SesTavazos. man Tavisi arsebobis sruliad gansxvavebuli gzebi unda moZebnos, sruliad axali sinamdvile unda SeTxzas da Semdeg asobiT xalxi CarTos am sinamdvilis dakanonebaSi. istoriuli eqsperimentebi misi bedisweraa, radgan mxolod istoriul eqsperimentTa sasazRvro daZabulobaSi ZaluZs arseboba: xan sakndinaviuri niRbebiT cdilobda sakuTari Tavis erT rigiT "holandiur soflad" qcevas, rogorc amas petre didi ocnebobda, Semdeg amgvar niRbad franguli cxovrebis wesi gadaiqca, Semdeg _ germanuli wesrigi, Semdeg _ miwieri samoTxis bolSevikuri idea, dRes _ kvlav mesame romis idea, ris gamoc swored ruseTs Seaqvs bzari qristianuli samyaros mTlianobaSi da, rac mTavaria, yvela am eqsperimentisaTvis igi mudmivad saWiroebs saRi azris mospobasa da sawvavs dapyrobili da ganadgurebuli xalxebis saxiT. amitomac iyo misTvis yovelTvis ucxo aristoteluri fronezisi. amitomac aqcia man Tavisi arseboba saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gaWimul reqviemad dapyrobili Tu jer kidev daupyrobeli xalxebisaTvis. TiTqos monRoluri eqspansionizmisa da nekrofiliis sulma sabolood es giganturi sxeuli moZebna Tavis buded da misi meSveobiT

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ganagrZo stepebis ulmobeli mZarcvelis, Cingis yaenis ocnebis ganxorcieleba, mTeli samyaro Tavisi baCa cxenis floqvebs qveS moeqcia. sabas epoqis ruseTi umal im barbaross hgavda, keTilSobilTa samosis fragmentebiT rom cdilobda Semosvas. amitomac ar aris gasakviri, Tuki vaxtangma da sabam pirvel rigSi dasavleTis qristianul samyaros mimarTes da mxolod mas Semdeg _ ruseTs, mxolod mas Semdeg, rac raindTa samyaros nacvlad ferumariliT morTuli da gaCarCebuli evropa daxvda, sisxls rom ukve aRar daRvrida macxovris saxeliT, Tumca ki ar daiSurebda mas, Tuki saqme axali bazrebis mopovebaze midgeboda. Zneli warmosadgenia, sabas ar scodnoda, rom ruseTis bizantiuri niRabi da CrdiloeTidan mosuli daxmareba mis xalxs, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi mxolod fizikur gadarCenas moutanda, Tumca ki es imedic ar aRmoCnda patiosani Tvali. Cans, ganwiruloba Cveni maSindeli istoriuli bedis aucilebeli nawili iyo. jer xom Sori iyo Cvenive sulis CixSi Cveni mogzaurobis damTavrebamde. jerac gasavleli gvqonda gza, romlis ganmavlobaSic Cveni suliereba bizantiuri sulierebis axladSobil Crdilour klons daukavSirdeboda.

boloTqma

sabas cxovrebiT TiTqos Cvens horoskopi moixaza _ is kosmosi, romelSic cxovreba da gadarCenisaTvis brZola gviwevda da gviwevs. misi konturi aseTia: Turqul eqspansias, sabolood, konstantinopolis dacema da dasavleTis qristianul samyarosTan kavSirebis dakargva mohyva. fragmentirebuli da muslimur samyaroSi Cakarguli sazogadoeba veRar povebda sakuTari arsebobis Sinagan sayrdenebs da qristianuli kosmosis aRdgenas cdilobda, am gzaze ki Tavi istoriulma paliativma _ CrdiloeTis parabizantiurma samyarom SesTavaza. sabam cxovreba da Zalisxmeva or mizans miuZRvna: istoriis sivrceze gafantuli Cveni sulierebis fragmentTa SekavSirebas da Cveni samyaros erTian qristianul kosmosSi dabrunebis ideas. sxvagvarad SeuZlebeli iyo Cveni `istoriaSi dabruneba~. es amocanebi mWidrod iyo erTmaneTze gadabmuli da erTi meoris gareSe ver Sesruldeboda, xolo Tu mainc Sesruldeboda, amiT mxolod sicocxle gauxangZliv-

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deboda istoriis fataluri Zalebisgan ganwirul qveyanas. am cxovrebaze Tvalis zerele gadavlebiTac Cven kidev erTxel vxdebiT mowmeni tragediisa, Tu rogor SeiZleba, diadi mizandasaxulebebi da araCveulebrivi gamWriaxobiTa da rudunebiT mofiqrebuli proeqtebi istoriuli bedis ulmobelobam moinelos; istoria am dros, Turme, raRac sxvis gamoTqmas cdilobda da gansxvavebuli gzebiT midioda Tavisi miznebisaken. sabas cxovreba am azriTac aris arakonteqstualuri, Tumca ki miT ufro gmiruli da mniSvnelovania radgan misi yaidis moRvaweebi, sabolood, swored arakonteqstualurobiT poveben TavianT Rirsebasa da Rirebulebas da ufalic maTi meSveobiT CvenTvis idumal saTqmels gamoTqvams.

damowmebani: makari antioqieli 1982: makari antioqieli. cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb. krebuli `armaRani~, 1, Tb.: 1982.

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malxaz xarbedia

20 mokle mogoneba

`mogzauroba evropaSi~ _ teqstis arqeologiis mcdeloba giorgi leoniZem sulxan-saba orbelians `vnebiani moarake~ uwoda. am sityvebSi poeti da filologi 20-30 wlis sulxans gulisxmobda, ori mefis, giorgi XI-isa da arCilis aRzrdils, sityvebis SekrebiTa da ambebis TxrobiT gatacebul axalgazrdas, romelic im droisTvis jer arc garejis udabnos gzas dadgomoda da arc mefis karze misuliyo erTgul msaxurad. wlebis Semdeg `vnebiani moarake~ vnebian moqadaged iqceva, mere vnebian moRvawed, bolos ki, saba mogzaurobas daiwyebs. asakSi, roca sxvebi Sin brundebian xolme, saba 3 wliT datovebs samSoblos da ucxo qveyanaSi `gaipareba~. es iqneba sevdiani mogzauroba vnebiani mogonebebiT. saba-mogzaurze mozrdili eses dawera SeiZleba, adamianze, vinac pirveli didi mogzauroba 55 wlisam wamoiwyo da romeli mogzaurobac Semdeg mTeli misi darCenili cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi gagrZelda: eseSi ambavi evropaSi gamgzavrebiT daiwyeboda, ufro sworad, goridan gaparviT, Semdeg ki, gzad, sanam saba patr riSarTan erTad gelaTamde mividoda, misi Zveli diplomatiuri mogzaurobebis ambavsac movyvebodiT. movyvebodiT Zalian mokled, radgan mis Sesaxeb bevri araferi viciT, viciT mxolod is, rom `orianobis~ dros (giorgi XI-sa da erekle I nazaralixanis mefobisas) saba giorgi XI-is sasargeblod molaparakebebs awarmoebda axalcixis faSasTan (gabaSvili 1959: 72) da rom igi iranSic araerTxel iyo namyofi. gelaTidan igi zRvisken gaemgzavreboda, Semdeg konstantinepolisken, aqedan marselSi, parizSi da ukan, marselSi. mere italia, romi, florencia, sicilia, malta, saberZneTi, kunZulebi, isev konstantinepoli da isev saqarTvelo, kvlav SuRliTa da uimedobiT savse. ramdenime weliwadSi saba kidev erTxel gaemgzavreboda saqarTvelodan, ukve moxucebuli (67 wlisa) amjerad samudamod datovebda qveyanas da Tavis TanamoazreebTan erTad Seudgeboda `mTasa didsa kavkasiisasa msgavs jojoxeTisa, sadac iyo mravali gamomdinare TovlTa da yinulTagan. esred Zniad gansavlel iyo qvesknelsa mas Sina ufskrulsa yinulisasa,

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orbi, ginda arwivi, masca verRa eZlo muniT amosvla, arcaRa Tu eseodenTa uricxvTa dedawulTa~1. es sabas ukanaskneli mogzauroba iyo da am grZel gzaze mas ukve albaT aRaraferi akvirvebda. arada 1713-1715 wlebSi, sanam saba konstantinepolSi dabrundeboda, igi aRtacebiT iyo savse, xnieri kaci ymawviluri gaocebiT aTvalierebda yvelafers, rac axali Semoxvdeboda gzad da daxasiaTebisas arc sityvebs iSurebda da arc aRmatebiT xarisxs erideboda. mis teqstSi araerTxel SexvdebiT, `uangariSo ucxoebs~, `kacis gunebis miuwdomels~, `SvenebulobiT~ gamorCeul, `gasakvirval~, `daujerebel~ sagnebs, romelsac vera ena ver gamoTqvams da risi naxvis Semdegac `kacis guls Wiri ukueyreba~. saba ase cdilobda TanamedroveTa dajerebas: `vinc daijerebT, es Cemi TvaliT minaxavs, vinc ara da Tqven iciT~, `daijereT, ase iyo. amis meti ra giTxra~, `daijereT marTalia~, "rac sanaxavebi vnaxo aRiwereba, magram rasac SeviZleb ucxoebs vecdebi davwero. daijereT, romi aseTia. as wels sul iaros kacma mis sakvirvelobas verc gauvides, verc daasrulos. magram me rasac SeviZleb, Cems naxuls marTals davwer. egeba gegonosT qebisaTvis nametnavi davwero. usacilod daijereT, rasac vwer naklebia da masac Tavs gausvlelsa da SeuZlebelsa. daijereT, naxevars maSinac ver mivswvdebi, rom ver SeviZel daswavla da dawera naxevrisa~ [30gv. B35] (teqsti damowmebulia silomon yubaneiSvilis gamocemis (1940) mixedviT). xSirad didi mesityve TiTqos far-xmals yris da wamocdeba xolme: `misi msgavsi ar minaxavs. ra ena ityvis...~, `jer im siucxove ara minaxavs ra, ar daiwereba. ra ganiSno?~, `ekklesiis qebas ver dagiwer~, `rogor iTqmis~, `ras ityvis kacis ena~, erTgan ki sulac ambobs: `SigniT SevidodiT, ise gveucxovis, gareT gamovidiT, SigniT Sesvla aRar mogvindis~-o. es wigni ucxoobisa da gancvifrebis wignia, axali qarTuli enis "Sesaqme", sadac sul ramdenime aTeuli gverdis manZilze SegviZlia Tvalyuri vadevnoT Tu rogor viTardeba ena, rogor iSveba aRweris sruliad axali unarebi, xerxebi, ibadeba axali sityvebi, pirvelad xdeba nivTebis, adgilebisa da qmedebebis saxeldeba. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani isaa, rom Cveni mogzauri mravalwliani gamocdilebis mqone leqsikografia, igi imavdroulad Cveni marko polocaa da semuel jonsonic, igia adamiani, vinac aTwleulebi mounda, raTa Tavis samSobloSi yvelafrisTvis moeZebna saxeli, Semdeg ki wlebi imogzaura, raTa am yvelafris gamoxsnisTvis

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ebrZola. 1713 wlamde saba cxovrobda saxelTaTvis, Semdeg ki igi mogzaurobda qveynisaTvis. es iyo urTulesi gza aRmniSvnelidan -- aRsaniSnisken, teqstidan -- realobisken, sityvebidan -- sagnebisken. amgvari realurobis Tu sagnobriobis miuxedavad, sabas ukanaskneli teqsti mainc didi literaturaa. `evropaSi mogzauroba~ jer kidev elis naratologis TvaliT wakiTxvas, jer kidev bolomde ganusazRvrelia misi adgili samogzauro Janris qarTul da msoflio nimuSebs Soris, kargi iqneboda Tanamedrove leqsikologisa da geografosis kvlevac gvexila am teqstze2, rom araferi vTqvaT `mogzaurobis~ xelovnebaTmcodneobiT an istoriul wakiTxvebze. Cemi statia nawilobriv am istoriul wakiTxvasac gulisxmobs, amitom Zalian mokled movxazav imdroindel viTarebas: 1709 wels avRaneTSi ajanyebulebi hklaven giorgi XI-s, 1712 wels igive bedi eweva giorgi XI-is Zmiswuls, qaixosro mefesac. qaixosros Zma, janiSini vaxtangi mefobis misaRebad sparseTSi miemgzavreba (1712 wlis aprilSi) sulxan-sabasTan erTad. sami Tvis Semdeg saba ukan dabrunda, Tumca vaxtang VI ispahanSi kidev 2 weli darCa, 1714 wlis martamdis, roca islamis aRiarebaze uaris gamo igi qirmans gadaasaxles. sabam mogzauroba vaxtangis gadasaxlebamde daiwyo da misi Tavdapirveli mizani aRzrdilis qrTamiT gamoxsna da evropasTan savaWro urTierTobis damyareba iyo. ukve 1712-1713 wlebSi intensiuri mimowera iyo vaxtangsa da ludovikos, sabasa da paps, evropel misionerebsa da evropel saxelmwifo moxeleebs Soris. amaze detalurad ar SevCerdebiT (gabaSvili 1959: 61-77), ubralod SegaxsenebT, rom mTavar sakiTxad maSin kavkasiis 24 provinciis kaToliked moqceva da safrangeTis savaWro gzis saqarTveloze gavla idga. 1714 wlis zamTarSi marselSi sulxan-sabam, abatma riSarma da dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikosis, grigolis (lorTqifaniZis) warmomadgenelma, daviT berma (franguli wyaroebis mixedviT, David Mingrelien) marselSi galerebisa da vaWrobis generaluri intendantis, pier d'arnu-s xelmZRvanelobiT Seadgines memorandumi,3 saidanac cxadad irkveva, rom upirveles sakiTxad savaWro urTierToba idga. memorandumis sruli saTauri ase JRerda: `memorandumi imis Sesaxeb, Tu risi gakeTeba SeiZleba, erTi mxriv, romis kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis dasamkvidreblad, vaWrobis dasamyareblad, rogorc saqarTvelodan, aseve mis mezobel xalxebTan, meore

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mxriv, mefis Zalauflebisa da safrangeTis vaWrobis gaZlierebisTvis levantsa da aRmosavleTSi, kerZod TurqebTan da sparselebTan~. sulxan-sabas aseve SeTanxmebis Tavisi proeqti hqonda wardgenili, sadac 6 ZiriTadi muxli iyo: `pirveli, rom es mefe (vaxtangi) miscems saWiro saxls safrangeTis konsuls Tvis dedaqalaq TbilisSi. meore, rom is Tavisi xarjiT Seinaxavs konsuls da misi udidebulesobis yvela qveSevrdoms, romlebic gaivlian saqarTveloze an iq dahyofen. mesame, rom is uzrunvelhyofs yovelive safrTxisgan saqonels, romlebsac frangebi Camoitanen safrangeTidan da romelsac isini gaatareben saqarTveloze sparseTSi wasaRebad da an piriqiT, romelsac isini Camoitanen sparseTidan saqarTveloSi. meoTxe, rom is kisrulobs kidec xarjebs yvela saqonlis sparseTidan Sav zRvamde da Savi zRvidan sparseTis zRvamde misatanad. mexuTe, rom is miscems saWiro sawyobebs, rogorc Savi zRvis axlos, samegreloSi, aseve Tavis samflobeloSi. meeqvse, rom is miscems frang sovdagrebs saSualebas, awarmoon vaWroba mezobel CerqezebTan, agreTve awarmoon xelsayreli vaWroba Tavis qveSevrdomebTan da megrelebTan abreSumeulobiT, matyliT, cviliT da sxva saqonliT~. rogorc mogvianebiT gairkva (da amis Sesaxeb, rogorc Cans, sulxan-sabam araferi icoda), parizis elCoba sabas vizitis dasawyisidanve safrTxis qveS idga. devid lengi wers, rom sabas elCobis warmatebiT dasrulebas sparseTis elCis, mohamed riza-xanis im dros parizSi yofnamac SeuSala xeli. Turme frangi diplomatebi yvelanairad cdilobdnen, rom mas ar gaego sabas vizitis Sesaxeb (Lang, 122). Zalian mokled ase SeiZleba daxasiaTdes istoriuli konteqsti, romelic sulxan-sabas mogzaurobas daedo safuZvlad da ris Sedegadac qarTul literaturas kidev erTi mniSvnelovani Zegli Seemata. rogorc aRvniSneT, `mogzauroba evropaSi~ jer kidev elis namdvil wamkiTxvelebs, Cemi statia mxolod erT-erTi aseTi wakiTxvis nimuSi SeiZleba iyos, romelsac pirobiTad `teqstis arqeologia~ vuwode. igi ZiriTadad avtoris pirad mogonebebs eyrdnoba, ufro sworad ki, am mogonebebis gacocxlebas, ganmartebas, axsnasa da istoriul-kulturul konteqstSi mis Casmas emsaxureba. yvela es mogoneba saqarTvelosTana dakavSirebuli, amitomac ganmartebaTa am krebuls `sulxan-saba da misi

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dro~-c SegviZlia vuwodoT. marTalia sabas Tanadrouli saqarTvelos Sesaxeb bevri sxva wyaroc arsebobs, magram CemTvis yvelaze saintereso swored sabas TvaliT da sityviT danaxuli saqarTvelo iqneboda. misi igav-arakebi wminda teqstualuri samyaroa, aq mxolod ena da narativi batonobs, `swavlani~ zneobaze gvesaubreba, Sesabamisad, mxolod `leqsikoni~ da `evropaSi mogzauroba~ gvrCeba istoriul-privatuli xasiaTis teqstebad, sadac bevri ram SegviZlia amovikiTxoT avtorisa da qveynis Sesaxeb. am mxriv namdvilad gamoirCeva sabas ukanaskneli teqsti, sadac erTi ubralo literaturuli figuris, Sedarebis wyalobiT 20-mde saintereso abzaci dagrovda. am abzacebSi saba ucxoobis gasaneleblad amaTuim evropul movlenas Tavis qveyanas adarebs. ixsenebs adamianebs, siwmindeebs, saxelebs, faqtebs, adgilebs, nivTebs da am gaxsenebiT Cvenc gvaZlevs uflebas sul mcirediT mainc SevigrZnoT maSindeli surnelebi, wavikiTxoT kulturuli niSnebi, movxazoT geografiuli sazRvrebi. Cveni statiis ZiriTad nawils swored es `mogonebebi~ da masze `komentarebi~ Seadgens. komentarebs win uZRvis sabas sruli marSruti, romelic teqstis mixedviT SevadgineT da romelic uzustes Tanamedrove rukebTanaa Sejerebuli.

sabas marSruti4

gori5 > odiSi (gelaTi an senaki?6) > foTi?7 > konstantinepoli > marseli > parizi > marseli > antibi (Antibes, s.s. tantib qalaqi) > nica (Nice, s.s. nisi), savoiis (s.s. sabia) batonis qalaqi > vilfranSi (Villefranche-sur-Mer, s.s. lafranga8) > monakomde oTxi magari cixe gaiares, zRvispira > monako (Monaco) > mentoni (Menton, s.s. manto qalaqi) > amis Semdeg ukve genuis (s.s. jenevias) TemSi Sevidnen > san remo (San Remo, s.s. senerem qalaqi) > porto mauricio (Porto Maurizio, s.s. fiortumori) > onelia (neglia, s.s. oneli) > diano marina (Diano Marina, s.s. dina) > alasio (Alasio, s.s. arasio) > albenga (Albenga, s.s. arbewqo) > loano (oano, s.s. vania qalaqi) > finale ligure (Finale Ligure, s.s. fins qalaqi) > noli (oli, s.s. nori) > s.s.-s limoniloSi albaT luminela igulisxmeba (Luminella), adgili nolis dasavleTiT9 > savona (Savona, s.s. saona) > genua (Genova, s.s. jenevia), "sulobiT ase Senoba iyo gabmiT, sasaxle da walkotebi, rom erTi qalaqi gegoneboda" > porto-

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fino (Portofino, s.s. portufeni) > masa (Massa, s.s. masa) > livorno (Livorno, s.s. alikorni10) > piombino (Piombino, s.s. fombino) > samxreTiT kunZuls, elbas Cauares, aseve longones (Longone, s.s. forto longone, porto azuros Tavzea) > porto erkole (Porto Ercole, s.s. forte erkole, monte argentarios naxevarkunZulze) > Civitavekia (Civitavecchia, s.s. CivtaevTia) > romi > otrikoli (Otricoli, s.s. ostriko) > narni (Narni, s.s. narma) > terni (Terni, s.s. Terna) > spoleto (Spoleto, s.s. spoleto) > folinio (Foligno, s.s. folinio) > valCimara (Valcimarra, s.s. valCimara) > tolentino (Tolentino, s.s. toletino) > maCerata (Macerata, s.s. maCerTo) > rekanati (Recanati, s.s. raRanato), loreto (Loreto, s.s. lorenta, Semdeg laretasac eZaxis da loteriasac) > folinio (Foligno, s.s. folinio, am SemTxv. uolinios uwodebs) > asizi (Assisi, s.s. asiis qalaqi) > peruja (Peruggia, s.s. peruja) > kamuCa (Camucia, s.s. kamuCia) > areco (Arezzo, s.s. areco) > florencia (Firenze, s.s. florenca) > piza (isa, s.s. fisa) > palermo (Palermo, s.s. palermo) > mesina (Messina, s.s. misina) > rejio di kalabria (Reggio di Calabria, s.s. rja) > augusta (Augusta, s.s. gusta) > sirakuza (Siracusa, s.s. sirakuza (`CamoviareT miRmad da davinaxeT~)) > malta (Malta, s.s. malTa) > morea (Morea, s.s. mora, peloponesis naxevarkunZulis Zveli saxelwodeba) > k. evbea (igive negroponte, Negroponte, s.s. neRra ponto) > k. qiosi (s.s qio, saxizi) > mitilene, k. lesbosi (s.s. mitilini, bitilimi, bidlimi) > smirna, izmiri (s.s. zmirinis zRva, qalaqi) > anatolias Cauares (s.s. marjvniv anadoli, anadolze axlo viarebodiT) > galipoli (Gallipoli, s.s. kali poli, marmarilos zRvasTan: `kali poli erTi momcro Zveli qalaqia, zRvis pirs, urumelSi~) > konstantinopoli > aTina > xofa > Cxala > gonio > nigalis xevi > artanuji > artani > aboci > Tbilisi.

metexi

sabas pirveli Sedareba-mogoneba swored Tbiliss ukavSirdeba: `movediT monako qalaqsa. zRvaSi erTi klde Sesuliyo Tbilisis metexsaviTa~ [4gv. A28v]. maSin metexis cixes avlabris cixesac uwodebdnen. XVIII saukuneSi cixe or nawilad iyofoda, maRla da dabla cixeebad da saerTod, im periodis metexi ar aRiqmeboda mxolod kldovan monakveTze SemozRudul teritoriad. ro-

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gorc vaxuStis gegmidan Cans, metexis galavani tfilisis cixe-galavnis gagrZelebaa: `Tbilisis cixis ubani da avlabris metexis ubani erTi mTliani obieqtia, galavniT SemozRuduli, romelsac mtkvari Suaze hyofs. mtkvarze gadebuli xidic ZiriTadad am or gamagrebul punqtTa SemaerTebelia~ (berZniSvili 1965: 55). sabas droisTvis metexi bolojer rostom xanis periodSi iyo ganaxlebuli (1634-1658 wlebs Soris). rostomma am periodSi datova isnis sasaxle da mtkvris napiras, anCisxatsa da sions Soris aaSena axali sasaxle (1638 wels). manve aago xidi metexze da Sig sparsuli garnizoni Caayena.11 vaxtang V Sahnavazma 1661 wels metexi saTofiswamled aqcia (ioseliani 1866: 23). male taZari mexma daaziana, 1689 wels ki erekle I-ma (nazaralixanma) cixec da taZaric sparselebs gadasca, romelsac kvlav Tofiswamlis sawyobisTvis iyenebdnen. Teimuraz II-is qarTlSi gamefebisas (XVIII saukunis 40-ian wlebSi) dabla cixe carieli iyo, cixis karTan ki sanexve yofila (berZniSvili 1965: 57). XVIII saukunis 50-60 wlebSi aq ukve gvarjilisa da Tofiswamlis qarxana aago mikirtum TayoaSvilma, riyis mxares, metexis karis midamoebSi. avlabris cixes kari darejanis sasaxlis zemoT hqonda, Tumca sulxan sabas dros am cixes sxva karic unda hqonoda, romelic erekles periodSi ukve nakarevad ixsenieba. 1723 wels, Turqebis mier Tbilisis aRebis Semdeg iyo mcdeloba metexis kidev ufro kargad gamagrebisa, magram Turqebi metexidan nadir-Sahma gandevna da es Canafiqri ver aRsrulda (ioseliani 1866: 240). sainteresoa maSindeli Tbilisis mdgomareobac. vaxtang VI-is dros Tbiliss aRmavlobis xana daudga. rogorc im periodis somexi istorikosi, esaia wers: `didi xnidan mtrebs ar SeuZrwunebiaT da mSvidobiT tkbeboda umdidresi da saukeTeso qalaqi Tbilisi; mamakacebi iq Sromismoyvare vaWrebia, xolo maTi colebi da qaliSvilebi, lamazebi da aRzrdilebi, sargebloben Seudarebeli cxovrebiT, simdidriTa da fufunebiT. cxovroben isini saucxoo darbazebSi -- mdidrulad morTuli avejeulobiTa da yovelgvari saojaxo nivTebiT... spilenZis WurWleulobis magier aqvT oqrosa da vercxlis; ra unda vTqva me im didebul eklesiaTa simdidris Sesaxeb, romelnic floben oqrosa da verclis nivTebs, romelnic morTulni iyvnen farCebiT da sxva mravalgvari SemkulobebiT~ (gvritiSvili... 1952: 162-163). am periodSi, vaxuStis sityviT, vaxtangma `daamdablna TaTarni da umetes tfi-

36

lisis cixis mcvelni~ (vaxuSti 1973: 482 -- 5-6), Tumca es periodi, samwuxarod didxans ar gagrZelda. 1723 wels Tbilisi orjer aiRes osmalebma, maisSi da ivlisSi, vaxtang VI ki iZulebuli gaxda ruseTSi gadaxvewiliyo. Tavad mefe werda: `mere urumT jari Camovida qarTlSi da Cven aRar dagvindes da saqarTveloSi veRarsad davdeqiT. wamovediT ruseTis xelmwifesTana da Tan gviaxla sulxan yofili, saba~ (leoniZe 1940: 104).

muguTis msgavsi alagebi

liguriaSi `mravali magari cixe da soflebi CamoviareT, magram dids adgils venaxovani sul wamxdariyo. kedlebi aeSenaT, gverdze moesworebinaT, zeda venaxebi aeSenaT, magram srulobiT gaoxrebuliyo. vikiTxe: rato wamxdara meTqi. miTxres: miwa ar vargebulao. magram Tu miwa ar vargiyo, imdeni auarebeli venaxi rad aaSenes? muguTis msgavsi alagebi iyo~ [6gv. B2]. aSkaraa, rom saba aq terasul venaxebs gulisxmobs, gansakuTrebiT, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT, rom dResac, mTeli liguriis mxare terasuli venaxebiTaa ganTqmuli. gakvirvebas iwvevs erTi faqti, kerZod ki is, rom daxasiaTebisas sabam ar gamoiyena terasuli venaxebis aRmniSvneli ZvelqarTuli termini, orokebi, sityva, romelic swored sulxan-sabas `sityvis konam~ Semogvinaxa. `oroko~ masTan ganimarteba rogorc `miwa baqan-baq(a)nad movakebuli. walkotTa da sayanurTa xarisxni movakebad~. orokebiT ganTqmuli iyo mesxeTis mxare, Tumca rogorc sabas SeniSvnidan irkveva, qarTlSic iyo gavrcelebuli am tipis xelovnurad amoSenebuli baqanniadagebi, kerZod ki liaxvis xeobaSi, sof. muguTis garSemo. sxvaTa Soris, sityva oroki Semoinaxa gurulma kilom, romliTac XIX saukuneSi mSral Tixnar niadags aRniSnavdnen.

mazmanuri

erT sneulTa msaxurze ambobs: `saWmels uzidavda sneulebs... imisi advili samsaxuri es aris da msofliuri cxovreba. ase sneulebs msaxurebs. sul mTliv fexSiSvela, SiSvels tans msxvili mazmanuri, qarTveli qvrivebi ro Caicvemdnen, ise Wreli acvia~ [10gv. B8].

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sabas `sityvis konaSi~ mazmani ganmartebulia rogorc balnis msTveli, balnis mgrexeli, xolo mazmanurSi igulisxmeboda matylidan damzadebuli uxeSi qsovili, romlisganac, rogorc irkveva, ikeravdnen tansacmels qarTleli qvrivebi. sxvaTa Soris, maSindel saqarTveloSi glexis qalis Cacmuloba Tavad-aznaurTa wridan gamosuli qalis Cacmulobisgan TiTqmis arafriT ganirCeoda. `gansxvavebuli Tavisebureba ufro kostumis elementTa Rirebulebis metnaklebobaSi gamoixateboda, zogjer ki, rogorc irkveva, zRvari am xaziTac iSleboda~ (boWoriSvili 1947: 199). glovis periodSi ki qals usaTuod Talxi feris (lurji an Savnarevi) TeTreuli unda cmoda.12

odiSi

`ra alikornis sazRvarSi SevediT, davakeba Seiqmna. odiSis msgavsi adgili, tyiani, brtyeli. Sors maRali mTebi moCanda~ [14gv. B13].

vaxuSti odiSis Sesaxeb wers: `da ars queyana ese mgzavsi vakisa da umetes nayofieri da tyiani. <...> zafxuls zRÂis pirni vakeni cxeli da ara gauZlisi <...> xolo aw egrisi upyravsT afxazTa, da mas zeiTi samÃris kerZo dadiansa. kualad queyana ese ars friad tyiani, mTiT baramde, da mcire velovani. mdinareTa kideni Walovanni da vakeTa adgilni ewerni, bardovan-talax-WanWrobiani da friad wÂmiani. amisgan ars friad notioba, garna uvnebeli" (vaxuSti 1973: 777, 21. 782, 8-9, 783, 14-21). sabas dros odiSis didi nawili afxazebs epyraT, amasTan dakavSirebiT pirvel rigSi unda gavixsenoT Tedo Jordanias ,,qronikebSi~ damowmebuli XVII-e saukunis meore naxevarSi moRvawe qalis, anika qorToZis (qorTua) minaweri caiSis saxarebaze: `mermeT afxazis laSqari movida, taZars mouxda da Cven didsa gaWirvebasa da SiSsa qveSe SevvardiTo~ (Jordania 1897: 467). mixeil TamaraSvils mohyavs juzepe Zampis werili, sadac vkiTxulobT: `samegrelo samegrelo aRar aris, radgan omis gamo ukanasknel siglaxakeSia Cavardnili... axla kacs ar SeuZlia uSiSrad iyos. mudam afxazebis dacemis SiSia, radgan aqaurebs xSirad ikleben~ (TamaraSvili 1902: 205). cnobilia, rom XVII saukunis bolos saqarTveloSi imogzaura ierusalimis patriarqma dosiTeosma (1641-1707). odiSis Sesaxeb igi werda, rom mTeli samegrelo afxazebis mier iyo ganadgurebuli, cxumidan, vidre cxeniswylamde (tuRuSi 2001: 22). `garna iyo Wiri didi

38

odiSs, viTarca aRvswereT, da umetes afxazTagan, rameTu movidodian navebiTa da ÃmeliTa da styuevnidian, daipyres vidre egrisis mdinaredmde, da daeSeneboden TÂT afxazni da arRara iyo drandas da moqus episkoposni~ (vaxuSti 1973: 845, 19-23). XVII-XVIII saukuneebis mijnaze afxaz feodalebs ukve RaliZgamde hqondaT dakavebuli odiSis teritoria da odiSis mTavarma giorgi IV dadianma (kacia Ciqovanis vaJma) imereTis mbrZanebels, giorgi malaqia abaSiZes Txova daxmareba. sabas gamgzavrebis periodSi swored giorgi IV dadiani iyo odiSis gamgebeli13 da rogorc vaxuSti wers: giorgi `srvida uwyalod da hyidda tyued odiSarTa~ (vaxuSti 1973: 846, 1-2). calke aRniSvnis Rirsia dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikosi, grigoli, romelmac sulxan-saba da patri riSari Sav zRvamde gaacila. riSaris sityviT, mas araerTxel gamouTqvams kaTolike eklesiasTan SeerTebis survili da iTxovda misionerebis gamogzavnas sam adgilas dasayeneblad, samegreloSi, imereTsa da afxazeTSi, romelic maSin `warmarTuli~ iyo. sabasa da Tu sxvaTa mimoweraSi es faqti araerTxel gaielvebs, svadasxva interpretaciiT. XVIII saukunis italieli mogzauris, qsaverio glavani imasac wers, afxazebis garda samegrelos mosaxleobac warmarTebi ariano, da iqve aCikbaSebsac axsenebs da maTac warmarTebad miiCnevs (glavani 1893: 37)14.

qarTveli moqalaqeebi evropaSi

`alikornaSi oTxiod qarTveli moqalaqe iyvnes. erTi tertera, samni sxvani: erTi somxis saydari miqes, vera vnaxe~

[14gv. B14]. im droSi sul ramdenime qarTveli (an saqarTvelodan wasuli) viciT, romlebmac imogzaures, swavlobdnen an moRvaweobdnen evropaSi. pirvel rigSi unda vaxsenoT ioseb qarTveli, romelic safrangeTis saelCos Tarjimani iyo sparseTSi. rogorc varaudoben, ioseb qarTveli SeiZleba iyos sabas `Zveli megobari iosebi~, romelic vaxtang VI-m gaagzavna safrangeTSi sabasTan. aseve viciT sulxan-sabas kidev erTi Tanamedrove, gaspar qarTveli, romelsac marTalia evropis movla ar dascalda (gardaicvala 1701 wels), magram mis gakaTolikebas daaxloebiT iseTive mniSvneloba hqonda, rogorc sabasTvis. gaspari marTlmadidebeli iyo. mas evropuli wyaroebi qarTvels uwodeben (aseve keTilSo-

39

bils, Nobleman) da masTan erTad elCobaSi monawile somexi vaWrebisgan ganarCeven (gabaSvili 1959: 65).15

yabaxi

3 ivliss romSi, wminda petres eklesiis sanaxavad misuli, saba erT "momcro mindorze" aRmoCndeba16. `oTx pirad,

mgrgvalad ormoc-ormoci qvis svetia amarTuli. TviTo eqvs adls umaRlea, sam kamarad Sekruli, mosworebuli da zeidam sul wmidaT saxeebi qvisa, gaTlili dganan. mindors Sua erTi oTxkuTxa qva, yabaxs umaRlea, mTeli da zed jvari amarTuli~ [17gv. B18].

maSindeli yabaxi (saasparezo vake adgili axlandeli aleqsandrovis baRis qveda nawilSi) SedarebiT gviani periodis dokumentebSi moixsenieba rogorc `gareTubnis moedani~ (aseve, medani, asparezi). Sardenis wignisTvis darTul Tbilisis xedze yabaxi jer kidev ar Cans da rogorc varaudoben, saasparezo adgilad misi Camoyalibeba XVII saukunis bolos, XVIII-is dasawyisSi unda momxdariyo, mas Semdeg, rac gareTubanSi mosaxleobis ricxvma imata (beriZe 1977: 47). qalaqidan am moednamde gza Sua karis qvemoT, avanaanT xevze gadebuli xidiTa da Semdeg vanqis sasaflaos zemodan (dasavleTidan) movliT midioda (berZniSvili 1965: 49). imdroindel yabaxze sakmaod detaluri warmodgena SegviZlia SeviqmnaT 1735 wels, vaxuStis mier Sedgenili gegmidan. gegmaze yabaxis siaxloves kargad Cans `yaibulas baRi~, romelic grZel oTxkuTxedadaa aRniSnuli. sainteresoa, rom es baRi sabuTebSic Cans. magaliTad, sabas gamgzavrebamde 1 wlis adre daiwera nasyidobis wigni, romliTac yaibulanT qaixosro hyidis `baRs yabaxs. zeiT~ (berZniSvili 1965: 50). yabaxTan maSindeli wyaroebi axseneben aseve saquros (saagures, agurxanas). yabaxze dawerili istoriuli Tu literaturuli teqstebidan gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs aRdgomis dResaswaulis vaxuStiseuli aRwera: "xolo aRdgomis wesi iyo adre naTlebisad wirva da Semdgomad wirvisa mcirediTa sanovagiTa xorcTaTa aRixsnidian pirTa mefe da didebulni. Semdgomad gamovidis mefe da yovelni warCinebulni da mcirebulni asparezsa zeda da dasvian samefo Tasi oqrosi anu vecxlisa yabaxsa zeda, dauwyian srola mas Tassa isarni moymeTa da WabukTa, da romeli Camoagdis isriTa, mas miscian Tasi igi. Semdgomad amisa Seqmnian burToba da romelman

40

mxareman ajobis, iyo mxare-Talarni samefoni, da miscian maT TviToTa TviTo (egreTve qorwilisa, didgamomCvenebisa dResa Sina yvian ese asparezsa zeda). merme Semovidian mefisa Tana da Seqmnian nadimni da purobani didni mgosan-saxiobiTa. aramed kaTalikozni da episkopozni vidremdis iyvnen mun, ara iyo mwyobrTa ZalTa cemani, aramed _ galobani. xolo Semdgomad warslvisa maTisa iyo mgosanTa, momReralTa da yovelTa saxiobTa cemani~ (vaxuSti 1973: 29-30, 17-25, 15). aseve Teimuraz batoniSvilis `dRisa da Ramis gabaasebaSi~:

`rodis iqnebis qorwili an sxva dReoba kargio, yabaxzed oqros vaSls Sesmen Zvirfasis, iyos vargio, karga dakazmuls cxens isxden, zed ar ekidos bargio, kurtakianTa vaJTa Tqvan: "srolaSi, mklavo, margio!~

yabaxze hqonia sasaxle iese batoniSvils (aliyuli-xans), romelic 1714-1716 wlebSi qarTlis mefis taxtze ijda. rogorc platon ioseliani wers Tavis wignSi, iese batoniSvili aqvea dakrZaluli (ioseliani 1866: 250)17.

muzeumi?

kardinalTan nanax ucxo nivTebs Soris saba asaxelebs:

`batonis salaroSi Roris kbilsaviT rom kbilia, ori misTana, magram imtoli ver iyo. kacis Tavi gaqvavebuli, soko gaqvavebuli. es qarTlSiac minaxavs~ [38gv. B46].

amaze komentars akeTebs sabas teqstis gamomcemeli, s. iordaniSvili: `saba aq gvawvdis metad saintereso cnobebs saqarTveloSi `muzeumis~ Canasaxisas, batonis salaroSi. sayuradReboa agreTve misi paleontologiuri cnobebi qarTlis gaqvavebul cxovelTa da mcenareTa Sesaxeb~.

vaxtangis karis eklesia

romSi: `iqidam migviyuanes erTs domenikaanT dedaT monasterSi. ekklesia momcro iyo, magram sakvirvelad sakvirveli Semkuli iyo. sul feradi marmarilo. amis meti ra giTxra. vaxtangis karis ekklesiad davnatre: me mimaZRnobina meTqi~ [42gv. B52]. rogorc Cans, saubaria wm. giorgis karis eklesiaze batonis sasaxlesTan, romelic 1710 wels aago simon batoniSvilma, vaxtangis Zmam. sabas mogzaurobisas eklesia SesaZloa

41

jer kidev ar iyo bolomde dasrulebuli da albaT amiT aixsneba misi aseTi zrunva Sesamkobelze. am adgilas adre uZvelesi, mTavarangelozis saxelobis V saukuneSi agebuli eklesia iyo, romelic Temur lengs daungrevia 1398 wels. mis nangrevebze 1640 wels rostom xanma sami eklesia aagebina. 1). ioane naTlismcemlis saxelobaze, rostomis sasaxlis win. 2). batonis moedanze, xarebisa da 3). wm. giorgis eklesia, romelsac 1747 wels18, erekle II-sTan dapirispirebis dros, ieses Svilis, abdula-begis momxre mecixovneebis mier metexis cixis zarbaznidan nasroli yumbara moxvda samxreT kedelze da daaziana. am taZarTan bevri saintereso istoria da legendaa dakavSirebuli. aqve inaxeboda wm. giorgis uZvelesi xati da wminda nawilebi.

biblioTeka

24 ivliss saba papis `samwignobroSi~ waiyvanes: `sxva yovlisa rjulisa da yovlisa enisa wignebi iyo. mravali veZebe qarTuli wignebi, ver vipove, arsad Cnda~ [52 gv. B55].19 pirveli qarTuli nabeWdi wignebi, rogorc cnobilia, 1629 wliT TariRdeba. sabas evropaSi mogzaurobisTvis qarTul wignis beWdvas 100 wliani istoriac ki ar hqonda da amitom, cxadia, qarTuli wignebis raodenoba Zalze SezRuduli iyo. 1629 wels, romSi gamocemuli `qarTuli anbani locvebiT~, stef. paolinisa da nik. irbaxis `qarTul-italiuri leqsikonis~ da fr. m. majos `qarTuli gramatikis~ Semdeg 50 welze meti unda gasuliyo, sanam qarTuli wignis beWdvis sakiTxi kidev erTxel wamoiwevda win. 1683 wlis 23 seqtembers ierusalimis patriarqi werda mefe arCil II-s: `sixaruliT minda gacnoboT. qarTulad beWdvis SemoReba gadavwyviteT, dae, qarTuli wignebic ise ibeWdebodes aq, rogorc berZnuli~ (ioseliani 1866: 134). Tedo Jordanias varaudiT, 1696-1697 wlebSi Camosul ierusalimis patriarqs stambis mowyobis Taobaze vaxtang VI-sTan hqonda molaparakebebi. kidev erTi mniSvnelovani figura qarTuli wignis istoriaSi momavali kaTalikosi, vaxtang VI-is Zma, domentia20. saqme isaa, rom igi dosiTeos patriarqs gahyva ierusalimSi da wignis beWdvis saqmec iq Seiswavla. 1704 wels domenti kaTalikosad akurTxes da 1705-Si TbilisSi pirveli stambac daarsda21 (e.w. martivi, mcire warmadobis stamba), romelic 1709 wels anTimoz iverielis mier warmogzavnilma

42

iStvanoviCma srulhyo.22 am mcire stambaSi dabeWdili pirveli wigni daviTni iyo (1705). 1708 wels wels TbilisSi Camosulma iStvanoviCma erT wliwadSi dabeWda `saxareba~, `samociqulo~, `daviTni~ (1709), 1710-Si -- `kondaki~, `locvani~, `Jamni~, 1711-Si -- `daviTni~ (mesame gamocema), 1712 wels gamovida "daviTnis" meoTxe gamocema da rac mTavaria, `vefxistyaosani~. sabas evropaSi gamgzavrebis wels, 1713-Si gamocemuli Cans mxolod erTi wigni, sqeltaniani `kurTxevani~. saba wignebSi albaT gulisxmobda xelnawerebsac, rac maSin evropaSi kiara, saqarTveloSic ki Znelad ipoveboda. im wlebSi qveyanaSi Zveli xelnawerebis Zalze aqtiuri Zieba mimdinareobda. k. kekeliZis sityviT, XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi `gulmodgined daeZebdnen wina periodSi naTargmn Tu daweril Txzulebebs da dauRalavad iRebdnen maTgan pirebs~. XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi TbilisSi mdidari biblioTekebi arsebobda, swored am wesiT Tavmoyrili. gvaqvs cnobebic imis Sesaxeb, rom vaxtangis biZis, giorgi XI-is biblioTekiT Zalze xSirad sargeblobdnen kaTolike misionerebi (gabaSvili 1959: 65). es biblioTeka 1723 wels, jer mahmadyulixanis jaris, bolos ki osmalebis Semosvlis Semdeg TiTqmis mTlianad ganadgurda.

sionis RvTismSoblis xati

dominikanur dedaTa monasterSi `marjvena mxris trapezze luka maxarebelisagan daxatuli iyo. da erTs dids kuboSi esvena. sionTa RvTis mSoblis tolia. Ze marcxniv uzis~ [53gv. B66-67]. ukve 1713-1714 wlebisTvis sionis RvTismSoblis xatTan mravali legenda Tu realuri ambavi iyo dakavSirebuli, Tumca misi Tavgadasavalis yvelaze mZime periodi jer kidev win iyo. xati 1522 wels Sah-ismails Tbilisis aRebis Semdeg taZridan gamoutania, Zvirfasi qvebisgan ganuZarcvavs da mtkvarSi Caugdia. kaxeTis mefes, levan II-s xati navTluRSi, Tbilisis samxreTiT, oTxi versis daSorebiT, marcxena napirze upovia, kvlav Seumkia da isev sionis taZarSi daubrZanebia.23 arsebobda meore istoriac, romlis Tanaxmadac, Sahismails morTulobisgan ganZarcvili xati mtkvris piras, avlabris xidis yuresTan daudgams da tfilisel qristianTaTvis xatis gmoba da fexiT gaTelva ubrZanebia. urCebs sikvdiliT sjidnen. amis Semdeg xati mdinareSi gadaugdiaT

43

da mogvianebiT igi mtkvris marcxena napirze gamouriyavs, sadac igi erT kaxel glexs aRmouCenia, wauRia kaxeTSi da mefisTvis miurTmevia. kaxTa batons xati isev Zvirfasad Seumkia da sionSi daubrunebia, sadac igi 1724 wlamde, Turqebis Semosevamde esvena. ase iyo albaT 1713 welsac, sabas gamgzavrebis periodSi, Tumca 1723-1729 wlebSi, kaxeTis mefe mahmad-yuli xanis Semosevebis Semdeg sionis taZridan RvTismSoblis xati wauRiaT. xatis bedi ucnobia, zogis azriT igi gadaumalavT (ioseliani 1866: 118-119). XVIII saukunis 1762 wels sionis RvTismSoblis xatis nacvlad vaxtang VI-is vaJs, giorgis moskovSi `Seumzadebia~ da tfilisSi gamougzavnia Zvirfasad Semkuli xati24. Tavis mxriv, es xatic, 1795 wels gadaurCenia sparselebisgan ioane oseSvils da igi droebiT kaiSauris mTebSi gadaumalia.

`ganaTlebis reforma~

romSi saba erT monasters astumres, sadac `samadlod berZnis, somxis da arabis Svilebi da sxvaTa izdebian". sabam am ucxoeli ymawvilebis (eTiopelis, somxis, berZnis, egviptelis, asuris, sparsis da sxv.) qadagebebi moismina, bolos ki

"maTma episkoposma kidec mixumra: qarTveli gvaklia ymawvilebi gamogzavneo, ase vaswavlio da iqav gamovgzavnio. magram es arc xumroba iyo. marTla mTxova papis brZanebiTa ~ [75gv.

B95-96]. amasTan dakavSirebiT Zalze saintereso winadadebas vxvdebiT ormxriv memorandumSi, romelzec zemoT ukve gvqonda saubari. im monakveTSi, sadac saubaria saqarTveloSi gavrcelebul `dasaZrax Cveulebaze~, romelic sakuTari Svilebis Turqebze miyidvas gulisxmobs, vkiTxulobT: `isini emsaxurebian sazizRar Cveulebas, amcireben TavianT sakuTari qveynis mosaxleobas da amiT dRiTidRe, sul ufro da ufro isusteben Tavs... ar iqneboda Zalian Zneli erTdroulad gvesargebla yvela am mosazrebiT, vaiZuloT isini, Secvalon mizani, vurCioT, rom bavSvebi 12 wlis Sesrulebis Semdeg [gagzavnon safrangeTSi]... ufro gaTviTcnobierebulni iqnebian da SeeZlebaT mxari dauWiron Tavisi qveynis sarwmunoebas da samSobloSi dabrunebisas daexmaron maT cxovrebaSi~. im droSi, safrangeTis mTavrobas SeeZlo `mieRo yovelwliurad Tavadaznaurul wridan gamosuli, yvelaze ufro Rirseuli, 16 wlis asakis 15 an 20 axalgazrda, romlebic Camovidodnen safrangeTSi Tavisi surviliT da mSob-

44

lebis gankargulebiT. gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac isini aRizrdebodnen... kolejSi, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi SeiZleboda daarsebuliyo saqarTveloSi~ (tabaRua 1965: 100-101). es franguli ganaTleba ZiriTadad samxedro saqmes gulisxmobda da saqarTveloSi kolejis gaxsnis mcdelobac amas ukavSirdeboda. samwuxarod, es ormxrivi survili qarTuli `ganaTlebis sistemis~ reformirebisa, romelic romidan da lui XIV-is safrangeTidan momdinareobda, ganuxorcielebeli darCa da saqarTveloSi mxolod XIX saukunis 4050-iani wlebisTvis Camoyalibda erTi mxriv samxedro aristokratia, meore mxriv ki pirvelad gaCnda saSualeba sauniversiteto - marTalia rusuli _ ganaTlebis miRebisa.

asbestis xelsaxoci

romSi, erT-erT kardinalTan: `erTi sxvili tilos xeSi rom iqneba misaTana iyo... moukides cecxli... is tilo garecxilsaviT darCa. merme nakvercxali dauyares. patara saberveliT uberes. aegzno nakvercxali da garecxils gvanda. cecxlma ver daaklo ra. aTasi marCili eZlia franCisis kardinals da ar mieca. me riT SeviZlebdi syidvas, Tvara vaxtang mefisaTvis kai ZRveni iyo. is franCagvisagan aris. amiantos qvian. wignebSi qvad ara sweria. xed sweria. is qvac minaxavs. yeens gamoegzavna vaxtang mefisaTvis. amisi xelsaxoci egeba miSovno sadmeo~ [79gv. B101]. saubaria boWkovani mineralis, asbestis masalisgan moqsovil naWerze, romelic im periodSi Zalian Zvirad fasobda da rogorc vxedavT, iSviaTi nivTebis moyvarul vaxtang VI-s daubarebia sabasTvis. maSin jer kidev aravin icoda janmrTelobisTvis misi mavneblobis Sesaxeb, ufro metic, antikurobidan moyolebuli, asbestis naqsovTan legendebi iyo dakavSirebuli. sabas leqsikonSi amiantosis Sesaxeb vkiTxulobT: `ese bunebiT xe ars msgavsi qvisa da ganuleveli cecxlisagan, rameTu cecxlsa ra Sevides, ganakvercxlebuli hgonies, da ra gamoiRo, viTarca wyliTa garecxili, uwmides ars. misis ZafTagan tilo moiqsoeba~25. daaxloebiT aseve ganimarteba sabasTan `aminatoni~ (mciredi cvlilebebiT, mag. garecxilis nacvlad saba `ganbrkinvalebuls~ ambobs). samive am teqstis leqsikur erTeulTa Sedareba, aseve yeenisgan gamogzavnili `qvis~ ambavic gvafiqrebinebs, rom sabas romSi vizitamde nanaxi ar unda hqonoda es materia, aqedanve Seg-

45

viZlia vivaraudoT, rom Tavis `leqsikonSi~ sabam `amiantosis~ da `aminatonis~ Sesaxeb statiebi muSaobis meore etapze26, 1713-1716 wlebSi, evropaSi mogzaurobisas unda Seetana da maT, orives zemoTmoyvanili SeniSvna udevs safuZvlad.

bolo imedebi

`[papma] ase male ar gagiSvebdio, magram vaxtang mefis ukiTxavad wamosulxaro, rom dameWire imas guls daakldebao da wadi misi saqme moiWirveo~ [85gv. B109].

es saubari romSi 1714 wlis 17 agvistos Sedga. maSin jer kidev arsebobda imedebi, rom sabas elCoba uSedegod ar Caivlida, Tumca nel-nela saba kargavda am imedebs. pirveli dartyma konstantinepolSi CasvlisTanave, vaxtangisgan miRebuli werili iyo, sadac igi viTarebis gauaresebis Sesaxeb atyobinebda (rogorc Cans ieses gamefebis ambavic misi werilidan Seityo) da `sTxovda evropaSi saqmis daCqarebas~ (leoniZe 1940: 97). sabas bolo imedebi mas Semdeg unda gadawuruliyo, rac safrangeTidan lui XIV-is gardacvalebis ambavi movida. safrangeTis mefe 1715 wlis 1 seqtembers gardaicvala, am dros saba konstantinepolSi imyofeboda da wesiT male unda gaego es ambavi, radgan mudmivad hqonda urTierToba safrangeTis elCTan stambolSi.

sxalnari

romidan wamosuli saba ramdenime dReSi valCimaraSi aRmoCnda, sadac `sxal nari didgori rom aris, amgvari adgilebi iyo~ [87gv. B113]. sxalnars vaxuStic axsenebs orjer: `CrdiloT gora kumisisa, mtkuridam miyoliT koJramde, ganvlis samadlos da sxalnars, miadgebis didgors", `Ãevi saRiraSenisa, gamosdis sxalnars da modis samÃriT~ (vaxuSti 1973: 325, 6, 327, 1).

xaxuli

qalaq loretoSi sabas `wmida saxlis sanaxavad~27 waruZRvnen. saba loretos RvTismSoblis (Madonna di Loreto) gamosaxulebas axasiaTebs da Semdeg ambobs: `im xatis siswor maRla

kedelSi ori wiTeli iagundi zis. xaxulis RvTis mSoblis

46

Tvals ufrosi aris da ukeTesica. da yviTeli da TeTri iagundi, didrovani, uricxvi~ [90gv. B117].

1713 wels xaxulis xati gelaTis monasterSi iyo dasvenebuli. SemorCenili gvaqvs imereTSi ruseTis elCebis, toloCanovisa da ievlevis aRwera, 1650 wlisa: `yovlad wmidis RvTismSoblis xati, welzeviT gamosaxuli, xelebgawvdenili uflisa mimarT ise, rogorc iwereba vedrebaSi. Zvirfasad Semkuli da gasaocari~ (amiranaSvili 1972: 16). vaxuStic wers, `aqa ars yovlad wmidis xati xaxulis RvTismSobeli, luka maxareblis daxatuli... da Semkuli ZÂrfasiTa qvebiTa aRmaSenebelisa da Tamar mefisaTi~ (vaxuSti 1973: 753, 18). sruliad SesaZlebelia, sabas grigol kaTalikosTan stumrobis drosac enaxa xati. CvenTvis ucnobia Tu kerZod romeli Tvali igulisxmeba `RvTis mSoblis TvalSi~. karedi demetre I-is periodSi SeuqmniaT. xati 1859 wels gaiZarcva, daikarga Tavad minanqriT Semkuli RvTismSoblis vedrebis xati. savaraudod Tvali Tavad xatze iyo da ara karedze (SesaZloa Senawir nivTebs Sorisac iyo). xaxulis moparuli xatis adgili 1865 wels rusuli ferweruli asliT SeuvsiaT, Tumca mogvianebiT, roca minanqris fragmentebi rusi koleqcioneris, m. botkinis koleqciaSi ipoves, naxati isev minanqriT SeucvliaT (XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi RvTismSoblis vedrebis minanqris fragmentebi sabWoTa mTavrobis gadawyvetilebiT TbilisSi dabrunebula). mkvlevari r. yenia Tavis monografiaSi wers: `xati rom mTlianad minanqriT yofiliyo Sesrulebuli, maSin axal xats mTlianad ferweriT Seasrulebdnen, Cveni azriT, xati Tavdapirvelad WeduriT yofila Sesrulebuli, xolo saxe da xelebi -- minanqriT~. SesaZloa Zvirfasi Tvali swored xatis Wedur nawilSi iyo CarTuli. platon ioseliani Tavis ~ ~-Si detalurad CamoTvlida saqarTveloSi gavrcelebul 20 sxvadasxva Zvirfas qvas (ioseliani 1862: 81-84) da boloSi dasZenda, rom udidesi nawili am qvebisa xaxulis xats amkobdao (xats da ara kareds). platon ioselianis sityviT, xalxSi SemorCa mxolod sami qvis dasaxeleba, romelic RvTismSoblis gamosaxulebas amSvenebda: obola, kedela, Sedega (ioseliani 1862: 84). aqedan, obola -- opalia, Sedega -- obsidiani, kedelas warmomavlobas ioseliani ver xsnis, Tumca ambobs, rom garegnulad Zalian hgavda laJvardis qvas (

47

28). sami qvis ambavs adasturebs g. wereTelic gelaTis monastris warwerebis srul aRweraSi (wereTeli 1891: 251).

rozalia -- vardua

`am qalaqis mefis qals lozola rqmeoda. Cvenis eniT varduad gamoiTargmneba~ [18gv. B118].

saubaria santa rozaliaze (XII s.). es fragmenti Tamamad SeiZleba leqsikologebma sabas `sityvis konaSi~ Seitanon, kerZod `Targmani qveyanaTa da kacTa saxelebisa~-Si da lozolas varduad Targmaneba sqolios saxiT mainc Casvan lobni-sa da loT-s Soris.

atenuri Rvino

siciliaze: `sadilad erT limenaze mivediT. klde iyo SekafuliviT, diaR, didsa da grZlad migrexils mogrexili. meTevzeni nadirobdnen. aseTi Rvino iyo, atenuris Rvinis msgavsi. sxvagan ar gvenaxa. im adgilebSi sul kai Rvino iyo~ [123gv. B168]. saba ramdenimejer axsenebs ucxour Rvinoebs, Tumca es erTad-erTi SemTxvevaa, roca igi qarTuls adarebs mas.29 igulisxmeba etnis regioni, sadac vulkanuri warmoSobis kalTebze gansakuTrebuli xasiaTis Rvino dgeba dResac. es regioni Zlieri wiTeli, sasiamovno vardisferi da TeTri RvinoebiT xasiaTdeboda. albaT swored TeTrebs gulisxmobda saba, roca atenurs adarebda mas. sabas dros atenuri saukeTeso qarTul Rvinod miiCneoda. maSin, garkveul mizezTa gamo, qarTlSi ZiriTadad qarTluri Rvino fasobda da erekles gamefebamde kaxuri Rvino iseTi popularuli ar iyo. vaxtang VI-sac zvrebis didi nawili qarTlSi hqonda, kerZod bolnisSi, tkbili ki dasaduReblad kojorSi ahqondaT xolme (javaxiSvili 1986: 668). vaxuSti batoniSvils qarTlis meRvineobis lamis arcerTi cnobili mikrozona ar dautovebia aRuniSnavi. atenis Sesaxeb igi werda: `xeoba ese ars venaxovan-xiliani... ars cixe maRals kldeTa zeda, naSeni didi, da cixis goris samxriT ars sacivi, viTarca myinvari, sadaca dgeba Rvino warCinebuli... damCxeralodan tfilisamde, mtkuris kerZo mTamde, ars nayofieri... xili da venaxi mravalni; Rvino aqauri umjo-

48

besi yovlisa qarTlisa, da umetes atenuri yovelTa saqarTvelos RvinoTa~ (vaxuSti 1073: 345-17-21). atenuri e.w. klasikur mogudul Rvinod iTvleba (mas bunebriv cqriala Rvinosac uwodeben). zogierTi enologis mixedviT, atenuris dasamzadeblad yurZens gvian krefdnen, sicivis dadgomis gamo duRili bolomde ar midioda, RvinoSi narCundeboda cotaodeni Saqari da naxSirorJangiT Rvinis gaJRenTvis gamo igi cqrialis TvisebebiT xasiaTdeboda (iyo SemTxvevebi, roca gazafxulze agrZelebda Rvino duRils). Saqrisa da naxSirorJangis SenarCunebis mizniT atenis xeobaSi, maRlob adgilas specialurad iyo mowyobili qvevrebi, sadac bunebriv sicives iyenebdnen (`sacivi, viTarca myinvari, sadaca dgeba Rvino warCinebuli~) da am adgils dRemde sacivi hqvia. yanduralovisa da 19-e saukunis sxva avtorebis sityviT, atenis xeobaSi ZiriTadad qarTluri (goruli) mwvanes, Tavkverisa da budeSuris jiSebi modioda da zogierTis Tanaxmad Zveli atenuri mxolod budeSuridan dgeboda. ufro gavrcelebul variantebSi Cinuri da goruli mwvane figurirebs erTad, romelsac meoce saukunis meore naxevarSi mcireodeni aligotec emateboda.

ufliscixe

maltis pirvel STabeWdilebebSi vkiTxulobT: `zRvis pirs erTi kldea vake. uflis cixis msgavsi, advili saWreli~ [126gv. B172]. sabas mogzaurobidan 30 wlis Semdeg, vaxuSti batoniSvili ase aRwerda mis Tanadroul ufliscixes: `aSurians zeiT ars uflis-cixe, kuernaqis gamokidebulis kldis gorasa zeda, mtkuris kidesa, romeli aRaSena pirvelad uflos, Zeman qarTlosisaman, da iyo qalaqi Cingisamde; aw ars Semusrvili. aramed Senoba ucxo, kldisagan gamokueTili; palatni did-didni, qandakebulni kldisaganve; gÂirabi CaxvretiT Cakafuli mtkuramd[e], didi. dasavliT aqus qarafi maRali, da mas Sina gamokueTilni quabni mraval-didni, aramed aw Seual ars, aqa ars buzni. gamosuli ixilvebis spalaSkarni SubosanmSvildosanni, cxenosanni, galaSkrebulni, niSvnen misnobad da uwodeben ufliscixes~. SesaZloa vaxuStis swored am citatis gamo ivarauda erT-erTma Tanamedrove istorikosma: `Tavdapirveli misi funqcia [ufliscixis], marTalia, Seicvala, magram raRac qveynidan izoli-

49

rebuli Temi, `warmarTuli~ Temi iq mainc cxovrobs XVIII saukuneSic ki~ (yifiani 2002: 23).

tyveebi, afxazebi

saba maltelebis vaJkacobas aRwers da gviambobs TaTrisTvis warTmeul tyveebTan Sexvedris ambavs: `qarTvelnic

vnaxe: zogi afxazi, zogi imereli, guruli, megreli, rom TaTrisaTvis waerTmiaT. ena isev karga icodnen. afxazma ratom icoda, is gamikvirda, qarTuli!~ [129gv. B177]. da ramdenime dRis Semdeg: `me rom mivel, tyve Tormeti aTasi Tqves. da as da Svidi Cemobas moiyvanes. rasac qristianebs daaxeleben, ar daatyveeben: Tu unda gauSveben, Tu unda Seinaxven. TaTari tyved hyolodaT. erTi afxazi, oTxi gurieli, erTi gugunava sexnias Svili iyo. dedakacebic gurieli, megreli darComodaT. kais pativiT inaxevdnen~ [140 gv. B192].

XVIII saukunis dasawyisis erTi italieli mogzauris, qsaverio glavanis cnobiT (glavani 1893: 37), imereTsac da samegrelosac xanebi marTavdnen, magram sujukidan (novorosiiski) samegrelomde 25 afxazi bei cxovrobso da isini marTaven mxareso.30 sainteresoa maSindeli samurzayanos statusic. 1866-1887 wlebs Soris, general konstantine muxran-batonis mier Sedgenil CanawerebSi naTqvamia, rom XVIIXVIII saukuneebis mijnaze samurzayano jer kidev samegrelos nawils warmoadgenda da afxazeTis mTavarma, jiquSia SarvaSiZem waarTva igi dadians da samflobelod misca Tavis Zmas, yvapus, romlisganac, rogorc muxraneli ambobs, momdinareobs samurzayanoSi mcxovrebi yvela SarvaSiZis gvari. meore mxriv, mixeil voroncovisadmi miwerili erTi werilis Tanaxmad, afxazeTis mTavris, zegnay SarvaSiZis Svilebs, rostom, jiquSia da yvapu SarvaSiZeebs erTmaneTs Soris daunawevrebiaT bzifsa da engurs Soris moqceuli miwawyali (tuRuSi 2001: 27). sabas elCobis erT-erTi mTavari mizani afxazeTis mxaris warmarTTa moqcevacaa. riSari werda: `afxazeTSi... warmarTebi arian da mezobladac warmarTi Cerqezebi hyavT~. maSin am mxareSi mogzaurobac Zalze saxifaTo iyo. ukve saqarTvelos sazRvrebs moRweul sabas eubneba megzuri: `afxazi aSlilia, meSiniano~ [149gv, B203]. rogorc am fragmentSic vkiTxulobT, sulxan saba gakvirvebulia afxazebis31 qarTuliT. Cven mogvepoveba XVII-XVIII saukuneebis mijnaze afxazi Tavadebis mier qarTul enaze

50

Sedgenili araerTi piradi werili da minawerebi, Tumca ZiriTadad, mosaxleobam, rogorc Cans, kargad ar icoda qarTuli. calke sakiTxia tyveebis syidva, romelic im periodSi mTels saqarTveloSi iyo gavrcelebuli. marTalia vaxtang VI-m ramdenime wlis manZilze `moSala tyÂs syidva~, magram es RonisZiebebi droebiTi iyo. problema gansakuTrebiT dasavleT saqarTvelos exeboda, sadac, rogorc misioneri riSari wers: `saubedurod Cveulebad aqvT erTmaneTi TaTrebs mihyidon xolme~. am epizodis garda sabas sxva drosac araerTxel Sexvedrian qarTveli tyveebi. yvelaze bolos aseTi Sexvedra xofasTan moxda: `zRvis pir cota xani vleT. agviRelda zRva da oriv navi erTmaneTs mosxlita. imaTi navi xofas gaagdo da Cveni navi imas qveiT. iq metyve TaTrebi iyvnen, imereTidan tyveebi mihyuandaT konstantinopoles dasasyidlad~ [149gv, B203].

abaziani

4 noembers sulxan saba waiyvanes maltis naTlismcemlis eklesiaSi, sadac naxa `yelsakidi iudas aRebulis vercxlisagan. ori, TiTo abazistoli iqneboda~ [135gv. B-185]. maSindeli qarTuli vercxlis abazi 7,10-7,38 grams iwonida. sabas leqsikonSi igi ganmartebulia rogorc `oTxi Sauri, ormoci foli~. yvelaze mcire fuladi erTeuli (TeTri) XVIII saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi, narevi vercxlis 0,035 gr. vercxls Seicavda, Sauri Seicavda 50 TeTrs, abazi -- 200-s (qoiava 1962: 20). saerTod am periodSi qarTlSi gabatonebuli iyo Tvlis e.w. decimaluri sistema, romelic gamoisaxeba rigiT: 5-10-20-50-100. arsebobda spilenZis `fuli~, `ori fuli~, vercxlis Sauri, uzalTuni, abazi, eqvsi Sauri da marCili (qoiava 1962: 22). abazi maSin yvelaze gavrcelebuli fulis erTeuli yofila da vin icis, SesaZloa is fuli, romelic sabas valebisTvis misma Tbiliselma `davrdomilma naTlidedam~ kardakar siaruliT agrova [152gv. B207-208], swored abaz-abaz Segrovda. maSin fulis erTeulebis Tvla decimaluri sistemis mixedviT mimdinareobda, monetebi ki kvartaluri sistemis mixedviT iWreboda (1-2-4-8-16). saerTod sulxan-saba araerTxel axsenebs fuls, qarTul da ucxour fulis erTeulebs. xan imis detalur aRwerasac gvTavazobs Tu ramdeni gadaaxdevines Tormetiod kvercxSi, cota

51

axal lobiosa da erT kiborCxalaSi (`eqvs fluris Txova dagviwyes. Zliv xuTs marCils dagvjerdnen~ [6gv. B1]), zogjer ki adgilobriv fulis erTeuls udarebs qarTuls (`erTi skuti oTxi abazia~ [95gv. B125]). xSiria SemTxvevebi, roca saba mgzavrobis Rirebulebas gvacnobs, aseve amaTuim sasuliero piris mier gaRebuli fuladi wyalobis odenobas an Tavis danaxarjebs. teqstis dasasruls ki detalurad vgebulobT, Tu ramdeni marCili waarTves mas gonioSi, CxalaSi da artanSi. erT-erTi yvelaze didi Tanxa, rac `mogzaurobaSia~ dasaxelebuli, ra Tqma unda vaxtang VI-is gamosasyidi sesxia, 20 000 Tumani32 (300 000 ekiu).

SeniSvnebi: 1. es abzaci gabriel gelovans ekuTvnis, am `istoriuli eqspediciis~ erT-erT monawiles. maSin sabasTan da vaxtang VI-sTan erTad aTas oTxasi Tavad-aznauri da samRvdelo midioda ruseTSi. citata mogvyavs giorgi leoniZis narkvevidan (leoniZe 1940: 104-105). XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi geografiuli sakiTxebi detalurad mimoixila d. donduam, Tumca cxadia Tanamedrove wakiTxva bevri ramiT gansxvavebuli iqneboda 50 wlis winandelze. amas isic adasturebs, rom am statiaze muSaobisas, romelic ar isaxavda miznad geografiuli kuTxiT teqstis ganxilvas, bevri axali saintereso ram aRmoCnda, rac d.donduas naSromSi gaTvaliswinebuli araa. ponSantrenisadmi miweril werilSi sulxan-saba werda: `batoni iTandan (intendanti) didebuli marcilias rom aris... saqarTvelos saqmeebi musu riSariT dagvawerina, da gaaxloT~. samwuxarod, marselSi Sedgenilma memorandumma d'arnus `mouclelobis~ gamo droze ver CaaRwia luvrSi, sabasa da ludovik XIV-is SexvedrisTvis. sabam d'arnus gadasca aseve saqarTvelos ruka. goridan antibamde marSruti sxvadasxva wyaroebisa da varaudebis mixedviTaa aRdgenili, antibidan Tbilisamde gzas ki sabas teqstis mixedviT `mivyvebodiT~. saba swored gorSi Sexvda patr riSars da albaT aqve miiRo gadawyvetileba, evropaSi gahyoloda misioners. konkretulad sad Sexvdnen saba da riSari samegrelos kaTalikoss, grigols, ucnobia. XVI saukunis II naxevridan dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqis rezidencia biWvinTidan gelaTSi iyo gadmotanili. vaxuStis mixedviT, senakSic yofila afxazTa kaTalikosis `sayofeli~ (vaxuSti 1973: 777, 9-11). patri don ioseb mari Zampi, XVII saukunis 50-60-ian wlebSi odiSis kaTalikoss gaenaTels uwodebs (Genacelle). misioneri riSaris werilis Tanaxmad, `samegrelosa da sxva provinciebis patriarqi Sav zRvamde wamogvyva~-o (TamaraSvili 1902: 312).

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

7.

52

8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19.

20. 21. 22. 23.

odiSSi, imdroindel foTis garda `navsadgurobisaTÂs~ moiazreboda anakliac da yulevic (kemxeli, mogv. redut-kale). 1940 wlis gamocemis komentatori, s. iordaniSvili arasworad aigivebs am adgils franJisTan (Frangy), romelic ronis alpebSi mdebareobs da zemo savoias miekuTvneba (ix. komentari 1940 wlis gamocemaSi, 180 gv.). am toponimis (limonilo) gaswvriv carielia grafebi d. donduas mier Sedgenil cxrilSi. giorgi leoniZe s.s.-s alikornSi SecdomiT gulisxmobs lokarnos, qalaqs SveicariaSi (leoniZe 1940: 95). am periodSi sparseTisken mimavali gza swored metexis cixeze gadioda. TemasTan dakavSirebiT ix. ivane javaxiSvilis, masalebi qarTveli eris materialuri kulturis istoriisaTvis. Tb. 1962, 3-203 gv. dadianoba mas 1701-1706 wlebs Soris unda mieRo. Sdr. baSi-aCuki. Turqulad TavSiSvels niSnavda da am konkretul SemTxvevaSic imerlebi unda igulisxmebodnen, anu megrelebis mezoblad, rionis napiras mosaxle xalxi. am TemasTan dakavSirebiT ar SeiZleba ar vaxsenoT nikifore irbaxi (ColoyaSvili), romelmac dawyebiTi ganaTleba romSi miiRo, 16261629 wlebSi ki sagangebo misiiT moiara dasavleT evropis qveynebi, rogorc Teimurazis elCma. s. iordaniSvili sabas teqstis winasityvaobaSi axsenebs vinme gelovans, romelic XVI saukuneSi iuridiul mecnierebebs swavlobda neapolis universitetSi. garda amisa, XVII saukunis meore naxevarSi, romSi, urbanos kolejSi qarTveli axalgazrdebis gagzavnis Sesaxeb wers mixeil TamaraSvilic. wminda petres moedani igulisxmeba. yabaxis Sesaxeb ix. aseve (ioseliani 1866: 266). pl. ioseliani ratomRac 1764 wels asaxelebs am TariRad. wignSi saba araerTxel aRwers biblioTekebs, magaliTad, saba romeliRac kardinalis biblioTekaze wers: `erTs kardinals erTi sawigno saxli aeSenebina., didi da patiosani. da kedlis Ziris Ziridam maRla Tavamdi oTxgniTve wigni ewyo, uangariSo da mravali, rom vinc magisTana kaci iyos, wignis syidva ar SeeZlos, iq mivides da rac wigni unda, ikiTxos. miarTmides rasac xans ikiTxevda da gareT ver gaitanda~ [27gv, B30-31]. romelic, sxvaTa Soris, evropidan dabrunebis Semdeg mwvaved daupirispirda Tavisi Zmis aRmzrdels (leoniZe 1940: 102) Tumca ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrisadmi, golovinisadmi gagzavnil werilSi arCil II jer kidev 1703 wels adasturebs xazgasmiT, rom TbilisSi ukve moqmedebda mcire stamba. rogorc zogierTi mecnieri varaudobs, am dros qarTuli stamba unda yofiliyo konstantinepolSic. Sdr. `Sah-ismail <...> Semovida, Semusrna xatni da jvarni da ganZarcva sionis RvTismSoblis xati da STaagdo mtkuarsa Sina (romeli Semdgomad hpova batonman levan, naTluRis Walasa Sina), moswyÂdna qalaqi da tyue yvna~ (vaxuSti 1973: 399, 1-4). sxvaTa Soris, qarTul istoriografiaSi 1522 wlis Semosevis Sesaxeb erTiani azri

53

24. 25.

26. 27.

28. 29.

30. 31. 32.

ar arsebobs. n. berZeniSvils es ambavi realur faqtad miaCnda (berZeniSvili, 305), zogis azriT ki, Sah-ismaili saqarTveloSi arasdros yofila (d. kacitaZe, r. kiknaZe). amaSi eWvi epareboda Tavad vaxuStisac da SesaZlo molaSqred Sah-ismailis spaspets, devals asaxelebda sqolioSi: `me vgoneb devals umetes WeSmarits, vinadgan Sah-ismail xonTqris brZolas ukan aRar laSkrobda~ (vaxuSti 1973: 397, sq.). xatis detaluri aRwera ix. (ioseliani 1866: 114-117). Sdr. niko CubinaSvilTan, `amiantos _ kldis qua esoden lbili, romel daisTvis babmbasaviT, xolo nasTi anu naqsovi misi ar daiwvis cecxlTa Sina, ~. leqsikonze muSaobis sami etapis Sesaxeb ix. (quTaTelaZe 1959: 236) saubaria Santa Casa di Loreto-ze, dasavluri qristianuli samyaros erT-erT umniSvnelovanes siwmindeze, qoxze, romelSic mariam RvTismSobels exara macxovris Soba. es qoxi XIII saukuneSi gadmoutaniaT italiaSi, q. loretoSi. ratomRac pl. ioselianTan laJvardis qvas laTinur saxelad Cianus Orientalis aqvs miwerili, arada cnobilia, rom am qvas Lapis lazuli hqvia. romSi yofnisas saba iqaur maransac gvixasiaTebs. igi, SeiZleba iTqvas, pirveli qarTveli iyo, visac evropul yaidaze daagemovnebines Rvino: `marani vnaxe didi da mZlavri. erTis buwinis piri waxsnes. erTis piridam sami rigi Rvino wamoasxes, samferi. samsav sxvadasxva gemo hqonda~ [92gv. B121]. buwini -- sabas sityvis konaSi ganimarteba rogorc Sewyobili xis WurWeli, kasri. Turquli wyaroebis mixedviT, beebis raodenoba 24-ia. imdroindel frangul teqstebSi saubaria abazebze (des Abazas). Tumani udrida 10 minalTuns, 1 minalTuni 5 abazs da a.S. sabas mogzaurobis Semdgom, 1717-1718 wlebSi abazi 5,41 gramamde Semcirda, 1748-1749 wlebSi ki ukve 4,60 gr. gaxda. (qoiava 1962: 58.)

damowmebani: amiranaSvili 1972: amiranaSvili S. xaxulis karedi. Tb.: 1972. beriZe 1947: beriZe v. XVIII saukunis Tbilisi vaxuStis gegmis mixedviT. // analebi, I, 1947. beriZe 1977: beriZe T. Zveli Tbilisis gareubnebis istoria. Tb.: 1977. berZniSvili... 1946: berZeniSvili n., javaxiSvili iv., janaSia s. saqarTvelos istoria. Tb.: 1946. berZniSvili 1965: berZniSvili m. Tbilisis garegani saxe XVIII saukuneSi. Tb.: 1965. boWoriSvili 1947: boWoriSvili l. kaxuri Cacma-daxurva -- qalis Cacmuloba. // analebi I, 1947. gabaSvili 1959: gabaSvili v. sulxan-saba orbeliani rogorc diplomati. // sulxan-saba orbeliani, 1658-1958. saiubileo krebuli. Tb.: 1959. gvritiSvili... 1952: gvritiSvili d., mesxia S. Tbilisis istoria. Tb.: 1952. glavani 1893: . 1729 . . 1893.

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dondua 1959: dondua d. sulxan-saba orbelianis evropaSi mogzaurobis geografiuli mniSvneloba. // sulxan-saba orbeliani. 1658-1958. saiubileo krebuli. Tb.: 1959. vaxuSti 1973: vaxuSti batoniSvili. aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa. Tb.: 1973. TamaraSvili 1902: TamaraSvili m. istoria kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris. namdvilis sabuTebis SemotaniTa da ganmartebiT XIII saukunidgan vidre XX saukunemde. tf.: 1902. ioseliani 1990: ioseliani a. qarTuli mwignobrobis, wignisa da stambis istoriis sakiTxebi (uZvelesi droidan XIX s. 60-ian wlebamde). Tb.: 1990. ioseliani 1862: . 1861 . .: 1862. ioseliani 1866: . . .: 1866. kacitaZe 1964: kacitaZe d. iran-saqarTvelos urTierTobis istoriidan. Tsu, Sromebi, t. 108, 1964. kiknaZe 1966: kiknaZe r. hasan rumlus cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb. Tb.: 1966. langi 1950: Lang D.M. Georgian relations with France During the Reign of Wakhtang VI.// Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, ¾, 1950. leoniZe 1940: leoniZe g. sulxan-saba orbeliani. // Ziebani qarTuli literaturis istoriidan. 1940. nakaSiZe 1896: . // . . IV. . 1896. Jordania 1897: Jordania T. qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriisa da mwerlobisa. tf.: 1897. tabaRua 1965: tabaRua i. sulxan-saba orbelianis elCoba safrangeTSi. Tb.: 1965. tuRuSi 2001: tuRuSi a. afxazeTis samTavros warmoSobis drois sakiTxisaTvis. zug.: 2001. qoiava 1962: qoiava n. fulis mimoqceva, krediti da finansebi XVIII saukunis qarTl-kaxeTSi. Tb.: 1962. quTaTelaZe 1959: quTaTelaZe l. sulxan-saba orbelianisa da vaxtang VI-is leqsikografiuli urTierTobisTvis. // sulxan-saba orbeliani, 1658-1958. saiubileo krebuli. Tb.: 1959. yenia 1972: yenia r. xaxulis RvTismSoblis xatis karedis moWediloba. Tb.: 1972. yifiani 2002: yifiani g. ufliscixe. Tb.: 2002. wereTeli 1891: . . .// "". .. 1. . 2. 1891 .: 1891. javaxiSvili 1986: javaxiSvili iv. saqarTvelos ekonomiuri istoria// Txzulebani, t. V. Tb. 1986.

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Teimuraz doiaSvili

sulxan-sabas `dialogebi~

`sibrZne sicruisa~ e.w. CarCoiani kompoziciis mqone Txzulebad aris miCneuli. CarCoiani moTxrobebi gavrcelebuli iyo Sua saukuneebis aRmosavlur da dasavlur literaturebSi, magram, rogorc SemCneulia, sulxan-saba orbeliani Segirduli inerciiT ar mihyveba gatkepnil gzas: TxrobiTnaratiuli da igavarakuli xazebis paralelizmis nacvlad, rac ZiriTadi struqturuli modelia am tipis nawarmoebebisaTvis, qarTveli avtori mimarTavs `gadamkveT dinebas~, nairgvari masalis SeerTebis iseT xerxs, roca `arakebi ara marto mWidrod erwymian moqmed pirTa msjelobebs, saerTod moqmedebis ganviTarebas, aramed Sinaganad ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs~ (gvaxaria 1995: 80). axloiT ganCxrekisas, `sibrZne sicruisa~ rTuli kompoziciuri wyobis, garkveuli esTetikuri normis arealSi organizebuli, specifikuri mTlianobaa, magram amas sagangebo dasabuTeba sWirdeba. amjerad imas vityvi, rom Txzulebas Tavidan bolomde gasdevs dialoguroba _ saubris, paeqrobis forma, rogorc konstruqciuli principi Wreli, ferad-feradi `ambebis~ ganwesrigebisa. sxvadasxva Sinaarsisa da moculobis, met-naklebad avtonomiuri dialoguri monakveTebi, dawyebuli personaJTa kinklaobiT da damTavrebuli seriozuli problemebis gansjiT, ganlagebulia pirobiT mxatvrul sivrceSi _ esaa sityvieri paeqrobis sivrce, iluzoruli samsjavro procesi, rogorc kulturuli TamaSis forma (hoizinga 1997: 85-94). Cven winaSea mokamaTe mxareTa Sejibri, `inteleqtualuri eqspertiza~, sasamarTlo, romelsac hyavs uzenaesi msajuli _ mefe, aqvs STambeWdavi jildo _ samefo taxti da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, mkacri sasjelic _ cudi aRzrdisaTvis. dialogebis wyebaSi, romelTac `sibrZne sicruisa~ aerTianebs, pirobiTad SeiZleba gamoiyos sami `dialogi~, mniSvnelovani rogorc problematikiT, ise formiT. Tavisi zogadi niSnebiT isini, Cemi azriT, uaxlovdebian literaturuli dialogis Janrs, romelic popularuli iyo antikur xanaSic da Sua saukuneebis sqolastikaSic, renesansis epoqaSic da axali drois mwerlobaSic. azrovnebis stili, gamovlenili dialogis formaSi, is siRrmiseuli substratia, romlis konkretizaciasac warmoadgens Sinaarsobriv-semantikuri

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plasti (batkini 1978: 132), amitom maTi Seswavla korelaciaSi obieqtis ufro srulyofili Secnobis potencias Seicavs. sulxan-sabas samive `dialogi~ bunebrivad aris amozrdili fabuluri qargis wiaRidan. igav-arakebi jgufdeba sadiskusio problemebis irgvliv da ilustraciis, ufro zustad, saxeobriv-xatovani argumentaciis funqcia aqvT _ zogjer Ria komentaris TanxlebiT, zogjer ukomentarod. `dialogebi~ erTmaneTisgan met-naklebad daSorebulia, gaTiSulia CarCo-narativiT, amitom iqmneba STabeWdileba, TiTqos maT Soris kavSiri ar arsebobs. sinamdvileSi, rogorc qvemoT davrwmundebiT, isini ingredientebia erTiani koncefciisa, romelic moicavs Sexedulebebs adamianis raobaze, mis mimarTebaze RmerTTan da sawuTrosTan. *** pirveli, mcire `dialogi~ Txzulebis karibWesTan, dasawyisSive imarTeba. memkvidris aryoliT Sewuxebulma mefe finezma `gasca ganZi uricxvi glaxakTa zeda, raTa evedron RmerTsa Zisa boZebisa misisaTvis~ (orbeliani 1983: 7). ganZis gacema-argacema aris is sakiTxi, romlis gamoc upirispirdebian erTmaneTs finezis erTguli kariskacebi _ sedraqi da ruqa. sedraqs mwerali `maRali Stilis~ mTeli didebulebiT warmosaxavs: misi sibrZne cas swvdeba, WkuiT xmeleTis sigrZe-gani aqvs gazomili da Secnobili, mecnierebiT _ zRvis ufskrulebi da varskvlavebi, xolo sityvatkbiloba vezirisa uebro da saarakoa. mijril hiperbolaTa miRma ixateba saRvTo da mecnierul sibrZnes naziarebi idealuri personaJi, didad sayvareli mefisa. amis sapirispirod, ruqas daxasiaTeba sadaa, Tavisufali stiluri `figuralobisagan~. ruqa sruli antipodia sedraqisa: saWurisi, `kaci gulCqari da ficxeli~, amasTan, ara sayvareli Tanagamzraxveli, aramed mxolod `guliTadi~ anu misando kaci mefisa _ sasaxlis msaxurTa ganmgebeli, sefeTuxucesi. amrigad, `dialogSi~ erTmaneTs epaeqrebian mefis mrCeveli, yovlismcodne brZeni veziri da erTguli qveSevrdomi, praqtikuli saqmiT dakavebuli didmoxele. mefisagan ganZis uxvad gacemas ruqas moulodneli da kadnieri reaqcia mosdevs: `romelsa mefeTagansa gardaugia salaro eseodeni?~ (orbeliani 1983: 8). kiTxva, marTlac, moulodnelia, radgan mwerali moTxrobis pirvelsave striqo-

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nebSi gvamcnobs, rom mowyale xelmwifes `yovelTa kacTa zeda saboZvari caTa wvimisaTvis gardaematebina~ (orbeliani 1983: 7). amave dros, kariskacis replika kadniericaa, ramdenadac mbrZaneblis saqciels gansjis. mainc ra ar moswons `guliTad~ sefeTuxucess, rodesac Tavis erTaderT qomags _ mefes! _ amxels? nuTu es pirovnuli siZunwis gamovlenaa, an patronis qonebaze qveSevrdomuli zrunvis myvirala deklarireba?! `sibrZne sicruisa~ organzomilebiani, igavuri Janris Txzulebaa. sulxan-sabas mier Targmnil `qilila da damanaSi~ naTladaa gamoTqmuli igavuri teqstis poetikuri principi: igav-arakebSi brZenTa da mecnier filosofosTa `sasibrZno swavla~, `sibrZnis gzebi~ da `mecnierebisa sasargeblo rigebi~ cru, zRaprul ambebSia gamoxveuli da samxiarulod moTxrobili. iqvea moniSnuli teqstis orgvari recefciis SesaZleblobac: `mecnierni _ sasargeblod da umecarni salizReblad ikiTxvidnen~ (qilila... 1975: 193). sulxan-sabas interesis sagani ar aris empiriuli yofa da konkretuli adamiani. mis mier gamogonil, pirobiT dro-sivrcul samyaroSi dialogis, kamaTis, e.w. filosofiuri TamaSis formaSi (hoizinga 1997: 144-153) ganixileba universaluri problemebi. aqedan gamomdinare, Tu gvsurs mwerlis siRrmiseuli Canafiqris gageba, aucilebelia umecarTa salizRebel `ambebs~ Sefarebuli alegoriuli (`saxismetyvelebiTi~) Sinaarsis egzegeza, `sasargeblo~ sibrZnis amocnoba. saboZvaris, mowyalebis gacema, sazogadod, pozitiuri zneobrivi qmedebaa, saerTo yvela didi religiisaTvis. budizmi, magaliTad, gulmowyalebas oTx ZiriTad saTnoebas Soris aTavsebs, `yurani~ mudmivad imeorebs uqonelTa daxmarebis motivs (ivanovi 1984: 14; 102), xolo qristianobaSi mowyaleba netarebisken mimavali erT-erTi gzaa: `netar arian mowyaleni, vinaidan isini Sewyalebul iqnebian~ (maTe: T. 5, 7). vinc mowyalea, uflis siyvaruls adasturebs da Tavadac Sewyalebuli iqneba. wyalobis gacemis religiur-eTikuri norma mtkiced iyo damkvidrebuli saero cxovrebaSi. amaze metyvelebs siuxvis, gacemis, Cuqebis kulti `vefxistyaosanSi~:

rasaca gavscemT, Cvenia; rac ara, dakargulia! (rusTaveli 1966: 15).

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am paradoqsuli, dialeqtikuri sibrZnis wyaro saxarebaa (kekeliZe 1958: 196-197). igulisxmeba, rom nivTieri saunjis motrfiale dakargavs suls, xolo sulze mofiqrali, mowyale kaci moipovebs mas anu sasufevels daimkvidrebs. mowyaleba-gacema (`mefeTa Sigan siuxve~) moqmedi zneobrivi normaa sulxan-sabas epoqaSic. amas mowmobs XVII sukunis miwuruls naTargmni `mefeTa salaro~ _ sagangebo Tavi `uxvobisa da gamcemlobisaTvis~ (yubaneiSvili 1949: T. XXI). Tu zemoTqmuls gaviTvaliswinebT, gamodis, rom Tavisi replikiT ruqa sasuliero da saero cxovrebaSi damkvidrebul zneobriv normas upirispirdeba. swored ase, zogadeTikur da ara kerZoobiT Sefasebad aRiqvams sedraqi ruqas sityvebs salaros gardagebis Sesaxeb, rasac brZeni veziris pasuxi cxadyofs. gulficx sefeTuxucess igi uyveba araks `mefe xorasnisa~, romlis religiur-moraluri paTosic Sors scildeba SexedulebaTa ubralo SeuTavseblobas da konceptualuri dapirispirebis macnea. `mefe xorasnisa~ iwyeba saunjis gacemis aqciiT. xorasnis mbrZanebelma, finezis msgavsad, uricxvi saboZvari gasca, maSasadame, ruqasTvis miuRebeli saqcieli Caidina. imave dRes mefem nadimze vezirebs hkiTxa, Tu smenodaT vinme masze ufro mdidari da uxvi. eqvsma vezirma usmenloba uTxra, meSvides, umcross, ki gaecina. roca mefe sicilis mizeziT dainteresda, umcrosma vezirma uvneblobis ficis qveS gaumxila, rom CineTis qveyanaSi malqoz urias hyavda didebuli moyme, romelze `uxvi arc uwinares yofila da arc dReis waRmarT iqmnebiso~ (orbeliani 1983: 8). ratom icinis umcrosi veziri? ra aris sasacilo imaSi, rom romeliRac qveyanaSi vinme moyme mis mbrZanebelze mdidari da uxvia? veziris sicilis mizezi isaa, rom mefis saqcielSi siamaye, Tavmowoneba da ampartavnoba zeimobs, rom siuxves igi pirad damsaxurebad miiTvlis da ara RvTis wyalobad. islami, romlis aRmsarebeli unda iyos savaraudod xorasneli gvirgvinosani, gmobs siZunwes, mowyalebas qadagebs, magram uangarod, trabaxisa da TviTgandidebis gareSe. morwmunem uyvedreblad unda gasces is, rac alahisgan aqvs naboZebi (ivanovi 1984: 102). abu ali ibn sina _ avicena, X-XI saukuneebis didi mecnieri da filosofosi, sxvaTa Soris, siuxvisa da wyalobis gamo wers: `is, vinc siuxves iCens gandidebisa da xotba-qebisaTvis, angarebismoyvarea da ara uxvi~ (ibn sina 1980: 340).

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sulxan-sabas personaJebi, rogorc wesi, gaurkveveli konfesiis adamianebi arian, magram, msgavsad rusTavelisa, masTan yovelive qristiani moazrovnis samzeridanaa danaxuli da Sefasebuli. qristianoba ar uaryofs sakuTrebas _ simdidre manki ar aris. manki dagrovebis wyurvili da siZunwea, rac zeciuri madlisadmi undoblobis, RmerTTan daSorebis niSania. WeSmariti saTnoeba, rogorc iTqva, uangaro mowyalebaSia: `roca mowyalebas iqm, dae, Senma marcxenam ar icodes, ras iqms Seni marjvena~ (maTe: T. 6, 3). samagierod, `Seni mama, romelic xedavs dafaruls, mogizRavs Sen~ (maTe: T. 6, 4). xorasnis mefe, nebiT Tu uneblieT, arRvevs imas, rasac islami da qristianoba qadagebs. igi emsgavseba `saxarebis~ im TvalTmaqcT, romlebic iviwyeben, rom namdvili mowyaleba farulia, axmaureben da gamoafenen mas, raTa xalxma aqos (maTe: T. 6, 2). umcrosi veziri ironiulad icinis, icinis, radgan WeSmariti uxvebis profanacia xdeba _ xorasnis mefis siuxves mankieri ampartavnobis beWedi azis da ara RvTaebrivi, uangaro madlisa. igavis eqspoziciur nawils peripetiaTa rigi mosdevs. glaxakis tansacmliT mosili mefe vezirisagan Tqmulis Sesamowmeblad CineTs Cavida. iq man WeSmariti siuxvisa da mowyalebis gakveTili miiRo: didebulma moymem, rogorc wesad hqonda, ucxo kaci jer viTarca glaxaki ise Seivrdoma, mere ki, roca misi mefoba Seityo, zRapruli pativi miago, arnaxuli saboZvari uZRvna. gancvifrebulma mefem wamosvlisas, mciredi samaxsovros garda, `ara wamoiRo ra~, maspinZels ki daubara: `RvTis mowyalebiT mec SemogzRoo~ (orbeliani 1983: 9). ra `SemozRvevaze~ _ sazRauris, valis gadaxdazea laparaki, Tanac RvTis mowyaleba-SewevniT? cxadia, aq nivTieri simdidre ar igulisxmeba. xorasnis mbrZanebeli madlieri da davalebulia sulieri saunjis _ im sibrZnis gamo, romelic moymisgan miiRo: mowyalebis arsi uangaro sikeTeSia, misi saTave ki RmerTia! zneobrivi gakveTilis sanacvlod mefe sikeTis sikeTiT gadaxdis valdebulebas iRebs, magram ara sakuTari Tavis, aramed RvTis Sewevnis imediT. asea daqaragmebuli sedraqis igavSi amayi mbrZaneblis zneobrivi moqceva, gza umecruli ampartavnobidan da yalbi mowyalebidan WeSmariti sikeTisaken, RmerTisaken. igavuri Txroba aq ar mTavrdeba. moymes cudad miubrunda uangaro sikeTe da gulmowyaleba _ misanma malqozma,

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misma patronma, Seityo qonebis gacemis ambavi da mexmleT gadasca mosaklavad. iwyeba saocari pasaJebi keTilismqmneli kacis gadarCenisa, romlis mizezi ubralo SemTxveviTobebi ki araa, rogorc molizRar umecarT SeiZleba moeCvenos, aramed RvTis gangeba, mudamJams damcveli sikeTisa. igavs `hefienduri~ dasasruli aqvs. xangrZlivi xetialis Semdeg moyme `ucnaurad movida~ xorasans. mefem bednacval kacs RvTis wyalobiT samagiero SemohzRo _ mokla boroti malqozi da `misi sapatrono~ daumkvidra. Tu sedraqis naambobs saTavgadasavlo garesamoss CamovacliT, mwyobri religiur-eTikuri koncefcia gamoikveTeba. ganZis gacema ar aris qonebis ugunuri ganiaveba _ salaros gardageba, rogorc es ruqas eCveneba. mowyaleba, ganwmendili angarebisgan, sakraluri aqtia, uzenaesisadmi siyvarulis formaa, romelic adamians gzas ukafavs maradiuli arsebobisken. igavi sedraqis SegonebiT mTavrdeba: `verca aseTs gasacems iqms kaci, rom sxvas ar eqmnas da arc kargsa saqmesa RmerTi daukargavs. ruqav, Sengan mikvirs egeTi saubari!~ (orbeliani 1983: 10). pirveli `dialogi~ amiT amoiwureba. ruqas mxolod problema Semoaqvs, sedraqi ki igavur ambavSi ganasaxovnebs Tavis pozitiur ideals. swored am idealis fonze moixazeba mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi ruqas narTauli, bolomde argamxelili Tvalsazrisi. ruqa movlenas mxolod realobis ganzomilebaSi gaiazrebs. cxovreba medini da cvalebadia, amitom SemTxveviTobebiT gajerebul sinamdvileSi gonieri kaci qonebas unda gaufrTxildes. sefeTuxucesis `praqtikuli sibrZne~, faqtobrivad, adgils ar tovebs RmerTisaTvis, samagierod, mas hyavs iseTi avtoritetuli mxardamWeri, rogoric aristotelea: ruqa mowyalebis winaaRmdegi ki araa, zomierebas moiTxovs (`romelsa gardaugia eseodeni~), im `oqros Sualedis~ dacvas, rac aristoteles eTikis safuZvelia: siuxve mflangvelobasa da siZunwes Soris aRmarTuli saTnoebaa (aristotele 1984: 123). pirveli `dialogis~ farglebSi gamarjvebuli ar Cans _ sedraqis igavi, ubralod, upasuxod aris datovebuli, CarCo-narativi ki Tavisi gziT miemarTeba. udavoa erTi ram _ konceptualur sazrisTa antagonizmi. erT mxares dgas sedraqi Tavisi myari religiur-eTikuri msoflWvretiT, meore mxares _ ruqa, rogorc `praqtikuli sibrZnis~ mimde-

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vari, romelic, rogorc Cans, daeWvebulia RvTaebriv da adamianur qmedebaTa kavSirsa da ukukavSirSi. *** meore `dialogic~, iseve rogorc pirveli, Zaldautaneblad CaerTvis Txrobis mdinarebaSi. sulxan-saba marjved qmnis problemur situacias, rasac gansja-paeqroba mosdevs. uxvad gacemuli mowyalebis pasuxad RmerTma finezs nanatri memkvidre mouvlina. gavida xani _ dadga dro ufliswulis ganswavlisa, misTvis maswavleblis moZebnisa. mefe finezs erTxelac pirmwyazari Wabuki daesizmra, romelmac acnoba, Sens memkvidres Cem garda veravin gawvrTniso, mere etratze gamosaxuli Tavisi suraTi dautova da gauCinarda. problema am situaciaSi ibadeba: unda eZion ucnobi Wabuki, Tu mis gamoCenas daelodon, an ufro zogadad _ RvTis gangebas miendon, Tu iaqtiuron, Tavisufali nebiT imoqmedon. mopaeqreni kvlavac sedraqi da ruqa arian. radgan mosizmrebuli Wabukis Sesaxeb araferi ician, sedraqi fiqrobs, rom Zebna uazroa, `qari xeliTa ar daiWirvis~; sjobs RvTis gangebas miendon: `rac bedi aqvs kacsa RvTisagan, is daemarTebis~, _ daaskvnis igi (orbeliani 1983: 12). Tavis mxriv, ruqasac aqvs aranakleb xatovani `meteorologiuri~ argumenti. marTalia, qars xeliT ver daiWer, magram Wabuki `wvima ar aris da Tovli, karTa CvenTa movides~. ruqa aqtiuri Ziebis momxrea. `Tuca Cven ar viciT adgili misi, man ra icis Temi Cveni?~ _ ironiulad kiTxulobs igi da moiTxovs: `kaci gavgzavnoT, povnas vecadneT!~-o, radgan `romelsa kacsa Casdebia saWmeli uxelod, romelsa Sehmosia samoseli gaurjelad?~ (orbeliani 1983: 15). sakuTar Sexedulebas sedraqi `gardamovliT~ or igavSi gadmoscems _ `Zunwi didvaWari~ da `ubeduri didvaWari~. SemTxveviTi araa, rom orivegan gangebisa da Tavisufali nebis problemis sailustraciod vaWarTa cxovrebaa aRebuli _ vaWari xom wuTisoflis oromtrialSi CarTuli, axali drois kacia... didvaWarma mTeli cxovreba qonebis dagrovebas moaxmara _ `siberemde ara sva, ara Wama, arca ra Seimosa~ (orbeliani 1983: 13), mokled, saunje dafla. RmerTma Zunw vaWars gamouyenebeli simdidre CamoarTva da xuro nazars miakuTvna. igavSi ucnauri `eqsperimentis~ mowmeni vxdebiT: gagulisebulma didvaWarma RvTis gangebis Semowmeba (!) gadawyvita _ gulgamoclil morebSi Cawyobili Tval-margaliti, mTeli

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Tavisi simdidre, mdinares misca, wyals gaatana, aqaoda, arc me damrCes da arc xuros ergoso. kolizia, romelsac RvTis ganCinebisa da adamianis Tavisufali nebis dapirispireba qmnis, gangebis sasargeblod gadawyda. vaWari `eqsperimentis~ kvals mihyva da roca ganZiT gamovsebul, gadayril morebs nazaris ezoSi miagno, beds damorCilebulma xuros uTxra: `RmerTma me wamarTo da Sen mogcao~ (orbeliani 1983: 14). sulxan-saba igavSi erT mniSvnelovan siuJetur svlasac akeTebs. nazari, armcodne gangebis nebisa, uneblieT uzenaesis gadawyvetilebas ewinaaRmdegeba: gulmarTali kaci jer vaWrisTvis qonebis dabrunebas lamobs, mere ki, kvlavac gulkeTilobis gamo, Zvirfasi TvlebiT gamovsebul purebs gaRatakebul namdidrevs usagzlebs, Tumca gacemuls male ukanve moutanen. am pasaJis azri is aris, rom gangebis neba uapelacioa da uryevi _ mas aramcTu didvaWris avi TviTneboba, RvTismoSiSi xuros keTili zraxvac ki ver Secvlis. sedraqis Txrobas xuro nazaris CarTuli igavi agvirgvinebs: `kaci erTi mdinarisa kidesa jda da cxrili xelTa hqonda. Cahyvis cxrili wyalTa da ra aivsis, Tqvis: _ visac RmerTi miscems, esreT miscemso. _ amoiRis cxrili da ra wyali gaedinis, Tqvis: visac waarTmevs, esreT waarTmevso~. (orbeliani 1983: 14). am alegoriul suraTSi mdinare swrafad cvalebadi cxovrebis saxea, cxrili _ bedis materializebuli xati, cxrilis Cayofa-amoReba Tavisufal nebas gulisxmobs, yvelafris saTave da ganmgebeli ki RmerTia, romelic unda _ miscems da unda _ waarTmevs adamians wyalobas. yoveli SemTxveviTobis, bedis cvalebadobis miRma RvTis gangeba, uzenaesi kanonzomiereba dgas. sedraqi darwmunebulia, rom gangebis winaSe adamianis cda _ avic da keTilic _ uZluria, amitom urCevs finezs: `mefeo, Tuca RmerTsa kaci igi SenTvis unda, karTave SenTa moiyvanes, Tvarem povna Zneli aris~ (orbeliani 1983: 15). Tvalsazrisi, romelsac brZeni veziri gamoTqvams, Sua saukuneebis religiur-Teologiuri koncefciaa: `rac bedi aqvs kacsa RvTisagan, is daemarTebis~. sedraqis igavs igaviTve exmaureba ruqa _ esaa `ugunuri mcuravi~: `mcuravi erTi mihqonda wyalsa. Tqva _ RmerTo miSveleo! meore amxanagma uTxra _ xeli gaiqnie, gaxval da naSvelebi iqmnebio~ (orbeliani 1984: 15).

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am igavSic mdinare medini cxovrebis saxea. mis Zlier dinebasTan gasamklaveblad, ruqas azriT, pirovnuli Zalisxmevaa saWiro. RmerTis roli igavSi sakmaod bundovania. wyalwaRebuli saSvelad RmerTs ki mouxmobs, magram amxanagis replikaSi gangeba da Tavisufali neba gaTiSuli Cans: xeli gaaqnie da RmerTi giSveliso, _ amas ki ar ambobs amxanagi, _ `naSvelebi iqnebio~. ai, ratom moiTxovs praqtikuli gonebis ruqa ucnobi Wabukis moZebnas (`movnaxoT da vipovoT!~). `sibrZne sicruisa~ sadiskusio problemis gaazrebis erT modelzec migvaniSnebs. mozmanebuli Wabuki, ufliswulis momavali aRmzrdeli leoni, mefes sizmarSi urCevs da afrTxilebs kidec: `Tu meZebo, mpovo, Tu ara, Senve inandeo~. (orbeliani 1983: 15). leoni, rogorc vxedavT, aqtiuri moqmedebis momxrea da amitom TiTqos ruqas Tanamoazrec unda iyos. SevadaroT: `movnaxoT da vipovoT!~ (ruqa) _ `Tu meZebo, mpovo~ (leoni). leonis poziciis gasarkvevad arsebiTi isaa, rom igi, yvela niSnis mixedviT, Cveulebrivi sizmris ki ara, RvTaebrivi Cvenebis _ gamocxadebis personaJia. misi piriT gangeba RaRadebs, amitom rCeva _ meZebeo, gangebis nebis aRsrulebisken mowodebaa. Wabukis sityvebi gangebasTan Tavisufali nebis SeTanxmebis azrs Seicavs, maSin roca ruqa xazgasmulad subieqtis aqtiuri moqmedebis momxrea. leonis rCeva srul SesabamisobaSia `vefxistyaosnis~ renesansul formulasTan:

bedi cdaa, gamarjveba, RmerTsa undes, mo-ca-gxvdebis. (rusTaveli 1966: 296).

bedi gangebis nebis aRsrulebaa adamianis aqtiuri TanamonawileobiT. radgan leonis aRmzrdelad movlineba gangebis gadawyvetilebaa, moqmedeba _ `cda~ warmatebuli iqneba (`Tu meZebo, mpovo...~). negatiuri saqcieli aq pasiurobaumoqmedobaa, mimarTuli gangebis nebis winaaRmdeg (` ...Tu ara, inande~). gangebis Seuval diqtats, rasac sedraqi icavs, ruqa, rogorc iTqva, Tavisufal nebas upirispirebs. Tavisufali nebis cneba ukve antikur xanaSi funqcionirebda. aristotele, magaliTad, Tvlida, rom adamianis moqmedebas _ zneobrivsac da mankiersac _ aucilebloba an SemTxveviToba ki ar ganapirobebs, aramed pirovnebis Tavisufali arCevani. igi batonia Tavisi nebisa, ama Tu im mizeziT akeTebs an ar ake-

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Tebs raimes da pasuxsac agebs Tavis gadawyvetilebaze (aristotele 1984: 99-101). qristianobam uaryo Tavisufali nebis warmarTul-antikuri gageba. orTodoqsuli qristianuli eTika uflis msaxurebis _ rwmenis, imedisa da siyvarulis _ eTikaa, romelic Tavisufal nebas mTlianad gangebas uqvemdebarebs. umaRlesi saTnoeba uflis morCilebaa, damoukideblad mxolod codvis Cadena SeiZleba (eTikis... 1969: 71). Tavisufali nebis reabilitacia humanizmis epoqaSi moxda, rodesac yuradRebis centrSi adamiani moeqca. piko dela mirandola (XV s.) cnobil sityvaSi `adamianis RirsebaTa Sesaxeb~ pirovnebis mTavar maxasiaTeblad asaxelebs Tavisufal nebas, romelic mas RmerTisgan aqvs naboZebi. aristoteles tradiciaze dayrdnobiT, igi amtkicebs, rom adamiani, survilisamebr, Tavad gansazRvravs Tavis adgils, saxes da movaleobas (renesansis... 1981: 249). Tavisufali nebis mniSvneloba gansakuTrebiT gaizarda renesansis gviandel etapze (XVI s.). am epoqis adamianis cnobierebaSi RmerTis adgils TandaTan ikavebs bediswera, romlisadmi winaRdgoma mxolod Tavisufal nebas ZaluZs (antikuri... 1984: 50-57). ruqa, romelic wyalwaRebulis ambavs yveba da mdinarisagan (bedisagan) ganwiruls moqmedebisaken mouwodebs, tipologiurad msgavsi cnobierebis matarebelia. misi Tvalsazrisi, Cemi azriT, paralels poulobs aRorZinebis xanis iseT cnobil traqtatTan, rogoricaa nikolo makiavelis `mTavari~, romlis erTi Tavic (XXV) sagangebod bedisweras eZRvneba. makiaveli bedisweras adarebs `boboqar mdinares~, romlis siSmages da mZvinvarebas yvela ufrTxis, magram aqtiuri moqmedebis SemTxvevaSi ar gamoiricxeba miznis miRweva: ara morCileba da bedis kirTebis atana, aramed momentis SerCeva, SemTxveviT sargebloba gangebis mbJutavi imediT (makiaveli 1984: 222-227). bedi, makiavelis Tanaxmad, Seqmnil situaciasTan Tavisufali nebis Sesabamisobaa anu, ruqaseburad, wyalwaRebuls xelis ganZreva moeTxoveba. problemebi, romlis gamoc kamaToben `dialogebSi~, ruqas mier ganicdeba, rogorc cvalebadi sinamdvilis empiriuli faqtebi, RvTis gangebisgan Tavisufali da, arsebiTad, desakralizebuli. miwier cxovrebas bedi _ SemTxveviToba ganagebs, amitom igi SeiZleba mxolod Tavisufali nebiT daimorCilo.

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Tu zemoTqmuls Tavs movuyriT da cnebebis enaze gadavitanT, gamoikveTeba universumTan (RmerTTan) da bediswerasTan (wuTisofelTan) adamianis mimarTebis problema. orTodoqsuli Teizmis damcveli sedraqi Tu axsenebs beds, RvTis gangebis aRsrulebad miiCnevs (`rac bedi aqvs kacs RvTisagan, is daemarTebis~), amitom sibrZne morCilebaSia. gangebisa da bedis aseTi gaazreba maTi gaigivebis saxifaTo SesaZleblobas Seicavda, rac gamovlinda kidec gviani renesansis cnobierebaSi. leoni, `vefxistyaosnis~ renesansuli suliskveTebis memkvidre, RvTis gangebasac scnobs da adamianis aqtiuri qmedebis (`cda~) aucileblobasac aRiarebs, beds ki pirovnebis doneze gamovlenil gangebas ukavSirebs. ruqa renesansuli individualizmis damcvelia. RmerTi misTvis aRaraa yovlisSemZle Zala _ uzenaes arsebasa da individs Soris moqceulia desakralizebuli realoba, rogorc bedisweris asparezi, sadac pirovneba oden sakuTari Tavis moimedea. cvalebad cxovrebasTan urTierTobaSi mxolod aqtiurobaa gamarTlebuli. ruqas individualisturi Tvalsazrisi, `uRToT cdis~ koncefcia dinji, gawonasworebuli sedraqis spontanur reaqcias iwvevs: `Tuca uRToT cdiT saqme iqmneba, rad ar ecdebi samamakacoTa asoTa gamobmasa?~ _ mimarTavs igi saWuriss (orbeliani 1983: 15). es ar aris mxolod kamaTis, rogorc TamaSis, Tanamdevi gasarTob-ritualuri elementi, masSi airekleba sedraqis ukiduresi gaRizianeba ruqas Tavisufali, aradogmaturi azrovnebiT. da veziri kidev erT vrcel ambavs (`ubeduri didvaWari~) yveba. Tu `Zunw didvaWarSi~ is gangebis garduvalobas amtkicebs, axali igavis mizani RvTis madlis uarmyofeli adamianis, misi Tavisufali nebis sruli ususurobis ilustraciaa. didvaWari `RmerTs ara esvida~, mxolod sakuTari gadawyvetilebiT anu Tavisufali nebis karnaxiT moqmedebda. personaJis bedis swrafi cvalebadoba _ gakotreba da gamdidreba, aRzeveba da sasjeli _ garegnulad SemTxvevaTa monacvleobaa, romelsac TiTqos Tavisufali neba warmarTavs, magram sinamdvileSi adamiani mTlianad gangebis xelSia moqceuli, imdenad damokidebulia masze, rom zneobrivi saqcielis gamoc ki isjeba gangebis mier. vaWris ubedurebis saTave urwmunoeba da iluzoruli Tavisuflebaa _ is vinc `RmerTs ara esvida~, Tvalebis daTxriT isjeba.

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araks sedraqi gamWvirvale SegonebiT amTavrebs: `Tu RmerTi kacs ar miscems, Tvisisa cdiTa ara Rone ar daidebis da cudi Sroma SerCebis~, amitom `RmerTsa unda sTxovos kacman~ (orbeliani 1983. 17). meore `dialogi~ aq mTavrdeba. gamarjvebuli amjeradac gaurkvevelia. kamaTi meqanikurad, mefe finezis Carevis gamo wydeba. *** mesame `dialogSi~ ruqa da leoni paeqroben. `dialogi~ SedarebiT vrcelia da oTxi igavuri Sepasuxebisagan Sedgeba. kamaTs niadags umzadebs ruqas cru-gancxadeba, TiTqos ucxo da ucnob leons mefis keTilganwyoba moupova, man ki sikeTe mtrobiT gadauxada. potenciuri metoqis araerTi Sesmena, mudmivi qiSpi xels ar uSlis cbier ruqas, Tavi umanko msxverplad miiCnios da ganzogadebuli sadiskusio problemac Semoitanos: `ara axalia es saqme. ZvelTagan Tqmula: aras kacs kargis moqmedisaTvis kargi ar uqmnia da mis magier avi miugia~ (orbeliani 1983: 132). borotebis sapirispirod, sikeTis apologias leoni kisrulobs. dialogi, romelic kvlavac igavebis gacvliT mimdinareobs, Sorsaa Teoriuli eqsplikaciisagan, Tumca umniSvnelovanes eTikur problemas wamoswevs. ruqas Sexeduleba `dialogSi~ oTxi igaviT aris argumentirebuli: `kaci da umaduri gveli~, `mdidari da glaxaki~, `Wabuki da mekobreni~, `samni brmani~, romelTagan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania pirveli, _ borotebis manifesti! _ sadac peripetiebiT mdidar ambavSi gatarebulia gamWoli idea, rom adamiani avi da borotia, xolo misi e.w. sikeTe _ moCvenebiTi, egoisturi. kacs cecxlmodebul ZeZvnarSi gabmuli gveli Seewyala. Sewyaleba, mowyalebis moReba, wyaloba, sabas ganmartebiT, aris `mwuxareba sxvisa borotsa zeda~ (orbeliani 1993: 392), maSasadame, kacma sxvisi borotebisagan gadarCena ganizraxa, sikeTe moimoqmeda. magram rogoria qmedebis motivi? `am gvels movarCen, madlia CemTviso~, _ ambobs kaci. madli, kvlavac sabas ganmartebiT, keTilis qmnaa `arca nacvlisgebisaTvis, arca SiSisaTvis, arca siyvarulisaTvis~ (orbeliani 1991: 427). madli sxvisTvis gaweuli uangaro sikeTea, maSin, roca ruqas personaJi aSkarad saTavisod fiqrobs (`madlia CemTviso~) _ qcevis realuri motivi piradi sargebelia, konkretulad _ saimsoflo `saunjis~ dagroveba. gamodis,

67

rom kacis qceva moklebulia uangarobas, madlis xarisxs _ misi sikeTe iluzorulia. sargeblis motivi, amjerad materialur sferoSi, gaSiSvlebulia igavis finalSi, rodesac igive kaci Tavisi gadamrCenis _ melis sikeTes myisierad daiviwyebs da, bewvs daxarbebuli, mokvlas daupirebs. ruqas igavis mixedviT, adamianis qcevis ganmsazRvreli piradi interesia, egoizmi (es cneba kartezianelebma Semoitanes XVI saukuneSi), an sulac CvevaSi gadasuli boroteba da ara sikeTis wil sikeTis qmna. amitom uCivis Wandari kacTa modgmas: `movlen, moigrileben, davaCrdileb, merme Stoebs damimtvreven, zogs daswven, zogs kolofebad akeTeben _ ra kargi xeao!~ adamianTa umadurobas amxels xaric: `movxnav, davfarcxav, gavlew da zafxul-zamTar sul kacTaTvis vmuSaob. damawvenen da damklaven, rao da _ stumari momividao!~ (orbeliani 1983: 133). umadurobisa da borotebis saufloSi sikeTis gaelvebac ki sananuri xdeba: `davaSave, movarCineo!~ _ Tavs abrala melma, roca misgan gadarCenilma kacma mokvla daupira. ruqas igavis yovel pasaJSi igrZnoba, rom boroteba misTvis adamianis bunebis, misi arsis ganmsazRvreli, mTavari Tvisebaa. igive azria gatarebuli sxva sam igavSic, romelTa personaJebi keTilismyofelT sikeTes mtrobiT miageben. `kargisTvis kargi aravis uqmnia~, `kargisTvis kargi arasodes qmnila~, _ aseTia ruqasTvis arsebobis eTikuri paradigma (orbeliani 1983: 135, 137). leonis eTika, iseve rogorc ruqasi, cxovrebidan modis, `praqtikuli mecnierebaa~ da gansxvavdeba sedraqis samyarouli, WvretiT-Teologiuri eTikisagan. wuTisoflis avkargis mcodne leoni, marTalia, umaRles saTnoebas ar qadagebs (`giyvardes mteri Seni~), avisTvis avis migebis momxrea, magram sikeTis kanoniT cxovreba misTvis adamianis arsebobis wesia. `kargisTvis avs vin uzams kacsa?~ _ gakvirvebuli kiTxulobs igi da Tavis zneobriv mrwamss amgvarad gamoTqvams: `didman icis da mcireman kargisaTvis kargi pasuxi~ (orbeliani 1983: 134, 143). mis naambob igavebSi gveli gadamrCenels ganZs apovninebs (`keTili gveli~); Raribi arabi, romelsac xalifam cxenSi didi safasuri gadauxada, gatacebul cxens ukan abrunebs (`xalifa da arabi~); mefundukisgan pativnacemi didvaWari misi keTrovani vaJis gankurnebisTvis erTaderT Svils gawiravs (`mefunduke da didvaWari~), xolo gaWirvebaSi Cavardnil keTil magistross madls madliTve

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miuzRaven glaxaki sapyari da micvalebulic ki! (`keisris magistrosi~). riT unda aixsnas ruqasa da leonis TvalsazrisTa mkveTri SeuTavsebloba, rodesac orives dakvirvebis erTi obieqti _ cxovreba _ aqvT? ruqa erTgan sedraqs mimarTavs: `rarigadac sxvadasxvarigi agebulobis patroni mfrinvelia, agrev sxvadasxva rigisa kacia. Sen mag bunebis patroni xar, rom yoveli kaci giyvars, da me yvelani mZulan~ (orbeliani 1983: 145-146). ruqas azriT, arseboben kargi da avi adamianebi _ `sxvadasxva rigisa kacni~, adamianis keTili Tu boroti saqcielis mizezi mis bunebaSia. aseTi Sexeduleba araerT moazrovnes gamouTqvams Zveladac (`ZvelTagan Tqmula~) da axal droSic, magram ra qmnis, saidan Cndeba adamianis bunebaSi sikeTe da boroteba? pasuxi am kiTxvaze wina ori `dialogiT~ aris Semzadebuli, rac samive `dialogis~ Sinagan kavSirze miuTiTebs. rogorc ruqas, ise leonis igavTa personaJebi aqtiurad moqmedeben, ise iqcevian, rogorc surT, maSasadame, orive mxare aRiarebs Tavisufali nebis realurobas _ `kargic~ da `avic~ nebelobiTi aqtis Sedegia. principul gansxvavebas mxareTa Soris RmerTis problema qmnis. rogorc pirveli ori `dialogis~ analizisas gairkva, ruqasTvis sinamdvile desakralizebulia. marTalia, uiSviaTesad, igi RmerTs axsenebs, magram Semoqmeds saamsoflo saqmeTagan gakideganebulad saxavs. desakralizebul sinamdvileSi RvTis gangebas cvalebadi, gaurkveveli bedi, bediswera enacvleba, mas ki mudmivad upirispirdeba Tavisufali neba. amasTan, bediswera moralurobas moklebuli, Seucnobeli qimeraa, amitom masTan WidilSi, TviTgadarCenis gzaze, pirovnebac Tavisufalia moralisgan. ai, ra aZlevs ruqas safuZvels, mourideblad ilaparakos avis qmnaze, adamianSi borotebis primatze. igi TiTqos, erTi mxriv, antikur, plavteseul Teziss acocxlebs, rom `adamiani adamianisaTvis mgelia~, meore mxriv ki renesansisa da axali drois im moazrovneebs exmianeba, romlebic adamians bunebiT borot, egoisturi zraxvebis mqone arsebad miiCnevdnen. ruqa, nebiT Tu uneblieT, Sordeba religiuri eTikis ares, romlis gareT Tavisufali neba moklebulia RvTaebriv zedamxedvelobas da amdenad, boroti nebaa. leonis eTikis dasayrdeni absoluturi zneobrivi idealis _ RmerTis uzenaesobis aRiarebaa. mas, rogorc iTqva, erTdroulad RvTis gangebis arsebobac swams da nebis

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Tavisuflebis, arCevanis uflebasac scnobs. arsebiTi isaa, rom misi igav-arakebis personaJebi, ruqas personaJebisagan gansxvavebiT, piradi sargeblianobis, an, ufro uaresi, borotebis principiT ki ar moqmedeben, Tavisufali arCevanis Jams usmenen saxieri RmerTis xmas, romelic maT nebas sikeTisaken warmarTavs. `kargis pasuxad eg meqna, RmerTi ras mizemdao~, _ ambobs patiosani arabi (orbeliani 1983: 136). `aha, nakeTaric naxe! ra gamoimeta wamlad da RmerTma ra wyaloba uyo!~, _ aRfrTovanebas ver faravs leoni, roca sikeTisTvis gawiruli bavSvis gacocxlebis RvTaebriv saswaulze laparakobs (orbeliani 1983: 139). borotebis wyaro ukontrolo Tavisufali nebaa, rodesac RvTisgan gamdgari adamiani codva-madls mxolod amqveyniuri sawyaoTi, sapirado sazomiT zomavs da zogjer borotebis substanciurobis mtkicebamde midis. leonisaTvis sawuTro RvTaebrivi sikeTiT ganaTebuli sivrcea, magram es araa sedraqis orTodoqsuli Teologiuri doqtrinis gameoreba, Tavisufali nebis sruli integrireba gangebis wiaRSi. Sua saukuneebis dogmaturi cnobiereba adgils uTmobs adamianis humanistur-renesansul koncefcias, romelic damoukidebeli, Tavisufali arCevanis uflebas gulisxmobs. Tu sulxan-sabas Txzulebis mTlian konteqsts gaviTvaliswinebT, leonis Tvalsazrisi Zalian axlosaa sikeTe-borotebis areopagitul moZRvrebasTan, romelic asea gamoTqmuli `vefxistyaosanSi~:

RmerTi kargsa moavlinebs, av-borotsa ar dahbadebs. (rusTaveli 1966: 491) borotimca rad Seeqmna keTilisa Semoqmedsa. (rusTaveli 1966: 35)

am moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, borotebas substanciuri arseboba ara aqvs. arseboba TavisTavad sikeTea (`RmerTi keTils moavlinebs~), xolo boroteba _ saganTa aqcidencia. boroteba srulyofilebaSi raRac naklulovnebaa, zadia. rogorc leoni amtkicebs, adamiani Tavisi arsiT keTilia, magram xom arsebobs boroteba da boroti adamianebi, magaliTad, ruqa?! ruqas borotebis saTave adamianis Tandayolili, bunebiTi boroteba ki araa, aramed zadi, fizikuri nakli _ saWurisoba, savaraudod, socialur sivrcesTan kontaqtis negatiuri Sedegi. magram fizikur arasrulyofile-

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baze ufro metad mniSvnelovania, ase vTqvaT, `gonebrivi saWurisoba~, rac RvTaebrivi sibrZnis ugulebelyofaSi, sikeTis ignorirebaSi gamoixateba. amrigad, sulxan-sabas `dialogebis~ sami idea-personaJi sam gansxvavebul sazriss `ganasxeulebs~: sedraqi orTodoqsuli Teizmis mesityvea, leoni _ renesansuli religiurfilosofiuri koncefciis memkvidre, xolo ruqa _ individualizmis, sekularizebuli moralis adepti. vis TanaugrZnobs `dialogebis~ mixedviT sulxan-saba? es TiTqos uadgilo da gulubryvilo kiTxva arc ise ioli sapasuxoa, rogorc erTi SexedviT Cans. *** pirvel da meore `dialogebSi~ ruqa naklebad aqtiuria. pirvel `dialogSi~ mas mxolod problema Semoaqvs, sedraqis grZel tiradas ki dumiliT upasuxebs. meore gapaeqrebaSic `gulCqari~ sefeTuxucesi jer zogad Tvalsazriss gamoTqvams, mere ki yveba erTaderT, umokles igavs, romelic brZeni veziris or vrcel monaTxrobs Soris aris SeyuJuli. bolo sityva aqac sedraqs rCeba _ mefe kamaTs wyvets da sanadirod wasvlas brZanebs. sedraqis energiulobisa da ruqas pasiurobis gamo iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos polemikaSi sedraqi imarjvebs, miT ufro, rom ZiriTadi CarCo-narativi brZeni veziris Sexedulebebs adasturebs: salaros gacemas memkvidris dabadeba mohyva; sanadirod gasuli mefe gangebis nebiT leons gadaeyara. ufro rTuli viTarebaa mesame `dialogSi~, sadac ruqa SemarTuli da aqtiuria. ruqas monayoli oTxi igavidan samSi leoni, rogorc misi komentarebi mowmobs, ver xedavs kargis aviT mizRvevis adekvatur magaliTebs. leoniseuli kritika Sefaruli miniSnebaa, rom ruqas pozicia aramyaria. rogorc vxedavT, sulxan-saba kamaTSi aRZruli problemebisadmi Tavis damokidebulebas arapirdapir, iribad mianiSnebs _ Sedegebi `dialogebs~ miRmaa gatanili, amasTan, avtoriseul TxrobaSi amosacnobi. ruqa arsad aRiarebs Tavs damarcxebulad, arsad scnobs metoqis Tvalsazrisis WeSmaritebas. personaJTa triadaSi _ sedraqi, leoni, ruqa _ erT mxares dganan sedraqi da leoni (Semdeg maT leonis `alter ego~ _ jumberic uerTdeba), xolo meore mxares _ ruqa, maTi mudmivi kritikis obieqti.

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sedraqs da leons mokavSired xdis rwmena _ RmerTis uzenaesobis aRiareba. mefis veziri saRmrTo, WvretiT-Teoriul sibrZnes ganasaxierebs, ufliswulis aRmzrdeli _ saamsoflo, praqtikul codna-sibrZnes. sibrZnis es ori _ saRvTo da saero _ saxeoba ar upirispirdeba erTmaneTs, rasac adasturebs moZRvreba ormagi sibrZnis Sesaxeb. es moZRvreba, romelic antikur xanaSi (platoni, aristotele) Seiqmna, axali gaazrebiT moqmedebda Sua saukuneebis manZilze da gavrcelebuli iyo Zvel saqarTveloSic (siraZe 1975: 213-280). saamsoflo sibrZne, _ empiriuli gziT SeZenili Tu gansjiT mopovebuli codna, _ sazeo sibrZnes iyo daqvemdebarebuli. amis gamo ormagi sibrZnis Teoriis farglebSi sedraqis da leonis dapirispireba gamoricxulia, samagierod, sedraqi Seurigebelia ruqasadmi, radgan misi gamomwvevi individualizmi ver Tavsdeba Teocentrul koncefciaSi. saRvTo sibrZne, rogorc WeSmariteba, erTia, xolo e.w. garesibrZne, rogorc cdomileba, mravalgvari. amiT aixsneba winaaRmdegoba `praqtikuli filosofiis~ or warmomadgenels _ leonsa da ruqas Soris, romelTagan leoni Teocentrul kulturul sivrceSi cxovrobs, xolo ruqa _ bedisweriT dasazRvrul, desakralizebul sinamdvileSi. is, rac `dialogebSi~ Riad aris datovebuli, pasuxs Txzulebis mTlian konteqstSi poulobs. udavoa, rom sulxan-sabas kritikis sagania ruqas individualizmi da sekularizebuli morali, damaxasiaTebeli krizisuli gvianrenesansuli epoqisaTvis. sedraqis xazi _ ruqas kritika Teocentrizmis poziciidan, kontrrenesansul suliskveTebas avlens, xolo mibruneba krizisuli epoqidan klasikuri renesansuli humanizmisaken anu leonis xazi barokos kulturis damaxasiaTebeli niSania (gukovski 1962: 108-113). `sibrZne sicruisa~, rogorc konkretuli drois sulieri dokumenti, tipologiurad im msoflmxedvelobriv gardatexas exmaureba, rac XVI-XVII saukuneebis mijnaze moxda evropul xelovnebasa da literaturaSi. gasarTobi ambebisa da Rimilis miRma aq daxatulia RvTiur madls daSorebuli, harmonias moklebuli, winaaRmdegobebiT daserili sinamdvile, sadac sikeTes da gonierebas veragoba da xrikianoba aviwroebs. sulxan-saba igav-arakTa wignSi erTdroulad warmoaCens misi droisaTvis niSandobliv koncefciebs. mwerali axal, individualistur eTikas religiuri skepticizmis, moraluri relativizmisa da egoizmis gamo gansjis da xsnas rene-

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sansuli Teologiur-filosofiuri sazrisis restavraciaSi, mis modernizebaSi xedavs. amgvari xedva mas barokos kulturasTan aaxloebs, rac aRniSnulia kidec qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi (gaCeCilaZe 1984: 185-187). sulxan-sabas mxatvrul-filosofiuri naazrevi realizebulia dialogis msgavs Janrobriv formaSi, romelic misi, rogorc mwerlis, azrovnebis stiluri formaa. dialogis Janrs, rogorc werilis dasawyisSi iTqva, Rrma istoriuli fesvebi aqvs. platonis `sokratuli dialogebis~ tradiciasTan erTad arsebobda sqolastikuri da renesansuli dialogebi, TiToeuli _ Tav-Tavisi specifikiT Janris farglebSi. `sokratuli dialogi~, platonis maievtikuri meTodis nayofi, axali codnis, axali WeSmaritebis dadgenisaken miiswrafoda. sqolastikuri dialogi, gamokveTili didaqtikuri orientaciiT, iyo sadiskusio teqnikis skola, romelic sasurveli sazrisis damajerebeli saxiT warmodgenas aswavlida. rac Seexeba renesansul dialogs, igi `urTierTobis kulturis~, `sakuTari~ da `sxvisi~ Sexedulebebis Tanaarsebobis nimuSebs iZleoda (batkini 1978: 126-134; 168-177). sulxan-sabas `dialogebisaTvis~ ucxoa axali WeSmaritebis sokratuli Zieba. igi axlosaa sqolastikur dialogTan mza Tvalsazrisebis dapirispirebiT, magram Tavisufalia sqolastikuri azrovnebis avtoritarizmisagan. sulxansabas e.w. dialogebi gansxvavebul SexedulebaTa Tanaarsebobis STabeWdilebas tovebs _ kamaTis procesSi ar xdeba romelime erTi sazrisis moxsna, gauqmeba meoris sasargeblod. am StrixiT es `dialogebi~ Camohgavs renesansul dialogs, sadac, kamaTis miuxedavad, gatarebulia gansxvavebul poziciaTa Tanaarsebobis principi. Tu Sinaarsobriv-semantikur doneze sulxan-sabas Tvalsazrisi gamokveTilia, azrovnebis dialoguri forma, rogorc siRrmiseuli substrati, warmogvidgens iseT cnobierebas, sadac samive sazrisi inarCunebs arsebobis uflebas. igi uSvebs SesaZleblobas, yoveli maTgani gaazrebul iqnas, rogorc kerZo aspeqtebi erTi didi, sayovelTao WeSmaritebisa.

damowmebani: antikuri... 1984: . .: "", 1984.

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aristotele 1984: . , .4. .: "", 1984. axali aRTqma 1985: axali aRTqma da fsalmuni. stokholmi: bibliis Targmnis instituti, 1984. batkini 1978: .. : , . .: "", 1978. gaCeCilaZe 1984: gaCeCilaZe g. sulxan-saba orbeliani. wignSi: qarTuli mwerloba. leqsikoni-cnobari, w. 1. Tb.: `ganaTleba~, 1984. gvaxaria 1995: gvaxaria a. narkvevebi qarTul-sparsuli literaturuli urTierTobis istoriidan. I. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1995. gukovski 1962: . . . " ", 1963. 2. eTikis... 1969: . .: "", 1969. ibn sina 1980: . . .: 1980. ivanovi 1984: .. . : , 1984. kekeliZe 1958: kekeliZe k. qarTuli literaturis istoria, II. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1958. makiaveli 1984: makiaveli n. mTavari. italiuridan Targmna, winasityvaoba da komentarebi daurTo baCana bregvaZem. Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1984. orbeliani 1991: orbeliani sulxan-saba. leqsikoni qarTuli. I. moamzada, gamokvleva da ganmartebaTa leqsikis saZiebeli daurTo ilia abulaZem. Tb.: `merani~, 1991. orbeliani 1993: orbeliani sulxan-saba. leqsikoni qarTuli. II. Tbilisi: `merani~, 1993. orbeliani 1983: orbeliani sulxan-saba. wigni sibrZne-sicruisa. wignSi: qarTuli proza, V, Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1983. renesansis... 1981: , . I, .. . .: "", 1981. rusTaveli 1966: rusTaveli SoTa. vefxistyaosani. teqsti da variantebi or tomad. 1. a.SaniZisa da a.baramiZis redaqciiT. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1966. safuZvlebi... 1994: . : "", 1994. sairaZe 1975: siraZe r. Zveli qarTuli Teoriul-literaturuli azrovnebis sakiTxebi. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1975. qilila... 1975: qilila da damana. teqsti daadgina, Sesavali, komentarebi da leqsikoni daurTo magali Toduam. Tb.: `merani~, 1975. yubaneiSvili 1949: yubaneiSvili sol. Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, II. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1949. Stekeli 1994: Stekeli a. Sua saukuneebis filosofiis istoria. germanulidan Targmna baCana bregvaZem. Tb.: Tbilisis damoukidebeli universiteti, 1994. hoizinga 1997: , Homo Ludens. : " ­ ", 1997.

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levan bregaZe

tradiciuli fabula _ axali Sinaarsi

sulxan-saba orbelianis mxatvruli ostatoba da originaluroba gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans maSin, roca cnobili fabulebis damuSavebiT Seqmnil mis igav-arakebs sxva avtorTa versiebs vadarebT (am TvalsazrisiT friad sagulisxmoa aleqsandre baramiZis mier Catarebuli SedarebiTi analizi arakisa `glaxaki da qila erbo~ da imave fabulis mqone arakebisa, romlebic `panCatantraSi~, `hitopadeSaSi~ da `qililasa da damanas~ arabulsa da sparsul versiebSi gvxvdeba. _ baramiZe 1959: 42-45). amjerad Cveni kvlevis sagania sabas `soflis maSenebelni~ da am arakis mimarTeba berZnul (ezope; vimowmebT ioanes irmSeris germanul Targmans), somxur (vardani, XII s.; vimowmebT niko maris rusul Targmans) da laTinurenovan (gabriel ferne [Faërne], XVI s-is italieli poeti; vimowmebT Sarl peros frangul Targmans) versiebTan (es ukanaskneli paraleli `sibrZne sicruisas~ mkvlevarT gamoyenebuli ar aqvT). korneli kekeliZis azriT, `soflis maSenebeli `ZaRlisa da mamlis~ araki mTavari motiviT uaxlovdeba ezopes amave saTauris araks, gansxvaveba mxolod detalebSia~ (kekeliZe 1981: 457; Sdr. leoniZe 1928: CXC). gansxvavebul detalebs k. kekeliZe ar asaxelebs, da, saerTodac, citirebuli SeniSvniT amoiwureba misi msjeloba am igavze. gansxvavebul detalTagan or umTavress gamovyofT: 1) soflis kuriozuli xerxiT (yefiTa da yiviliT) aSenebis ganzraxvaze ezopes (ezope 1978: 133), vardanis (mari 1899: 494-495; Sdr.: qrestomaTia 1949: 335) da ferne//peros versiebSi (pero interneti) araferia naTqvami. SevadaroT erTmaneTs arakis versiaTa dasawyisebi: a) ezope: `ZaRli da mamali daZmobildnen da samogzaurod gaeSurnen~ (ezope 1978: 133); b) vardani: `ZaRli da mamali daZmobildnen da gaudgnen gzas~ (mari 1899: 495); g) ferne//pero: `ZaRli, mamalTan erTad, samogzaurod gaeSura~ (pero interneti);

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d) saba: `erTi ZaRli da erTi mamali daZmobildnen: sofeli avaSenoTo! ZaRlman uTxra: rogor avaSenoTo? mamalman uTxra: Sen iyefe, me viyivleb da aSendebao~ (orbeliani 1959: 28). ukve sawyisi frazebis SedarebiTac SeiZleba mivxvdeT, rom sabas igavis saxiT manamde arsebul versiaTagan sruliad gansxvavebul nawarmoebTan gveqneba saqme. sityvis didostatis da amavdroulad didi satirikosis xelwerac mkafiod igrZnoba pirvelsave winadadebebSi. 2) ezopesTan (vardanTan, ferne//perosTan) ar gvaqvs motyuebuli melas saboloo replika. berZnul, somxur da laTinur//frangul versiebSi ZaRli klavs melas (ezope: `[der Hund] zerriß ihn~; vardani: ` , ~; ferne//pero: `...le chien le prit et l'étrangla sur l'heure~); saba ki, finaluri replikis gulisTvis, cocxals tovebs mas: `wamodga ZaRli, mels gamoudga, daCeCqva da kudi moswyvita. dakodili wavida. gaglejili, naTrevi goraze wamodga da dauZaxa: me xom Cemi Wkuisa damemarTao da, Tu Tqven mag saqmiT sofeli aaSenoT, Tqvenc SeityobTo!~ (orbeliani 1959: 29). es gansxvavebebi arsebiTad cvlis arakis personaJTa xasiaTebs, nawarmoebis mxatvrul ideas, _ cvlis ise, rom imave fabulis miuxedavad Tvisebrivad sxva nawarmoebs vRebulobT. zurab avaliSvilis sityviT, `marma mravali magaliTis moxmobiT warmoaCina, Tu rogor Rebulobdnen somxur niadagze berZnuli igavebi Tavisebur Seferilobas xalxur yaidaze. igive unda momxdariyo saqarTveloSic. es gansakuTrebiT exeba im igavebs, romlebSic ezopeseuli birTvi mxolod amosaval punqts qmnis, rogorc, magaliTad, `soflis maSenebelnSi~. Tuki berZnul versias jer saeklesio Seferilobis mqone somxur igavs SevadarebT (vardanis variants gulisxmobs. _ l. b.) da Semdeg pawia qarTul moTxrobas, romelic JRers, rogorc politikuri satira (sabas versias gulisxmobs. _ l. b.), Tvalwin gveqneba uZvelesi masalis ganviTarebis sami stadia~ (avaliSvili 1933: 21-22). am msjelobidan is azri unda gamovitanoT, rom, tradiciuli fabulis miuxedavad, zurab avaliSvils mxatvruli ideis doneze sulxan-saba orbelianis `soflis maSenebelni~ adrindeli versiebisagan arsebiTad gansxvavebul nawarmoe-

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bad miaCnia. (samwuxarod, msgavsi viTareba z. avaliSvilma ver SeniSna sabas `usamarTlo Sirvan-Sahisa~ da me-13 saukunis sirieli mwerlis grigol-ioane abul-faraj bar-hebraias `ori Wotis saubris~ urTierTSedarebisas. misi azriT, sabasa da sirieli mwerlis arakebs Soris marto Tematuri msgavseba ki ar SeiniSneba, aramed `es, ubralod, igive arakia~, rac sinamdviles ar Seefereba. amis Sesaxeb ix. bregaZe 1989: 13; bregaZe 2008: 158-163). Sefaseba, rom sabas `soflis maSenebelni~ `JRers, rogorc politikuri satira~, Semdgom solomon iordaniSvilmac gaimeora (iordaniSvili 1939: 201). ufro dawvrilebiT am sakiTxze arc z. avaliSvili, arc s. iordaniSvili arafers gveubnebian. amitom gavarkvioT, ra mxatvruli Sedegi gamoiRo zemoaRniSnulma cvlilebebma sabas versiaSi. ezopes igavisa da masTan axlomdgomi versiebisgan gansxvavebiT, sabas ZaRli da mamali TaRliTebi Canan: surT saqmiani xalxis reputacia Seiqmnan, soflis maSeneblis saxeli daigdon, Tumca yefisa da yivilis garda saamisod arafris maqnisni ar arian. eseni saqmis keTebas propagandistuli xmauriT, dRevandeli termini rom vixmaroT, `piariT~ anacvleben. sagrZnobi cvlileba ganicada sabasTan melis saxemac. zemoT citirebuli RirsSesaniSnavi replikidan, romelic Cinebulad gamoxatavs motyuebuli matyuaras boRma-gamwarebas, isic kargad Cans, rom sabas mela TviTkritikulic aris da TaRliTebis mamxilebladac gvevlineba, ris gamoc is, am arakis sxva versiaTa meliebisagan gansxvavebiT, erTmniSvnelovnad uaryofiTi personaJi aRar aris. TviTkritikac (TviTironiac) da TaRliTebis mxilebac melis xasiaTs dadebiTi StrixebiT amdidrebs, ris Sedegadac garkveuli simpaTia aRgveZvris mis mimarT. (sabasTvis tipobrivia, roca personaJi, mas Semdeg, rac WkuaSi waagebs, TviTonve kicxavs Tavis Tavs, TviTironias mimarTavs. gavixsenoT dasasruli arakisa `nalbandi mgeli~: `mamaCemi xarazi iyo, me nalbandobas ra mrjidao?~ (orbeliani 1959: 46), agreTve melas saboloo TviTironiuli replika arakidan `moZRvari meli~: `rasac moZRvars aRsareba samowmod gauxdia, uaresimc daemarTebao~ (iqve, 27) da amisive msgavsi _ `rasac kacs mamis anderZi ar dauswavlia, uaresimc daemarTebao~ _ igavidan `mefis anderZi~ (iqve, 142).

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mokled, Tu ezopesTan, vardanTan, ferne//perosTan mamali da ZaRli pirwmindad ucodvelni arian, xolo mela pirwmindad borotganmzraxvelia (amgvari ram sazogadod damaxasiaTebelia igavis Janris nawarmoebisTvis), qarTvel mweralTan daZleulia es sqematuroba, rac am mcire teqsts didi literaturis nimuSTa Soris miuCens adgils. am igavis arcerT sxva CvenTvis cnobil versiaze ar SeiZleba iTqvas, politikuri satiraao, razedac naTlad metyvelebs maTi finaluri nawili, romelSic igavis moralia gadmocemuli: 1) ezope: `igavi amtkicebs, rom Wkviani adamianebic aseve iqcevian. roca boroteba emuqrebaT, isini iolad axerxeben TavianT mtrebs sakadrisi miuzRon~ (ezope 1978: 133); 2) vardani (ZiriTadi versiis morali): `igavi gviCvenebs: cbier, muxanaT, qurd da yvela sxva borot adamians gaafTrebuli xalxi Sexvedrisas klavs da gudavs ( ) msgavsad imisa, rogorc ZaRli ar SeeSva melas, vidre ar gaguda is~ (mari 1899: 495); vardani (ZiriTadi versiisagan gansxvavebuli variantis morali): `igavi gviCvenebs: vinc Seecdeba mzakvrulad moeqces Tavis amxanags, TviTon gaebmeba Tavis dagebul maxeSi, rogorc qriste ambobs da agreTve daviTi da solomoni~ (mari 1899: 494); Sdr. Zveli qarTuli Targmani: `romelic amxanagis zakvari aris, TiTon Cavardes ormoSi, rogorca brZanebs qriste da solomon, vinc ormo gaTxaroso~ (qrestomaTia 1949: 335); 3) ferne//pero: `samarTliania motyueba matyuarasi~ (`C'est le vrai droit du jeu de tromper le trompeur~) (pero interneti). saba igavebs moralis Semcvel ganmartebebs ar urTavs. monaTxrobidan moralis gamotana `sibrZne sicruisas~ mkiTxvelma TviTon unda moaxerxos igavis warmomTqmeli personaJis komentarebis an konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT (z. avaliSvilis sityviT, `Zalze Taviseburia is, rom am krebulis igavebs moraluri Wkuis darigeba (`moralische Belehrung~) sruliad ar axlavs. igavis moralis amocnobas da nawarmoebis mTlianobidan mis gamocalkevebas avtori mkiTxvels andobs~. _ avaliSvili 1933: 25). Cven mier gansaxilav araks ruqa hyveba, soflis cru maSeneblebSi igi leonsa da sedraq

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vazirs gulisxmobs, TaRliTebad miiCnevs maT _ mefis Zis aRzrdas lamoben, magram am saqmisa araferi gaegebaT; me ki, maT mamxilebels, maxes migeben da, vatyob, raRacas cuds SemamTxveveno (`Sen da mas [sedraq vazirs mimarTavs; `mas~-Si leons gulisxmobs. _ l. b.] piri SegikravsT, me wauxdenels, vici, ar gamiSvebT; Tu mefis Ze kargad gazardoT, me Ture ara vici rao~. _ orbeliani 1959: 29). mokled, TviT ruqas aRiarebiT, igi pedagogikis principul problemebze saxifaTo polemikas eweva samefo karis maRali rangis moxeleebTan, romlebic, misi azriT, arasworad uZRvebian ufliswulis swavla-aRzrdis umniSvnelovanes, saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis saqmes. amrigad, sabas versia, romelic genetikurad ezopes igavs enaTesaveba, amavdroulad Tvisebrivad gansxvavdeba misgan (da masTan axlo mdgom sxva variantTagan) mxatvruli ideiTac da am ideis xorcSesxmis maRalmxatvruli formiTac.

damowmebani: avaliSvili 1933: Surab Awalischwili. Einleitung. wignSi: Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani. Die Weisheit der Lüge. Artschil Metreweli, Berlin-Wilmersdorf, [1933]. baramiZe 1959: al. baramiZe. sibrZne sicruisa. krebulSi: sulxan-saba orbeliani. saiubileo krebuli. Tb.: saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba. 1959. bregaZe 1989: l. bregaZe. paralelebi. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 14. 07. 1989, 28. bregaZe 2008: l. bregaZe. moTxrobebi literaturaze. Tb.: bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba, 2008. ezope 1978: Antike Fabeln. Aus dem griechischen und lateinischen übersetzt von Johannes Irmscher. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin und Weimar, 1978. iordaniSvili 1939: . . . wignSi: . . : ` ~, 1939. kekeliZe 1981: k. kekeliZe. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria. t. II. Tb.: gamomcemloba `mecniereba~, 1981. leoniZe 1928: giorgi leoniZe. sulxan-saba orbeliani. wignSi: sulxan-saba orbeliani. sibrZne sicruisa. giorgi leoniZis redaqciiT. tf.: gamomcemloba Sroma, 1928. mari 1899: . . . , I, . : , 1899. orbeliani 1959: sulxan-saba orbeliani. Txzulebani. I. Tb.: gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1959. pero interneti: http://ecole.onsevoitdemainalors.org/article.php3?id_article= 1137 qrestomaTia 1949: Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia. II, Sedgenili solomon yubaneiSvilis mier. Tb.: stalinis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 1949.

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giorgi gaCeCilaZe

renesansi da baroko

(wanamZRvrebi `vefxistyaosnisa~ da `sibrZne sicruisas~ SedarebiTi analizisTvis) literatura imitomaa adamianis SemoqmedebiTobis yvelaze eqsperimentuli dargi, rom ena (sityva), romelsac is eqsperimentis masalad iyenebs, Tavad xasiaTdeba azris kvlavwarmoebis, ganaxlebis, dinamiurobis, SemoqmedebiTobis unariT. rusTaveli darwmunebiT imeorebda antikuri filosofiis postulats, rom `msgavsi yvelais msgavssa Sobs~. azri, romelic am postulatidan gamomdinareobs, mdgomareobs imaSi, rom `msgavsi Seimecneba msgavsiT~. am niSniT, literatura aris enis pirmSo, xolo literaturis Teoria -- moZRvreba ~msgavsis msgavsiT Semecnebis~ Sesaxeb. baroko aris renesansis pirmSo, xolo renesansis mimarT barokos gaucxoeba _ mamaTagan naWami kawaxis gamo SvilebisTvis kbilTa mokveTiT gamowveuli reaqcia. amitom, rogorc JanriT, ise erTmaneTisgan saukuneebiT daSorebul `vefxistyaosansa~ da sulxan saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisas~ SedarebiTi analizic aris `msgavsiT msgavsis~ gaazrebis eqsperimentuli cda. es eqsperimenti ar aris TviTmizani. esaa qarTuli kulturis, rogorc erTiani sistemis, wiaRSi istoriis tragikuli xdomilebebiT erTmaneTisgan stilebiT, konceptebiT, ganwyobebiT gamijnuli, meore mxriv, erTmaneTis momijnave da dialogSi myofi epoqebi. dialogis protagonistebia renesansi da baroko. diskursSi monawile personaliebi: antikuri filosofia, Sua saukuneebi, aRmosavluri da dasavluri kulturebi da ganmanaTlebluri epoqis winamorbedni. raki amgvari dialogis repertuari amouwuravia da usasrulo, xolo Cveni cda _ eqsperimentuli, am dialogidan im laitmotivis povnaa saWiro, romelic SiSveli nerviviT feTqavs dResac da gagrZeldeba usasrulod... am laitmotivis saxelia cnobiereba, gansja, pragmatuli mizanSewoniloba. gansja aris sakvanZo adgili, sadac ikveTeba adamianis socializaciis veqtorebi. amitom Tu ar CavTvliT stiqiur katastrofebs, sazRvari, romelic mijnavs adamianis Tavze garedan da Sinagani

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cnobierebis wyalobiT masze datexil tragediebs, gadis swored mis cnobierebaze. am sazRvris gansazRvraSi kacobrioba solidarulia (`rac mogiva daviTao, yvela Seni TaviTao~). rusTavels silaRe ar aklia, magram xalxuri leqsisgan gansxvavebiT, gansjisa da moqmedebis Sedegebs Soris kavSiris aRsaniSnavad mkacr tons irCevs:

`Tavisisa cnobisagan Cavardebis kaci Wirsa~. (rusTaveli 1937: 875)

rac Seexeba `sibrZne sicruisas~, sulxan sabas gansjis sagania swored cnobiereba, rogorc adamianis, civilizaciis, saxelmwifos, kulturis brwyinvalebisa da siRatakis, sibrZnisa da sicruis, zneobisa da uzneobis mizezic da Sedegic. gaivlis renesansisa da barokos, rusTavelisa da sulxan saba orbelianis dialogidan naxevari saukune da dasavlur filosofiaSi 1790 wels Seiqmneba kantis `gansjis unaris kritika~, romelSic gansjis esTetikuri unari pirvelad iqneba daqvemdebarebuli gansjis mizanSewonilobis unars. magram vidre renesanssa da barokos, rusTavelsa da sulxan saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisas~ konceptebs Soris gansxvavebas SevexebodeT, oriode sityva am konceptebis Sesaxeb, rac `vefxistyaosansa~ da `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ aris konceptualurad saerTo, gamaerTianebeli, erToblivi.

sulxan saba orbeliani, rogorc qarTuli barokos enciklopedia

enciklopediuroba is erTaderTi sityvaa, romelic srulfasovnad asaxavs barokos esTetikuri kriteriumebis momcvelobas sulxan saba orbelianis SemoqmedebaSi. rogorc cnobilia, barokos stilis zeamocanad iqca renesansuli stilisa da utopiuri konceptebis ara mxolod interpretacia, aramed dekonstruqcia. vefxistyaosnis barokul-manieristuli dekonstruirebis mizani qarTul barokoSi kulturologiuri diskursis sibrtyezea gadatanili. dawyebuli vefxistyaosnis pirveli gamgrZeleblebidan damTavrebuli arCilis moTxovnis _ `rusTvels rad ver mibaZesa?" _ mimdevrebiT, rusTaveli iqca XVII-XVIII saukuneebis qarTvel `mamaTa da SvilTa~ diskursis qvakuTxedad.

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am diskursis monawileni arian: Teimuraz I, arCili, vaxtang VI, daviT guramiSvili, iakob Semoqmedeli, qaixosro ColoyaSvili, besiki, rusTavelis `ese ambavi sparsulis~ gavleniT sparsulidan `rostomianis~ qarTuli versiebis Semqmnelebi, vefxistyaosnis pirveli qarTveli ilustratori mamuka TavaqaraSvili da ra Tqma unda, anton kaTalikosi. miuxedavad imisa, rom sulxan saba orbelians rusTavelis mimarT Tavisi pozicia deklaraciuli formiT ar gamouxatavs, konceptualur pasuxs kiTxvaze: ratom gaxda barokos epoqa iZulebuli daewyo vefxistyaosnis dekonstuirebuli interpretacia, ara naklebi mWermetyvelebiT iZleva `sibrZne sicrusa~, vidre imave epoqis parodiul-manieristuli interpretaciebi vefxistyaosnisa. qarTuli cnobierebis dinamikaSi barokos kulturam da `sibrZne sicruisam~ Seasrula igive funqcia, rac espanuri da evropuli renesansis krizisis daZlevaSi _ servantesis `don kixotma~. naTqvamis verifikaciis optimaluri forma vefxistyaosnisa da `sibrZne sicruisas~ paradigmaTa SedarebiTi analizia. orive nawarmoebi filosofiur-didaqtikuri xasiaTisaa. orsave nawarmoebSi gamoyenebulia diskursis sagnad qceuli kiTxvebis deteritorializirebul sibrtyeze gadatanis meTodi. orive nawarmoebis qronotipi mowyvetilia diskursSi monawileTa biografiuli yofis garemos, adgils, toponims. aseT viTarebaSi dro da sivrce xdeba adamianis (gmiris) gamocdis, testirebis, verifikaciis instrumenti. vefxistyaosnis siuJeti gamarTulia avantiuristuli romanis poetikuri principiT. avantiuristuli siuJeti aris deteqtivis saxeoba. avantiuristuli romanis qronotipSi gmiri gayvanilia biografiuli garemodan da gadanacvlebulia ucxo qveynis garemoSi. vefxistyaosnis gmirTa moqmedebis asparezi aris planeta. avTandilSi dublirebulia ulises (odisevsis) kolumbamdeli avantiurizmi. avTandilSi SiSveli nerviviT feTqavs kontinetebis aRmoCenaTa kolumbamdeli proeqtebis eqo. `sibrZne sicruis~ fabula da siuJeti organizebulia avantiuristuli romanis qronotipis principiT. rogorc vefxistyaosanSi, ise `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ saqme gvaqvs biografiuli garemodan gmiris `gasvlisa da dabrunebis~ paradigmasTan. vefxistyaosnis gmirebi gadian biografiuli garemodan, Tavisufldebian biografiuli garemos

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socialuri da moralisturi kontrolisgan, gadawyvetilebebs iReben da moqmedeben mizanSewonilebis safuZvelze. amaSia gmiris testirebis, adamianis verifikaciis, filosofiuri konceptis deteritorizaciis arsi. es aris safuZveli, ris gamoc filosofiuri literatura prioritets aniWebs avantiuristul da ara biografiul siuJets. miTologiuri gmirebis msgavsad, avantiuristuli siuJetis biografiuli garemodan gasuli gmirebi axali codniT, gamocdilebiT, cxovrebis xis nayofTan ziarebulni da dabrZenebulni brundebian TavianT garemoSi. `sibrZne sicruisaSic~ `unaRvloTa mZebneli~ mefe gadis biografiuli garemodan da axali codniT gamdidrebuli brundeba Tavis samefoSi. am siuJetis arqetipi qarTul kulturaSi xorcSesxmulia amiranis miTsa da vaJa-fSavelas `gvelismWamelSi~. (Sdr. amiranis gasvla samyaros erTi sknelidan meore sknelSi da dabruneba yamariT da cxovrebis xis nayofiT. mindias Casvla qvesknelSi da gamecnierebulad dabruneba Tavis samkvidroSi). unda gvaxsovdes, rom triada: teritorizacia_ deteritorizacia _ reteritorizacia _ geofilosofiis fundamenturi konceptebia. esaa koncepti, romlis arakalendarul droSi sibrZnis (sofia) da siyvarulis (filia) safuZvelze rusTaveli da sulxan saba orbeliani megobrdebian. rusTavelTan deteritorizaciiis proeqti mTavrdeba `vefxistyaosnis~, xolo sulxan saba orbelianTan `sibrZnesicruis~ reteritorializebuli proeqtis saxiT. orive SemTxvevaSi qarTulma kulturam miiRo aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis saazrovno situaciaTa globaluri sinTezi. rogorc galaktioni ityoda, `vefxistyaosanSi~ _

Srialebs frTebi eladaTa sibrZnis demonis, Zveli egviptis aq xmianebs mZlavri genia. (tabiZe 1977: 313)

`sibrZne sicruisaSi~ `Srialebs frTebi eladaTa sibrZnis demonis~. gavixsenoT `lodis damgorebeli~ (sizife), `mocinari da motirali~ (heraklite da empedokle), aseve `italieli mxatvrebi~ da `unaRvloTa mZebneli~, rogorc realobisa da moCvenebiTobis dasavluri pragmatobiT gamijvnis nimuSebi. amave dros `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ "Srialebs frTe-

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bi" aRmosavleTis (indoeTi, CineTi, arabeTi, sparseTi) `mZlavri geniisa~. orsave SemTxvevaSi aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis kulturaTa dialogis proeqti win uswrebs goeTes `dasavluraRmosavluri divanis~ proeqts. aqve unda iTqvas, rom geofilosofiaSi pirovnebis deteritorizaciis mniSvneloba ar Semoifargleba deteritorizaciis meqanikuri gagebiT. deteritorizaciis mniSvneloba Seicavs erTi qveynidan individTa an `SemoqmedebiTi umciresobis~ sxva qveynebSi (miTis mixedviT, sxva sknelebSi) ara mxolod fizikur gadanacvlebas, aramed ideaTa, codnaTa, politikuri miznebis, konceptTa, produqciaTa cirkulacias. magram vefxistyaosansa da `sibrZne sicruisas~ Soris gansxvaveba imaSia, rom biografiuli garemodan avTandiliviT gasuli leonis TavgadasavalSi dublirebulia ara renesansis monumentur-maqsimalist gmirTa, aramed baroko-manierizmis gmirTa, marTalia, didaqtizmTan dakavSirebuli, magram damiwebuli, pikareskuli (TaRliTuri), gangvirgvinebuli proeqtebi. baroko-manierizmma daiwyo raindul-avantiuristuli romanis heroikuli gmirebis Canacvleba yofiTi, miwieri proeqtebis mqone gmirebiT. pikarom Canacvla raindi. `sibrZne-sicruisas~ protagonisti leonis mogzaurobiT da avantiuristuli TavgadasavliT qarTul prozaSi sulxan saba orbelianma saTave daudo pikareskuli romanis diskurss. qarTul prozaSi am diskursis pirveli gamoZaxilia ioane batoniSvilis `kalmasoba~, XIX saukunis `mogzaurobani~. XX saukuneSi am diskursis Janruli gafarToebis Sedevria javaxiSvilis `kvaWi kvaWantiraZe~. XX saukunis 70-iani wlebidan am diskursis daRiTaa aRbeWdili: o. CxeiZis "boriayi", W. amirejibis `daTa TuTaSxia~ da `gora mborgali~, T. WilaZis "gzaze erTi kaci midioda", g. doCanaSvilis `samoseli pirveli~, a. morCilaZis `mogzauroba yarabaxSi~. renesansma da gansakuTrebiT, rusTavelma adamiani dasva anTropocentrizmis piedestalze. barokoSi es koncepti Sefasebul iqna utopiuri Teoriis produqtad. anTropocentrizmis laitmotivi gasdevs barokosac, magram es aris negatiuri anTropocentrizmi. `sibrZne-sicruis~ personaJebs araferi aqvT saerTo rusTavelis gmirebTan. barokuli `negatiuri anTropocentrizmi~ aris damarcxebuli, SeWirvebuli, sasowarkveTili, Tavzardacemuli, unugeSo, samoTxidan

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jojoxeTur realobaSi gadmotyorcnili adamianis anTropocentrizmi. baroko asaxavs amgvar realobaSi moxvedrili adamianis brZolas TviTgadarCenisaTvis. am brZolaSi renesansulrusTveluri konceptebi gzis gamkvlevi orientirebi ki ar xdebian, aramed madezorientirebeli Suqurebi. ar aris marTali: rom `borotsa sZlia keTilman~; rom `RmerTi kargsa moavlinebs da borotsa ar dabadebs~; rom `maT samTa gmirTa mnaTobTa sWirT erTmaneTis moneba~. ar aris marTali: `bedi, cda da gamarjveba~, radganac gamarjvebis absolutizacia wilnayaria damarcxebasTan. gavixsenoT miqelanjelos "gamarjvebuli", romelic damarcxebuli aRmoCnda. realobis repertuarSi "sicrue da orpiroba avnebs xorcsa, merme sulsa" kategoriulia, radganac sicrue, rogorc socialuri TviTdamkvidrebis instrumenti, zogjer sibrZnis mniSvnelobas iZens. cxovreba da istoria ar wavida im gziT, rogorc rusTavels warmoedgina. axal gamowvevebze axali pasuxebi iyo gasacemi! ai, ras mixvda barokos epoqis qarTuli kultura da ver mixvdnen literaturis istoriis is eqspertebi, romelTac am procesebis analizis misia ekisraT. `sibrZne sicruis~ saTaurSive moxazul iqna koncepti, romelic saTaved daedo barokul cnobierebas, rogorc antinomiurobiT aRbeWdili realobis kodi. barokom urTierT gamomricxavi sawyisebis dialeqtikuri Tanafardobis es mniSvneloba aqcia rogorc movlenaTa Sefasebis, ise poetikis kriteriumad. rodesac laparakia Tavisi drois saazrovno situaciaSi sulxan saba orbelianis moRvaweobis mniSvnelobaze, mxedvelobaSia misaRebi is kriteriumebi, romlebic man renesansis utopiuri konceptebis gasaneitraleblad gamoiyena. raki renesansis raindul-avantiuristuli romanis heroikuli gmiris barokos pikareskuli gmiriT Canacvlebis Sesaxeb ukve gvqonda saubari, amjerad kidev or koncepts SevexebiT: amjerad `vefxistyaosansa~ da `sibrZne sicrueSi~ ganviTarebuli gansjis unaris erT postulats gadavavloT Tvali.

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danaxulis, rogorc WeSmaritebis kriteriumis, Tavgadasavali `vefxistyaosnidan~ `sibrZne sicruemde~

rusTvelisTvis `msgavsi yvelai msgavssa Sobs~. Sesabamisad, raki qarTul enaSi sparsulidan Semosuli `CiS mariT~ (TvaliT nanaxi) aris WeSmariteba, TvaliT danaxva aris sagnis realobis da versifikaciis instrumenti. gavixsenoT rostevan-avTandilis mier ucxo moymis naxvis epizodi:

`naxes, ucxo moyme vinme jda mtirali wylisa pirsa, Savi cxeni sadaviTa hyva lomsa da viTa gmirsa, xSirad esxa margaliti lagam-abjar-unagirsa. cremlsa vardi daeTrTvila, gulsa mduRrad anatirsa. mas tansa kaba emosa, gare-Tma vefxis tyavisa, vefxis tyavisa qudive iyo sarqmeli Tavisa, xelTa naWedi maTraxi hqonda usxosi mklavisa; naxes da naxva mounda ucxosa sanaxavisa~. (rusTaveli 1937: 875)

naxes ucxo moyme vinme, romelic ki ar naxes, aramed dainaxes, radganac ucxo moymem ar isurva maTTan Sexvedra da gaqusla. miuxedavad amisa, ucxo moymis danaxva sakmarisi aRmoCnda mis mimarT, rogorc swored ucxo moymis mimarT da ara yaCaRis, avantiuristis, sxva qveynis `moyuriadis~ (vaJa) mimarT, interesis aRZrvisaTvis. `naxes da naxva moundaT ucxosa sanaxavisa~ _ barokosaTvis es koncepti miuRebelia. `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ am konceptis konkretuli dekodirebis mizans emsaxureba ori didi pasaJi. erTi gaerTianebulia `italieli mxatvrebis~, meore _ `unaRvloTa mZebnelis~ ciklSi. gavixsenoT aTidan erTi novela `italieli mxatvrebis~ ciklidan: `sxvaman gvawvia. meorisa amxanagisa coli Ture enaxa da misi saxe gamoesaxa, srulad mas amsgavsa. Cven davsxediT mas saxesTana. merme igi kaci awvia. Semovida, naxa CvenSi mjdomeli. ficxeli kaci iyo. mas marTla misi coli egona. metis javrisagan veRara gaigno ra. mouxda, cema eneba. ra mjiRi Semohkra, kedeli dahxvda. diadi vicineT da esreT davlieT Tve igi mun~ (orbeliani 1957: 83).

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axla `unaRvloTa mZebnelis~ aTi novelis finals gadavavloT Tvali: mefe Sepyrobilia unaRvlo adamianis povnis wadiliT. mefis Ziebam fiasko ganicada. misgan napovni unaRvloni mefes eubnebian: `_ Tu mefe xar, raisaTvis dagitevebia mefoba da cudad rbi? Tuca sircxvili ici, rad ar imyofineb esodensa augsa da augiansa sityvasa? ra samefo sasmenelni arian?! warved, me aras vetyvi ambavsa Cemsa, virem cocxal var da verca vin maTqmevinos. gijobs, samefo Seni ganago! wamovida mefe muniT da movida samefosa Tvissa. vazirsa Tvissa didi pativi mihmadla da yovelive yofili uTxra. moaxsena leon mefesa: _ mefeo, unaRvlo xom aravin aris! Sen ramdenjer naRveli mogerios, kaci ar gaikiTxo, viT iqmnebis, anu merme ras ityvis~ (orbeliani 1957: 37-38). ase damarcxda unaRvloTa naxviT gamarjvebuli mefe. gamoirkva, rom naxva ar aris danaxulis verifikaciis sando da ucdomeli kriteriumi, rogorc rusTavels miaCnda. msgavsebis rwmunebisTvis arc danaxvaa sakmarisi da arc danaxulis saxeli. sulxan saba orbelianis am paradigmas daviT guramiSvili agvirgvinebs:

`vinc ara hgavs kaxabersa, me ver vityvi kaxaberad~. (guramiSvili 1991: 170)

qarTul azrovnebaSi ase iwyeba `gansjis unaris kritikis~ Canacvleba `mzametyvelebaSi~. ra aris sagani `gansjis unaris kritikisa~ Tu ara `mzametyvelebis~ kritika, anu kritika adamianis iluziisa, Seqmnas receptuli pasuxebi yvela drosa da garemoebaTa gamowvevebze. is, rac rusTavelma Tqva da barokom ar gaiziara, asaxavs saazrovno situaciis fundamentur aspeqts. rogorc m. baxtinma SeniSna: `ar arsebobs izolirebuli gamoTqma. is yovelTvis gulisxmobs mis winamorbed da momdevno gamoTqmebs. arcerTi gamoTqma ar SeiZleba iyos arc pirveli da arc ukanaskneli. TiToeuli maTgani aris mxolod rgoli erTian jaWvSi da am erTianobis gareSe misi gaazreba SeuZlebelia. gamoTqmaTa Soris arsebobs mimarTebani, romlebic ar ganisazRvrebian arc meqanikuri, arc lingvisturi kategoriebiT~ (baxtini 1979: 340).

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rogorc aRiniSna, vefxistyaosnis gagrZelebebSi ganxorcielebuli dekonstruqciis formatsa da `sibrZne sicruisas~ formats Soris gansxvavebaa. vefxistyaosnis gagrZelebebis barokul-manieristul formatSi dekonstruqcia xorcieldeba rusTavelis leqsis (katrenis) sazeimo, ceremonialuri stilis realobasTan Sejaxebis warmoCeniT.

tariel da coli misi dabrmes, daRrkes, dacaberdes, siyvaruli gaacives, erTmaneTsa ukugrildes.

es aris koncepti, romelsac dasavluri barokos literaturaSi dantes motivebisa da gmirTa qcevis dekonstuqciisaTvis ixmoben taso da ariosto. xolo renesansuli mxatvrobis dekonstruqciisaTvis _ karavajo. `sibrZne sicruisaSi" es mizani miRweulia sxva formatiT. sulxan saba diskursis sagnad irCevs ara vefxistyaosnis katrens, aramed vefxistyaosnis calkeul pasaJebSi asaxul konceptebs.

erotika `vefxistyaosansa~ da `sibrZne sicruisaSi~

Cveni gansjis sagani ar aris erotika saerTod renesanssa da barokoSi. erotika arCilis, guramiSvilis, besikis rokokoSi (`tano tatano~) calke Temaa. amjerad am Temis `vefxistyaosansa~ da `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ realizebul dapirispirebzaze gveqneba saubari. `siyvaruli agvamaRlebs~, _ wers rusTaveli. misTvis, platonis mgavsad, siyvaruli aris fragmentebad daSlili samyaros gamaerTianebeli energia, romlis saxelia erosi. Tavisi gmirebi rusTavelma daayena am konceptebis piedestalze. magram realobis perspeqtiva ufro rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivia. amiT gansxvavdeba aRmosavluri sibrZne da brZeni berZnuli filosofiisa da filosofosisagan. filosofia niSnavs sibrZnis siyvaruls, megobroba _ sibrZnis siyvarulSi iseT erTobas, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs metoqeobis, SejibrebiTobis, konkurenciis elements. amitom megobroba rusTavelis renesansul da barokalur repertuarSi ar arian igiveobrivi. sulxan saba orbelianis maqsimis WeSmaritebisaTvis: `kargisaTvis kargi aravis uqnia~ arsebobs imdenive argumenti, ramdenicaa kontrargumenti. radganac es Tema qarTul barokoSi ufro masStaburad qaixosro ColoyaSvi-

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lis `omainianSia~ gansjili, mis Sesaxeb calke da sxva dros gveqneba saubari. renesansul da raindul kurtuazul kulturaSi siyvaruli miCneulia wodebrivi privilegiis atributad. `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ siyvaruli ar aris miCneuli sazogadoebis sulier-gonebriv maorganizebel faqtorad. daujerebelia, magram sulxan sabas leqsikonSi erotika aRqmulia `kacTagan qalTa damdablebis~ aqtad. vefxistyaosnis renesansuli maqsimalizmiT gamsWvaluli gmirebisaTvis siyvarulSi Ralati aris maqsimalisturi SurisZiebis stimuli, `sibrZne sicruisas~ jizi-gurgenisTvis _ maqsimalisturi cinizmis sagani. aseTia diskursis stili, romelsac `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ sulxan saba orbeliani ixmobs renesansuli (rusTveluri) konceptebis dekonstruirebis mizniT. `glaxis naambobis~ mixedviT, XIX saukunis qarTvelTa kulturaSi ilia WavWavaZem avTandil-Sermadinis wyvilis daTiko-gabroTi Canacvlebis suraTi dainaxa. es iyo afeTqeba qarTuli kulturis sistemaSi, romlis gamayruebeli eqoc daiwyo barokoSi. arada, qarTul barokoSi es procesi ori saukuniT adre iyo dawyebuli. ganurCevlad imisa, hqonda Tu ara es ilia WavWavaZes gacnobierebuli, faqtia, rom `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ avTandili Canacvlebulia jizi gurgeniT. davubrundeT `vefxistyaosnisa~ da `sibrZne sicruisas~ SedarebiT analizs. avTandilisa da fatmanis romanis Sesaxeb vefxistyaosanSi vkiTxulobT:

erTgan dasxdnen da daiwyes kocna, laRoba wyliani; Semodga karsa yma vinme kekluci, tan-nakvTiani, dahkrTa, ra naxa avTandil: hgavso, Tu gzaa kldiani. fatman ra naxa, SeSinda, Zrwis da mieca Zrwolasa, man gakvirvebiT uWvrita maTsa laRoba-wolasa; uTxra: "ar giSli, diaco, ferTa midamo krTolasa, gamiTendebis, gananeb maga moymisa yolasa! gamkicxe, bozo diaco, da damdev gasaTrevelad, magra scnob xvale pasuxsa maga saqmisa mzRvevelad: var SenTa SvilTa SeniTa kbiliTa damaWmevelad, davSalo, wverTa fu miyav, xeliRa vrbode me velad! (rusTaveli 1937: 1099-1101)

Tu rogor ganviTarda movlenebi, vefxisatyaosnis mkiTxvelTaTvis cnobilia. avTandilma jer WaSnagiris ori mcveli mokla, mere mZinare WaSnagiri:

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igi yma sawols marto wva guliTa javrianiTa; xel-sisxliani avTandil Sedga taniTa janiTa veRar aeswra, idumal mokla, verca Tu vcaniTa, xeli mohkida, miwasa daaskvna, dakla daniTa. mWvretelTa mze da mebrZoli mxeci da viTa zaria beWdiTurT TiTi mohkveTa, qvesknels miwaTa garia, zRvisken sarkmeliT gastyorca, zRvisa qviSaTa daria, misTvis arcaRa samare, arca saTxarad baria. (rusTaveli 1937: 1099-1101)

aseTia renesansuli maqsimalizmis stili. axla vnaxoT, rogor iqceva imave situaciaSi `sibrZne sicruisas~ qebuli gmiri jizi gurgeni. jizi gurgenma leoni saxlSi miiwvia. `muniT Semiyvana, erTi mSvenieri saxli iyo, damsva. uxma, erTi mwyazari qali gamovida, misTana ara minaxavs ra. dia, lamazi iyo da tanadac saros hgvanda. mravali Tvali da margalitis samkauli aqvnda. Tavze erTi oqros wvlili mavTuliT mobmuli, mrgvali raRac eba, Tval-margalitiT Semkuli, da adgilze miaTrevda, igi ara vkiTxe, Sevigen - misi ram iyo. man miTxra: _ es Cemi coliao da igi kacis Tavi misTrevso. me vkiTxe: _ rad misTrevs-meTqi? man mipasuxa: _ erTs dRes amis ucnaurad Semovel, mas kacsa exveoda, da egre uTxra: netamc Sens Tavs aravin gamyrideso. me ese sasikvdilod ver gavimete, siturfes hxedav da buneba ukeTesi aqvs, da codna da rigi imisebri ar egebis, da amas davuTme. mas kacsa Tavi movsWer, oqroTi Sevamkev da zed mivabi, natvra ar gavuqarve. RmerTma nu gahyaros! mis sicocxleSi zed ebas da iyoso~ (orbeliani 1957: 93). is, rac renesansisaTvis aris sakraluri, barokosaTvis aris profanuli. barokos kultura aris renesansuli kulturis katastrofaze reaqciis Sedegi. qarTul barokoSi rom renesansuli konceptebis dekonstruqciis procesi mimdinareobs, niSnavs qarTuli cnobierebis (kulturis) ara degradaciasa da ukusvlas, aramed qarTuli kulturisa da erovnuli energiis cxovelmyofelobas. am konteqstSi barokos reaqcia renesansul ideologiaze aris pirdapiri analogi winamorbedi filosofiis stilze Tanamedrove postmodernizmis reaqciisa.

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Post Scriptum saqme mxolod is ar aris, rom Cven vlaparakobT transformaciaze, romelic rusTavelis konceptebma ganicades barokos aramdgrad epoqaSi, rodesac qveyanas wurwuriT gasdioda sisxli. saqme aris imaSi, rom am proceduris miRma SeumCneveli darCa kulturis istoriis zedrouli personaJi, romelmac TavisTavze aiRo TanamedroveTaTvis saxeSi simarTlis mixlis gabeduleba, tvirTi, misia, pasuxismgebloba. mxedvelobaSia yoveli drois cnobierebaSi Camoyalibebuli `mzametyvelebisaTvis~ fardis axdis moTxovnilebad qceuli faqtori. `vin laparakobs~? ai, jer spinozas, Semdeg nicSes saxelTan dakavSirebuli kiTxva, romelic axali drois esTetikaSi iqca teqstis gaazrebisa da Sefasebis universalistur kriteriumad. amitom kiTxvaze Tu qarTul barokoSi `vin laparakobs~ Tundac rusTavelis paradigmebis Sesaxeb, arsebobs erTaderTi pasuxi: laparakobs drois gamowvevebze pasuxebis maZiebeli goni. kulturis istoriaSi am gonis funqcia identificirebulia marTlmadideblis rolTan. am rolebrivi funqciis matarebel personaJs berZnul kulturaSi `parresiasti~ ewoda. `Parresiaesthai~ niSnavs yvelafris Tqmas. `pan~ (yvelaferi) da `rhemn~ (ris Sesaxebacaa saubari). ase rom parresiasti aris is, vinc gulwrfelad da SeuniRbavad auwyebs xalxs rasac grZnobs da fiqrobs. kulturis istoriaSi es aris dasawyisi mTqmels, mTxrobels, naratorsa da mis metyvelebas Soris mimarTebis axali tipis damkvidrebisa. parresiastia mowame, romelic miCneulia wmindanad. qveynis saWeTpryobeli _ gmirad, ganmanaTlebeli _ mociqulad. amrigad, Tu rusTaveli iyo qarTuli renesansuli kulturis parresiasti, barokos epoqam dagvitova parresiastebis galerea, romelsac amSveneben sulxan saba orbelianisa da daviT guramiSvilis monumenturi figurebi.

damowmebani: baxtini 1979: . . .: 1979. guramiSvili 1991: guramiSvili d. daviTiani. Tb.: 1991. orbeliani 1957: orbeliani s. s. sibrZne sicruisa. g. leoniZis winasityvaobiT, s. yubaneiSvilis redaqciiT. Tb.: 1957. rusTaveli 1937: rusTaveli S. vefxistyaosani. aRmdgeneli da winasityvaobis avtori a. SaniZe. Tb.: 1937. tabiZe 1977: tabiZe g. rCeuli. Tb.: 1977.

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TinaTin bolqvaZe

sulxan-sabas leqsikonis semiozisi

sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis konis~ Seqmnis sociolingvisturi konteqsti cnobili mogzauri Sardeni werda: `saqarTveloSi yvelas aqvs ufleba icxovros Tavisi rjulisa da Cveulebisamebr, Tavisuflad ilaparakos am saganze da daicvas sakuTari Sexeduleba. aq SexvdebiT somxebs, berZnebs, uriebs, osmalebs, sparselebs, indoelebs, TaTrebs, rusebs, evropelebs~ (damowmebulia k. kekeliZis mixedviT 1981: 315). maSasadame, am sando monacemis Tanaxmad, XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi qarTul enas saqarTveloSi mraval enasTan uwevda Tanaarseboba. amas garda, gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom samefo-samTavroebad daSlil qveyanas faqtiurad mxolod ena aerTianebda. enisTvis Sinagani daqucmacebisa da gareZalebis damRupveli gavlenis asacileblad bunebrivad dadga qarTulis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis, standartizaciis sakiTxi, rac gulisxmobs enis normatiuli orTografiis, gramatikisa da leqsikonis Seqmnas. pirveli qarTuli leqsikoni da gramatika saqarTvelos farglebs gareT Seiqmna. marTalia, xSirad xazgasmiT aRniSnaven am faqtis Rrma erovnul Sinaarss (vaTeiSvili 1983: 26), magram misi ganxorcieleba mainc kaTolikuri eklesiis mesveurTa viwroklerikaluri miznebiT iyo Sepirobebuli. saerTod, axal geografiul aRmoCenebsa da misionerTa moRvaweobas Sedegad mravali enis gramatikisa da leqsikonis Sedgena mohyva, magram, rogorc marTebulad miuTiTebs leonard blumfildi, es Sromebi didi sifrTxiliT unda gamoviyenoT, radgan maTi avtorebi specialuri codnis uqonlobis gamo ucxo enaTa bgeriT SedgenilobaSi ver erkveodnen da ar SeeZloT zusti Canaweris gakeTeba. amas garda, cdilobdnen yvela `axali~ ena laTinuri gramatikis sqemaze aewyoT, rac enobrivi faqtebis gayalbebas iwvevda (blumfildi 1968: 21). swored es nakli aqvs nikifore irbaxisa da stefane paolinis `qarTul-italiur leqsikonsa~ da franCesko-maria majos `qarTul gramatikas~, romelTac `propaganda fides~ kongregacia ZiriTadad ganixilavda rogorc erTgvar damxmare saSualebas saqarTveloSi kaTolikuri samisioneros praqtikul saWiroebaTa dasakmayofileblad.

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sagulisxmoa, rom italiidan saqarTveloSi gamogzavnili kaTolike misionrebisaTvis micemuli instruqciis umTavresi moTxovna aseTi iyo: saWiroa iswavlon wera-kiTxva am samefoSi gavrcelebul enaze, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcion gamoTqmebs, raTa italiaSi dabrunebisas SeZlon sxvebs gadascen TavianTi codna; Seityon, agreTve, aqvs Tu ara am xalxs leqsikonebi an gramatikebi, romlebzedac laparakoben da, Tu saSualeba eqnebaT, gadaiRon maTi aslebi da gamogzavnon... mas Semdeg, rac kaTolikuri eklesiis mesveurni darwmundnen, rom saqarTveloSi ZiriTadi qarTuli ena iyo, `propaganda fides~ stambam ar daayovna saTanado Sinaarsis naSromis gamoqveyneba (vaTeiSvili 1983: 21), romelsac, rasakvirvelia, miznad ar eqneboda qarTuli enis standartizacia. italiaSi gamocemuli gramatika da leqsikoni aRweren qarTul enas _ rogorc kods, radgan kodis gareSe saerTod SeuZlebelia komunikacia _ am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, misioneruli moRvaweoba. maSasadame, Cven erTmaneTisgan unda gavarCioT kodi da kodifikacia. marTalia, termini kodi sxvadasxvagvarad ganimarteba, magram erTi ram cxadia _ igi komunikaciis sayrdenia. adamiani mraval kods flobs. misi arCeva rogorc koleqtivis SigniT, ise koleqtivebs Soris komunikaciisaTvis sociolingvisturi faqtorebiTaa ganpirobebuli _ iqneba es erTi da imave enis sxvadasxva gamovlinebisa (dialeqtis, Jargonis, stilis), Tu mravalenovan koleqtivSi ramdenime enis arCeva erTdroulad. kodTa am simravlidan mxolod erTia kulturis safuZveli (enakultura). swored amitom xdeba igi adamianis Segnebuli zrunvis sagani, rasac kodifikacias vuwodebT. yvelgan, sadac arsebobs enobrivi problemebi, sadac enobrivi situacia raime mizeziT aradamakmayofilebelia, aucilebeli xdeba enobrivi dagegmva, romelic calkeuli pirebis, samTavrobo komisiebisa da akademiebis ZalisxmeviT xorcieldeba (haugeni 1966: 454). XVII-XVIII saukuneebis saqarTveloSi arasaxarbielo enobrivi situacia iyo _ samefo -samTavroebad daSlili qveyana safrTxes uqmnida xangrZlivi werilobiTi tradiciis mqone qarTul enas. meore mxriv, politikuri centris daqsaqsvis pirobebSi masze keTilismyofel gavlenas verafriT ver moaxdenda mogzaur Sardenis mier aRwerili enaTa simravle, romlis garemocvaSic arsebobda qarTuli ena.

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enobrivi dagegmvis umTavresi mizania gavlenis moxdena oficialur stilze mis werilobiT formaSi cvlilebis SetaniT (haugeni 1966: 449). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, enobrivi dagegmvis mizani standartizaciaa. igi saliteraturo enis umTavresi atributia, rac niSnavs am enis iseTi kodificirebuli normebis arsebobas, romelic aRiarebulia enobrivi koleqtivis mier da gamodis arbitris rolSi (beli 1980: 195196). swored es mizani hqonda sulxan-saba orbelians, roca leqsikons qmnida. orbeliani `sityvis konisTvis~ wamZRvarebul `anderZnamagSi~ wers: `qarTulTa enaTa leqsikoni aRar ipoeboda, rameTu JamTa viTarebiT uCino qmnil iyo... vinaTgan patiosani ese wigni dahkargodaT, ena qarTuli Tavis nebazed gaeryvnaT~ (orbeliani 1991: 27). ilia abulaZis SefasebiT, swored enis waxdenis Sesakaveblad, erTi mxriT, da misi mdidari maragis marTebuli codnisa da gamoyenebis mizniT, meore mxriT, miuyvia xeli sabas `qarTuli leqsikonis~ SedgenisaTvis (abulaZe 1991). magram rogorc `anderZnamagSi~ mocemuli cnobebi cxadyofen, es mxolod sulxan-sabas survili rodi iyo. leqsikoni imdroindeli samefo karis enobrivi politikis Sedegia. orbeliani wers: `vaxtang mefis biZam giorgi mefem, mibrZana amisi £elyofa,... saxeli mefisa arCilisa, romelTa mibrZanes amisi aRwera. `aRvwere mefisa arCilisa da mefisa giorgisa da batonis leonis brZanebiTa~ (orbeliani 1991: 27, 31). vaxtang meeqvse didad iyo dainteresebuli am leqsikoniT, romelsac `sityvis kona~ uwoda (ix. amasTan dakavSirebiT `anderZnamagi~). lili quTaTelaZis dakvirvebiT, leqsikonis bolo redaqciis erT-erTi nusxis zogi minaweris xasiaTi gvafiqrebinebs, rom maTi avtori leqsikonis kritikuli TvaliT wamkiTxveli vaxtang mefe unda iyos. igi sabas mier auxsnel sityvebs ganmartavs, zogs urTavs axal mniSvnelobas da iZleva damatebiT axsnasac, rasac axali wyaroTi amagrebs. roca leqsikonSi mocemuli ganmartebebi mwignobar mefes ar akmayofilebs, avsebs da amartivebs maT. zogierT sityvas urTavs SeniSvnas aRmosavluri warmoSobis gamo da ganmartebasac uwers. vaxtangi zogjer ekamaTeba sabas, orbeliani ki mefis yvela masalas erTgvarad ar eqceva (quTaTelaZe 1957: 100-109; 1959). vaxtang VI ara marto kiTxulobda da Tavisi Sexedulebisamebr asworebda `sityvis konas~, aramed am leqsikonis gadamweradac gvevlineba. m. qavTarias azriT, xelnawerTa institutSi, yofili wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis koleqciaSi daculi `sityvis

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konis~ S-2498 (D redaqcia) 190-furcliani (28 rveuliani) xelnaweris mxolod pirveli eqvsi furceli unda iyos sulxanis naweri, danarCeni ki vaxtang VI-is gadawerili Cans. mkvlevari gamoTqvams varauds, rom mwignobar mefes unda daewera el. metrevelis mier gamovlenili da Seswavlili H-416 xelnaweris (E redaqcia) is nawilebic, romlebic, el. metrevelis azriT, viRacas sulxanis karnaxiT dauweria (qavTaria 1960: 1-2). miuxedavad konkretul sakiTxebze azrTa sxvadasxvaobisa, sulxan-sabam da masTan erTad imdroindelma samefo karma miznad daisaxes, sazogadoebisTvis eswavlebinaT `ena qarTuli, Sesrulebuli da ganvrcelebuli da ganrkveuli farnavaz qarTvelTa pirvelisa mefisa mier, brZnisa da gonierisa, romeli iyo ZeTagan qarTlosianTa warmarTi~ (orbeliani 1991: 28). marTalia, sulxan-saba eWvsac gamoTqvams: `garna (xolo) mravalni moswavleni mgmobar da mokicxar eqmnebian SromisaTvis da ara sarewavad miscemen locvasa (Sendobasa)~; `vici, mravalni sabasrobelad dasdeben naSromTa amaT CemTa~, an kidev: `enagaryvnilebaTagan swavlulni mravalTa aqa werilTa sityuaTa iucxoeben da Sorad ganiSorebeno~ (orbeliani 1991: 27, 30), magram mTlianad `anderZnamagis~ paTosi aSkaras xdis leqsikografisa da vaxtang meeqvsis samefo karis mizans, `sityvis kona~ gamxdariyo qarTul enaze molaparake koleqtivis mier aRiarebuli arbitri. rogorca Cans, qarTulma leqsikonma maleve moixveWa saxeli qveyanaSi. `sityvis konis~ Rirsebis gamo orbelianis sicocxleSive ucdia zogierTs friad damaSvrali muSakis namoRvawaris miTviseba (orbeliani 1991: 31). sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis avtoritetulobas ganapirobebs is faqti, rom man enis kodificirebis principad efeqturobisa da adekvaturobis kriteriumebi airCia. efeqturia is forma, romelic advilad Seiswavleba da advilad gamoiyeneba. xolo adekvaturoba aris enis unari, daakmayofilos masze molaparake koleqtivis moTxovnebi (haugeni 1972). `qarTul leqsikonSi~ asormocze meti wyaroa dasaxelebuli, maT Sorisaa rogorc originaluri, ise naTargmni literatura. orbeliani `anderZnamagSi~ xazgasmiT wers: `saadvilo vpove da saadviloni aRvwere~, an kidev: `sacilobeli ar davwere~. literaturuli tradicia qmnis sakuTar kods, romelsac SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos enobrivi koleqtivis metyvelebaze (haugeni 1972). amitom sulxan-saba sityvas Zveli weri-

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lobiTi Zeglebis mixedviT ganmartavs da es ganmarteba yovelTvis martivi da gasagebia, rac mkiTxvels misi mSobliuri enis homogenurobaSi arwmunebs. swored amas daayrdno orbelianma enobrivi dagegmvis umTavresi mizani - erTi enobrivi koleqtivis wevrebs Soris komunikaciis ganxorcieleba da amiTve moaxdina gavlena maT arCevanze. sagulisxmoa erTi momenti. sulxan-sabas leqsikonSi qarTuli enis monaTesave enebis masalac gvxvdeba. marTalia, im dros enaTa genealogiuri klasifikaciis principebisTvis lingvisturi azri jer kidev arc erT qveyanaSi ar iyo momwifebuli da orbelianic, mravalTa msgavsad, magaliTad, megruls `mrud qarTulad~ miiCnevs, magram imdenad Zlieria sakuTriv qarTulisa da megrul-Wanuris siaxlovis, maTi erTianobis SegrZneba da Tavad `sityvis konis~ saswavlopraqtikuli daniSnuleba, rom sxva qarTvelur enaTa masalac bunebrivad xvdeba leqsikografis TvalTaxedvis areSi. k. danelias dakvirvebiT, megrul-Wanuridan unda iyos Sesuli orbelianis leqsikonSi: seroba, Semi, badiSi, boga, bogiri, borkili, ireWi, kakaCi, kerSiloba, kvarakunCa, odrikali, odoSi, oCxomeli, ojiji, oSme, orSomo, fucxvi, Cafula, jaSkuta, jirki, jixuri, maryuJi, jagi (danelia 1984). am sityvebidan sulxan-saba mxolod ojijze uTiTebs: bade megrulad mrgvali badea, qorT dasacemeli (I:612). megrul-Wanuridan Sesulad unda CavTvaloT agreTve: baRana, biCveri, dixaSxo, moRoreba, nusadia, oCxoli, ojinjaxi, ragadoba, regua, fofineba. leqsikonSi ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis sityvebis garda ganmartebulia filosofiur Tu saRvTismetyvelo mwerlobaSi naxmari araerTi sityva da termini. aqac efeqturobisa da adekvaturobis kriteriumebia amosavali. enobrivi dagegmva erTi enobrivi koleqtivis wevrebs Soris komunikaciis garda sxvadasxva enobrivi koleqtivebTan urTierTobasac gulisxmobs, rac yvelaze kargad TargmanSi Cans. `raodeni Zal-medva saRmrTo werilTa da RvTismetyvelebaTa Sina, romelime RrmaTa filosofosTa wignebTagan RmrTismetyvelebaTa kavSirTa, prokles platonurTa diodoxosTa, aristotelisa kaTiRoriaTagan gamoviRe. nemesiosa da ioane damaskelisa platonuri sityvis saqcevebi aRvswere, romelime ara maTebr RvlarWnilad, aramed maTve wmidaTa mamaTagan, sada saadvilo vipove, saadviloni aRvweren~ (orbeliani 1991: 28). aq orbeliani aSkarad iwunebs Zveli qarTuli elinofiluri skolis mTargmnel-komentatorebis enobriv arCe-

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vans, radgan RvlarWnils uwodebs da mas upirispirebs saadvilos, rac Tanamedrove sociolingvistikis terminologiaSi, efeqturobis ekvivalentia. aseT SemTxvevaSi enobrivi elementi fasdeba mTel sistemasTan mimarTebiT da ara misgan mowyvetiT (haugeni 1972).

semiozisi da pirveladi semantikuri konceptebi

nurvis SeeSindeba, rom niSnebze dakvirveba sagnebs dagvaSorebs.piriqiT, igi migviyvans saganTa arsamde.

gotfrid laibnici

es sityvebi warumZRvara epigrafad Carlz uiliam morisma niSnis Teoriis Sesaxeb Tavis fuZemdeblur naSroms. laibnicis sityvebi ganmartebiTi leqsikonis xasiaTsac asaxavs. ganmartebiTi leqsikoni orientirebulia enis referenciul Zalasa da metalingvistur funqciaze. enis referenciuli Zalis kvleva gulisxmobs imis garkvevas, ratom da ramdenad monawileobs ena sagnobrivi cnobierebisa da kulturis agebaSi. enis referenciuli funqciis saSualebiT ixsneba ara mxolod komunikaciisa da saganTa aRniSvnis faqti, aramed enis monawileoba sagnobrivi cnobierebis Seqmnasa da kulturis agebaSi, romlis rezonansuli efeqti enaze daSenebul, e.w. meoreul niSanTa sistemebSi dasturdeba (ramiSvili 1978: 4). metalingvisturi funqcia orientirebulia komunikaciis aqtis sayrden faqtorze _ kodze (iakobsoni 1975: 189). SeiZleba iTqvas, es aris ganmartebiTi, axsniTi funqcia. metalingvisturi funqciis yvelaze aSkara gamoxatulebaa ganmartebiTi (erTenovani) leqsikoni, radgan masSi erTi enis niSani / elementi ixsneba, ganimarteba amave sistemis (enis) sxva elementebiT. magaliTad, `nebierisa kacisa siarulsa u£mobT vlasa (slvasa)... samoTxesa da asparezsa Sina nebier siarulsa uwoden moTxvasa, romelsa vieTni seernobad saxel-sdeben~. aq Sesabamisoba myardeba erTi enis farglebSi: `moTxva, seernoba _ nebierisa kacisa siaruli~. amis sapirispiro movlenaa Targmna. metalingvisturi funqciis gamosavlenad swori iqneba ganmartebiTi leqsikonis Sedareba TargmniT (or an metenovan) leqsikonTan, sadac romelime sistemis (enis) elements

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eZebneba Sesabamisi cali meore sistemaSi (enaSi). magaliTad, qarTuli _ magida, rusuli _ , inglisuri _ table, franguli _ table. aseTi leqsikonic ar aris Tavisufali enaTa semantikuri wesebis demonstrirebisagan. erTi da igive obieqti an situacia gansxvavebulad aisaxeba enebSi. aqedan gamomdinare, ori an metenovani (TargmniTi) leqsikonebis Rirseba imiT ganisazRvreba, ramdenad adekvaturadaa naCvenebi masSi am enaTa semantikuri wesebis fardoba (semantikuri wesebis Sesaxeb ix. qvemoT). yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom anbanze dalagebuli enobrivi niSnebiT ganmartebiT leqsikonSi aisaxeba ama Tu im enis mier danawevrebuli garesamyaro (referencia), xolo maTze darTuli ganmartebebi (amave sistemis sxva elementebiT gadmocemuli igive Sinaarsi _ metalingvisturi funqcia) aris niSnebze dakvirveba, riTac sulxan-saba orbeliani cdilobs, mivides saganTa arsamde. `sityvis kona~, rogorc saerTod yvela ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, asaxavs semioziss anu iseT process, romelSic leqsema funqcionirebs rogorc niSani. am procesSi gamoiyofa ramdenime faqtori: 1. niSani, 2. is, razec niSani miuTiTebs, 3. interpretatori _ enobriv niSanTa sistemis momxmareblebi, farTo gagebiT, enobrivi koleqtivi, 4. zemoqmedeba anu interpretanta _ mosalodneli reaqcia, romelic SeiZleba mohyves niSans, 5. konteqsti, romelSic gvxvdeba niSani (morisi 2001: 130). am faqtorebze Cven gveqneba ufro dawvrilebiTi msjeloba. am jerze mxolod imis aRniSvniT davkmayofildebiT, rom semiozisis faqtorTa analizi sabolood dadis enobrivi niSnis sami gansxvavebuli TvalsazrisiT ganxilvaze: semantikuri, sintaqtikuri da pragmatuli (gamyreliZe 2000). calkeuli enobrivi niSnis sruli daxasiaTeba SesaZlebelia mxolod maSin, roca Seswavlilia misi urTierToba obieqtTan, sxva niSnebTan da momxmarebelTan. enis amomwuravi daxasiaTeba ki maSin aris SesaZlebeli, roca dadgenilia enis semantikuri, sintaqtikuri da pragmatuli wesebi. L = sem + sin + prag (morisi 2001a: 54). `sityvis konas~ ganvixilavT swored aseT mcdelobad. imaze dakvirvebiT, ras miiCnevs sulxan-saba orbeliani enobriv niSnad, rogor alagebs da ganmartavs maT, SeiZleba war-

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modgena SeviqmnaT imis Sesaxeb, `leqsikoni qarTuli~ ramdenad asaxavs qarTuli enobrivi sistemis semantikur, sintaqtikur da pragmatul wesebs. semantikas ainteresebs niSnis mimarTeba mis designatTan da Sesabamisad obieqtTan, romelsac igi aRniSnavs an SeuZlia aRniSnos. semantikuri wesi semiotikis farglebSi niSnavs iseT wess, romelic gansazRvravs, ra pirobebSi Seesabameba niSani obieqts an situacias (morisi 2001a). semantikuri kvleva gulisxmobs sityvis mniSvnelobis Semqmneli elementaruli Sinaarsebis gamovlenas. sityva unda daiSalos elementarul Sinaarsebad, romelTa kombinacia sityvis mniSvnelobas gvaZlevs. a. veJbickam SeimuSava agreT wodebuli `bunebrivi semantikuri metaena~, romelsac qmnis elementaruli Sinaarsebi. maTi verbalizeba xdeba nebismier bunebriv enaSi. merizmaTa msgavsad, `bunebrivi semantikuri metaenis~ Semadgeneli elementebi akmayofileben Semdeg moTxovnebs. isini TviTkmari, dauSleli da universaluria. am elementebs a. veJbickam `pirveladi semantikuri konceptebi~, anu primitivebi uwoda. Tavisi SinaarsiT es terminebi SeiZleba SevcvaloT ufro xangrZlivi tradiciis mqone termin semiT. a. veJbickam gamoyo Semdegi pirveladi semantikuri konceptebi, anu elementebi, romelTa saSualebiTac xdeba mniSvnelobaTa konstruireba. es semebi qmnian im `semantikur wesebs~, romelTa codna wyvets arsebiTad saTanado enobriv koleqtivSi saganTa Sesaxeb gagebinebis SesaZleblobas. maTgan didad aris davalebuli informaciis miRebis, Senaxvisa da gadacemis procesi.

substantivebi determinantebi raodenoba mentaluri predikatebi `metyveleba~ qmedebani da movlenebi Sefaseba aRwera (daxasiaTeba) dro sivrce taqsonomia me, Sen, viRac, raRac, yvela es, igive, sxva erTi, xuTi, bevri, mravali fiqri, codna, survili Tqma kargi, cudi didi, patara rodis, adre, Semdeg sad, qveS, zeviT ra saxis, risi nawili (Semadgeneli) (a. veJbicka 1996)

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CamoTvlil `pirvelad semantikur konceptebs~ Semdeg a. veJbickam sxvebic daumata. am semebidan zogierTi erTmaneTze daiyvaneba. magaliTad, mentaluri predikatebi da `metyveleba~ advilad Tavsdeba qmedebebsa da movlenebSi. Sefasebisa da aRweris (daxasiaTebis) gamijvna sworia. daxasiaTebisas gamoiyofa sagnis an movlenisTvis niSandoblivi elementebi. magaliTad, didi mwvane CanTa. sidide da simwvane am konkretuli CanTis maxasiaTeblebia, magram kargi da cudi (universaluri Sefasebebi) gamoxatavs Cvens damokidebulebas am sagnisa Tu movlenis mimarT da yoveli Sefaseba konkretuli konteqstiT / situaciiT ganisazRvreba. Tumca aRwera (daxasiaTeba) SeiZleba gaerTiandes determinantebis klasSi. droisa da sivrcis semebi aseve ganawildeba substantivebsa da determinantebSi. `pirveladi semantikuri konceptebis~ winamorbedad SeiZleba CavTvaloT aristoteles kategoriebi. aristotele fiqrobda, rom arsebobs yofierebis aTi umaRlesi saxe), romelTac Semdeg kidev xuTi daamata. s. danelias azriT, aristotelem logikuri kategoriebi winadadebis agebulebidan gamoiyvana. man Seiswavla winadadebis wevrebi, maTi kiTxvebi da gramatikuli gansazRvrebebi logikaSi gadaitana. enis kanonebi arsebobis wesebad gamoacxada (danelia 1986: 390). advilia saerTos danaxva aristoteles `yofierebis umaRles saxeebsa~ da a. veJbickas `pirvelad semantikur konceptebs~ Soris, Tumca isini sxvadasxva mizans isaxavdnen. TavisTavad dgeba aseTi sakiTxi _ ra mniSvneloba aqvs am semebis gamoyofas, riTi SeiZleba davamtkicoT maTi sargeblianoba. semaTa klasifikacia aucilebelia enis referenciuli Zalisa da metalingvisturi funqciis kvlevisTvis. enebi erTmaneTisgan referenciuli anu damanawevrebeli ZaliTa da semantikuri wesebiT gansxvavdebian. `pirveladi semantikuri konceptebi~ anu semebi xels Segviwyobs ama Tu im enis semantikur wesTa gamosavlenad. sulxan-saba orbeliani sityvaTa ganmartebisas yvelaze xSirad taqsonomiisa da cnebis (mTelis) saxeebad (nawilebad) dayofis princips iyenebs. koncepti `saxe, tipi~ adamianuri kategorizaciis safuZvelia. lingvisturi kvlevebi adasturebs, rom saxe (saxeebi) leqsikuri universaliaa. yvelaze xSirad aseTi kiTxvebi Cndeba: `X-is saxea?~ an `X-is ramdeni saxe arsebobs?~ (veJbicka 1996: 63).

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adamianis winaSe yovelTvis idga garesamyarosa da sakuTari grZnobebis sistematizaciis urTulesi amocana. garemomcveli da socialuri universis Sesacnobad ZiriTadad saklasifikacio sqemebi gamoiyeneba. ganviTarebis adreul safexurze klasifikaciis umartivesi forma albaT binaruli iyo. binaruli opoziciebis konceptualuri qselis Semadgeneli zogierTi an yoveli opoziciis TandaTanobiTi dayofiT miiReba binaruli xe (bikertoni 1990: 295-297): sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi sityvaTa ganmartebebze dakvirveba naTels xdis, rom leqsikografs ena warmoudgenia ara izolirebul sityvaTa ubralo jamad, aramed danawevrebul urTierTdamokidebulebaTa mTlianobad. sulxan-sabam saganTa samyaros wvdomis am wess, romelic universaluri xasiaTisaa, intuiciiT miagno. orbelianis leqsikonSi sityva sxva sityvaTa raRac grovidan amokveTili erTeuli ki ar aris, aramed sasicocxlo kavSirebidan iseTnairad aris amotanili, rom misi warmoTqma da ganmeoreba mTeli enis eqos gadmoscems (ramiSvili 1978: 62, 64). sailustracio magaliTebis ganxilvisagan Tavs vikaveb krebulis specifikidan gamomdinare (ufro dawvrilebiT am sakiTxze ix. T. bolqvaZe 2005). sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis ZiriTadi principi ganmartebisas sityvaTa Soris gvar-saxeobiTi mimarTebebis dadgenaa. m. qavTarias dakvirvebiT, saxeobrivi ganmartebisaTvis, e.i. iseTisaTvis, sadac SemokrebiT da saTanado axsna-ganmartebiT warmogvidgens ama Tu im zogadi saxelis sxvadasxva saxeobas, sulxan-sabas hqonda specialuri niSani _ s. am niSniani ganmartebebis ricxvi yovel axal redaqciaSi izrdeba. magaliTad, E-Si 36 ganmartebas uzis, D-Si _ 43-s, Ca-Si _ 100-s da a.S. (qavTaria 1960: 10). es principi nel-nela `sityvis konaSi~ leqsemaTa dalagebisa da ganmartebisas gadamwyveti xdeba. i. abulaZis azriT, `s~ (EDC xelnawerebSi) da `sa~ (Aa xelnawerebSi) sulxan-saba orbelianis saxelis dasawyisia (inicialia). msgavsi Semokleba, _ aRniSnavs mkvlevari, _ arc `vefxistyaosnis~ imdroindeli nusxebisTvis aris ucxo: inicialebs iq CanarTi strofebis gaswvriv kideze aTavseben interpolatorTa vinaobis aRsaniSnavad (abulaZe 1998: 28). i. abulaZe askvnis, rom `s~ da `sa~ sityvis sakuTriv sabaseul ganmartebas aRniSnavs. nusxaTa SejerebiT man gaarkvia, rom `aseTi miTiTeba yvelgan saWirod ar miuCnevia avtors Tu gadamwers, aramed mxolod umTavres, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan sityvebTan miuweria. saxeebiT mcireSemadgenlobian zogad saxe-

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lebs aseTi miniSnebiT `s~ da `sa~ aqa-iq Tu Sexvdeba kaci da isic ara leqsikonis yvela nusxaSi (abulaZe 1998: 29). s da sa sulxan-saba orbelianis inicialic rom iyos, mainc sagulisxmoa, radgan es niSnebi yvelaze xSirad `zogad~ sityvaTa anu cnebaTa dayofisas gvxvdeba. es SesaZloa imazec miuTiTebdes, rom `saxe, tipi~ konceptis gamoyenebas Tavad sulxansaba orbelianic sityvaTa miseuli ganmartebis ZiriTad meTodad Tvlida.

enobrivi niSnebi sintaqtikuri TvalsazrisiT

sintaqtikuri midgomiT, ena obieqtTa iseTi erTobliobaa, romelSic moqmedebs warmoqmnisa da gardaqmnis wesebi. farTo gagebiT, sintaqtikis mizani ori (an meti) enobrivi niSnis aRsaniSnebisa da aRmniSvnelebis `horizontaluri~ urTierTobis kvlevaa (am sakiTxis Sesaxeb ufro dawvrilebiT ix. morisi 2001: 56-62, gamyreliZe 2000). niSnidan axali niSnis, an niSanTa amosavali sistemebidan axali simravlis miReba yovelTvis xdeba iseTi niSnebiT, romelTa designati TviT enaSia da niSanTa Soris mimarTebebze miuTiTeben. aseTi niSnebi sulxan-saba orbelians `sityvis konaSi~ calke saleqsikono erTeulebad aqvs gatanili da ZiriTadad arTronSi aerTianebs (gewaZe 1978, SaniZe 1990; ix. agreTve arTronis Sesaxeb l. bakuraZis statia amave krebulSi, gv. 116-136). sulxan-saba arTrons nacvalsaxelebs da nawilakebsac uwodebs, magram, Tanamedrove lingvisturi terminebi rom gamoviyenoT, orbelianisTvis arTroni ZiriTadad fleqsia da warmomqmneli afiqsebia. amjerad mxolod ramdenime magaliTiT Semovifarglebi: ga arTroni ars sityvaTani, romlisa mier iTqmis: gaRmrToba, gamefeba, gaufleba, gacxoeleba, gaqalaqeba, gakeTeba, gacema, gaboroteba da eseviTarni (I: 126). gan ese arTroni ars bolos kerZoÁ, vina vikiTxavT: iqmna mefisagan, gina kacisagan, anu mxecisagan da eseviTarni. xolo Tavis kerZo arTronad: ganRmrTobiT, gankacebiT, gangulvebiT da misTana yovelTa zeda (I: 135-136). eni xmiani aso ars da arTroni mravalTa da sityvis Tavadac movals da bolodaca...: elode, etyode, emorCilebode, eseviTari yovelsa zeda movals ZA (I: 229). ve ese arTroni ars bolosi, romelsa vityviT: aqave, iqave, kacive, cxenive da misTanani ZA (I: 259).

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Tani yovelTa bolod movals, viTarca: angelozT, kacT, cxo(v)elTa, mefeT, qalaqT, qvaT, miwaT, xeT, balaxT (+ da Z) TiToeulTa yo(v)elTa nivTTa zeda esreT movals ZA (I: 294). sulxan-saba orbeliani arTronebs (afiqsebs) Zalian iSviaTad axasiaTebs funqciis mixedviT. rac Seexeba arTronebis daxasiaTebas adgilis mixedviT, igi ganarCevs sityvaze windarTul (`Tavsa moezavebis~) da bolos darTul (`bolod moezavebis~) arTronebs. konfiqsis (cirkumfiqsis) gageba mniSvnelobis warmoqmnaSi an formis cvlaSi calke gamoyofili ar aris. zogjer arTronad afiqsis mxolod nawilia CaTvlili. magaliTad, wa wamo-s nacvlad, d -ad-is nacvlad. xSirad ramdenime afiqsi (arTroni) SeerTebulad aris mocemuli asa asa-s nacvlad, gi g-i-s nacvlad da sxva. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba zemoT damowmebuli SemTxvevebis aseTi klasifikacia.

aris asa gi d d diso v ma me mo n na na sa u unda iyos a-sa (asaRebi) g-i (gipatrone) da- (dadeba) -ad (dasxmad) -dis-o (saRamomdiso) -iv (RmrTiv) m-a (mamefa) m-e (mejinibe) mo-e (moqalaqe) -man (namefarman) na-ar (navenaxari) na-ev (naqalaqevi) sa-o (sasoflo) u-o (uxelod)

qarTul saenaTmecniero literaturaSi ZiriTadad ori gansxvavebuli azri arsebobs leqsikonSi zmnis meTauri formis Sesaxeb. a. SaniZe miiCnevda, radgan qarTuls infinitivi ara aqvs, zmnis meTaurad sawyisi unda aviRoT (a. SaniZe 1959:250). arn. Ciqobavas TvalsazrisiT, infinitivis uqonloba xelovnurad amcirebs zmnis leqsikur erTeulebs, qmnis araswor warmodgenas qarTuli zmnis leqsikuri SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb. masdaris wyalobiT iCrdileba ara mxolod vnebiTi, aramed sasubieqto da saobieqto qceva. isini leqsikonSi ar aisaxeba, raki maT masdari ver ganasxvavebs. saWiroa piriani forma gamoviyenoT saleqsikono erTeulad, rom xe-

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lovnurad ar gavaRariboT leqsikuri erTeulebiT qarTuli zmna, rom qarTuli zmnis simdidre saTanadod aisaxos leqsikonSi (Ciqobava 1959: 270-271). orive mecnieri Tavisi mosazrebis gasamagreblad sulxan-saba orbelians imowmebda. a. SaniZe werda: sulxan orbelians ar dauweria raime Teoriuli xasiaTis naSromi qarTuli leqsikografiis sakiTxebze. kerZod imis Sesaxeb, rogor unda iqnes gawyobili qarTuli zmnebi leqsikonSi, magram misi leqsikonis Seswavla mraval sagulisxmo faqts gviCvenebs. sulxans Tavis leqsikonSi zogi zmna Seutania piriani formiT, zogic - sawyisiT, aris mimReobebic. pirianebi sxvadasxva piris formiTaa moyvanili, Tanac ise, rom win subieqturi piria naCvenebi, xanac _ obieqturi. subieqturebSi xSiria meore brZanebiTi. erTi SexedviT kaci ifiqrebs, rom sulxans zmnebis formaTa gawyobisas leqsikonSi garkveuli sistema ara aqvso (a. SaniZe 1959: 251-252). a. SaniZe specialurad daakvirda b da t asoebze dalagebul zmnebs da daaskvna, sulxan orbeliani zmnaTa gawyobis sakiTxSi garkveulad im azrisaa, rom zmnis formaTa sameTauro sityva sawyisia ise, rogorc saxelisTvisaa saxelobiTi. es wesi sulxanma bunebrivi alRoTi monaxa, mas intuiciiT miagno da gamoiyena kargad da upretenziod, _ wers a. SaniZe (a. SaniZe 1959: 257). arn. Ciqobavas azriT, Tumca sabas cdas, Seetana leqsikonSi zmnis piriani forma, aklia Tanmimdevruloba (zogi zmnisa Seqavs, zogisa _ ara), mainc am cdas didi principuli mniSvneloba aqvs. igi gvaniSnebs saSualebas, romlis meoxebiTac qarTul zmnas SeeZleba iseTi adgili daikavos leqsikonSi, rogoric mas aqvs qarTul enaSi. arn. Ciqobavam zmnis warmodgena qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi swored am gziT gadawyvita. zmnur leqsikur erTeulebad miRebulia piriani forma (awmyos mesame piri) da leqsikonSi asaxulia vnebiTic da qcevebic (sasubieqto, saobieqto): Tu sabas aqvs Caitana, ganmartebiT leqsikonSia: Caatans, Caitans, Cautans, Caitaneba, Caetaneba, Caataninebs... agreTve Caatano, Catanineba (Ciqobava 1959: 271). sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi zmnis formas, Cveni dakvirvebiT, ZiriTadad arTroni ganapirobebs. magaliTad, e asoze dalagebuli leqsemebi TviT e xmovnis (xmiani asos) Tavkidur arTronebze miTiTebiT iwyeba da swored es gansazRvravs leqsikonis am nawilSi zmnebis formaTa xasiaTs mTavaria, zmnis yvela forma -e TavsarTiT iwyebodes. Tumca

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isic unda aRvniSnoT, rom am nawilSi zmnebi ZiriTadad warsuli drois mesame piris formiTaa mocemuli.

eazra eara easpareza etyoda etyorcna euara eucxova euwya efeTeboda (I: 245)

igive SeiZleba iTqvas v arTronze, romliTac iwyeba v-ze dalagebuli sityvebi leqsikonSi. am nawilSi zmnebi umetesad warsuli drois I piris formiTaa mocemuli:

vaadvile vaazavre vamzadeb vamcen viqmen vsxep viqnebi vsxepdi

i xmovanze dalagebul sityvebSi zmnebi -i prefiqsiani formiTaa warmodgenili.

inadima inadira iyefa iyvedra iSena iSvela

arTronebad miCneulia ma (m-a), mi- da mo. bolo ori zmniswinia. sxvaTa Soris, leqsikonSi mocemulia mo zmniswinis dialeqtur formaze mu-ze dawyebuli zmnebic:

ma maavazaka maalersa maamo maarsa maanabra maaspareza miiba miibara maaja mabrala mabadraga (I:425) miiTuala miikona mo-i moiba moigremlna

m-i, mi mianderZa migura miaja midgma momoaswava mobayua mo-u mouRobe mouyele mouyvane moved mo-ve-ekueTos

mu-a (- mo-a) muaba muaTvale muabnelebs muaTrive muagave muakar

SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom `sityvis konaSi~ zmnis forma ZiriTadad damokidebulia arTronze. zmnis formaTa dalagebaSic Cans, ra Sexedulebebi aqvs sulxan-saba orbelians

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arTronis (afiqsis /morfemis) Sesaxeb. damowmebuli magaliTebi kidev erTxel aaSkaravebs Cven mier ukve gamoTqmul mosazrebas, rom bevri afiqsi arasworadaa daSlili, zogjer ramdenime afiqsi erT mTlianobadaa warmodgenili. amaze miuTiTebs zmnebis dalageba mi-ze, sadac erTad aris mocemuli mi-zmniswiniT dawyebuli zmnebi da m-i I da sasxviso qcevis niSniT dawyebuli zmnebi. asevea zmnis mo-i, mo-u, mu-aze dawyebuli formebic. aseT formebSi mo- zmniswinia (mu da mo- zmniswinis dialeqturi formebia), u- da a- Sesabamisad sasxviso da saarviso qcevis niSnebi. rogorc aRvniSneT, a. SaniZem specialurad ganixila b da t asoebze dalagebuli zmnebi da daaskvna, rom sulxan-saba orbelianisaTvis zmnis formaTa sameTauro sityva sawyisia. es daskvna mxolod arCeulma bgerebma ganapiroba. es Tanxmovnebi qarTulSi afiqsis (orbelianis gagebiT, arTronis) funqcias ar asruleben. arc am TanxmovnebiT romelime TavsarTi an bolosarTi ar iwyeba. sulxan-saba xSirad arTrons arasworad yofs (amis Sesaxeb ix. zemoT). magaliTad: Cini yo(v)elTa damxeobaTa Tavi ars, viTarca Camoslva, CamoReba, Camoxdoma, Camoqceva, CamoWra, Caslva, Cavla, Cadeba, CamoqveiTeba da eseviTarTa yo(v)elsa zeda movals ZA (II: 312). sulxan-saba orbeliani mxolod C-s miiCnevs qveviTa mimarTulebis TavsarTad (damxeobaTa Tavi ars), Ca-s da Camos nacvlad. vfiqrobT, swored arCeulma Tanxmovnebma b-m da t-m ganapirobes is faqti, rom leqsikonis am nawilebSi zmna umetesad sawyisis formiTaa mocemuli. arTroni mxolod zmnas ar `moezavebis~, igi gvxvdeba saxelTan, zogjer nacvalsaxeli da nawilakic arTronad aris CaTvlili leqsikonSi. arTronia, magaliTad, bruncis niSanic. marTalia, saba saxelobiTi brunvis --i niSans fuZiseulad miiCnevs, magram amis axsna italieli maria majos `qarTuli garamatikis~ gavlenad ver CaiTvleba. orbeliani enobrivi alRoTi mainc ar dauSvebda, rom biWima (majos biCima) forma qarTulisTvis bunebrivad CaeTvala (gansxvavebuli mosazreba am sakiTxze ix. lia bakuraZis statiaSi, amave krebulis gv. 9-29). aseve moulodnelia, rom elinofil qarTvel egzegetikosTa `RvlarWnili" enobrivi stilis damwunebeli saba, specialurad msjelobs gramatikuli sqesis arsebobis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb qarTulSi. sulxan-saba orbeliani ama Tu im saleqsikono erTeulis ganmartebisas, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, iZleva masTan semantikurad axlos mdgom sityvebs, Tumca leqsikologi iqve

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miuTiTebs, rom Sinaarsobrivi erTianobis miuxedavad, yvelas erTsa da imave konteqstSi ver gamoviyenebT, saWiroa TiToeulis sintagmatikuri SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswineba. swored ase unda gavigoT sabaseuli minaweri: `romelica sityvas(a) gaewyos, ig(i) CaurTe ZA~ (I: 54) an `romelica qarTulman sityvama(n) gaiwyos, igi xams mosabmelad Cab~ (I: 54). Tanamedrove terminologiiT Tu vityviT, gawyobasa da sityvaze mobmaSi leqsemis distribuciazea miTiTeba, xolo paradigmatulad igi gaerTiandeba im sityvebSi, romlebic `erT(i) da igive arian~ (I: 64). magaliTad, anazdeuli myis(i), iCqiTi, awi, nvini, mal, msTvad, ardi, ardifru, aha, mswrafl, munTqvesve, erT(i) da igive arian, romelica sityvas(a) gaewyos, ig(i) CaurTe ZA (I: 54). anazdi anazdeuli ZAa anazdi, myis, iCqiTi, awi, nvini, ardifru, ardi, aha, mal, msTvad, mswrafl, munTqvesve erTi da igive arian, romelica qarTulman sityvama(n) gaiwyos, igi xams mosabmelad Cab (I: 54). aramed (+5,37 maTe ZAa) ese ara Tu magram aris, aramed msgavsi misi da Svenier(i) ZAB aramed magramsaviT aris da magram ki ar aris sityvis mobrunvebaSi, didad saxmaria mis adgils C (I: 60). mebr (2 nemes. + 2,8 kolasel. 2) msgavsadsaviT ZAa (I: 458). Tu sityvaTa Tematuri jgufebi gareenobrivi faqtebis sistematizaciaa, erTi semantikuri velis sityvebi Sidaenobriv niadagzea gamoyofili (paradigmatuli erTianoba), Tumca TiToeuli maTgani gansxvavebul konteqstSi gamoiyeneba (sintagmatika). sintaqtikis wesebiT miiReba iseTi niSnebi, romelTac erT budes akuTvneben. arn. Ciqobava budis sailustraciod aseT magaliTs imowmebs: dgas, udgas, dgoma, mdgomi, mdgmuri, sadguri, Semodgoma, medgari da a.S., an kidev: kaci, kacobs, kacuri, sakace da a.S. am nawarmoeb sityvaTa (fuZeTa) kompleqsi enaTmecnierulad saintereso kavSirurTierTobas da semantikur gradaciebs gamoavlens. magaliTad, `sadguri ar mogvagonebs `dgas~, `dgeba~ zmnas (Ciqobava 1986: 6). umjobesi iqneba mxolod erTi Ziridan nawarmoebi fuZeebisaTvis gamoviyenoT termini bude, romelic aRniSnavs iseT enobriv niSanTa erTobliobas, romelTa aRsaniSnebsa da aRmniSvnelebs Soris `horizontaluri~ mimarTeba ganpirobebuli xasiaTisaa, radgan aseTi (`horizontaluri~) mimarTeba orplaniania. erTi niSnis aRsaniSni da aRmniSvneli ganpiro-

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bebulia meore niSnis aRsaniSniTa da aRmniSvneliT (gamyreliZe 2000: 241). swored aseTi urTierTobaa, magaliTad, dgoma da sadguri enobriv niSnebs Soris.

`dgoma~ (aRsaniSni) dgoma (aRmniSvneli)

`sadguri~ (aRsaniSni) sadguri (aRmniSvneli)

sadguri motivirebuli enobrivi niSania. igi ganpirobebulia dgoma niSniT. aRsaniSnTa donis urTierToba Sesabamis aRmniSvnelTa urTierTobis specifikur xasiaTs asaxavs, rac iwvevs am enobrivi niSnebis ganpirobebulobas (gamyreliZe 2000: 243-244). maSasadame, semantikurad axlos mdgom sityvaTa nebismieri erTobliobis aRsaniSnav terminad budis gamoyeneba ar Cans marTebuli. Tumca sakamaTo araferia imaSi, rom buded miviCnioT erTi Ziridan nawarmoebi sityvebi (magaliTebi ix. zeviT), Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT ki erTmaneTisagan gavmijnoT erTi Tematuri jgufisa da saerTo semantikuri velis Semadgeneli sityvebi. ZiriTadad swored aseTi sityvebis Tavmoyra axasiaTebs sulxan-saba orbelians da ara erTi Ziridan nawarmoebi sityvebisa. `konaSi~ moqceuli leqsemebis saerTo saxelad budis gamoyenebas mxars ar uWers al. focxiSvili (focxiSvili 1995: 148-149).

enobrivi niSnebi pragmatuli midgomiT

sulxan-saba orbelians enaSi sityvaTa sesxeba Cveulebriv movlenad miaCnia. amas adasturebs leqsikonSi `manSuri~ sityvaze darTuli komentari: `manSuri sxvaTa enaa, sigelisaTvis daurqmeviaT cudad ZA. manSurisas mecilebian da vieTnime ityvian sparsTa ena arso. eseviTarni yovelsa enasa Sina iqmnebian anu mezoblobisa mier, anu SemoRebisa mier, rameTu sparsulad ewodebis madar dedasa, xolo frangulad maTer, vina ornive erT; la-

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TinTa eniTa sudari - mkvdrisa saxvevelsa, egreTve qarTulad, anu qarta, anu sandali laTinTa da qarTulTa saziaro ars. egreTve yovelTa enaTa Sina mravalis movals. aramed ese manSuri ara Tu saRToTa werilTa Sina Zes, aramed gareSeTa Cb wignTa dasamtkicebeli CqDE (I: 436). `sityvis konis~ adreul redaqciebSi (E-sa da D-Si) ucxouri leqsikuri erTeulebis, anu, rogorc TviTon uwodebs, `sxvaTa enis~ sityvebi, kerZod ki sazogado saxelebis aRsaniSnavad iyenebda e.w. Citis Tvals . es niSani redaqciaSi Zalian bevr gansamartav sityvas aqvs miwerili. D-Si ki aseTi sityvebis raodenoba klebulobs, rac i. abulaZis azriT, imaze miuTiTebs, rom leqsikologi axal etapze amnairniSnian sityvebs qarTuli enobrivi maragis kuTvnilebad Tvlis. mermindel redaqciebSi ucxo warmoSobis sazogado saxelebi axla marto mikvleul ganmartebebs inarCuneben. maTi mxlebeli Citis Tvali amieridan ukve ucxo warmoSobis pirTa da geografiul sakuTar saxelebs aqvT miwerili (abulaZe 1998: 30). `sityvis konaSi~ mravali ucxouri leqsikuri erTeulia ganmartebuli. Tumca mecnierTa erTi nawili Tvlis, rom sulxan-saba didad iyo davalebuli qarTuli leqsikonebis Semdgeneli italieli misionerebisagan (uTurgaiZe 1990:123), magram n. orlovskaiam damajereblad aCvena, rom orbelianis leqsikonSi moxvedrili TviT italiuri masalac ki ar momdinareobs XVII saukunis qarTul-italiuri da italiur-qarTuli leqsikonebidan, rom araferi vTqvaT sakuTriv qarTul leqsikaze (orlovskaia 1960: 195). `sityvis konaSi~ italiur Targmanebs mxolod im redaqciaSi vxvdebiT, romelzec sulxan-saba ucxoeTSi mogzaurobis dros muSaobda. sruliad bunebrivia, rom swored italiaSi italiur enobriv garemoSi SeeZlo orbelians Sesdgomoda Tavisi leqsikonis am masaliT Sevsebas. sagulisxmoa kidev erTi faqti _ `sityvis konis~ bolo redaqciaSi avtorma ar gadaitana italiuri masala, rac n. orlovskaias azriT, ganpirobebuli iyo evropaSi sulxan-sabas misiis warumateblobiT da saqarTveloSi Secvlili politikuri koniunqturiT. rogorc Cans, TviT avtoris TvalSic daekarga fasi am masalas, radgan gaqra evropasTan kavSiris yovelgvari imedi (orlovskaia 1960:210). orbelianis leqsikonSi iseTi sityvebic gvxdeba, romlebic mxolod megrul-Wanursa aqvs nasesxebi da ara qarTuls. aseTebia, magaliTad:

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saavato (Sdr. megr. sabatoni) SabaTi duguni osmalTa eniT qorwili. Sdr. Wanuri duguni (duRuni) _ qorwili Termoni Tbili Saqar-wyali. WanurSi Temoni damkvidrebulia berZnulidan (danelia 1984: 68-70). am CamonaTvals SeiZleba daematos aRmosavluri dasti, romelsac leqsikografi aseT komentars urTavs: Wanni kokas uxmoben (I:202). ucxoenovan leqsemebze darTuli komentarebi SeiZleba ase davajgufoT. I. [sityva] qarTuli ar aris / sxvaTa enaa, qarTulad hqvian/uwodeben; II. miTiTebulia ucxouri sityvis warmomavloba; III. ucxo sityva gamoyenebulia mniSvnelobis dasadgen sakontrolo saSualebad; IV. sityva ucxouria, magram ganmartebaSi es miTiTebuli ar aris; V. `uÃmari~ sityvebi. yvela jgufis calk-calke ganxilva upriani iqneboda, magram amjerad mxolod im ucxoenovan sityvebze SevCerdebiT, romelTac sulxan-saba orbeliani `u£mars~ uwodebs. `u£mar~ sityvaTa didi nawili Semosulia `soflisa JamTa viTarebisagan~ anu, rogorc zogjer ambobs, `JamTa SlaTagan~, romelTa xmarebas unda veridoT. aseTi sityvebi sabas leqsikonSi imisTvis Seutania, rom `moswavleman cnas sa£mari da u£mari, jerovani da ujero£~. `u£mar~ sityvebs aqvs niSani ·· `anderZnamagSi~ orbeliani wers: `romelnica Znelni sityvani ara vicodi, RrmaTa wignebTa Sina veZie da romelime sxvaTa enaTa Sevamowme da gamowvlilviT romelnica vpoe, advilad Tan movawere... raodeni Zal-medva, vecade, ellenTa, laTinTa, spaniaTa, somxurTa da rusTa wignebTa SemowmebiTa gardmoviRe~. i. abulaZis dakvirvebiT, ·· niSniani sityvebi gansakuTrebiT bevria E redaqciaSi, xolo D-sa da ukanasknel, anu Z redaqciaSi ki mxolod erTeulebi Tu Segvxvdeba. Cans, _ wers mecnieri, _ gamowvlilvis Sedegad zogierTs SeunarCunebia arsebobis ufleba (abulaZe 1998: 32; uÃmarobis pirobiTi niSnis gamosaxulebis nacvlad gamocemaSi yvelgan aris uÃm.) Tumca isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom rac ufro adreulia leqsikoni redaqciulad, miT ufro mniSvnelovania wyaroebis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT (metreveli 1956: 30). enis kodificirebis erT-erTi mizani enobrivi koleqtivis TviTdamkvidreba da stabilurobaa (haugeni 1972). swo-

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red es ganapirobebs sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi sxvaTa anu ucxo enidan Semosul sityvebze darTul komentarebsa da maTTvis qarTuli Sesatyvisebis Ziebas. aseTi damokidebuleba ucxouri warmomavlobis sityvebisadmi gamowveulia mravalricxovan agresorTa politikuri da kulturuli ZaladobiT. qarTuli enis siwmindis dacvisTvis saba meTodurad da dabejiTebiT akeTebda amas. orbeliani Tavis leqsikons, pirvel rigSi, saswavlo miznebs usaxavda. Tvlida, rom aucilebeli iyo enis saxelmZRvanelo upirvelesad leqsikonis saxiT, uromlisodac ena iryvneba, fuWdeba (abulaZe 1998: 32). samwuxarod, `uÃmar" sityvebsac ver Sevexebi dawvrilebiT isev krebulis specifikidan gamomdinare. am tipis leqsikuri erTeulebi dawvrilebiT aris ganxiluli rogorc 2005 wels dabeWdili monografiis IV TavSi, ise specialur werilSi, romelic nasesxebi sityvebis semiotikas exeba (ix. T. bolqvaZe 2005; T. bolqvaZe 2007). Tumca ramdenime sityvas mainc vityvi aRniSnul sakiTxze. ama Tu im nasesxebi leqsikuri erTeulis "uÃmar" sityvad gamocxadebaSi vlindeba enobrivi niSnis mimarT enis momxmareblis damokidebuleba, rac pragmatikis Seswavlis obieqtia. rogorc emil benvenisti wers: metyvelisaTvis ena da garesamyaro mTlianad adekvaturia. niSani mTlianad faravs realobas da batonobs masze. ufro metic, is TviTonaa realoba. metyvelis Tvalsazrisi imdenad sxvaobs enaTmecnieris Tvalsazrisisagan, rom enaTmecnieris mtkiceba niSnis nebismierobis Sesaxeb odnavadac ver aryevs mis ganpirobebulobaze metyvelis rwmenas. rogorc unda iyos, enobrivi niSnis bunebas, sosiuris gansazRvrebiT, es sulac ar exeba, ramdenadac am gansazRvrebis mizani isaa, rom aCvenos aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis urTierToba. amgvarad, nebismierobis sfero enobrivi niSnis gareTaa gatanili, sosiuri ambobda: `ena verafriT icavs Tavs im Zalebisagan, romlebic yovelwuTierad cvlian mimarTebas aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris. es niSnis nebismierobis erT-erTi Sedegia~. am daskvnis fasi, _ wers emil benvenisti, _ odnavadac ar Semcirdeba, piriqiT, gaizrdeba, Tu zustad vityviT, ra mimarTebazea aq saubari. cvalebadobisa da imavdroulad ucvlelobis unari aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis urTierTobas ki ar axasiaTebs, aramed sagansa da niSans, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, aRniSvnis sagnobriv motivacias (motivation objective de la designation), romelzec yovelTvis moqmedebs sxvadasxva istoriuli

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faqtori. e. benvenistis azriT, sosiuris daskvna sworia, oRond ara niSnisTvis, aramed mniSvnelobisTvis (signification) (benvenisti 1974: 93-94). ama Tu im sityvis `uÃmarad~ anu usargeblod Sefaseba aCvenebs, rogor uyurebs, ra warmodgenebi aqvs interpretators, am SemTxvevaSi qarTuli enis leqsikis kodifikators -- sulxan-saba orbelians -- qarTuli enis leqsikuri erTeulebis mimarT. misTvis enobrivi niSani aramc da aramc ar aris nebismieri, igi aucileblad ganpirobebulia. emil benvenistis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, sulxan-sabasTvis qarTuli ena da garesamyaro mTlianad adekvaturia. rodesac ama Tu im sityvas mosdevs komentari `sxvaTa enaa, u£mari da cudi~, aq imaze ki ar aris miTiTeba, rom garkveuli bgeraTkompleqsi, magaliTad, SaRavaTi (II: 281) cudad asaxavs am cnebis (`SeRavaTi~) arss, aramed igi cudia (uÃmaria) imis gamo, rom sxvaTa enaa, `JamTa viTarebiT SemoRebulia~, rogorc amas aRniSnavs, magaliTad, qaravanis ganmartebisas: `arabTa enaa, JamTa viTarebiT SemoRebulia, qarTulad mogzauri ewodebis~ (II: 212-213). TavisTavad aRmniSvnelebi `qaravani~ da mogzauri (`akustikuri xatebi~, rogorc ferdinand de sosiuri uwodebda) erTnairad nebismieria cnebis (aRsaniSnis) mimarT, magram qarTul enaze metyvelisaTvis mogzauri kargia da `sa£mari~, qaravani ki cudia da `u£mari~. es aris enobrivi niSnis mimarT momxmareblis pragmatuli damokidebuleba. misTvis mogzaur bgeraTkompleqssa da aRsaniSn cnebas Soris ganpirobebuli urTierTobaa. aseTi urTierToba ar aris qaravansa da imave cnebas Soris. sulxan-saba orbeliani ucxo wyaroebsa da `sxvaTa enas~ sxvadasxva mizniT mimarTavs: a) ucxo wyaroebis saSualebiT is ganmartebebs uZebnis qarTul `Znelovan sityvebs~; b) `sxvaTa enis~ saSualebiT sityvis etimologias arkvevs; g) qarTuli enis wiaRidan ucxo leqsikuri masalis gamoyofiT orbeliani qarTuli enis siwmindis dacvas cdilobs (metreveli 1956:14). radgan sulxan-sabas sityvaTa sesxeba enisTvis Cveulebriv movlenad miaCnia, amitom enis sruli gawmenda ucxouri elementebisagan SeuZlebelia da saWiro xdeba kriteriumis gamoZebna _ romeli araqarTuli leqsikuri erTeuli iqnes Sewynarebuli da romeli -- ara. rogorc el. metrevelis dakvirveba cxadyofs, orbeliani sityvis sadaurobasa da mis

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qarTul Sesatyviss zog SemTxvevaSi ramdenime redaqciis manZilze eZebs. 1884 wels sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikoni gamoica rafiel erisTavis redaqtorobiTa da aleqsandre episkoposis safasiT. am wigns redaqtor-gamomcemelma rafiel erisTavma winasityvaoba daurTo, romelSic axsnilia orbelianis leqsikonis gamocemis aucilebloba. erT-erT mizezad dasaxelebulia is faqti, rom "zogierTi literatorebis nawerebSi Semosulia ucxo enis sityvebi, romlebis samagieroni da ufro namdvilni moipovebian sulxan orbelianis leqsikonSi. maSasadame, es leqsikoni rom yofiliyo aqnobamdis dabeWdili da gavrcelebuli, maSin ucxo sityvebi aRar SeamRvrevda qarTuls enas, radganac T¢T am enazed moipoebian jerovanni da ufro marjve saxelwodebani. iqneba sTqvan, rom zogi qarTuli sityvebi daZvelebulan da gaugebarni ariano, magram, Cemis azriT, sjobs, rom isev is Zveli sityvebi ganvaaxloT da SemovitanoT literaturaSi saxmareblaT, vidre sxva enas davesesxoT: xom imasac xel-axla Seswavla da SeCveva dasWirdeba da amasac, da Tu ki ucxo enebidgan im gvari sityvebis Semotana dagvWirda, romlebic qarTulSi sruliad ar moipoebian, maSin Cvenc visargebloT im sityvebiT, romlebis sesxobasac ar Takiloben Cvenzed ufro dawinaurebulni da ganaTlebulni xalxni~ (erisTavi 1884: II). rafiel erisTavi, iseve rogorc orbeliani, sityvaTa sesxebis winaaRmdegi ar aris, magram es ar niSnavs Zvel qarTul leqsikaze uaris Tqmas. piriqiT, misi gaaqtiurebaa saWiro. aseTi damokidebuleba, erTi mxriv, ucxoenovani leqsikisa da, meore mxriv, Zveli qarTuli leqsikis mimarT XIX saukuneSi Zalian gavrcelebuli iyo. Zveli qarTuli leqsikidan aRebuli sityvebisTvis axali sicocxlis SeZena Tanamedrove qarTul sazogadoebaSic erTgvar modad iqca. sainteresoa, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonidan irCeven ZiriTadad iseT sityvebs, romelTac ucxouri JReradoba da qarTuli warmomavloba aqvT. esec metyveli koleqtivis enobrivi niSnisadmi damokidebulebis maCvenebelia. pragmatuli TvalsazrisiT metyveli koleqtivisTvis erTi enis leqsikuri erTeuli (resp. enobrivi niSani) sxva enis erTeuls sjobs. rogorc sosiuri ambobda, ena Tavisi bunebiT Tavsmoxveulia sazogadoebaze, magram imavdroulad ar arsebobs sazogadoeba, romelic kmayofili ar iyos Tavisi eniT. ufro metic, ena badebs siamayis grZnobas masze metyvel koleqtivSi. es grZnoba gansakuTrebiT

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gamZafrebuli aqvs enis kodifikators. amitom daujerebeli Cans mtkiceba, TiTqos sulxan-saba orbelianma `leqsikoni qarTuli~ yrmaTaTvis araqarTuli enebis swavlebis mizniT Seqmna.

damowmebani: abulaZe 1991: abulaZe i. winasityvaoba, darTuli sulxan-saba orbelianis `leqsikoni qarTulze~. Tb.: 1991. abulaZe i. 1998: abulaZe i. sulxan-saba orbelianis `leqsikoni qarTuli~. Tb.: gamomcemloba `merani~, 1998. bakuraZe l. 2009: bakuraZe l. arTroni da misi erTi funqcia sabas leqsikonis mixedviT. _ sulxan-saba 350, saiubileo krebuli, Tb.: S. rusTavelis literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2009. beli 1980: . ­ , . .: 1980. benvenisti 1974: . ­ . .: "", 1974. bikertoni 1990: . . ­ (). .: "", 1990. blumfildi 1968: . . .: 1968. bolqvaZe 2005: bolqvaZe T. ideologizebuli Rirebulebani. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 2005. bolqvaZe 2007: bolqvaZe T. nasesxebi sityvebis semiotika, semiotika, 2008. gamyreliZe 2000: gamyreliZe T. rCeuli qarTvelologiuri Sromebi. Tb.: 2000. gewaZe 1978: gewaZe d. qarTuli gramatikuli terminologiis istoriidan, Tb.: Tsu Sromebi, 1978. danelia 1984: danelia k. megrul-Wanuri leqsika sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi. Tb.: Tsu Sromebi, t. 245, 1984. danelia 1986: . . . . .: , 1986. erisTavi 1884: erisTavi r. winasityvaoba wignisa _ qarTuli leqsikoni, Sedgenili sulxan-saba orbelianisagan. gamocemuli raf. erisTavis redaqtorobiTa da aleqsandre episkoposis safasiTa. Tb.: 1884. vaTeiSvili 1983: vaTeiSvili j. qarTuli beWduri sityvis saTaveebTan, wignSi: arn. Ciqobava, j. vaTeiSvili, pirveli nabeWdi gamocemebi. Tb.: 1983. veJbicka 1996: Wierzbicka A. Semantics ­ Primes and Universals. Oxford, NewYork, Oxford University press, 1966. iakobsoni 1975: . .. "" "". .: "", 1975. kekeliZe 1981: kekeliZe k. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria. t. II, Tb.: 1981. metreveli 1956: metreveli el. sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis uZvelesi avtografi. akad. s. janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe, t. XIX, Tb.: 1956.

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morisi 2001: . . " ", . ­ (). .: 2001. morisi 2001a: . . . ­ (). .: 2001. orbeliani 1991, 1993: orbeliani s.-s. leqsikoni qarTuli. avtografuli nusxebis mixedviT moamzada, gamokvleva da ganmartebaTa saZiebeli daurTo ilia abulaZem. t. I, Tb.: 1991; t. II, Tb.: 1993. orlovskaia 1960: . . . stalinis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, t. 85, Tb., 1960 ramiSvili g., 1978: enis energetuli Teoriis sakiTxebi. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1978. uTurgaiZe 1990: uTurgaiZe T. qarTuli enis Seswavla italiel misionerTa mier da maTi mecnieruli naazrevis urTierTmimarTeba. iberiulkavkasiuri enaTmecniereba, t. XXIX, Tb.: 1990. focxiSvili 1995: focxiSvili al. qarTuli enaTmecnierebis istoria. Tb.: 1995. qavTaria 1960: qavTaria m. sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis ucnobi avtografi. saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis xelnawerTa institutis moambe, t. II, Tb.: 1960. quTaTelaZe 1957: quTaTelaZe l. sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis redaqciebi. Tb.: 1957. SaniZe 1959: SaniZe a. qarTuli leqsikografiis sakiTxebi. I zmnis formaTa meTauri sulxan orbelianis qarTul leqsikonsa da vaxtang VIis TargmanSi. _ sulxan-saba orbeliani, saiubileo krebuli 1658-1958. saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, Tb.: 1959. SaniZe 1990: SaniZe m. sityvaÁ arTronTaTÂs, Zveli qarTuli gramatikuli traqtati. Tb.: 1990. Ciqobava 1959: Ciqobava arn. sabas `sityvis kona~, rogorc leqsikografiuli naSromi. _ sulxan-saba orbeliani, saiubileo krebuli 16581958. saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, Tb.: 1959 Ciqobava 1986: Ciqobava arn. winasityvaoba, qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni. erTtomeuli. Tb.:1986. haugeni 1966: Haugen E. The problem of Language.- Language Conflict and Language Planning, The Case of Modern Norwegian, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1966 haugeni 1972: Haugen E. Linguistics and Language Planning, - The Ecology of Language, Essays Selected and Introduced by Anwar S. Dil, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1972.

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arTroni da misi erTi funqcia sabas leqsikonis mixedviT

arTroni berZnuli sityvaa, misi `funqciaa gamoxatos saxelis gramatikuli kategoria (sqesi, ricxvi, brunva), warmoqmnas arsebiTi saxeli metyvelebis sxva nawilisagan da aRniSnos saxelis zogierTi azrobrivi ieri (magaliTad gviCvenos gansazRvrulia Tu araa gansazRvruli sagani, romelsac saxeli aRniSnavs)~ (uruSaZe 1987: 28). unda aRiniSnos, rom antikur periodSi mas gacilebiT farTo mniSvneloba hqonda. , , [ , , , (- 1848). sulxan-saba orbelianisaTvis arTroni swored is afiqsia, romelsac SeuZlia `sityvaTa mimoRvarWlna~, saxelis gansazRvrulobisa da aRniSnuli gramatikuli kategoriebis warmodgenas ki mis erT-erT da ara erTaderT funqciad miiCnevs. `arTroni arian asoebi, romelime wina moezavebian sityvaTa da romelime ukana da gvarian hyofen da daatkboben, aramed laTinTa da ellenTa enaTa Sina umravles da erTs rigze gawyobiT arian, xolo qarTulSi wina-ukmo, amisTvis RrammatikosTa Sina damiweria Z~ (saba 1991: 63). B da C redaqciaSi arTronis ganmarteba ufro vrcelia, saba CamoTvlis kidec afiqsebs, romlebic sityvas Tavsa da boloSi daerTvian da, rac mTavaria, xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom qarTulSi arsebobs arTroni, oRond ara berZnulis msgavsi: `vieTTa aRuweriaT qarTulTa Sina arTroni ara Zeso, ara dahkvirvebia, Tvaram arTroni Zes da ara maTebr ...~ (saba 1991: 63). aSkaraa aq gamoZaxili qarTuli gramatikuli traqtatisa `sityuaÁ arTronTaTÂs~ (SaniZe 1990: 76), romelic arsen iyalToelis kalams unda ekuTvnodes. am traqtatis avtori araerTgzis aRniSnavs qarTulSi arTronis ararsebobas. misi azriT, amis gamo Targmanis dros azri bundovani da gaugebari xdeba: `SeuZlebel ars Targmaneba misi enasa zeda qarTulsa~ (SaniZe 1990: 132).

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gramatikuli traqtati `sityua arTronTaTÂs~ Tavdapirvelad SeniSvnis saxiT unda hqonoda darTuli oqropiriseuli Txzulebis qarTul teqsts. mTargmnels SeuZleblad miuCnevia berZnul originalSi gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT naxmari arTroniani formebis qarTul TargmanSi zustad gadmocema. amitom `sityua arTronTaT¢s~ mas sagangebod dauweria, rom gaeadvilebina qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis azris gageba TargmanSi (SaniZe 1990: 64). am naSromSi termini arTroni gansazRvrebiTi nawevaris, artiklis mniSvnelobiT aris gamoyenebuli, `amas garda teqstSi garCeulia `arTronni damorCilebiTni~ -- anu mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi~ (SaniZe 1990: 18). arTronis Sesaxeb saubaria amonios ermisis TxzulebebSic, sadac arTronis mniSvneloba dakonkretebulia. igi saxelis gansazRvrulobas warmoaCens, xolo sityuis, anu zmnis ganmsazRvreli aris xrono: `romelTame £maTaganTa SesaZlebel ars TandawesebaÁ arTronTaÁ, xolo xronoTaÁ _ ara, rameTu xrononi ukue Tandaiwesebian, xolo arTronni -- ara. da maT ukue uwodes saxelebad, sada arTronni, xolo sada xronni -- sityue~ (amonios ermisi 1983: 104, 32). termini arTroni nawilakis mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba ioane petriwis Sromebsa (ioane petriwi 1937: 472) da Teofilaqte bulgarelis TargmanebaSi (SaniZe 1990: 65; A52, 12v). arTronis Zala, sabas azriT, yvelaze Zalumad mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweobis dros igrZnoba. ucxo enidan teqstis qarTulad gadmoReba Zneldeba, Tu kargad ar gaacnobiereb arTronis daniSnulebas. `qilila da damanas~ Targmans darTuli aqvs anderZi, romelSic igi swored am problemaze msjelobs: `sxva enis wigni sxvas enazed, Tu ar kais mcodinarisagan, gadmoTargmna Znelia. zogan wina ukan unda moiyvanos da zogan arTroni an moumatos, an daaklos, Tvaram sworad ise ugemuri gamova~ (qarTuli mwerloba 1989: 291). leqsikonis Sesaval nawilSi, romelsac `Rrammatikas~ uwodeben, saba saubrobs qarTuli bgerebis afiqsur funqciaze da gamoyofs eqvs bgeras, romelTac yvelaze metad SeswevT unari moezaon sityvas Tavsa da boloSi. esenia: ani, doni, eni, ini, nari da sani. Semdgom, arTronis ganmartebisas, igi marTlac gamoyofs or jgufs: TavsarTi da bolosarTi arTronebi. `xolo qarTulTa arTroni TavTani arian eseni: a, ai, a , ae, an, au, aR, ga, gan, ge, gi, da, daRa, e, v, i, ia, m, me, mi; n, na; s, sa, u, Se, w, wa, Ä.

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bolos arTroni ese: a, ao, gan, da, de, di, do, e, T, i, ia, m, n, na, ne, ni, neo, no, o, s, sa, Ra, Si, c, wie. eseni arian da saSuali sxvanica B~ (saba 1991: 63). aq warmodgenili arTronebidan mxolod zogierTia ganmartebuli leqsikonSi, umravlesobis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb ki saba dumils amjobinebs, rogorc Cans, maT funqciaSi is sabolood ar aris garkveuli. aseTebia: arTronni TavTani: aR, ai, aÁ, ae, an, au; bolos arTroni: de, di, do, ia, nie, wie ... leqsikografis interesis sferoSi ufro metad moeqca TavsarTi arTronebi. rac Seexeba bolosarTebs, igi xSirad mxolod maTi aRniSvniT kmayofildeba. arTroni SeiZleba iyos calke xmovani an Tanxmovani, an xmovnisa da Tanxmovnisagan Seqmnili bgeraTa jgufi. zogjer saba sxvadasxva daniSnulebis afiqss aerTianebs da erT arTronad gvawvdis, zogjer ki piriqiT, erTi mniSvnelobis afiqss Slis da mis nawils warmoadgens mxolod arTronad, Tumca faqti erTia, igi arasodes urevs erTmaneTSi sityvis Zirsa da afiqss, cdilobs gamoyos formacvalebis gamomwvevi elementebi da, SeZlebisdagvarad, saxeluri da zmnuri formebis Tavisebur daSlas gvTavazobs. amisi mizezi, savaraudod, is unda iyos, rom qarTuli enis gramatika, gansakuTrebiT ki zmna, sabas dros Seswavlili ar iyo (quTaTelaZe 1957: 73). es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom XVII-XVIII saukuneebamde saqarTveloSi ar mimdinareobda filologiuri muSaoba, romelic TavisTavad gulisxmobda sityvis formis cvlilebaze dakvirvebasac. XI-XII saukuneebis qarTuli mecnieruli azri am kuTxiTac viTardeboda, efrem mciris gramatikuli sqolioebi, arsen iyalToelisa Tu ioane petriwis dakvirvebani qarTuli sityvis formobriv agebulebasac Seexeboda; sulxan-saba orbeliani kargad icnobda Zvel qarTul xelnawerebs, wminda mamaTa komentarebs da xSirad ucvleladac ki gadmohqonda zogierTi SeniSvna. amisi klasikuri magaliTia `rio~ arTronis ganmarteba leqsikonSi: `rio meoresa pirsa dahniSnavs, rameTu viTar sxva ars suli sulierisagan, egreTve sxva goneba gonebisagan, odes sTqva suli da sulierio, gina goneba da gonierio~ (saba 1993: 11). prokles Txzulebebis ioane petriwiseul ganmartebaSi vkiTxulobT: `aw ese TanmidebaÁ arTrosaÁ Tu `rio~ meoresa pirsa dahniSnavs: odes sTqua suli, da odes sulieri da egreTve gonebaÁ da gonieri~ (ioane petriwi 1937: 47, 1-4).

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rogorc vxedavT, saqarTveloSi ukve arsebobda mawarmoebelTa gamoyofis garkveuli tradicia. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom aq moRvawe italieli misionerebi qarTuli enis gramatikebis Seqmnisa da leqsikonebis Sedgenis dros qarTuli sityvis agebulebis ukeT gasagebad xSirad Taviseburad gamoyofdnen xolme fuZes. msgavs magaliTebs vxvdebiT 1643 wels Sedgenil majos gramatikaSi: me vikmo-di, Sen ikmo-di, iman ikmo-da, imaT ikmo-nen (majo 1983: 570). Cuen mo-vido-diT, Tquen mo-xuido-diT, imaT mo-vidioden (majo 1983: 558). gmerTo-ba, kaco-ba, saxelo-ba (majo 1983: 526). bernardo maria neapolelis qarTul-italiur leqsikonSi (XVII s-is 70-iani wlebi) zmnaTa piriani formebi asea warmodgenili: `miTqs: gi: u:~ (gi-giTqs, xolo u-uTqs) `miWirveb: gi:~ `mikben: gi:~ `veli: me: ge:~ `macineb: ga:~ (bernardo-maria neapoleli 161). zmnebSi piris gamoyofis igive principia gatarebuli 1724 wliT daTariRebul italiur-qarTul leqsikonSi, romlis avtoric ucnobia. gramatikul nawilSi igi mihyveba majos gramatikas, xolo leqsikonis agebis principiT bernardo neapolels (orlovskaia 1959: 149). es leqsikoni 1724 welze adre Cans Sedgenili, TariRi ki Semdeg daaweres (uTurgaiZe 1999: 75). vaxtang meeqvse kargad icnobda italielTa gramatikul naazrevs qarTul enasTan dakavSirebiT da savaraudoa, rom italielTa namoRvawariT informirebuli iqnebodnen vaxtangis karis swavlulnic (babunaSvili, uTurgaiZe 1992: 43). Zveli xelnawerebis guldasmiT Seswavlam, leqsikuri erTeulis mniSvnelobis dazustebis aucileblobam saba pirispir daayena sityvis formobrivi analizis winaSe, sityvis leqsikuri Tu gramatikuli cvlilebis mizezebis dadgenam ki Seqmna aucilebloba arTronis gamoyofisa, romlis mniSvnelobac sabas leqsikonSi ufro farToa da originaluri. arTroni leqsikografisTvis konkretuli funqciiT gaazrebuli afiqsia. amaze metyvelebs --b- bgeris daxasiaTebac: `bani arc Tavia, arc bolod movals sxvaTa sityvaTa zeda, arc £miani ars, arc arTroni, oden ba ars: moaba, Caaba,

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gaaba da egeviTarni; sxvaTa naqmarTa zeda agreve bi: moabi, Caabi, gaabi, waabi da egeviTarni Z~ (saba 1991: 87). imis miuxedavad, rom ba-bis `funqciuri" gansxvaveba gamoikveTa, sabam mainc ar miiCnia isini arTronad, radgan `konkretuli magaliTi~ ver ganazogada sxva SemTxvevebze. calkeul arTronebze saubrisas sulxan-saba orbeliani ufro xSirad akonkretebs maT funqcias da TiToeul afiqssa Tu morfemas garkveul saxels uwodebs. Tu isini yovel sityvas SeiZleba daerTon, maSin `yovelTa sityvaTa arTronni~ arian, an `arTronni mravalrigi~, roca erTi afiqsi gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva funqciiT. daniSnulebis TvalsazrisiT, arTronebi agreTve SeiZleba iyos `samravlo~, `gemoTa~, `myofobidam gardasulTa~, `samneodan gardadginebulTa~, `sawodebo~, `uqonlobisa da uyolelobisa~, `saeWvoTa zeda gvarian myofeli~, "Sematebis cxadmyofeli~, `yovelTa damxeobaTa Tavi~, `ganyofelobisa~, `arTronvilTa sityvaTa warzidulTani~ da sxv. (gewaZe 1969: 30). amjerad yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT mxolod -a arTronis funqciaze gamoxatos mdedrobiTi sqesi da amasTanave aRniSnos mdabios, cudisa da pataras mniSvnelobebi. am sakiTxze saubrisas SevexebiT -ki arTronis daniSnulebasac. -a arTronze saubrisas saba aRniSnavs: `ani aris pirveli aso da £miani da arTroni mravalrigad Tavad da bolod movals mravalTa sityvaTa zeda, viTarca Tavsa dagviweria~ (igulisxmeba Sesaval nawilSi e. w. `RrammatikaSi~ bgeraTa daxasiaTeba afiqsuri funqciiT) (saba 1991: 35). leqsikonSi es arTroni mravali funqciiT gvxvdeba, misi erT-erTi daniSnulebaa mdedrobiTi sqesis warmoeba. am problemaze msjeloba calkec gvxvdeba Sesabamisi magaliTebis moxmobiT. leqsikur erTeuls `kacis~ ganmartebisas saba warmoadgens saxelTa mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi sqesis formebs da ganarCevs maT mawarmoebelTa mixedviT: `... vidre xuT(s) wlamde vaJs(a) CCvili da qalsa CCvila ewodebis, xuTis wliT vidre aT wlamde vaJsa -- usuari da qalsa -- usuara; ...~ (saba 1991: 359). man nacvalsaxelis ganmartebisas is kidev ubrundeba am Temas da sqess ganarCevs nacvalsaxelebsa da zmnebs Sorisac. uZvelesi (C) redaqciis ramdenime nusxaSi am leqsemis e. w. bude ufro vrcelia da Seicavs erT saintereso minawers: `egreTve yovelive sazogadod saTqmelni mamakacisa da dedakacisa ganiyofebian sityvis bolosa nametnavisa marcval-

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TaTa -- ini Sehgvandes anu ani, romelic(a) mas sityvas(a) keTilad moezaos, anu sxva asoni, igi moazaon~ (saba 1991: 433). sulxan-saba orbeliani gramatikuli sqesis gasarCevad iyenebs termins `mamal-dedluri~ ena: `...xolo qarTulica ena iTqmian mamal-dedlad ukeTu enebosT, rameTu pirvandelTa wignTa Sina mravalgan minaxvan egre, mamal-dedluriTa sityviT naweri...~ es termini gamoyenebulia jer kidev XI saukunis gramatikul traqtatSi `sityuaÁ arTronTaTÂs~: `saxelni ... samTa saxelis debaTagan sacnaur iqmnebian da iwodebian berZenTa Soris, ese igi ars mamalTa da dedalTa da SuaTagan~ (SaniZe 1990: 132). gramatikuli sqesis warmoeba XI saukunis II naxevridan unda iyos SemoRebuli konstantinopolis qarTvel sqolastikosTa mier. efrem mcire mas `axlad mopovnebuls~ uwodebs: `Seiswave mdidraÁ axal mopovnebulad dedal-sityuad. rameTu dedakaci ars momRebeli WiWnaurisaÁ~ (danelia 1986: 87). gramatikuli sqesis aRmniSvneli termini `mamal-dedluri~ gvxvdeba sxva TxzulebebSic. esenia: a) ioane qsifilinosis metafrasuli krebuli; b) Teofilaqte bulRarelis ioanes saxarebis ganmartebis Targmani; g) am princips icavs grigol amartolis xronografis mTargmnelic; d) is gvxvdeba arsen iyalToelis mier Targmnil patriarq potis sjuliskanonSi. sulxan-saba kargad icnobs Zvel qarTul xelnawerebs, iRebs iqidan saTanado masalas, erTmaneTis paralelurad ganixilavs sapirispiro sqesis formebs da akeTebs Sesabamis daskvnas qarTulSi gramatikuli sqesis arsebobis Sesaxeb, Tumca erTgan imasac aRniSnavs, rom es dayofa mxolod filosofosTa enaSia misaRebi: `filosofosTa sityviTa man mamlad iTqmis, xolo mana -- dedlad...~ (saba 1991: 432). saba gamoyofs mamrobiT da mdedrobiT sqess da erT SemTxvevaSi saSualzec saubrobs: `avi arakeTili, av iTqmis kacisa borotisaTvis, xolo avi qalisa borotisaTvis da havi yo(v)elTa sxvaTa borotisaTvis~ ZAB (saba 1991: 40). aq `yovelTa sxvaTa~, safiqrebelia, rom saSual sqess aRniSnavs. leqsikuri erTeuli `havi~ dadasturebulia i. abulaZis Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonSic: `havi -- cudi, avi `romelsa saxeli havi gansrul iyos~ (m. cx. 26 V). sihave _ sicude, uvargisoba: `aravin wariRos igi sihavisagan~ (m. cx. 166 .).

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`havi~ forma gvxvdeba adiSis oTxTavis minawerSic, romelic XVI-XVII saukuneebiT TariRdeba: `visac rai (...) saqmesa zeda havi rai daguemarTos, piri Tauad macxovari da mTauvar mowame CainaSisa, mesame erTobili hadiSisa quveyanaÁ iyos~ (WumburiZe 1983: 117). havi -- boroti saqme, avi; rogorc Cans, swored msgavsma konteqstma Seuwyo xeli sulxan-sabas gadaeazrebina es forma rogorc saSuali sqesisa: avi saqme da ara avi qali, an avi kaci. saba rom swored ase moisazrebs havis mniSvnelobas, es Cans leqsema borotis ganmartebisas, sadac gamijnavs ra mas borotisagan, aseT ganmartebas iZleva: havi ese igi ars, rai -- igi ara genebos, igi giyos kacman. boroti ars, ra keTili moaklos (saba 1991:.111). leqsikonSi, bgerebis daxasiaTebisas, sulxan-saba h bgeras naxevarxmovnad miiCnevs (saba 1991: 19). amdenad, aRar aris gasakviri, rom sxva xmovanTa darad isic sqesis mawarmoebel arTronad miiCnios; h afiqsi arTronis mniSvnelobiT marTlac gvxvdeba leqsikonis C redaqciis nusxebSi: `h mefe~. `aramed berZnulTa sityvaTa arTronni umravlesi wina kerZo daujdeba, viTarca Teos- o Teos. xolo qarTulTa sityvaTa umravlesi bolos kerZo daujdebis da Tavadac mravali movals hi RmerTo, gina hi ufalo da egeviTari mefeTaTvis h mefe~ (saba 1991: 64). aq h berZnuli artiklis daria, esec, rogorc Cans, berZnulTan metismeti siaxlovisa da sizustis survilma daawerina avtors. Semdeg ki, rogorc qarTuli enisaTvis miuRebeli magaliTi, amouRia ganmartebidan. A redaqciaSi es fraza saerTod aRar Cans. aq leqsikografi dakmayofilda mxolod imis aRniSvniT, rom arTronni berZnulsa da laTinurSi erT rigze gawyobiT arian, xolo qarTulSi ki `wina-ukmo~. a arTroni, rogorc mdedrobiTi sqesis mawarmoebeli, daerTvis: a) sazogado saxelebs: ufali -- ufala; qurivi -- quriva; mefe -- mefa; winaswarmetyÀli -- winaswarmetyÀla; monazoni -- monazona; moyvasi -- moyvasa. saxelebs, romlebSic leqsikurad isedac aris gamoxatuli sqesi: 1. cola; nusadia -- biZas cola. 2. asula; monaka -- nasyidi asula.

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(Tumca aq arc imis gamoricxva SeiZleba, rom isini SesaZloa kninobiTis formebi iyos; Sdr.: qali -- qala). b) nacvalsaxelebs: man -- mana; igia -- igia ; g) zmnebs: movida -- movidaÁ; wavida -- wavida ; es magaliTebi wyaros miniSnebis gareSea warmodgenili, magram vfiqrobT, rom isini amoRebuli unda iyos ioane qsifilinosis qarTuli Targmanis metafrasuli krebulidan. sayuradReboa naTesaobis leqsikac, sadac zogan leqsikurad, zogan ki formobrivadac aris garCeuli sqesi: biZia -- dedis Zma; nusadia -- biZas cola; rZali -- Zmis coli; sZali -- Zis coli. sZlad iTqmis mazlisagan Zmis coli. `sZali~ gvxvdeba Zveli aRTqmis wignebSic: `hrqua nooman sZalsa TÂssa~ (ruTisi 2,20G) Sdr.: ruTisi 2.20M -- `Zis colsa~. yuradRebas iqcevs Semdegi formebi: bebia -- hani, romel ars mamis(a) deda Z; bebiaÁ/i -- dedis deda ZA; papa -- mamis mama; papai (papi) -- dedis mama. aqac --a da -Á/i afiqsebi warmoaCenen naTesaobas dedis mxriv. sulxan-saba aRniSnavs: `egreTve yovelive sazogadod saTqmelni mamakacisa da dedakacisa ganiyofebian sityvis bolos nametnavisa marcvalTaTa -- ini Sehgvandes anu ani, romelic(a) mas sityvas(a) keTilad moezaos, anu sxva asoni, igi moazaon~ (saba 1991: 433). miuxedavad amisa, rom mawarmoeblebis ganawilebis principi moZebnili ar aris, SeiZleba gamoikveTos ramdenime saxis opozicia mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi sqesis mawarmoblebisa: 1. i _ a opozicia; saba umravles SemTxvevaSi mdedrobiTi sqesis a mawarmoeblis sapirispirod mamrobiTis sqesis sufiqsad miiCnevs -i arTrons: qurivi -- quriva; CCZli -- CCZla; usuari -- usuara; i bgeris am funqciiT warmodgena moulodneli ar unda iyos, Tu gavixsenebT, rom sulxan-sabas italiel misionerTa msgavsad -i saxelobiTi brunvis niSnad ara aqvs gamoyofili. Tavisi enobrivi alRos wyalobiT sabam am konkretul SemTxvevaSi sistemis Sesaqmnelad mas bunebrivad daakisra axali funqcia.

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2. --a; _ i opozicia; mamrobiTi sqesis saxelebi uniSnobiT upirispirdebian sapirispiro formebs: man -- mana; av -- avi; 3. a -- Á opozicia. a) a xmovanze fuZegaTavebuli saxelebi sapirispiro mdedrobiTi sqesis formas ¡-is daxmarebiT iwarmoeben: mona -- monaÁ; yrma -- yrmaÁ; b) zmnebSi: movida -- movidaÁ; wavida -- wavidaÁ. ivane javaxiSvili fiqrobda, rom Zvel qarTul xelnawerebSi -Á TiTqos mdedrobiTis sqesis gamomxatveli unda yofiliyo. Tumca, arc imas gamoricxavda, rom -Á obieqtis niSnad SeiZleba migveCnia (javaxiSvili 1992: 167). sabasTan gvxvdeba sqesis ormagi warmoebis SemTxvevebic: moxucebuli -- moxucebula || moxucebulaÁ (B). rogorc Cans, moxucebula formobrivad emTxveoda zmnis pirian formas da aRrevis Tavidan acilebis mizniT sabam mas -Á daurTo B redaqciaSi. sulxan-saba imeorebs petriwonuli skolis tradicias da cdilobs, leqsikonSi adgili miuCinos Zvel qarTul xelnawerebSi arsebul aSkarad xelovnur formebs. leqsikuri erTeulebis umravlesoba mowodebulia wyaroebis miniSnebiT, magram am procesis sistematizaciis mizniT leqsikografi damatebiT Tavis sakuTar magaliTebsac gvTavazobs da xSirad ama Tu im sityvis axsnis drosac -a sufiqsian mdedrobiTi sqesis saxels iyenebs: nusadia -- biZas cola. dedaTdiakoni -- axali monazona ZA || axali monazoni B. monaka -- nasyidi asula. dedaT diakoni -- qalwuli monazonaT ufrosi. ukanasknel magaliTSi `monazonaT ufrosi~ -a afiqsi mravlobiTSic SenarCunebulia. sabam -a sufiqsiani saxelebi Seitana leqsikonSi, da maT analizsac Seecada, radgan: 1) is filosofosTa enisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli da mas, rogorc `zeSTa~, `swori~ da `damxe~ sityvaTa momxres, ar SeeZlo msgavsi formebi ar gamoeyo; 2) safiqrebelia, rom leqsikografi -a afiqss xelovnurad, an ucxo enidan Semotanilad ki ar miiCnevda, aramed Zireul, qarTul afiqsad. Sesabamisad, aseTi formebi sakmaod bunebrivad eCveneboda, amitomac ganavrco literaturul wyaroebSi dadasturebuli masala sakuTari magaliTebiT da Seecada sqesis mawarmoebelTa ganawilebis principis dadgenas.

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mdedrobiTi sqesis -a sufiqis warmoSobis Sesaxeb gansxvavebuli azria gamoTqmuli samecniero literaturaSi, erTni mas berZnulidan momdinare afiqsad miiCneven (gigineiSvili, kikviZe 1966: 155; danelia 1986: 87; sarjvelaZe 1984: 245). k. dondua ki fiqrobs, rom es sufiqsi qarTuli warmoSobisaa (dondua 1967: 167-182). am tipis masalis ganxilvam da analizma gvafiqrebina, rom -a sufiqsis mdedrobiTi sqesis mawarmoeblad gaformebas xeli Seuwyo qarTulSi ukve arsebulma --a sufiqsianma kninobiTis formebma, romlebic gamoxatavdnen cuds, mdabios, socialurad dabla mdgoms, swored es mniSvneloba gaxda amosavali -a sufiqsis gamoyenebisa elinofilur skolaSi mdedrobiTi sqesis aRsaniSnad. am mxriv Cveni yuradReba miiqcia samma magaliTma: cola, Wabuka, yrmaÁ. 1. cola (biZas cola -- nusadia). literaturuli wyaro miTiTebuli ar aris; coli leqsikurad isedac gamoxatavs mdedrobiT sqess, amitom colas wyaroSi kninobiTis mniSvneloba unda hqonoda da ara mdedrobiTi sqesisa. 2. Wabuka leqsikonSi ganmartebulia rogorc `oci wlisagan vidre ocdaaT(a)mde qali; Tumca, Zvel xelnawerebSi Wabukas gacilebiT farTo mniSvneloba aqvs: Wabuka _ yrma, axalgazrda, ymawvili, mona. Wabukidi -- Wabuka ZAa ( abulaZe 1973: 555). leqsikonSi -id sufiqsiani mdedrobiTi sqesis forma mxolod erTxel, leqsikonis bolo redaqciaSi gvxvdeba:. msgavsi formebi dasturdeba gelaTis bibliaSi. vfiqrobT, sulxan-sabasaTvis isini aSkarad berZnizmebi iyo, amitom aRar gaagrZela masze msjeloba. Sesabamis wyaroSi (ruT, II, 20) es forma marTlac qalis aRsaniSnavadaa gamoyenebuli: `vin aris Wabuka ese?~ gelaTis bibliaSi Sesabamis adgilze gvxvdeba Wabukidi: `vin ars Wabukidi isi?~ (Sdr. oSkis biblia, aTonis xelnaweri: `vin ars Wabuki ese?~) Wabuki axalgazrdis aRmniSvneli gaudiferencirebeli forma unda yofiliyo, xolo Wabuka misi kninobiTi varianti, romelic asakobriv simcires an socialur mdgomareobas aRniSnavda, swored es forma gadaiazres SemdgomSi elinofiluri skolis warmomadgenlebma mdedrobiTi sqesis mniSvnelobiT, radgan mocemul teqstSi marTlac qalze iyo saubari. msgavsi gadaazreba mouxdenia sulxan-sabasac.

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z. sarjvelaZis Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonSi (sarjvelaZe 1995: 272) Wabuka ganmartebulia rogorc axalgazrda qali, Tumca iqve XI saukunis didi svinaqsaridan magaliTia moyvanili: `daSTa Wabuka hasakiTa~. Zalze sayuradReboa leqsema yrma. aq mdedrobiTi sqesis orgvar warmoebasTan gvaqvs saqme imis mixedviT, Tu ra mniSvnelobas itevs Tavad yrma: `yrma -- mona, gina Segirdi~ ZAB. `yrma -- (+ kaTiR. ZA) Sagirdsa uwoden~ ZABC. `yrma -- vaJi aTis wlidan vidre TxuTmetamde~ (BC). rodesac `yrma~ monisa da Segirdis mniSvnelobiTaa, maSin misi Sesabamisi mdedrobiTis sqesis formaa yrmaa -- m£evali, a sufiqsiT nawarmoebi, sadac es -a albaT sqesTan erTad socialur mdgomareobasac aRniSnavs -- `mdabios~. amas gvafiqrebinebs paraleluri warmoeba: roca yrma aTidan TxuTmet wlamde vaJs aRniSnavs, maSin misi Sesabamisi forma C redaqciaSi aris yrmaaÁ, `mamal-dedluriTa eniTa vaJisaTvis iTqmis yrma da qalisaTvis yrmaaÁ, monisaTvis -- yrma (+ da ZA), m£vlisaTvis -- yrmaa. monaTa anu yrmaTa subuq saxelad yrmaaki ZAB. yrmaa -- m£evali ZAB~ (saba 1993: 271). erT leqsikur erTeulidan sulxan-sabam mdedrobiTi sqesis ori paraleluri forma mogvca amosavali mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswinebiT: 1) yrma -- yrmaa; 2) yrma -- yrmaaÁ || yrmaÁ (BA), rac kidev erTxel warmoaCens misi dakvirvebis unars da analizuri midgomis mcdelobas Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebisadmi. leqsikonSi yrma da Wabuki axalgazrdis aRmniSvneli sinonimebia, roca aRniSnaven, yrmas ki sxva mniSvnelobac aqvs -- mona, Segirdi. leqsikonSi dasturdeba -a sufiqsiani kninobiTis formebi: gora -- mcire borcvi ZABCab; boga -- mcire Ãidi ZAB; kalaTa -- mcire godori ZABCD. sagulisxmoa, rom msgavs SemTxvevebSi -a arTronad arsad ar aris gamoyofili, saba ar miuTiTebs a-s simciris aRmniSvnel funqciaze, arc i -- a opozicia gvaqvs mawarmoebelTa gamoyofis TvalsazrisiT. rogorc Cans, -i mxolod maSin SeiZleba iyos sufiqsi, Tu is mamrobiTi sqesis aRmniSvnelia (da isic mxolod filosofosTa enisaTvis B), danarCen SemTxvevaSi ki gaiazreba fuZiseulad. amitom, bunebrivia, Zireulad miCneulia a-c `go-

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ra~ tipis sityvebSi da, leqsikografis azriT, isini mxolod leqsikurad gamoxataven simcires. -i morfema Sua saukuneebis gramatikuli tradiciis Tanaxmad fuZiseulad gaigeboda, italiel misionerTa gramatikul naazrevSic -i ar aris saxelobiTi brunvis niSnad gamoyofili da amis gamo, moTxrobiTSic ki, romelsac kaTolike misioneri meore saxelobiTs uwodebs, -i SenarCunebulia: biCi -- biCima (majo 1983: 515). rogorc Cans, sabac swored ase moisazrebs -i bgeris adgilsa da funqcias im sityvebSi da Tu -i fuZiseulia da ver gamoiyofa igi afiqsad, bunebrivia, mas ver Seenacvleba -a sufiqsi gansxvavebuli funqciiT. swored amitom saba kmayofildeba leqsikuri aRweriT da am bgeras simciris gamomxatvel arTronad ar gamoyofs. Tumca, ganmartebebisas Zalian xSirad warmoadgens -a sufiqsian saxelebs simciris mniSvnelobiT: gori -- borcvi ZABC; gora -- mcire borcvi ZABCab; goraka -- borcvi umciresi B. iseTi STabeWdileba rCeba, TiTqos xarisxis formebia garCeuli erTmaneTisagan. am semantikuri jgufis saxelebis ganxilvisas ar SeiZleba yuradReba ar gavamaxviloT -ki arTronian formebze, romlebsac msgavsi mniSvnelobis gamoxatva SeuZliaT. `ki, Si, ye, que, qe, wen, ken C (ki DE) eseni sityvaTa gemoTa arTronni arian... (+ kvalad ki iTqmis cudad: wignaki, Svilaki, deboraki da raisaca zeda ginda sicuded movals, romelnime simdabliT dairqvams ZAa) ZA~ (saba 1991: 370-37). naTelia, rom -ki arTronis funqciaa gamoxatos cudi, miuxedavad imisa, es sagnis an movlenis garegnul mxares exeba Tu Sinaarsoblivs. -ki arTrons simciris gamoxatvis funqciac aqvs. sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi sakmao raodenobiT dasturdeba rogorc -ak sufiqsiani nasesxebi leqsika, ise sakuTriv qarTuli. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom saba orive SemTxvevaSi -ki sufiqss kninobiTis gamomxatvelad miiCnevs da paraleluri formebis warmodgenisas mis ganmasxvavebel funqciaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas: `dana ars udides `yovelTa Ãorcisa mosaTleli; danaki -- umcro missa da zomieri ZA~ (saba 1991: 195). `kasri ars momcro saxli samefo Tavis -- win sajdomeli, xolo kasraki -- umciress missa (saba 1993: 77); libarda -- (h)romaulad Subs(a) ewodeba. xolo libanda ki qarTulSi

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amisTvis mouyvaniaT, mokle Subaki Z (saba 1991: 414). tabli -- saqore naRara ZAB; tabla ki -- mcire naRara ZABCD (saba 1993: 130). msgavsi magaliTebi leqsikonSi mravladaa. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia italieli misioneris stefani paolinis da nikifore irbaqis italiur-qarTul leqsikonSi dadasturebuli erTi leqsikuri erTeulis ganmarteba: muSa -- operario, lavorante, muSaki -- lavorante (paolini 1983: 360). muSa _ (operaio) italiel misioners TiTqmis Tanamedrove gagebiT aqvs mowodebuli ganmarteba: _ , ; lavorante ­ ; muSaki -- (lavorante ­ ) ( , 1963: 554; 464). sabas azriT, formobrivad gansxvavebulma da paralelurad arsebulma sityvebma aucileblad semantikuri sxvaobac unda mogvcen. amdenad, Tu nasesxeb sityvas -ak sufiqsiani cali ar gaaCnia, qarTuli qmnis mas: libarda -- libandaki. sabas leqsikonSi, bunebrivia, -ak sufiqsiani nasesxebi sityvebis gverdiT warmodgenilia sakuTriv qarTuli enis leqsika: saxli (12, 3 ione). saxli zogadi saxeli ars yovelTa saxlTa, aramed yo(v)elTa sxvadasxva rigTa sxvadasxva saxeli sZes ZA; saxlaki -- mcire ram saxli ZAB saba 1993: 76). godori -- wkeplis WurWeli ZABCab; godoraki -- umcrosi godori ZA. kidobani -- (25, 10 gamos. ZAa) zanduki ZA; kidobanaki -- zanduxCa ZA. sabas arc is gamorCenia, rom qarTul wyaroebSi es sufiqsi daerTvis leqsikurad isedac simciris aRmniSvnel sityvebs, bunebrivia; isini aisaxa sabas leqsikonSic. mcire (22, 19) cotaÁ ZA; cota(i) Bcb; mcireka, cota Cq. mcireki -- mcire cuda ZAa (saba 1991: 540). es ukanaskneli forma sakuTriv sabasia; werilobiT ZeglebSi gvxvdeba mcireaki. aram martirosovi varaudobs, rom mcireaki da kninaki sul pataras, sul mcires mniSvnelobiT unda iyos gamoyenebuli (martirosovi 1978: 110). kninobiT saxelTa warmoebis mxriv ufro Raribad gamoiyureba Zveli qarTuli, rac imiT unda aixsnas, rom V-XI saukuneebis saliteraturo ena sasuliero mwerlobis ena iyo da ZiriTadad mis stils emsaxureboda. -a sufiqsian saxelebTan SedarebiT -ak sufiqsiT nawarmoebi saxelebi Zvel qarTulSi ufro metia (martirosovi 1978: 109-110). umravlesoba am tipis saxelebisa ucxo enidan aris qarTulSi Semosuli da damkvidrebuli.

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sparsulSi -ak sufiqsis funqcia mravalgvaria: ` () , . . ... ( ) ­ " ( 1989: 8). qarTulSi am tipis saxelebia: danaki, muSaki, doraki, avazaki, faTeraki, banaki, xandaki da sxva. am tipis saxelTa erT nawils Zvel xelnawerebSive moepovebaT paraleluri formebi: dana, muSa, dora... nasesxebi leqsikis gverdiT qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi dasturdeba -ak sufiqsiT nawarmoebi sakuTriv qarTuli sityvebi: saxlaki, mcireaki, Svilaki da sxva... `amgvari formebi Zv. qarTulSi SeiZleba warmoqmnili iyos sparsulidan Semosuli ­ sufiqsis mqone sityvebis wabaZviTa da am sufiqsis sesxebis gziT~ (martirosovi 1978: 117). saSual iranulSi -ak sufiqsi gvxvdeba kninobiT-alersobiTi funqciiT (CxeiZe 1969: 44). qarTulSic, ise rogorc somxurSi (SilakaZe 1971: 100), es sufiqsi dRes simciris mniSvnelobas aniWebs sityvebs. rogorc aRvniSneT, -ki arTronis mTavari funqcia, sabas ganmartebis mixedviT, sicudis, simdablis gamoxatvaa; `kualad ki iTqmis cudad. wignaki, Svilaki, deboraki da raisaca zeda ginda sicuded movals, romelime simdabliT dairqvams ZAa)ZA" wigni -- werilTagan erTi ZABCD; wignaki -- wigncuda ZABCD. ciba -- asakmcire ZaRli ZABCD; cibaki -- cibacuda ZAB. Svili -- naSobi ZABC; Svilaki -- cudSvila ZAa. avSara -- qoraki ZABCab; avSaraki -- Tokis avSara cudi ZABC. bazma -- sanaTi ZABCab; bazmaki -- (-25, 10 ierem ZAa) sanaTive `arakeTili~ B. mcire -- cota ZA; mcireki -- mcire cuda ZAa. Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebis guldasmiT Seswavlam, -ak sufiqsian saxelebze dakvirvebam saba miiyvana swored im daskvnamde, rom amosavali funqcia am afiqsisa simdablis gamoxatvaa da aqedan gadaazrebuli -- cudi. qarTul werilobiT ZeglebSi -ak sufiqsian saxelebs zogjer Tan axlavs msazRvreli, romelic sazRvrulis simcires damatebiT warmoaCens. iakob curtaveli SuSanikis Se-

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saxeb gvamcnobs: `saxlaki erTi mcire pova maxloblad eklesiasa da Sevida mun Sina simwariTa savseÁ...~ (qarTuli mwerloba 1987: 226). SeiZleba aq -ak sufiqsiani saxeli ubralo, mdabioTa Sesafer sadgoms aRniSnavs da ara pataras. Tumca arc is aris ugulebelsayofi, rom ubralod mxatvrul xerxTanac gvqondes saqme. sabas calke leqsikur erTeulad aqvs gamotanili yrmaaki (41, 1 ierimia) -- yrmacuda. monaTa anu yrmaTa subuq saxelad yrmaaki ZAB". saba imowmebs ieremias winaswarmetyvelebas, miTiTebul adgilas vkiTxulobT: `da iyo TTuesa meSvdesa, movida ismail, Ze naTanisi, Zisa elisamaÁsi, naTesavisagan mefobisa da yrmakni mefisani da aTni mamakacni maT Tana godoliaÁs mimarT masifad... da Wames mun puri zogad~ (ieremia 19 M 41, 1). Semdeg saubaria imis Sesaxeb, rom maT mokles godoliaÁ, romelic daadgina babilonis mefem `queyanasa zeda~ (ieremia 19 M 41, 2). am epizodSi aSkaraa mTxrobelis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba naTanis Zisa da misi didebulebisadmi. es -ak sufiqsic swored am uaryofiTi emociis gamoxatulebaa. SesaZlebelia -ak sufiqsis erT-erTi ZiriTadi da Tavdapirveli funqcia marTlac mdabios, ubralos, cudis gamoxatva iyo da ara sagnis simciris aRniSvna. e.i. aqcentirebuli iyo Sinaarsi da ara forma: mdabio, ubralo da aqedan gadaazrebuli cudi. saba sityvis formaze saubrisas xSirad ganarCevs saRvTo weriliTa Tqmulsa Tu gareSe weriliTa, msoflio eniTa Tqmulsa Tu glexurs. -ki arTronis erT-erT funqciadac saRvTo da gareSe werilTa garCeva miiCnia: `xorSaki saRmrTo werilSi Zes da xorSa gare werilsa Sina~. e.i. sityva sruli saxiT sasuliero TxzulebebSia, xolo mokvecili saxiT -- saeroSio (SaniZe 1959: 13-17). es dakvirveba sakmaod saintereso faqtze migviTiTebs: rogorc Cans, pirvelad saero mwerlobaSi dawyebula --ak sufiqsis bolokiduri -k-s mokvecis procesi, radgan sasuliero mwerloba Zveli tradiciebis damcvelia. paraleluri formebis gaCenas, bunebrivia, maTi mniSvnelobebis gansxvavebac unda mohyoloda. amdenad, Cven SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom uZveles periodSi roca gamartivda _ -ak sufiqsi da gaCnda paraleluri

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formebi -a da -ak sufiqsiani saxelebisa (danaki -- dana, muSaki -- muSa), -a da -ak sufiqsebs sxvadasxva daniSnuleba hqondaT. a gamoxatavda sagnis fizikur simcires, xolo -ak sufiqsis funqcia iyo mdabios, cudis aRniSvna. droTa ganmavlobaSi orive sufiqsma paralelurad SeZlo erTi da imave mniSvnelobis gamoxatva. sabas droisaTvis -ak sufiqsian saxelebs ukve dakarguli aqvs cudis mniSvneloba. Zvel teqstebze dakvirvebam ki leqsikografs win wamoawevina misi uZvelesi daniSnuleba. -ki arTroniani formebis mdablis, cudis mniSvnelobiT ganmartebis miuxedavad, leqsikonSi gvxvdeba -ak sufiqsiani saxelebi simciris gagebiT. es winaaRmdegoba swored tradiciisa da sabasdroindeli sametyvelo qarTulis Sepirispirebis Sedegia. amdenad, vfiqrobT, rom swored -a (-ak) sufiqsis uZvelesi daniSnuleba gaxda safuZveli misi mdedrobiTi sqesis mawarmoeblad gadaazrianebisa. elinofilurma skolam Seqmna berZnuli enis gavleniT qarTulSi mdedrobiTi sqesis formebi -a sufiqsis daxmarebiT, rasac, Cveni varaudiT, xeli Seuwyo enaSi ukve arsebulma kninobiTis formebma (Wabuka, qaTama tipisa), romlebic gadaiazres sqesis gamomxatvelad da Seqmnes aSkarad xelovnuri formebi. cota ram literaturuli wyaroebis Sesaxeb: bunebrivad davuSviT, rom ZiriTadi wyaro leqsikonisaTvis unda yofiliyo bibliis mcxeTuri xelnaweri (A-51), radgan mas redaqcia gaukeTa sulxan-saba orbelianma, magram umravles SemTxvevaSi miTiTebul adgilze msgavsi formebi ar Segvxvedria. leqsikoni ufro met msgavsebas amJRavnebs gelaTuri redaqciis sxva xelnawerebTan (A-1108; Q-1152), Tumca, arc maT mihyveba bolomde. gelaTur redaqciaSi sityva `mona~ umravles SemTxvevaSi Secvala yrmam, iSviaTad gvxvdeba Wabuki da ufro iSviaTad mrwemi, sabas leqsikonSic monas mxolod erTi mniSvneloba aqvs darCenili: `mona -- nasyidi vaJi ZAB (+10, 24 maTe), gina namziTvi~ ufro xSirad da farTo gagebiT ki gvxvdeba yrma da Wabuki. es erTxel kidev gvafiqrebinebs, rom garda bibliis mcxeTuri xelnawerisa, sabas xelT sxva wyaroc unda hqonoda, aseve gelaTuri redaqciisa. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, leqsikoni Seiqmna Zveli qarTuli mecnieruli azris gaTvaliswinebiT, amasTan ar unda dag-

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vaviwydes isic, rom es epoqa italieli misionerebis moRvaweobiTaa cnobili. maT mier Seqmnili gramatikebi Tu qarTul-italiuri leqsikonebi sabasTvis ucxo ar unda yofiliyo. is, bunebrivia, icnobda maT naRvawsac da piradad italiel patrebsac Zalian kargad, amdenad, CvenTvisac sayuradReboa maTi moRvaweobis Seswavla Tundac sabas erT-erTi literaturuli wyaros gamovlenis TvalsazrisiTac. unda aRiniSnos, rom arc franCesko maria majos qarTuli enis gramatikaSi, arc bernardo maria neapolelis italiur-qarTul da qarTul-italiur leqsikonebSi gramatikuli sqesis gamoxatvis cdac ki ar aris, magram ai, stefane paolinisa da nikifore irbaqis qarTul-italiur leqsikonSi aris ramdenime leqsikuri erTeuli garCeuli gramatikuli sqesis mixedviT. aq dadasturebulia mxolod erTi forma mdedrobiTi sqesis --a sufiqsis aRniSvnisa: patrona -- Padrona, Signora patroni -- Signore, Padrone (paolini 1983: 368). danarCen SemTxvevaSi ki mdedrobiTi sqesi aRiniSneba naTesaobiTi brunvis gavrcobili formiT: sofleli -- soflelisa (sofleli qali) Villano ­ Villana (paolini 1983: 384). glexi -- glexisa (glexi qali) Contadino ­ Contadina (paolini 1983: 309). sqesis msgavsi gamoxatvis cda albaT nik. irbaqis idea ufro iqneboda. naTesaobiTSi mdgari forma qmris, misi gvarisadmi kuTvnilebis gamomxatveli iyo (zariZe 1999: 227). msgavsi formebi sabas leqsikonSi dadasturebuli ar aris, aq arTronze da masTan erTad gramatikul sqesze yvelaze vrclad saubaria B redaqciaSi. adreul nusxebSi dadasturebuli msjelobani aq ufro gaSlili da srulyofilia. A redaqciis xelnawerebSi ki, samwuxarod, Sekvecilia am sakiTxebze msjeloba, rac gvafiqrebinebs, rom B redaqcia gramatikuli naazrevis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT yvelaze sayuradRebo masalas mogvcemda, rom ar dakarguliyo misi danarTi `saswavlo yrmaTa~. am azrs gviZlierebs isic, rom redaqciis kvali etyoba makrineseul xelnawers (A-1113), sadac `gramatika romelobania~ SemorCenili. bunebrivia, sulxan-sabasaTvis naTeli iyo, rom sqesis gramatikuli gamoxatva qarTuli enisaTvis aSkarad xelov-

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nuria. gramatikuli sqesis garCeva qarTulisTvis mxolod SesaZlebel movlenadaa aRiarebuli da ara aucilebel, enis Sinagani bunebidan gamomdinare morfologiur kategoriad (bolqvaZe 2005: 152) leqsikografis principi erTia: enaSi arsebuli formebi unda dafiqsirdes leqsikonSi, imis miuxedavad, romel stils ekuTvnis is, misaRebia Tu ara is sazogadoebis romelime fenisTvis. rogori xelovnuric unda iyos sqesis kategoriis gamokveTis cda qarTulSi, mas mainc didi mniSvneloba aqvs qarTuli mecnieruli azris SeswavlisaTvis. leqsikonSi dadasturebulia -ak sufiqsis sityvaTganmasxvavebeli unaric. misi darTva cvlis sityvis mniSvnelobas. Wala -- wylis piri nayofieri ZAB. Walaki -- (23.2 esaia) kunZuli, miwa, wala ZAB. qanda -- oqros varayi ZABcDE; qandaki -- amoyvanili, miwa amoWrili ZA. tafi -- sagbolveli || tafa ZABC; tafaki -- (+4,3 ezes ZAa) ZABCq -- mosaxarSavi Cab. zuara (zvara CDE) Sewiruli ZABCDE; zuaraki -- nasuqari ZA, nasuqari £bo, glaxa || glaxaki -- gina daSavebuli ZA. glaxaki -- ese ars mama-dediT uqonelni, xolo davrdomili, romeli simdidrisagan dacemul iyos ZABCD. buni (+37,17 gamos. ZA) Subis tari ZABCE. buniki - £rmlis qarqaSis saTi£ari Z. agara -- sadguri sazafxulo ZAC. agaraki (maTe, 27,10) ese ars adgili sayanuri. sabasTan dadasturebuli -ki arTroni zustad imave formiT gvxvdeba rogorc zurab SanSovanis gramatikaSi: `saknino -wignaki~, ise anton bagrationTanac: `romelnime zewodebul kninobiTad kninad mniSnuÀlobisaT¢s maTisa magal: aki, ki, agi, ali... marculaki, mcuÀli, guSagi...~ (bagrationi 1997: 142). naTelia, rom orives wyaro SesaZlebelia sabas naazrevi iyos; sulxan-saba orbeliani Zvel qarTul xelnawerebs gramatikosis TvaliT ganixilavs. igi leqsikuri erTeulis damowmebasTan erTad mis formobriv analizsac cdilobs da, SeZlebisdagvarad, usadagebs zogad princips, rogorc es -ki arTronis SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs. -ki arTroniani saxelebi uZveless (C) redaqciaSic gvxvdeba mcire raodenobiT. Semdgom (B) redaqciaSi (kons-

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tantinopolur nusxaSi) sistemis saxes iRebs -ak sufiqsiani saxelebis warmoCena usufiqso formebis paralelurad da bolo (A) redaqciis nusxebSi ivseba da zustdeba es masala. amave redaqciaSi gaCnda Teoriuli msjeloba am arTronis Sesaxeb misi funqciis dazustebiT: `kvalad ki iTqmis cudad: wignaki, Svilaki, deboraki da raisaca zeda ginda sicuded movals, romelime simdabliT dairqvams ZAa". daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom mdedrobiTi sqesis gamomxatveli formebis Seqmnas safuZvlad udevs kninobiTobis gageba, kerZod, cudisa da mdabios mniSvneloba; -a sufiqsiani saxelebi Tavdapirvelad marTlac gamoxatavdnen ara mdedrobiTi sqesis saxelebs, aramed cuds, mdabios, socialurad dabla mdgoms; swored es mniSvneloba gaxda amosavali --a sufiqsis gamoyenebisa elinofilur skolaSi mdedrobiTi sqesis aRsaniSnad. es mimarTeba Zalian kargad gamoCnda sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi, romelSic paralelurad warmodgenilia yvela SesaZlo leqsikuri erTeulis sinonimuri variantebi, iqneba es `zeSTa sityva~, `sworTa~ Tu `damxe~ stilis kuTvnileba. leqsikonSi moyvanili masalis ganxilvam gvafiqrebina, rom gadaazrianebis procesi, bunebrivia, adamianTa klass Seexo (cola, monaka; Sdr. gora, goraka), Semdgom ki zmnebTan da nacvalsaxelebTan ukve analogiis gziT ganviTarda. arTronze msjeloba gvxvdeba zurab SanSovanisa da anton pirvelis gramatikebSi, anton pirvelis filosofiur naSrom `spekalSi~. maTze saubars amjerad ar gavagrZelebT, vfiqrobT, maTi wyaro Zvel qarTul gramatikul naazrevTan erTad unda yofiliyo sulxan-sabas `leqsikoni qarTuli~. es leqsikoni sayuradReboa ara mxolod qarTuli enaTmecnieruli azris istoriis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT: sulxan-sabas gramatikuli naazrevi, misi dakvirvebani leqsikur erTeulebsa Tu sityva-formebis miseuli analizis mcdeloba dResac mniSvnelovania mecnieruli kvlevisaTvis.

damowmebani: abulaZe 1973: abulaZe i. Zveli qarTuli leqsikoni. Tb.: gamomcemloba `mecniereba", 1973. astriani 1989: . ­ . : 1989. anton I 1997: anton I. qarTuli gramatika (meore redaqcia 1767). Tb.: gamomcemloba `s.s pirveli stamba", 1997.

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babunaSvili... 1991: babunaSvili e, uTurgaiZe T. anton pirvelis `qarTuli gramatika da misi erovnul-istoriuli mniSvneloba. Tb.: gamomcemloba `mecniereba", 1991. bakuraZe 1998: bakuraZe l. sulxan-saba orbelianis gramatikuli naazrevi leqsikoni qarTulis mixedviT. sakandidato disertacia, Tb.: 1998. bolqvaZe 2005: bolqvaZe T. ideologizebuli Rirebulebebi. Tb.: `Tbilisis universiteti~, 2005. gewaZe 1969: gewaZe d. gramatikuli terminebi sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi. J. qarTuli ena da literatura skolaSi, IV. Tb.: 1969. gigineiSvili... 1966: gigneiSvili b, kikviZe c. rusTavelis xanis qarTuli bibliis Targmani (gelaTuri versia). SoTa rusTaveli, istoriul-filologiuri Ziebani, Tb.: 1966. greCesko 1948: - . : 1948. danelia 1986: danelia k. gramatikuli sqesis gamoxatvis cda qarTulSi. macne, IV. Tb.: 1986 zariZe 1999: zariZe n. transliteraciis wesebi da paolin-irbaxis qarTul-italiuri leqsikoni (romi 1929 weli). sakandidato disertacia, Tb.: 1999. ioane petriwi 1937: ioane petriwi. Sromebi, II. Tb.: 1937 martirosovi 1979: martirosovi a. saxelis gansazRvrulobaganusazRvrelobis kategoria. arn. Ciqobavas, Tb.: 1979 martirosovi 1978: martirosovi a. kninobiTi saxelebi Zvel qarTulSi. ike XX, Tb.: 1978. dondua 1967: . . : 1967. doCanaSvili 1981: mcxeTuri xelnaweri. (teqstebi gamosacemad moamzada da gamokvleva daurTo el. doCanaSvilma). Tb.: 1981 rafava 1983: rafava m. amonios ermisis Txzulebebi qarTul mwerlobaSi. Tb.: 1983. rafava 1981: rafava m. amonios ermisis TxzulebebSi dadasturebuli gramatikuli xasiaTis cnobebi. macne, ena da literaturis seria, IV. 1981. sarjvelaZe 1995: sarjvelaZe z. Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni. Tb.: gamomcemloba `Tbilisis universiteti~, 1995. skvorcova... 1963: ( . .) . .: 1963. orbeliani 1991: sulxan-saba orbeliani. leqsikoni qarTuli. I (i.abulaZis redaqciiT). Tb.: gamomcemloba `merani~, 1991. orbeliani 1993: sulxan-saba orbeliani. leqsikoni qarTuli. II (i.abulaZis redaqciiT). Tb.: gamomcemloba "merani" 1993. orlovskaia 1959: . XVIII .. Tsu Sromebi, 75, Tb.: 1959. uTurgaiZe 1999: uTurgaiZe T. qarTuli enis Seswavlis istoria. Tb.: gamomcemloba `qarTuli ena~, 1999. uruSaZe 1987: uruSaZe a. Zveli berZnuli ena. Tb.: gamomcemloba `ganaTleba~, 1987.

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qarTuli... 1987: qarTuli mwerloba. I, Tb.: gamomcemloba `nakaduli~, 1987. qarTuli... 1989: qarTuli mwerloba. I, Tb.: gamomcemloba `nakaduli~, 1989. quTaTelaZe 1957: quTaTelaZe l. sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis redaqciebi. Tb.: gamomcemloba `saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia", 1957. SaniZe 1959: SaniZe a, zmnis formaTa meTauri sulxan-saba orbelianis qarTul leqsikonsa da vaxtang VI-is TargmanSi. s.s. orbeliani, 18581959, saiubileo krebuli, 1959. SaniZe 1990: SaniZe m.`sityua¡ arTronTaTvis~. Zveli qarTuli gramatikuli traqtati. Tb.: 1990. SalikaZe 1971: SalikaZe i. axali somxuri enis gramatika, Tb.: 1971 Ciqobava... 1963: Ciqobava arn, vaTeiSvili j. pirveli qarTuli nabeWdi gamocemebi. Tb.: gamomcemloba `xelovneba~, 1963. CxeiZe 1969: . . .: 1969. WumburiZe 1983: WumburiZe z. "qarTuli xelnawerebis kvaldakval". Tb.: gamomcemloba `nakaduli~, 1983. javaxiSvili 1992 : javaxiSvili i. qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba. Tb.: gamomcemloba `mecniereba~, 1992. yauxCiSvili 1920: xronografi giorgi monazonisaÁ (gamosca s.yauxCiSvolma). tf.: 1920.

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merab RaRaniZe

`samoTxis karis~ teqstis istoria: wyaroebi, redaqciebi, konfesiuri poziciebi

korneli kekeliZe Tavisi `Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriis~ pirvel tomSi, qarTul enaze arsebuli kaTolikuri Sinaarsis sasuliero literaturis mimoxilvisas, mas Semdeg, rac laTinuridan Tu italiuridan qarTulad Targmnili amgvari Txzulebebis CamoTvlis Semdeg jeri midgeba qarTul originalur mwerlobaze, aRniSnavs: `qarTul enaze

daiwera mxolod erTi papisturi Txzuleba; es aris «samoTxis kari» saba-sulxan orbelianisa~ (kekeliZe 1980: 78). sulxan-saba orbelianis `samoTxis kari: saqristiano moZRvreba~ qarTuli dogmatur-kateqeturi literaturuli

memkvidreobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan da cnobil nimuSs warmoadgens. es Txzuleba xelnawerTa Soris Senaxulia avtografisa da gadanawerebis saxiT da is, amave dros, ramdenjermea gamoqveynebuli. `samoTxis kari~ qristianuli sarwmunoebis saxelmZRvaneloa, romelic moZRvarsa da yrmas, anu maswavlebelsa da mowafes Soris kiTxva-pasuxebad dalagebuli teqstia, magram is mkiTxvelad nebismieri asakis im morwmunes gulisxmobs, visac sarwmunoebrivi cxovrebis sawyisi codnis mopoveba swadia. masSi mokledaa gadmocemuli qristianuli moZRvrebis raoba, amasTanave, Camoyalibebulia qristianuli moralisa da liturgiuli cxovrebis safuZvlebi. Tavad Txzulebis gadanawerebi, avtografTan erTad, ocze met qarTul xelnawerSia moTavsebuli, rac mis mimarT gamorCeuli yuradRebisa da misi farTo sazogadoebrivsaeklesio gavrcelebis Sesaxeb metyvelebs. magram xelnawerebSi daculi es teqstebi _ gansakuTrebiT garkveul monakveTebSi _ ar emTxveva erTmaneTs. sagangebod TvalSisacemia maTs Soris dogmaturi Sinaarsis gansxvavebani, rac Tavs iCens, kerZod, im kiTxva-pasuxisas, im rubrikebSi, sadac aRmosavluri da dasavluri qristianuli tradicia moZRvrebiTs sakiTxebSi erTmaneTs emijneba da araTanxvdomil pozicias amJRavnebs. es sxvaobani imdenad mniSvnelovania Tundac konfesiuri, Tundac teqstologiuri TvalsazrisiT, rom saSualebas iZleva, "samoTxis karis" moRweul xel-

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nawerTa Soris gamoiyos da erTmaneTisagan gaimijnos teqstis ramdenime redaqcia. ukanasknel xanebamde Txzulebis redaqciebi sagangebo kvlevis sagnad mxolod erTaderTxel iqca da, Sesabamisad, gamoTqmuli iyo mxolod erTaderTi Tvalsazrisi, _ ivane lolaSvilis mier, romelmac teqstologiur ZiebaTa safuZvelze Camoayaliba sakuTari Sexeduleba, Tu ragvari redaqciuli da qronologiuri mimarTebebi arsebobs "samoTxis karis" am gansxvavebul versiaTa Soris (lolaSvili 1959: 104132). mkvlevris mier naxevari saukunis winaT gamoTqmuli es Tvalsazrisi, romelic aqamde ukritikod meordeboda sxvadasxva gamokvlevebsa Tu mimoxilvebSi, ukanasknel xanebamde aravis uqcevia sakamaTod. magram redaqciaTa sakiTxis ganxilvamde upriani iqneba erTi avTentikuri wyaros moxmoba _ im sabuTis gaxseneba, romelic Tavis droze moipova da gamoaqveyna miqel TamaraSvilma (TamaraSvili 1902: 262-263). werilSi, romelsac kaTolike mRvdeli justino livorneli 1687 wlis 7 noembers tfilisidan roms agzavnis, CamoTvlilia im qarTvelTa nusxa, vinc cota xnis win SeerTebia romis kaTolike eklesias. maT Soris moxseniebulia qarTveli didebuli sulxan yaflaniSvili (igulisxmeba yaflaniSvil-baraTaSvil-orbelisZe-orbelianTa erTiani sagvareulos warmomadgeneli), _ `Svili didi ministrisa, biZaSvili mefisa, ukeTilSobilesi qarTveli~, _ romelic kaTolike eklesiis wevrad gamxdara im wlis 15 agvistos da romelsac Causworebia Tavad mama justinos mier qarTulad Targmnili `saqristiano moZRvreba~1 (sxvaTa Soris, am saxeSi sulxan-saba orbeliani pirvelad miqel TamaraSvilmave amoicno _ TamaraSvili 1902: 262). aqamde miCneuli iyo, rom axalgazrda sulxan orbelianis mier sakuTrad naredaqtireb am Txzulebas Cvenamde ar mouRwevia2, Tumca amgvari daskvnis gasakeTeblad, pirvel yovlisa, aucilebelia imdroindeli ucxoenovani (pirvel yovlisa, laTinuri da italiuri, magram, agreTve, somxuri) kaTolikuri kateqeturi teqstebis sagangebo Seswavla da TiToeuli maTganis guldagul Sejereba sabaseul `samoTxis karTan~. amgvar kvlevas Sedegad mohyveboda imis dadgena, erTi mxriv, dakargulia Tu ara justinos mier Targmnili da sulxanis mier Casworebuli `saqristiano moZRvreba~ (xom SesaZlebelia, rom misi teqsti swored `samoTxis karis~ saxiT Semonaxula?!), xolo, meore mxriv, _ ramdenad originaluri nawarmoebia `samoTxis kari~, romelic, araa gamoric-

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xuli, aRmoCndes romelime Cveulebrivi kaTolikuri kateqizmos, _ romelTa sxvadasxva versiebi farTod gavrcelda, gansakuTrebiT, tridentis msoflio krebis (1545-1563) Semdeg, _ qarTuli gardaTqma an Targmani3. magram, sanam am mimarTulebiT SedarebiTi kvlevani Catarebula, gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom `samoTxis karis~ erTaderTi avtografuli nusxis teqsts amgvari saTauri aqvs:

`saqristiano moZRureba pirvelad saswavlo yrmaTaTÂs, aRwerili sulxan-saba orbelianisagan, romelsa ewodebis samoTxis kari~ (saba 2004: 17), xolo teqstis bolos miwerilia: `ese ars marTali da ubiwo saqristiano moZRvreba, mokliTa sityviTa me _ sulxan-saba orbelianisagan aRwerili, romelsa ewodebis samoTxis kari" (saba 2004: 107). aRsaniSnavia, rom im xanaSi, marTalia, jer kidev Sinaarsobrivadac mkveTrad araa gamijnuli erTmaneTisagan `dawera~ da `gadawera~, magram mainc, `aRweris~ imJamindeli mniSvneloba nelnela `daweris~ (sakuTrivi Semoqmedebis) Tanamedrove mniSvnelobas uaxlovdeba4; amas garda, rac gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia, sabaseul am avtograful xelnawer krebulSi, sxva teqstTagan gansxvavebiT, sagangebod mxolod `samoTxis kars~ erTvis `aRmweris~ amgvari (orgzisi!) moxsenieba (Tumca sasuliero Sinaarsis sxvadasxva TxzulebaTa Semcveli mTeli am nusxis naweri _ Tavidan bolomde _ Tavad sabas xeliTaa Sesrulebuli); da kidev, mogvianebiT, sabas antoni I-iseul daxasiaTebaSic naTqvamia: `samoTxis kari [...] aRwera" (antoni 1980: 282), sadac uTuod dRevandeli gagebiT "dawera~ (da ara `gadawera~ an `Targmna~) igulisxmeba. kiTxva sabas `samoTxis karis~ warmoSobisa da wyaros Sesaxeb jer kidev 1887 wels dausvams da upasuxodve dautovebia petre umikaSvils (sxvaTa Soris, aRmsareblobiT romis kaTolikes), romelsac am Txzulebis erT-erT xelnawerze (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, S-1506) ase miuweria: `es samo-

Txis kari aris romis kaTolikeTa ketexizmo, romelsac uwodeben saqristiano moZRvrebas (xalxSi _ `vin dagbada~-s). iqneba es iyos naTargmni anu gadmokeTebuli italianur an somxur kaTolikeT katexizmosi?~ (saba 1963: 341). es SekiTxva

dRemde pasuxgaucemlad rCeba... amis gamo amJamad, Seswavlis am etapze, SeuZlebelia dabejiTebiT da gadawyvetilad iTqvas, Tu ras warmoadgens `samoTxis kari~: aris is romelime laTinuri an italiuri teqstis Targmani, Sesrulebuli justino livornelis mier, Tundac sabasagan redaqtirebuli, Tu is sabas sakuTari,

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imTaviTve qarTulad dawerili TavisTavadi nawarmoebia. magram aucileblad gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom arsebiTad unda gamoiricxos kvlevaTa mizandasaxulobis orive es ukiduresi zRvari, radgan arc erTi ar Seesabameba werilobiTi teqstis (anda teqstis originalobis) mimarT epoqismier damokidebulebas: apriorulad araa mosalodneli, Tundac Targmanis SemTxvevaSi, saba mkiTxvels sTavazobdes Tavdapirveli teqstis sityvasityviT gadmoqarTulebas; iseve rogorc im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arsad moiZebna `samoTxis karis~ uSualo prototipi, amgvaradve apriorulad araa mosalodneli, rom sabas Tavisi dogmaturi saxelmZRvanelo winamorbedTa naRvawiT nayofieri sargeblobis gareSe daeweros (savaraudoa italiel samRvdeloTa wignieri da zepiri daxmareba, an SesaZlebelia, _ Tumca naklebad, _ somxuri kaTolikuri wignuri wyaros gamoyeneba). asea Tu ise, rogorc iTqva, arsebobs `samoTxis karis~ erTaderTi avtografuli nusxa, romelic moTavsebulia sasuliero Sinaarsis TxzulebaTa da cnobaTa sabas mier Sedgenil da gadaweril sagangebo krebulSi (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, A-303). Tavad am teqsts mTeli xelnaweris daaxloebiT mesamedi nawili eTmoba (sxvaTa Soris, sabaseuli es krebuli mTliani saxiT arasodes gamoqveynebula). nawarmoebis avtoriseuli saxelwodeba amgvaria: `saqristiano moZRu-

reba, pirvelad saswavlo yrmaTaTÂs, aRwerili sulxan-saba orbelianisagan, romelsa ewodebis samoTxis kari _ sarwmunoebisaTÂs marTlisa da ubiwosa Sjulisa, romeli mogveca wmidaTa mamaTa mier~ (saba 2004: 17).

mtkiced da cxadad unda iTqvas, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis `samoTxis karis~ erTaderT avtoriseul redaqciad avtografSi daculi swored es teqsti unda iqnes miCneuli5. sxvaTa Soris, gamoTqmulia varaudi, rom Tavad Sedgena am krebulisa, romelSic sasuliero-saeklesio xasiaTis teqstebia gaerTianebuli, ganapiroba sabas evropaSi gamgzavrebis samzadisma, _ saWiroebam, raTa igi aRWurvili yofiliyo im cnobebiTa da monacemebiT, rac kaTolikur samyaroSi moxvedrisTanave aucilebeli iqneboda aRmosavleT saqristianoSi sulierad Camoyalibebuli adamianisaTvis6. es hipoTezuri msjeloba, Tuki is sarwmunod miviReT, kidev ufro saeWvod xdis `samoTxis karis~ originalobis Tvalsazriss. magram, Tundac ase yofiliyo, _ rom sabas mier imjerad `samoTxis karis~ dawera, gardaTqma, gadmoTargmna, Sedgena Tu gadakeTeba misi sakuTari sarwmunoebrivi codnis gaRr-

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maveba-ganmtkicebas emsaxureboda, _ isic saTqmelia, rom aranairi sabuTi ar arsebobs, saba kaTolikur moZRvrebaSi Cauxedav da gaucnobierebel adamianad miviCnioT manam, sanam igi evropaSi gasamgzavreblad momzadebas Seudgeboda7; isic cxadia, _ razec sabuTebi naTlad metyvelebs, _ rom jer kidev samSobloSi yofnisasac mas namdvilad ar aklda kaTolikuri dogmebisa Tu RmrTismsaxurebis wesebis imgvari codna, rogoric namdvilad scildeboda am sferoSi `minimaluri codnis~ farglebs8. `samoTxis karSi~ daufaravadaa gacxadebuli Tavad sabas sarwmunoebrivi aRmsarebloba, misi konfesiuri pozicia, rac gansakuTrebulad aSkarad gamoixata qristianul aRmosavleTsa da qristianul dasavleTs Soris yvelaze metad SeuTanxmebel dogmatur sakiTxTa _ suli wmidis gamomavlobisa da romis episkoposis upiratesobis _ ganxilvisas. orsave am niSneul SemTxvevaSi sabas pozicia ueWvelad asaxavs da gamoxatavs romis kaTolike eklesiis moZRvrebas:

[...] suli wmida, RmerTi da ufali, romeli mamisagan da Zisagan gamovals da mamisa da Zisa Tanaswor ars, dausabamo da dausrulebeli da yovelTa Semoqmedi, viTarca mama da Ze

(saba 2004: 54);

vinaTgan Seiyvara qristeman sZali TÂsi _ wmida eklesia da brZana erTi Sesakrebeli yovelTa marTlmadidebelTa9 qristianeTa da romelmanca naTeliRos da rwmenes marTali sarwmunoeba ieso qristesi, maTgan jer-ars morCileba romis papisa, romeli daadgina gamgebelad eklesiisa da Semdgomad qristesa queyanasa zeda mjdomare ars (saba 2004: 54-55).

aseve, savsebiT kaTolikur moZRvrebas warmoadgens romis papis, rogorc qristes mosaydrisa da wmida petres memkvidris, eklesiaSi pirvelobisa da uzenaesobis dasabuTeba (saba 2004: 55-56)10, amas garda, salxineblis aRiareba (saba 2004: 103), kidev, kaTolikuri TeologiisaTvis Cveuli sruli da usruli sinanulis (attritio/contritio) erTmaneTisagan gansxvaveba da gamijvna (saba 2004: 73), xolo rac Seexeba saRmrTismsaxuro cxovrebas, sagangebod kaTolikuria wmida mariamisadmi mimarTuli savardis locva _ `gixarodeni~ (saba 2004: 49), romelsac amgvari saxiT ar icnobs qristianuli aRmosavleTi da romelic qristianul dasavleTSi sabolood XV saukunis dasawyisisaTvis Camoyalibda. amdenad, `samoTxis karSi~ mokled Camoyalibebuli Tundac dogmatikis sakiTxebi, Tundac eklesiologiuri an moraluri moZRvreba, Tundac liturgiuli wesebi efuZneba da

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sworad asaxavs kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis swavlebasa da praqtikas. Tumca is, rom sabaseuli `samoTxis kari~mTlianad kaTolikuri Sinaarsis Txzulebaa, imdenad aSkarad Cans, sagangebo mtkicebasa da dasabuTebas arc saWiroebs. amitom, moulodneli ar iyo, rom Txzulebis amgvari aRmsareblobiTi poziciis gamo kaTolikosma antoni I-ma, romelmac, savaraudod, moskovSi yofnisas gaicno sabaseul avtograful krebulSi moTavsebuli `samoTxis karis~ teqsti (xelnaweri im dros swored moskovSi inaxeboda), Tavis `wyobilsityvaobaSi~ (1764-1768) ase daaxasiaTa sulxan-saba orbeliani da misi es Txzuleba:

sabas ar vaqeb amad, viTarmed ese eklesiasa wmidasa mter ganudga, winaaRmdgom mbrZol eqmna WeSmaritebas; `samoTxis kari~, garna jojoxeTis bWe, aRwera sulTa warwymedad, TÂTca warswymda.

(antoni 1980: 282)11.

es aRmosavlur-bizantiuri dogmatur-kanonikuri ganCineba iyo, _ mtkice da uWoWmano12... miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli aRmosavlurqristianuli tradiciisaTvis miuRebeli aRmoCenila sabas konfesiursaeklesio arCevani, am tradiciis mimdevrebs mainc uyuradRebod ar darCeniaT `samoTxis karis~ cxadad SesamCnevi maxasiaTeblebi, _ wmida werilisa da wmida gadmocemis safuZvliani codna, qristianuli moZRvrebis dalagebis mTlianoba, sakiTxebis damajerebeli dasabuTeba, msjelobis sisxarte, Txrobis sada ena, _ rasac Sedegad mohyolia sabaseuli teqstis SenarCuneba da gavrceleba, oRond masSi, redaqciuli Carevis Sedegad, kaTolikuri suliskveTebis miCqmalvis an warxocvis Semdgom. sulxan-saba orbelianis `samoTxis karis~ avtoriseuli redaqciis garda, moRweulia am nawarmoebis sxvadasxva mogviano gadamuSaveba-gadakeTebani13, romelTa redaqtorebi saxeldebiTaa cnobili. pirveli, visac xelaxla gadaumuSavebia Txzulebis teqsti, sabas Zma _ tfileli mitropoliti nikoloz orbeliani yofila; meore: batoniSvili vaxuSti; mesame: mRvdeli nikoloz CaCikaSvili; savaraudoa, agreTve, SesaZlo meoTxe: mzeWabuk orbeliani. maT mier `samoTxis karSi~ cvlilebaTa Setanis miznad, upirveles yovlisa, sabaseuli originaluri teqstis konfesiuri `gacxrilva~ Cans.

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Txzulebis gadakeTebis pirveli aseTi mcdeloba ganxorcielebula moskovSi gadasaxlebuli orbelianebis _ sabas Zmebis _ wreSi, romelTac, saerTod, misi nawerebis Sekreba da redaqtireba ganuzraxavT. `samoTxis karSi~ cvlilebaTa Setana aRmosavlurqristianuli tradiciis mixedviT, rogorc Cans, utvirTavs sabas umcros Zmas, tfilel mitropolit nikolozs14. mis mier 1725-1729 wels15 redaqtirebuli teqsti misi avtografis saxiT ar Senaxula, magram SemorCenilia misgan uSualod gadawerili asli, romelic zurab mgelyanaSvils Seusrulebia (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, H-581). `samoTxis karis~ am redaqciaSi suli wmidis gamomavlobis sakiTxi mowodebulia aRmosavlurqristianul-bizantiuri poziciis Tanaxmad, xolo muxlebi papis uzenaesobis Sesaxeb mTlianadaa amoRebuli. Txzulebis nikoloz orbelianiseuli versia, romelic yvelaze metad gavrcelebula, gadanawerebis saxiT ocamde xelnawerSia Semonaxuli. amasTanave, `samoTxis karis~ es redaqcia _ nikoloz tfilelis avtorobiT _ orjer gamoica: pirvelad is 1885 wels gamoqveynda da mas ase erqva: `qristianuli pirvelsaswavlo moZRureba" (nikolozi 1885), xolo meored _ 1992 wels, saxelwodebiT: "saqristiano moZRvreba (katexizmo)~ (nikolozi 1992). moskovSive Camoyalibebula `samoTxis karis~ sxva, axali redaqcia, romelic batoniSvil vaxuStis Sromis Sedegia. sasuliero Sinaarsis sabaseuli teqstebi 1750 wels vaxuStis erT krebulad gauerTianebia (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, H-108), romelSic, agreTve, Seutania Tavad mis mier xelaxla gadamuSavebuli `samoTxis kari: saqristiano moZRvreba~ (vaxuStis, rogorc Cans, ucvlelad dautovebia Txzulebis sabaseuli saxeli). es redaqcia cxadad upirispirdeba Tavdapirveli teqstis kaTolikur pozicias, ris Sedegadac is monakveTebi, sadac sabas kaTolikuri aRmsarebloba Cans, vaxuStis aRmosavlurqristianul-bizantiuri poziciiT Seucvlia (magaliTad, moZRvreba papis mimarT yoveli qristianis morCilebis Sesaxeb Secvlilia msjelobiT eklesiis mimarT morCilebis Sesaxeb, xolo papis pirveloba da uzenaesoba polemikuradaa uaryofili). gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom vaxuStisaTvis, albaT, Zneli ar iqneboda kaTolikuri moZRvrebis aSkara gamoxatulebaTa SemCneva, radgan, sxva Tu araferi, siymawvileSi igi ramdenadme ziarebulic ki yofila kaTolikur aRzrdas16, magram, amave dros, igi, Tundac rogorc eriskaci, arcTu urigod icnobda bizantiur-slavurrusul dogmatur swavlebasa da saeklesio cxovrebas. `sa-

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moTxis karis~ vaxuStiseuli redaqcia gamosacemad yofila

gamzadebuli 1890 wels, mas saeklesio cenzurac ki gauvlia, magram, ucnobi mizezebis gamo, aRar gamoqveynebula (lolaSvili 1959: 131). rac Seexeba `samoTxis karis~ kidev erT redaqcias, romelic mRvdel nikoloz CaCikaSvils Seusrulebia da romlisTvisac mas adgili miuCenia saeklesio-samoZRvro teqstebis mis mier Sedgenil mcire krebulSi (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, S-2051), aq Txzuleba amgvar saxelwodebas atarebs:

`swavla, mecnierTaTvis Tqmuli aRviareba, romel ars RmerTi da an rjuli, orbelisyofilis sabawodebulisa naTqvami~.

es versia, rogorc TvalnaTliv Cans, konfesiurad neitraluria da mis redaqtors Tavi auridebia arCevanisaTvis: dogmatur sakiTxebSi dasavlur-aRmosavlur sapirispiro poziciaTa Soris upiratesoba ar eniWeba romelime maTgans, _ magaliTad, suli wmidis Sesaxeb gancxadebulia, rom is gamosulia da araferia naTqvami, igi oden mamisagan gamodis (rogorc amas aRiarebda bizantiuri qristianuli aRmosavleTi) Tu mamisagan da Zisagan (rogorc amas aRiarebda laTinuri qristianuli dasavleTi), xolo sabaseuli msjeloba papis uzenaesobisa da am uzenaesobis sawyisebis Sesaxeb, saerTod, amoRebulia kiTxva-pasuxidan. qristianuli moZRvreba teqstSi imgvaradaa gadmocemuli, _ miumxroblad, _ rom is misaRebi iyos rogorc dasavlurqristianuli, ise aRmosavlurqristianuli dogmaturi tradiciis mimdevarTaTvis. am or tradicias Soris moZRvrebis an liturgiuli praqtikis SeuTanxmebeli sakiTxebi CaCikaSviliseul redaqciaSi an ganeitralurebulia, anda redaqtors gverdi auvlia maTTvis. sxvaTa Soris, amas garda, bevrgan sxvaganac es redaqcia metobs an naklebobs sabaseul _ avtoriseul _ versiasTan SedarebiT. `samoTxis karis~ nikoloz CaCikaSvilis mier redaqtirebuli es teqsti _ Sesabamisad, Txzulebis erT-erTi redaqcia _ XVIII saukunis 80-iani wlebis erTaderTi xelnaweris saxiTaa moRweuli, romelsac erTvis amgvari minaweri (ra Tqma unda, araavtografuli, ara sabas xeliT Sesrulebuli!), sadac naTqvamia: `locva yavT sarwmunoebiT marTlisa, xolo

saqmiT codvilisa sulxanyofilisa orbelisSvilisa, xolo aw monazonisa saba undoÁsa, udabnoÁsa berisa naTlismcemlis monastrisa, garjiTa mravliTa myofisa, romlisa mier gamowvlilviT aRiwera wmida da ubiwo aRsareba, da aRvi-

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arebs amas da ese ars mis mier aRwerili simoklisaTvis saswavlo uswavlelTa berTa da yrmaTaTvis~ (lolaSvili 1959: 109).

rogorc Cans, nikoloz CaCikaSvils sabas es anderZi

`samoTxis karis~ Cvenamde mouRweveli romelime nusxidan, _

SesaZloa, sabas xelidan gamosuli xelnaweridan, _ gadmouweria. Tumca es ueWvelad ar niSnavs, rom igi mTlianad erTgulad misdevdes sabaseul avtografs (Tuki, mas aseTi, saerTod, hqonda!) da, amdenad, xelT gvqondes avtoriseuli Tavdapirveli redaqciis zusti asli (rogorc aqamde iyo miCneuli!), _ sagulvebelia, rom gadamwer-redaqtori sargeblobda im versiiT, romelic ukve amgvarad iyo gasworebuli (magram masSi sabaseuli anderZi CarCeniliyo), an ufro metad safiqrebelia, rom CaCikaSviliseuli xelnaweris saxiT xelT gvqondes Tavad CaCikaSviliseuli versia (SesaZloa, saqme iyos erTxel ukve redaqtirebis Semdeg xelaxla redaqtirebasTanac ki!), radgan sxva SemTxvevaSic SemCneulia, rom mis mier gadaweril teqstebSi Sesworeba-SematebaTa Setana misTvis Cveuli saqme yofila, _ magaliTad, dadasturebulia, rom mas mniSvnelovnad Seucvlilia `sibrZne sicruisas~ teqstic17. sxvaTa Soris, saTqmelia, rom sabas igav-arakTa wignis CaCikaSvilis mier redaqtirebuli teqstis msgavsad, `samoTxis karis~ CaCikaSviliseuli versiac sazogadoebaSi ar gavrcelebula (gansaxvavebiT nikoloziseul da vaxuStiseul versiaTagan) da mxolod erTaderTi xelnaweris saxiT SemorCenila. naTelia, rom `samoTxis kari~ ar dawerila rogorc qristianuli sarwmunoebis miumxrobeli an, miT umetes, aRmosavlurqristianuli saxelmZRvanelo, is imTaviTve kaTolikur pozicias gamoxatavda da man mxolod SemdgomSi _ avtoris daukiTxavad da misi nebis gareSe _ ganicada swored konfesiuri saxecvlilebani. Tumca bolo xanamde, `samoTxis karis~ 2004 wlis gamocemamde, damkvidrebuli iyo ivane lolaSvilis Tvalsazrisi, romelic wignidan wignSi, narkvevidan narkvevSi daueWveblad gadadioda, rom sabas TiTqos Tavad Seuqmnia "samoTxis karis" Tavdapirveli, konfesiurad neitraluri redaqcia (mkvlevris mier A redaqciad saxeldebuli), romelic dRes TiTqos mxolod CaCikaSviliseuli xelnaweris saxiTaa daculi da romelic TiTqos win uswrebda sabaseul avtograful nusxaSi Semonaxul redaqcias (mkvlevris mier B redaqciad saxeldebuls), Tumca yovelive zemore Tqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, amgvari Sexeduleba, SeiZleba dabejiTebiT iTqvas, sruliad dausabuTebelia.

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arc ise didi xnis winaT, sxva sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, gakvriT gamoiTqva varaudi, rom, SesaZloa, arsebobdes `samoTxis karis~ kidev erTi, mexuTe redaqcia, _ saxelwodebiT `sarwmunoebis wigni~, _ romelic mzeWabuk orbelians Seuqmnia (koWlamazaSvili... 1999: 162-163). Tuki am versiis damoukidebloba namdvilad dadasturdeba, maSin aRmoCndeba, rom masac Tavad gadaumuSavebia biZiseuli, sabaseuli teqsti, _ iqidan isev kaTolikuri moZRvrebis warxocvis mizniT. Tumca amjerad dabejiTebiT rame gansazRvrulis Tqma Znelia, radgan saqme isaa, rom jerjerobiT sagangebo kvlevis sagnad ar qceula `samoTxis karis~ arc es SesaZlo ucnobi redaqcia, romelic moTavsebulia Txzulebis kvlevisas aqamde gauTvaliswinebel xelnawerSi (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, A-627)18 da arc am redaqciis mimarTeba danarCen, aqamde cnobil redaqciebTan. rac Seexeba `samoTxis karis~ sxvadasxva redaqciaTa ganxorcielebul gamocemebs, Sesabamisi suraTi amgvaria: teqstis sabaseuli redaqcia gamoqveynda orjer (B redaqciis saxiT _ saba 1963: 227-334; saba 2004), nikoloz orbelianiseuli _ orjer (nikolozi 1885; nikolozi 1992), nikoloz CaCikaSviliseuli _ erTxel (A redaqciis saxiT _ saba 1963: 227334), vaxuStiseuli ki, gamosacemad gamzadebis miuxedavad, arasodes gamoqveynebula; Seuswavlelia da, aseve, gamoucemelia mzeWabuk orbelianiseuli redaqcia. niSneulia, rom `samoTxis karis~ teqstis istoria TvalnaTliv ireklavs epoqis _ pirovnul Tu sazogadoebriv arCevanTa wiaR _ religiuri, ideologiuri Tu kulturuli orientirebis ZiebaTa istorias.

SeniSvnebi: 1. justino livorneli: `batoni sulxan, Svili didi ministrisa, biZaS-

vili mefisa, romelic aris ukeTilSobilesi qarTveli yaflanianTi; Tu keTil inebebs Tqveni umaRlesoba, naxavs, ra saTno saqme hqmna aman: TviT Seaswora `saqristiano moZRvreba~, romelic me vTargmne; aman miiRo kaTolikoba 15 agvistos 1687 w.~ (TamaraSvili

2. 1902: 262-263). korneli kekeliZe: `sabas saxelTan dakavSirebulia meore Txzule-

ba, romelsac agreTve "saqristiano moZRvreba" ewodeba; es aris, misionerTa cnobiT, patri justine livornelis mier Targmnili Txzuleba, romelic TiTqos sabas Seusworebia. dResdReobiT am Txzulebis kvali arsada Cans~ (kekeliZe 1962: 329). TavisTavad eWvs

badebs imave avtorTan dakavSirebuli da imave saxelwodebis meore, dakarguli Txzulebis SesaZlo arsebobis varaudi, rodesac amave

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3.

4.

avtorTan dakavSirebuli da amave saxelwodebis erTi Txzuleba namdvilad arsebobs! yvelaze metad sagulvebelia, rom safuZvlad aRebuli yofiliyo 1598 wels gamoqveynebuli, xolo SemdgomSi farTod gavrcelebuli, mraval enaze Targmnili da mravaljer gamocemuli kardinal roberto belarminos `mokle qristianuli moZRvreba~, romelic, miqel TamaraSvilisa da korneli kekeliZis cnobiT, qarTuladac gadauTargmniaT da, amasTanave, gamouciaT 1681 wels (ix. _ TamaraSvili 1902: 255-256; TamaraSvili 1995: 624; kekeliZe 1980: 78), Tumca is ar Cans qarTul nabeWd wignTa bibliografiaSi (ix. _ bibliografia 1941, damatebiT: bibliografia 1969). Sdr. `leqsikoni qarTuli~: `erTi somxuri momcro leqsikoni vnaxe,

[...] da mec maTis baZiT Ãeli mivhyav da, raoden Zalmedva, aRvwere~

(saba 1965: 31), sadac `aRwera~ Tu Targmans ara, yovel SemTxvevaSi, misabaZi, sanimuSo pirvelwyaros arsebobas mainc gulisxmobs. rac Seexeba `sibrZne sicruisas~, SesamCnevia, rom misi arc erTi xelnaweri arafers ambobs `aRweris" Sesaxeb, xolo Txzulebis sxvadasxva nusxaSi SemorCenili saTaurebi sulxan-saba orbelianis literaturul saqmianobas am SemTxvevaSi uwodebs mxolod `Tqmas~: naTquami/naTqvami/Tqmuli, _ magaliTad, `wigni sibrZne sicruisa, naTquami sulxan orbelianisa, Jamsa siWabukisa Tvisisasa" (saba 1959: 263), an `wigni sibrZne sicruisa, Tqmuli saba orbelianisa, Jamsa siWabukisa misisasa~ (saba 1959: 270), anda TiTqmis igiveobrivi saTaurebi, am gansxvavebaTa monacvleobiT (saba 1959: 262-279). sxvaTa Soris, `samoTxis karis~ nikoloz CaCikaSvilis mier gadaweril-redaqtirebul nusxas amgvari warwera aqvs: `orbelisyofilis sabawodebulisa naTqvami~ (ix. qvemore). teqstis pirveli gamocema: B redaqciis saxelwodebiT _ gamosacemad moamzada ivane lolaSvilma (saba 1963: 225-334); meore gamocema: gamosacemad gaamzada merab RaRaniZem (saba 2004: 17-107). sulxan-saba orbelianma `Seadgina specialuri sacnobaro wignaki,

5.

6.

romelSic Tavi mouyara imgvari Sinaarsis masalebs, romelnic aucilebeli iyo kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis dogmebisa da samRvdelmsaxuro wesebis minimaluri codnisaTvis da romelnic mas aucileblad dasWirdeboda evropaSi mogzaurobis dros kaTolikuri saeklesio ritualebisa da ceremonialis Sesasruleblad, an sxva raime mizniT~ (lolaSvili 1959: 118).

7. sulxan-sabas prokaTolikuri orientacia asaxula misi leqsikonis adreul redaqciebSic, 1680-ian wlebSi, _ bevrad adre evropaSi gamgzavrebamde (dawvrilebiT amis Sesaxeb ix. _ quTaTeliZe 1973: 104-118). amJamad Zneli saTqmelia, asaxavs Tu ara sabas prokaTolikur ganwyobebs daviTgarejis monasterSi warmoTqmuli qadagebebi _ `swavlani~, romlebic am mxriv sagangebo Seswavlas moiTxovs, magram maTSi SesamCnevia mociqul petres ramdenimegzisi moxsenieba mociqulTa meTaurad (saba 1963: 23, 102, 184), an sagangebod aRniSvna, rom qristem `amcno ese mwyemsoba da aswava winamZRvroba petres~ (saba 1963: 208) da rom man `petre Tav mociqulad daadgina~ (saba 1963: 219). es TvalSisacemia maSin, roca aRmosavlurqristia-

8.

147

nul-bizantiuri tradicia mociqulTa meTaurebad Cveulebriv miiCnevs petresa da pavles da, amave dros, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas miaqcevs mociqul andrias rogorc `pirvelwodebuls~ (Sdr. petres meTaurobis mimarT sabaseul damokidebulebasTan dakavSirebiT korneli kekeliZis gansxvavebuli Sefaseba, Tumca mis mier motanili magaliTi erTi Zveli qarTuli xelnaweridan, sadac mociqulTa meTaurebad petre da pavle saxeldebian, sworedac ewinaaRmdegeba missave Tvalsazriss _ kekeliZe 1962: 303). 9. sabasaTvis, iseve rogorc yvela kaTolikisaTvis, `marTlmadidebeli~ kaTolike eklesiis moZRvrebis mimdevarsa da, Sesabisad, romis papis erTgul qristians niSnavs. ix. a) saba 2004: 13; b) saba 1959: 245 (Sdr. saba 2005: 153); g) saba 2005: 157 da sxv. 10. sxvaTa Soris, rogorc Cans, saba ar iziarebs arc pentarqiis (msoflio qristianuli eklesiis xuTi patriarqis meTaurobis) princips, romelsac bolomde aRiarebdnen qristianul aRmosavleTSi, raki igi mtkiced uaryofs romis episkoposis, rogorc sxva patriarqTa Soris mxolod erT-erTi patriarqis da oden dasavleTis mwyemsmTavris, uflebamosilebas: `didi mwyemsi TÂT qriste [...] ityvis:

«iyvnen erT samwyso da erT mwyemso». ege mravalmwyemsoba visi Tqmuli ars?~ (saba 2004: 56).

11. gamocemiseuli teqsti orTografiulad da punqtuaciurad Casworebulia Cvens mier. 12. aRmosavlurqristianuli tradiciis mimdevarTa sxva gamoxmaurebani da Sefasebani sabas kaTolikuri poziciis gamo ix. _ quTaTelaZe 1973: 110-111. 13. `samoTxis karis~ ocdaerTi Semonaxuli xelnaweris aRweriloba ix. _ lolaSvili 1959: 105-106; saba 1963: 339-342. 14. Sdr. menabde 1997: 108-109. 15. nikoloziseuli redaqciis daTariRebis gamo ix. _ lolaSvili 1959: 124-125. 16. otia favleniSvili (1727-1730): `vaxuSti[,] qristes mosavi, mis mcne-

bazeda darguli, // [...] sul aRasrula yoveli swavla laTinTa, franguli~ (favleniSvili 1948: 189); niko berZeniSvili (1941): `giorgi avaliSvilis cnobiT, 13-15 wlis vaxuSti tfilisSi myof kaTolike misionerebTan swavlobda. avaliSvils es cnoba zepirad unda hqondes gagonili. amisda miuxedavad es cnoba yovlad sarwmuno Cans~ (berZeniSvili 1967: 292; Sdr. berZeniSvili 1941: VIII-IX). 17. solomon yubaneiSvili: `teqstis gamarTva ucdiaT gadamwerlebs, alag-alag gauvrciaT, bundovani adgilebi gaumarTavT [...]. am mriv sayuradReboa nikoloz aslamazisZe CaCikaSvilis nusxa, romelSic mocemulia pirveli cda Txzulebis redaqtirebisa, magram n. CaCikaSvilis nusxa uyuradRebod darCenila. mas popularoba ver moupovebia. piriqiT, TviT CaCikaSvilebs Sorisac teqstSi nasworebi adgilebis Sesaxeb azrTa sxvadasxvaoba warmoSobila. nikoloz CaCikaSvilis vrceli CanarTebi mis Svilebs Tomas da kornelis Taviseburad gadaukeTebiaT" (saba 1959: 253); "CanarTi n. CaCikaSvils ekuTvnis da ara sabas~ (saba 1959: 234). 18. is araa moxseniebuli `samoTxis karis~ xelnawerTa ivane lolaSvilis mier Sedgenil nusxaSi. ix. zemore, Sen. 13.

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damowmebani: antoni 1980: anton bagrationi. wyobilsityvaoba. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1980. berZeniSvili 1941: berZeniSvili n. `Sesavali~, vaxuSti. aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa (saqarTvelos geografia). Tb.: Tsu gam-ba, 1941. berZeniSvili 1967: berZeniSvili n. `vaxuStis biografiisaTvis~, berZeniSvili n. saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi. IV, Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1967. bibliografia 1941: qarTuli wigni: bibliografia. t. I, Tb.: wignis palatis gamocema, 1941. bibliografia 1969: qarTuli wigni: bibliografia. t. I, damatebiTi nakveTi. Tb.: `ganaTleba~, 1969. TamaraSvili 1902: TamaraSvili m. istoria kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris. tf., 1902. TamaraSvili 1995: TamaraSvili m. qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRemde. Tb.: `kandeli~, 1995. kekeliZe 1962: kekeliZe k. etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, VIII, Tb.: Tsu gam-ba, 1962. kekeliZe 1980: kekeliZe k. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria. t. I, Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1980. koWlamazaSvili... 1999: koWlamazaSvili e., RambaSiZe a. `aTanase aleqsandrielis `simbolos~ Zveli qarTuli Targmani~, mravalTavi, XVIII, 1999. lolaSvili 1959: lolaSvili i. sulxan-saba orbelianis literaturuli moRvaweobidan (1698-1713). Tb.: saq. mecn. akad. gam-ba, 1959. menabde 1997: menabde l. XVII-XVIII saukuneebis qarTuli literatura. Tb.: Tsu gam-ba, 1997. nikolozi 1885: nikolaoz tfileli. saqristiano pirvelsaswavlo moZRureba. tf.: e. xelaZis st., 1885. nikolozi 1992: nikoloz Tbileli. saqristiano moZRvreba (katexizmo). Tb.: `nobaTi~, 1992. saba 1959: orbeliani s.-s. Txzulebani oTx tomad. t. I, Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1959. saba 1963: orbeliani s.-s. Txzulebani oTx tomad. t. III, Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1963. saba 1965: orbeliani s.-s. Txzulebani oTx tomad. t. IV1, Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1965. saba 2004: orbeliani s.-s. samoTxis kari: saqristiano moZRvreba. Tb.: qristianuli Teologiisa da kulturis centris gamocema, 2004. saba 2005: orbeliani s.-s. mogzauroba evropaSi. Tb.: qristianuli Teologiisa da kulturis centris gamocema, 2005. favleniSvili 1948: yubaneiSvili s. `vaxtangiani~, literaturuli Ziebani, IV, 1948. quTaTelaZe 1973: quTaTelaZe l. `s.-s. orbelianis konfesiuri Sexedulebani misi leqsikonis mixedviT~, mravalTavi, III, 1973.

149

darejan menabde

sulxan-saba orbeliani ucxour enebze

sulxan-saba orbelianis literaturuli memkvidreoba Targmnilia msoflios xalxTa enebze. winamdebare naSromi aris cda am masalis aRnusxva-klasifikaciisa (unda iTqvas, rom `sibrZne sicruisa~ evropul enebze Sesrulebuli Targmanebis raodenobiT mxolod `vefxistyaosans~ Camouvardeba); SevecadeT Tavi mogveyara s.-s. orbelianis TxzulebaTa TargmanebisaTvis, agreTve, misi Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb ucxo enebze gamoqveynebuli gamokvlevebisa Tu gamocemebisaTvis. amjerad ar vexebiT im cnobebs, romlebic ucxoenovan leqsikonebsa da enciklopediebSia Setanili sulxan-sabas Semoqmedebaze an mis politikur-diplomatiur moRvaweobaze. XIX saukunis 20-30 wlebamde evropaSi arcTu bevri ram icodnen qarTuli literaturis Sesaxeb. evropelTa dainteresebas qarTuli literaturiT xeli Seuwyo rusi saeklesio moRvawis, kievis mitropolitis, mwerlisa da mkvlevris, evgeni bolxovitinovis (1767-1837), wignma ` , ~ (`saqarTvelos politikuri, saeklesio da saswavlo mdgomareobis istoriuli suraTi~), romelic 1802 wels daibeWda sanqt-peterburgSi (bolxovitinovi 1802). am wignSi `mimoxilulia saqarTvelos istoria da kultura, saeklesio mdgomareoba da ganaTlebis done, saTanado adgili eTmoba qarTul enasa da damwerlobas, qarTul literaturas. calkeul SecdomaTa miuxedavad (romelTac wignSi arcTu iSviaTad vxvdebiT), e. bolxovitinovis wigni sayuradReboa da avtoris wvlili rusi da evropeli sazogadoebriobisaTvis qarTuli kulturis gacnobaSi sapatioa~ (menabde 2005: 60). naSromSi gadmocemulia sulxan-saba orbelianis berad aRkvecis istoria, misi mogzauroba aziasa da evropaSi, miReba safrangeTis samefo karze, Sexvedra romis pap klemento XIsTan da a. S. aris uzustobebic. e. bolxovitinovis sityviT, sulxan-saba saqarTveloSi gardaicvala (` , , , , ~) (bolxovitinovi 1802: 77), rac ar aris swori.

150

cnobebi sulxan-saba orbelianis Sesaxeb gvxvdeba d. CubinaSvilis (1814-1891) wignis ` , ~ (`qarTuli qristomatia anu gamokrebilni adgilebi qarTulTa werilTagan daviT Cubinovis mier~) (CubinaSvili 1846) winasityvaobaSi, romelSic sulxan-sabas mokle biografiul cnobebTan erTad ixsenieba `sibrZne sicruisa~. d. CubinaSvilis azriT, bevri igavi originaluria, xolo nawili, evropuli da aRmosavluri igavebis tradiciebzea agebuli. iqve avtori exeba `qilila da damanasac~ da sagangebod aRniSnavs sabas rols am Zeglis TargmnaSi. misi sityviT, swored sabas damsaxurebaa, rom Targmani `mSvenierebiTa da sinatifiT ar Camouvardeba originals~. rusulenovani mkiTxvelisTvis s.-s. orbelianis gacnobaSi didi wvlili miuZRvis al. cagarels (1844-1929). 1873 wels sanqt-peterburgSi man gamoaqveyna naSromi ` ~ (`qarTuli enis gramatikuli literaturis Sesaxeb~) (cagareli 1873). wignis SeniSvnebSi didi adgili eTmoba sulxan-sabas cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas (`samoTxis kari~, `sibrZne sicruisa~, `leqsikoni~). avtori iziarebs d. CubinaSvilis mosazrebas `sibrZne sicruisas~ daTariRebisa da literaturuli wyaroebis Sesaxeb, oRond ar eTanxmeba teqstis d. CubinaSviliseul dasaTaurebas (` ~) da miaCnia, rom `sibrZne sicruisa~ unda iTargmnos, rogorc ` ~. al. cagareli iqve exeba sulxan-sabas `qarTuli leqsikonis~ Sedgenis istoriasa da wyaroebs. `sityvis konas~ exeboda 1885 wels TbilisSi rusul enaze gamoqveynebuli n. gamrekelis wignaki ` ~ (`saba orbeliani da misi qarTuli leqsikoni~) (gamrekeli 1885). s.-s. orbelianis biografia da Txzulebebi: `sibrZne sicruisa~, `mogzauroba evropaSi~, `qarTuli leqsikoni~ da `qilila da damana~ vrclad ganixila aleqsandre xaxanaSvilma (1864-1912) -- wignSi ` ~ (`narkvevebi qarTuli sityvierebis istoriidan~) aris nakveTi sulxan-saba orbelianis Sesaxeb (xaxanaSvili 1901: 231-238). `qarTul leqsikons~ maRal Sefasebas aZlevda niko mari (1865-1934), romelic sulxan-sabas ubadlo leqsikografad da qarTuli enis saukeTeso mcodned miiCnevda (mari 1907: 192-203; 1917: 415506).

151

s.-s. orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisas~ pirveli Targmani rusul enaze ekuTvnis aleqsandre cagarels. es Targmani imiTac aris mniSvnelovani, rom igi safuZvlad daedo `sibrZne sicruisas~ ramdenime Targmans, romlebic mogvianebiT Sesrulda evropul enebze. al. cagarelis Targmani ` ~ daibeWda 1878 wels sanqt-peterburgSi, sadac imxanad mecnieri moRvaweobda (cagareli 1878). am Targmanma da saerTod sulxansaba orbelianma didi adgili daikava al. cagarelis naSromebSi. 1899 wels, romSi, saerTaSoriso kongresze wakiTxul moxsenebaSi, al. cagarelma `didi adgili dauTmo sulxansaba orbelianis rolis Sefasebas da mis elCobas evropaSi~ (kinwuraSvili 1986: 187). sxvaTa Soris, sulxan-saba orbeliansa da mis `sibrZne sicruisas~ al. cagareli moixseniebda agreTve Tavis statiaSi, romelic brokhauzisa da efronis enciklopediaSi gamoqveynda (cagareli 1893: 799). al. cagarelis Targmani 1878 wels gamoica sanqt-peterburgis universitetis aRmosavlur enaTa fakultetis nebarTviT. Targmans uZRvis winasityvoba, romelSic al. cagareli wers: `sibrZne sicruisa~ ar aris Targmani, arc mibaZvaa, arc romelime analogiuri Txzulebis ucvleli gadmokeTeba, aramed igi Tavidan bolomde originaluri da qarTuli warmoSobis Zeglia. misi kompozicia ekuTvnis TviTon avtors; igavebis, zRaprebis da anegdotebis erTi nawili nasesxebia xalxuri sityvierebidan, erTi nawilic xalxSia gadasuli sulxan-sabas wignidan. qarTveli xalxi `sibrZne sicruis~ igavebs dResac mogviTxrobs saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi~ (cagareli 1878: X; lolaSvili 1986: 123) da iqve aRniSnavs, rom misi mizani iyo dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis poeturi Tqmulebebisa da gadmocemebis naTesaobis dadgena da amitomac mohkida xeli `sibrZne sicruisas~ Targmnas, romelic moTxrobebs, zRaprebs, igavebs, legendebs, anegdotebs, gamocanebs, andazebsa da sentenciebs Seicavs (cagareli 1878: II). winasityvaobaSi al. cagareli mimoixilavs s.-s. orbelianis biografiasa da moRvaweobas, mis Txzulebebs (`mogzauroba evropaSi~, `qarTuli leqsikoni~), sagangebod Cerdeba `sibrZne sicruisaze~, msjelobs rusulad Targmnis sirTuleebze, exeba Txzulebis daTariRebisa da originalobis sakiTxebs. mkvlevarma Txzuleba Seudara `qilila da damanas~, `panCatantras~, `hitopadeSs~ da `aTaserTRamians~. `sibrZne sicruisas~ wyarod al. cagarelma qarTuli xalxuri sityvie-

152

reba miiCnia, Tumca, arc literaturuli prototipebis Zieba gamouricxavs. dasasrul, al. cagareli sagangebod miuTiTebda im sirTuleebze, romlebic axlda igav-arakTa krebulis Targmnas rusul enaze (sailustraciod moyvanilia krilovis igavebi). igi cdilobda, Targmani SeZlebisdagvarad axlos yofiliyo originalTan, ris gamoc, SesaZloa, zogjer Seilaxa kidec rusuli enis normebi, magram aucilebeli iyo teqstis zustad Targmna. swored es iyo Cemi mTavari mizanio, -- werda al. cagareli da iqve azustebda, rom Targmani gankuTvnili iyo misi peterburgeli studentebisaTvis qarTuli enis codnis gaRrmavebis mizniT (cagareli 1878: XIII). al. cagarelma Txzuleba srulad Targmna da gamoyo 162 igavi (cagareli 1878: 2-178). `sibrZne sicruisas~ teqsts mosdevs filologiuri SeniSvnebi (cagareli 1878: 179-181); geografiuli, sakuTari da cxovelTa saxelebisa da socialur terminTa saZiebeli (cagareli 1878: 198-203); ganmarteba im sityvebisa, romlebic `leqsikonebSi ar moipoveba, an avtori sxva mniSvnelobiT xmarobs~ (cagareli 1878: 204-205). wignSi aris damatebani, sadac Sesulia `qarTuli leqsikonis~ aRweriloba, leqsikonis winasityvaobisa da anderZ-namagis rusuli Targmanebi, nawyveti Txzulebidan `mogzauroba evropaSi~ da garkveulia am TxzulebaTa daTariRebis sakiTxebi (cagareli 1878: 206-217). `sibrZne sicruisas~ cagareliseul rusul Targmans epigrafad uZRvis xalxuri leqsi qarTul enaze:

`sulxan-saba orbelis-Ze sibrZniT aR£da orbebis ze~.

wignis bolo gverdze ki mocemulia am leqsis rusuli Targmani:

`- i ~. (cagareli 1878: 217).

`sibrZne sicruisas~ pirvel ucxoenovan Targmans sixaruliT Sexvdnen saqarTveloSi. 1878 wlis 25 maiss `iveria~ werda: `uf. aleq. cagarels uTargmnia rusulad wigni sibrZne-sicruisa Tqmuli T. saba-sulxan orbelianisagan da daubeWdinebia peterburgSi~ (`iveria~ 1878: 13).

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al. cagareliseuli rusuli Targmani ganmeorebiT daibeWda 1939 wels TbilisSi s. iordaniSvilis redaqciiT, winasityvaobiTa da komentarebiT (iordaniSvili 1939), literaturuli redaqcia -- i. tinianovisa, mxatvrulad gaaforma l. gudiaSvilma, CarTulia ilustraciebi, axlavs sulxan-sabas 2 avtografuli teqstis foto (iordaniSvili 1939: 189-210). wignis winasityvaobaSi ` ~ (`sulxan-saba orbeliani da misi `sibrZne sicruisa~) (iordaniSvili 1939: V-XXII), mimoxilulia sulxan-sabas cxovreba da Semoqmedeba, ZiriTadad _ `sibrZne sicruisa~. mogvianebiT aRniSnuli narkvevi s. iordaniSvilma (1898-1953) qarTul enazec gamoaqveyna Tavis wignSi `narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan~ (iordaniSvili 1953: 134-153). aq avtori sagangebod exeba al. cagareliseuli Targmanis winasityvaobas da rig sakiTxebze sakuTar mosazrebebsac gvTavazobs. magaliTad, al. cagarelis azriT, `sibrZne sicruisa~ sabas moxucebulobaSi dauweria, s. iordaniSvili ki miiCnevs, rom `wigni dawerilia mis axalgazrdobaSi, berad aRkvecamde~ (iordaniSvili 1953: 153). saerTod, s. iordaniSvili maRal Sefasebas aZlevda al. cagarelis Targmans, sabas Sesaxeb ki werda: `imis gamo, rom misi epoqis `qarTlis cxovreba~, saadis moxdenili gamoTqmiT, `awewili iyo zangis TmasaviT~, `qarTlis ubedurebani~ amZimebdnen mis xvedrs yovelgvari ukuRmarTobiT, isrodnen xolme sulxans garejis monasterSi, xan ispahans, xan parizs, xan roms, bolos -- moskovSi. mas, dantes msgavsad, ukuRmarTobiT aRsavse cxovrebis gzaze SemTxveva mieca imisi Secnobisa, Tu rogori `mwarea sxvisi puri da rogor mZimea asvla-Camosvla sxvisi kibiT~ (iordaniSvili 1953: 138). gamocemas erTvis SeniSvnebi, leqsikoni da saZieblebi (iordaniSvili 1939: 189-232). `sibrZne sicruisas~ meore rusuli Targmani ekuTvnis elene RoRoberiZes. igi pirvelad 1948 wels daibeWda moskovSi e. lundbergis redaqciiT (` ~) (RoRoberiZe 1948). wigns uZRvis al. baramiZis winasityvoba, romelSic ganxilulia qarTlis samefos istoriis sakiTxebi, mokled gadmocemulia sulxan-sabas biografiuli cnobebi, urTierToba vaxtang meeqvsesTan, mogzauroba evropasa da ruseTSi. Semdeg al. baramiZe mimoixilavs orbelianis Semoqmedebas, SedarebiT vrclad exeba `sibrZne sicruisas~ literaturul wyaroebs, rusulenovan mkiTxvels acnobs Txzulebis siuJetur qargas (RoRoberiZe 1948: 3-11). e. RoRobe-

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riZes `sibrZne sicruisas~ teqsti srulad aqvs Targmnili. igavebi dasaTaurebulia, sul 152 igavia (RoRoberiZe 1948: 15-232). wigns erTvis ucxo sityvaTa ganmartebani (RoRoberiZe 1948: 233-234). `sibrZne sicruisas~ e. RoRoberiZiseuli Targmani kidev ramdenjerme daibeWda: 1951 wels moskovSi (RoRoberiZe 1951), 1955 wels moskovSi gamocemul qarTuli prozis anTologiaSi (RoRoberiZe 1955: 55-238), 1959 wels TbilisSi (RoRoberiZe 1959), 1975 wels moskovSi, s. caiSvilis Sesavali weriliT (RoRoberiZe 1975). aRniSnuli Targmanis nawyvetebi Setanilia Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTiasa (RoRoberiZe 1982: 509-584; 1987: 509-584) da pedagogiuri azris anTologiaSi (RoRoberiZe 1987: 127-129). am Targmanis safuZvelze sulxan-saba orbelianis dabadebis 300 wlisTavTan dakavSirebiT `sibrZne sicruisa~ iTargmna ungrul, polonur, litvur, yazaxur enebze. rusul enaze iTargmna agreTve s.-s. orbelianis `mogzauroba evropaSi~. wigni saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis literaturis istoriis institutis grifiT daibeWda gamomcemloba `meranSi~ _ ` ~. Targmani ekuTvnis fati TvalTvaZes (TvalTvaZe 1969), wigns erTvis g. leoniZis winasityvaoba da r. baramiZis bolosityvaoba. mxatvruli gaformeba -- l. cucqiriZisa, CarTulia ruka _ sulxan-sabas evropaSi mogzaurobis marSruti. es aris am Txzulebis pirveli sruli Targmani rusul enaze (TvalTvaZe 1969: 21-121). g. leoniZis winasityvaobis Targmani ekuTvnis e. RoRoberiZes. g. leoniZe vrclad mimoixilavs sabas epoqas, qarTlis samefo karis istorias, mwerlis biografiis ZiriTad momentebs, gansakuTrebiT -- evropaSi mogzaurobas, msjelobs sabas TxzulebaTa literaturul wyaroebze (leoniZe 1969: 5-20). wignis bolosityvaobis avtori r. baramiZe ki narkvevSi ` ~ (`erTi diplomatiuri misiis furclebi~) ZiriTadad exeba sabas mogzaurobas safrangeTsa da italiaSi (baramiZe 1969: 122-132). am Targmanis gamosvlas gamoexmaura gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~ (`literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1970). daibeWda agreTve q. CxataraiSvilis kritikuli recenzia, romelSic aRniSnulia, rom `Targmani Tavis daniSnulebas ver amarTlebs... Targmnisas daSvebulia iseTi miutevebeli Secdomebi, romlebic mxolod imiT SeiZleba aixsnas, rom Targmnis procesSi gaTvaliswinebuli ar yofila istoriuli situacia, romelSic `mogzauroba~

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iqmneboda; rogorc Cans, Targmani mzaddeboda saxeldaxelod, teqstze Tvalis erTi gadavlebiT. Targmanis yoveli gverdi savsea SecdomebiT~ (CxataraiSvili 1972: 205-214). 1988 wels rusul enaze gamoqveynda `mogzaurobis~ nawyvetebi, Targmnili g. amiCbas mier (amiCba 1988: 122-125). rusul enaze s.-s. orbelianis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva dros mravali gamokvleva daibeWda, romlebSic mimoxilulia sabas cxovrebis gza da Semoqmedeba (baramiZe 1959; gawerelia 1959: 86-88; leoniZe 1961: 56-87; caiSvili 1987: 92-110; natroSvili 1991: 192-199); sulxan-sabas enis sakiTxebi (gewaZe 1970, kobalaZe 1972); `qarTul leqsikonTan~ dakavSirebuli masalebi (abulaZe 1964; quTaTelaZe 1950; kalandariSvili 1955); `sibrZne-sicruisas~ saTauris gaazreba (imedaSvili 1954: 303309); sabas pedagogiuri Sexedulebebi (lorTqifaniZe 1953; jRarkava 1973); Seswavlilia calkeuli Txzulebebi (maxaTaZe 1955; baramiZe 1970: 60-67); mimoxilulia sulxan-sabas kartografiuli saqmianoba (maruaSvili 1956). samwuxarod, sulxan-saba orbeliani naklebad ixsenieba rusi avtorebis publikaciebSi (riabinini 1889: I-XIV; Sklovski 1929: 83, 119, 123; gorki 1953; 283-284). s.-s. orbelianis Sesaxeb Txroba gvxvdeba rusul enaze gamocemul qarTuli literaturis istoris saxelmZRvaneloebSic. k. kekeliZis naSromSi ` ~ (`Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriis konspeqturi kursi~) (kekeliZe 1939: 118; 1963: 162163) sulxan-sabas biografia da Semoqmedeba mokledaa mimoxiluli. avtori miiCnevs, rom Txzuleba Sedgeba 162 igavisagan, msjelobs Txzulebis literaturul wyaroebze. XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi orjer daibeWda ` ~ (`qarTuli literaturis istoria~), romelSic nakveTi `sulxan-saba orbeliani~ ekuTvnis al. baramiZes. avtori msjelobs sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebaze, gansakuTrebuli adgili eTmoba `sibrZne sicruisas wignis~ ganxilvas (baramiZe 1952: 57-60; 1958: 85-92). s.-s. orbeliani da misi `sibrZne-sicruisa~ warmodgenilia wignSi ` ~ (`qarTuli literatura~), narkvevis avtori aqac al. baramiZea (baramiZe 1968: 30-32). frangulenovani mkiTxvelisaTvis sulxan-saba orbelianis saxeli cnobili gaxda e. bolxovitinovis wignis ([ .] , -

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. ­ ., 1802) (bolxovitinovi 1802) gamosvlis Semdeg, romelic maleve iTargmna germanul enaze, frangulad ki gamoqveynda am wignis malt-breniseuli mimoxilva, romelSic ixsenieba s.-s. orbeliani da mis mier Sedgenili leqsikoni (malt-breni 1810). pirveli gamokvleva frangul enaze sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis Sesaxeb gamoaqveyna cnobilma qarTvelologma mari brosem (1802-1880). imxanad parizis samefo biblioTekam SeiZina qarTuli xelnaweri -- ioane ialRuziZis mier gadawerili sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis kona~. m. brose aRfrTovanebuli darCa am wignis gacnobiT da specialuri statia uZRvna mas: `Notice sur le dictionnaire géorgien de SoulkhanSaba Orbeliani, récemment acquis par Bibliothèque Royale de Paris~ (`SeniSvna parizis samefo biblioTekis mier axlaxan SeZenili sulxan-saba orbelianis qarTuli leqsikonis Sesaxeb~) (brose 1834: 171-187), mogvianebiT ki `sityvis kona~ Targmna kidec frangul enaze. aRniSnul sakiTxs Seexnen m. broses mecnieruli memkvidreobis mkvlevarni: r. dodaSvili (dodaSvili 1959; 1962), S. xanTaZe (xanTaZe 1966: 173), m. buaCiZe (buaCiZe 1983: 47-70) da sxv. r. dodaSvilis mixedviT, `sityvis konisadmi~ miZRvnili `werilis dasawyisSi brose iZleoda orbelianis vrcel biografias. Semdeg ki, mimoixilavda ra leqsikons, aRniSnavda: Cans, saqarTveloSi am leqsikonze adre arsebobda sxva leqsikonic, romelic dakarguli iyo im dros, roca sulxan-saba Seudga Tavisi Txzulebis Sedgenas. brose dasZenda, rom avtors `sityvis konis~ Sedgenisas usargeblia rogorc qarTuli, ise somxuri da sxva enebidan Targmnili avtorebis SromebiT. brose aRniSnavda daaxloebiT 26 avtors, romelTa nawarmoebebiTac sargeblobda qarTveli leqsikografi... brose dawvrilebiT ganixilavda `sityvis konas~ da aRniSnavda _ leqsikoni 15 004 sityvas Seicavs, magram iq imdeni ganmartebaa mocemuli, rom orjer metad izrdeba sityvaTa raodenoba. brose xazs usvamda sulxanis mier sinonimTa uxvad da dawvrilebiT gadmocemas... igi metad daainteresa am SesaniSnavma leqsikonma, araerTxel daubrunda mas sxva naSromebSiac, sadac sulxan-saba orbelianis niWs maRal Sefasebas aZlevda da Tvlida Rirsad im mowonebisa, romelsac imsaxurebda Tavis samSobloSi. brose ambobda: `qarTuli ena leqsikiT metad mdidaria da raoden vrceli iqneboda is leqsikoni, romelSic amJamad xmarebuli yvela sityva Sevidoda~ (dodaSvili 1962: 47-48). xolo g. buCiZis SefasebiT:

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` , , , , ~ (buaCiZe 1983: 47). sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis franguli Targmani m. broses ar daubeWdavs. mis arqivSi daculia `sityvis kona~ frangul enaze vrceli axsna-ganmartebebiT. aRniSnul Targmans maSinve gamoexmaura Teimuraz bagrationi, romelic m. broses swerda: `sulxanis leqsikonis Targmani diax miama, ucxo saqme giqmnia da rac gasamarTavi iqneba, me ar dagzardebi da gulsmodginebiT gagimarTav. ecade, yovels werilebSi, yovelTvis kargaT wakiTxvas, rom sworeT gamoicna da mixvde, romelsac ver mixvde, mkiTxe, rom tyuilebi ar Cagviwero, Torem sircxvili iqneba, merme qarTvelebi me damcineben, ai, amisTana Sagirdi gyavso~ (Teimuraz bagrationi 1964: 31). sxvaTa Soris, germaniaSi yofnis dros Teimuraz bagrations fridrix vilhelm mesamisaTvis (17861840) miuZRvnia sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikoni Semdegi warweriT: , . Sevswire leqsikoni ese maTs didebulebas, prusiis korolsa friderikos velRelm mesamesa, maTis didebulebis biblioTekisaTvis umonaebrivisis simdabliT 1836 ., 22 ( 4), (Teimuraz bagrationi 1964: 116). m. broses yuradRebas ipyrobda aRorZinebis xanis TiTqmis yvela mniSvnelovani Zegli: `rostomiani~, `rusudaniani~, `miriani~, `arCiliani~, `qilila da damana~, `sibrZne sicruisa~ da sxv. `sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikografiulsa da politikur moRvaweobas gacnobil broses ar SeiZleboda TvalTaxedvidan gamorCenoda misi mxatvruli Semoqmedeba: `qilila da damanas~ qarTuli variantis CamoyalibebaSi vaxtang VI da sulxanis TanamSromloba cnobili iyo misTvis, xolo `sibrZne-sicruisa~, rogorc mis arqivSi daculi xelnawerebi mowmoben, uTargmnia mTlianad. xelnaweris Savi daTariRebulia 1841 wliT, gadaTeTrebuli -- 1846 wliT. broses xelT hqonda `qilila da damanas~ vaxtang VI Targmanis avtografi, romelic `saazio mezeumisaTvis~ gadaucia petre qebaZes saqarTveloSi yofnis dros, daviT dadianis biblio-

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TekaSi brose gaecno sulxanis `mogzaurobas evropaSi~ (dodaSvili 1962: 94). samwuxarod, `sibrZne sicruisas~ broseseuli sruli franguli Targmani, romelic 1840-1850 wlebSi peterburgSi Sesrulda, ratomRac aRar daibeWda. xelnaweri Seicavs 134 gverds da daculia sanqt-peterburgis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis biblioTekaSi, mari broses arqivSi (Turnava 1979). m. broses amave arqivSi inaxeba sulxan-saba orbelianis TxzulebaTa (`mogzauroba evropaSi~, `qarTuli leqsikoni~) xelnawerebi da umSvenieresi ilustraciebiT Semkuli `qilila da damana~. am xelnawerTa Sesaxeb jer kidev 1904 wels werda k. zalemani werilSi `Manuscrits, Correspondence et Ouvrages de feu Mr. M. Brosset~ (`gansvenebuli mari broses xelnawerebi, korespondenciebi da nawerebi~) (zalemani 1904: 013-040). 1885 wels `droeba~ iuwyeboda: `b-n muries gadauTargmnia ramdenime zRapari `sibrZne-sicruidam~ francuzul enazed da am dReebSi gamoscems maT saTauriT `Les Contes Géorgiens~ (`droeba~ 1885). Jiul murie iyo frangi orientalisti, romelic XIX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi Camovida saqarTveloSi. igi dainteresebuli iyo kavkasiis xalxTa kulturiT, istoriiT, eTnografiiT, xelovnebiTa da literaturiT. 1885 wels J. muriem TbilisSi marTlac gamosca wignaki: `Les Contes Géorgiens~ (murie 1885: IV-35), romelSic Seitana mis mierve frangul enaze gadaTargmnili sulxan-saba orbelianis aTi igavi. es wignaki J. muriem miuZRvna Tavad (Prince) giorgi orbelians. mokle SesavalSi mTargmneli mkiTxvels acnobs sulxan-saba orbelians, gadmoscems misi biografiis ZiriTad momentebs, axasiaTebs mas rogorc ganaTlebul moRvawesa da SesaniSnav mwerals. iqve aRniSnulia, rom am aTi igavis Targmani Sesrulebulia `sibrZne sicurisas~ al. cagareliseuli rusuli Targmanis safuZvelze. es igavebia: `Le roi du Khorassan et le juif de Tchinet~ (`mefe xorasanisa~); `Le vieux vizir et le bûcher~ (`indoT mefe da vazirni~); `Les deux Mollahs~ (`ori mola~); `Le Calife de Bagdad et le pauvre Arabe~ (`xalifa da arabi~); `Le renard se rendant à Jérusalem~ (`moZRvari meli~), `Le roi de Laodicée et le peintre~ (`mefe da mxatvari~), `Les sourds~ (`oTxi yru~); `Le seigneur de Betcha et le duc~ (`duka da aznauri~); `L'âne, le chien et la fourmi~ (`viri, ZaRli

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da WianWvela~); `Le roi à la recherche de l'homme sans chagrin~ (`unaRvloTa mZebneli~). 1889-1892 da 1899-1902 wlebSi TbilisSi J. muries redaqtorobiT gamodioda kavkasiaSi erTaderTi franguli Jurnali `Le Caucase Illustré~ (`le kokaz ilustre~), romelSic xSirad ibeWdeboda frangul enaze Targmnili mxatvruli nawarmoebebi. Jurnalis nomrebSi J. muriem gadmobeWda sulxan-sabas eqvsi igavi: `Le roi du Khorassan et le juif de Tchinet~ (`mefe xorasanisa~); `Le vieux vizir et le bûcher~ (`indoT mefe da vazirni~); `Le Calife de Bagdad et le pauvre Arabe~ (`xalifa da arabi~); `Le renard se rendant à Jérusalem~ (`moZRvari meli~), `Le roi de Laodicée et le peintre~ (`mefe da mxatvari~), `Les sourds~ (`oTxi yru~). 1888 wels J. muriem parizSi gamosca wigni `Contes et légendes du Caucase~ (`kavkasiuri zRaprebi da legendebi~) (murie 1888), romelSic CarTo mis mierve Targmnili cxra igavi. J. muries Targmanebs Seexnen l. bregaZe (bregaZe 1977: 142-146) da g. buaCiZe (buaCiZe 1978: 12-14). l. bregaZis azriT, TargmanebSi `mravali nakli SeiniSneba, zogjer murie TviTneburad avrcobs igavis teqsts... gvxvdeba gamotovebuli adgilebic... J. murie ramdenjerme uyuradRebod ekideba swored im adgilebis Targmnas, romelTac gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvT moqmedebis motivaciis TvalsazrisiT...~, Tumca mkvlevari iqve wers, rom `SedarebiT ukeTaa Targmnili `mefe da mxatvari~ da `oTxi yru~. da, miuxedavad seriozuli naklovanebebisa, s.s. orbelianis igavTa gamoqveyneba JurnalSi mainc sasiamovno movlenad unda CaiTvalos. sabas arakebi, Tundac amgvarad Targmnilni, ucxoel mkiTxvels gulgrilad ar datovebdnen~ (bregaZe 1977: 142-143). J. muries Targmanebi dawvrilebiT ganixila g. buaCiZem mis mier frangulad Targmnili `sibrZne sicruisas~ winasityvaobaSi. g. buaCiZis azriT, J. muriem TargmanebSi bevri cvlileba Seitana; igavTa saTaurebi Secvala Sinaarsis mixedviT, CaurTo mravali epiTeti, zogjer igavis siuJetic ki Secvala (`mefe xorasanisa~), igavebs ufro aRmosavluri elferi mianiWa da sxv. (buaCiZe 1978: 12-14). miuxedavad aRniSnuli naklovanebebisa, J. muries Targmanebs im droisaTvis garkveuli mniSvneloba hqonda qarTuli mwerlobis popularizaciisaTvis.

am sakiTxze ix. buaCiZe 1978: 14-15.

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1978 wels, TbilisSi, saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSirTan arsebulma mxatvruli Targmanisa da literaturul urTierTobaTa mTavarma saredaqcio kolegiam gamosca `sibrZne sicruisas~ franguli Targmani, Sesrulebuli gaston buaCiZis mier (Soulkhan-Saba Orbeliani. La sagesse du mensonge. Traduir du géorgien et présenté par Gaston Bouatchidze) (buaCiZe 1978). redaqtoria frangi filologi bernar demandri (romelic erTxans Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi aswavlida frangul enas). wigns amSvenebs l. gudiaSvilis mier 1930-ian wlebSi Seqmnili ilustraciebi. anotaciaSi aRniSnulia, rom es aris `sibrZne sicruisas~ pirveli sruli Targmani frangul enaze. wigns axlavs vrceli winasityvaoba (buaCiZe 1978: 5-38) da leqsikoni (buaCiZe 1978: 328-339). `Saba le Sage~ (`brZeni saba~) -- ase uwoda mTargmnelma narkvevs sulxan-saba orbelianis Sesaxeb, romelSic mimoxilulia mwerlis epoqa, vaxtang VI-is moRvaweoba, sabas cxovrebis gza da Semoqmedeba. mTargmneli vrclad exeba igavarakuli Janris istorias ezopedan lafontenamde da `sibrZne-sicruisas~ ganixilavs msoflios udides klasikosTa Semoqmedebis konteqstSi. aqve axsenebs im mecnierTa (al. xaxanaSvili, al. cagareli, k. kekeliZe, a. baramiZe, g. leoniZe da sxv.) naSromebs, romlebic exebodnen `sibrZne-sicruisas~. mkiTxveli ecnoba Txzulebis siuJetur qargas, personaJebs, Temasa da ideas. g. buaCiZe exeba Txzulebis sxva enebze (rusuli, inglisuri, germanuli) Targmnis istorias, calke gamoyofs `sibrZne sicruisas~ frangul Targmanebs (m. brose, J. murie). gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa misi dakvirveba J. muries Targmanze. g. buaCiZe dawvrilebiT ganixilavs J. muries mier Targmnil igavebs, udarebs originals da sayuradRebo daskvnebs gvTavazobs. rogorc aRvniSneT, g. buaCiZis winasityvaoba sakmaod vrcelia da frangulenovan mkiTxvels warmodgenas uqmnis sulxan-saba orbeliansa da mis Txzulebaze. gaston buaCiZis Targmani (buaCiZe 1978: 39-327) gamoirCeva ara marto sisruliTa da sizustiT, aramed imiTac, rom mTargmnels kargad aqvs gaazrebuli avtoris msoflmxedvelobrivi Sexedulebebi da yvelanairad cdilobs, Targmans SeunarCunos originalis Rirsebebi. ucxoeli literatorebi da mecnierebi farTod gamoexmaurnen am gamocemas. italiis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis Jurnal `oriente modernoSi~ daibeWda cnobili mTargmnelis luiji magarotos recenzia, belgiis JurnalSi

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`reviu de pei de lest~ ki _ briuselis universitetis profesor Jan blankofisa, luqsemburgSi gamomaval JurnalSi `nuvel europ~ daibeWda rozmari kiferis werili, romelSic naTqvamia: `orbelians bevri ufiqria Tavisi qveynis politikur viTarebaze: igi momxre iyo Zlieri da gonieri centraluri Zalauflebisa, romelsac unari Seswevda daecva saqarTvelos interesebi. es sazrunavi `sibrZne sicruisas~ striqonTa Sorisac ikiTxeba~. belgiur JurnalSi `belJikiurs magazin~ gamoqveynda JorJ buionis saintereso recenzia, romelSic igi maRal Sefasebas aZlevs g. buaCiZis Targmans da aRniSnavs: `es gaxlavT met-naklebad lakoniuri ambebis krebuli, ambebisa, xalxTa mravalsaukunovan saunjes rom ganekuTvneba da romelTa wyaros ZebnaSi zogjer TviT ezopes unda davubrundeT xolme, wigni `aTas erT Ramesac~ gvagonebs da monteskies `sparsul werilebsac~, volteris moTxrobebsa da `dekamerons~, TviT sviftsac, da, raRa Tqma unda, lafontens. rogor, ratom, ra gansxvavebiTa Tu ranairi msgavsebiT moxda es? gaston buaCiZe Tavis winasityvaobaSi `brZeni saba~, warmoaCens yovelive amas. mas savsebiT veTanxmebiT, rodesac erTmaneTs aaxlovebs s.s. orbelianisa da erazm roterdamelis moRvaweobasa da ideebs. TviT am garemoebidanac sakmaod gamosWvivis ganaTlebul qarTvelTaTvis ukve ori saukunis manZilze esoden saamayo nawarmoebis literaturuli da dokumenturi Rirebuleba. krebulis igavebi Zafze asxmuli margalitebis mZivebi gegonebaT (am kompozicias diaxac rom sityva `Zafi~ uxdeba). erTmaneTs TiTqmis fexdafex mihyveba sxvadasxva gamocdilebisa Tu msoflmxedvelobis mqone mTavar personaJTa naambobi, xolo moqmedeba sparseTis erT momijnave samefoSi iSleba~ (Turnava 1980). g. buaCiZis Targmans gamoexmaurnen agreTve cnobili qarTvelologebi hans fogti da robert stivensoni, frangi poeti filip diumeni, mwerali rene etiambli da sxv. (Turnava 1979). saqarTveloSic araerTi recenzia Tu gamoxmaureba mohyva g. buaCiZis Targmans (maliugina 1979; Turnava 1979; 1980; 1999). 1982 wels TbilisSi frangul enaze gamoica qarTuli poeziis anTologia `La poésie géorgienne~, romelic Seadgina, Targmna da komentarebi daurTo sergi wulaZem (wulaZe 1982). anTologiaSi warmodgenilia V-XX saukuneebis qarTuli mwerlobis nimuSTa franguli Targmanebi. am wignis ga-

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mocemas gamoexmaurnen r. stivensoni, q. viviani, r. kiferi, J. buioni da sxvebi (Turnava 1984). aRorZinebis xanis qarTvel poetTa (Teimuraz I, arCili, d. guramiSvili...) gverdiT wignSi CarTulia sulxan-saba orbelianis mokle biografiuli cnobebi da erTi igavi _ `soflis maSenebelni~ (`La fable des constructeurs du monde~) (wulaZe 1982: 36-37). germanelma mkiTxvelma sulxan-saba orbelianis saxeli gaigo mas Semdeg, rac iTargmna evgeni bolxovitinovis wigni (bolxovitinovi 1802). pirveli germaneli mecnieri, romlis naSromSic ixsenieba sulxan-saba orbeliani, aris iohan qristof adelungi (17321806). wignSi `Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachkunde~ (`miTridate anu sayovelTao enaTmecniereba~) (adelungi 1806) avtorma daaxasiaTa qarTuli ena da ganixila qarTuli mwerlobis sakiTxebi. i. adelungi sulxan-saba orbelians moixseniebs rogorc did leqsikografs. sulxan-saba orbeliansa da mis Semoqmedebas exeba germaneli enaTmecnieri da literaturaTmcodne franc nikolaus finki (1867-1910) naSromSi `Die Orientalischen Literaturen~ (`aRmosavluri literaturebi~), romlis erTi nakveTis saTauria `qarTuli literatura~ (finki 1906). f. finkis SexedulebiT, `saqarTvelos sulieri aRorZineba dakavSirebulia qarTvelTa Soris dasavluri suliskveTebis SeWrasTan... dasavluri suliskveTebis matarebelni arian vaxtang meeqvse, d. guramiSvili da s.-s. orbeliani, romelic evropaSi mogzaurobis Sedegad dasavlur kulturas iyo naziarebi. misi wigni `sibrZne sicruisa~ aRsavsea pedagogiuri ideebiT, qarTuli iumoriTa da maxvilgonierebiT~ (reviSvili 1977: 158). f. finkma `sibrZne sicruisa~ miiCnia til oilenSpigeliseuli Svankebis yaidis nawarmoebad, rac ar gaiziara germanistma S. reviSvilma (reviSvili 1977: 160). germaneli aRmosavleTmcodnis anton baumStarkis (18721945) wignis `Die christliche Literaturen des Orients~ (`aRmosavleTis qristianuli literaturebi~) qveTavSi _ `Die georgische Literatur~ (`qarTuli literatura~) (baumStarki 1911) ixsenieba sulxan-saba orbeliani, romelic, avtoris SexedulebiT, aris qarTul mwerlobaSi dasavluri literaturis saukeTeso tradiciebis damnergavi. swored sulxan-saba orbelianiT asrulebs a. baumStarki qarTuli sasuliero da saero literaturis mimoxilvas.

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sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb werda artur laisti (1852-1927) Tavis wignSi `Das georgische Volk~ (`qarTveli xalxi~) (laisti 1903: 328) da iqve sagangebod gamoyofda `sibrZne sicruisas~, rogorc sabas saukeTeso qmnilebas. sulxan-saba orbelians, rogorc evropuli orientaciis mweralsa da SesaniSnav leqsikografs, moixseniebs Tavis wignSi `Die Literatur der Georgien~ (`qarTuli literatura~) gamoCenili avstrieli mecnieri robert blaixStaineri (18911954) (blaixStaineri 1947). cnobil germanel mecniers gerhard deeterss (1892-1961) ekuTvnis vrceli narkvevi `Georgische Literatur~ (`qarTuli literatura~) (deetersi 1963), romelSic mimoxilulia Zveli qarTuli literatura. qarTuli literaturis miseuli periodizaciis mixedviT, mesame periodi me-16 saukunidan me-19 saukunis Sua wlebamde grZeldeba (renesansi, ganmanaTlebloba, romantizmi). wignis am nawilSi Teimuraz pirvelis, arCilis, vaxtang meeqvsis gverdiT ixsenieba sulxan-saba orbelianis Semoqmedeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom g. deetersma agreTve gamoaqveyna recenzia `sibrZne sicruisas~ m. wereTliseul Targmanze (deetersi 1934). Sveicarieli qarTvelologi ruT noikomi Tavis statiaSi `Die Literatur Georgiens~ (`qarTuli literatura~) (noikomi 1981) vrclad Cerdeba sulxan-saba orbelianis biografiasa da Semoqmedebaze. aRniSnavs, rom sulxan-sabam imogzaura evropaSi, dawera igav-arakTa wigni `sibrZne sicruisa~ da Seadgina leqsikoni. `sibrZne sicruisas~ pirveli Targmani germanul enaze daibeWda berlinSi, 1933 wels, gamomcemeli -- arCil metreveli. wigns amSvenebs qarTuli CuqurTmiT gaformebuli Tavfurceli da sulxan-saba orbelianis portreti. Targmani `Die Weisheit der Lüge~ (`sibrZne sicruisa~) (wereTeli 1933) ekuTvnis cnobil aRmosavleTmcodnesa da qarTvelologs mixeil (mixako) wereTels (1878-1965). mTargmnels ar gauziarebia teqstis imgvari agebuleba, rogoric iyo al. cagarelisa da o. uordropis TargmanebSi (162 igavi). Txzuleba dasaTaurebulia g. leoniZis gamocemis mixedviT da Seicavs 152 igavs. wigns erTvis m. wereTlis winasityvaoba (wereTeli 1933: XIII-XV) da mis mierve dawerili sulxan-saba orbelianis biografia (wereTeli 1933: 1-10). Targmansa da narkvevs sa-

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fuZvlad udevs g. leoniZis mier 1928 wels gamoqveynebuli teqsti (leoniZe 1928). `sibrZne sicruisas~ germanul gamocemaSi CarTulia z. avaliSvilis mravalmxriv saintereso vrceli Sesavali werili (wereTeli 1933: 11-53). z. avaliSvilis naSromi germanel mkiTxvels uadvilebs teqstis gagebas, aris cda `sibrZne sicruisas~ personaJTa prototipebis dadgenisa. avtori yuradRebas amaxvilebs sulxan-saba orbelianis enisa da stilis sakiTxebzec. m. wereTeli da z. avaliSvili ar eTanxmebian wignis saTauris cagareliseul axsnas, rom `sibrZne sicruisa~ unda iTargmnos rogorc ` ~. maT marTebulad miaCniaT k. kekeliZis SeniSvna: `saxelwodeba krebulisa: `sibrZne sicruisa~ gulisxmobs, rom is Seicavs sibrZnes, e. i. garkveul azrs, mniSvnelobas sicruis, anu cru, mogonil zRaprisa da igav-arakebisas an aqedan gamomdinareobs wignis saTauris Targmani: `Die Weisheit der Lüge~ (baramiZe 1964: 121). m. wereTeli da z. avaliSvili iziareben `sibrZne sicruisas~ iliaseul gagebas. `sibrZne sicruisas~ germanul saTaurs mxari dauWires al. baramiZem (baramiZe 1964: 121) da sxvebma. z. avaliSvili Tavis gamokvlevaSi did adgils uTmobs `sibrZne sicruisas~ SesaZlebeli folkloruli da literaturuli wyaroebis sakiTxs. mis dakvirvebas maRali Sefaseba misca il. abulaZem, romelic werda: `...romeli igavi romel wyarosTan iCens msgavsebas Tu siaxloves... am mxriv mcire Sroma rodia gaweuli prof. al. cagarlis, prof. z. avaliSvilis da prof. k. kekeliZis mier, gansakuTrebiT z. avaliSvilis xeliT~... (abulaZe 1959: 8). z. avaliSvilis gamokvlevas `sibrZne-sicruisas~ wyaroTa sakiTxebze gverds ver auvlis Tanamedrove mkvlevari (bregaZe 1989). sulxan-saba orbelianis ramdenime igavi Targmna SveicariaSi moRvawe qarTvelma enaTmecnierma kita Cxenkelma (18951963). 1958 wels ciurixSi, gamomcemloba `amiranSi~, germanul enaze daibeWda ortomiani Sroma `Einführung in die Georgische sprache. von Kita Tschenkeli~ (`qarTuli enis Sesavali~). II tomi aris praqtikuli nawili savarjiSoebiTa da qrestomaTiiT, romelSic Setanilia SoTa rusTavelis, sulxan-saba orbelianis, gr. orbelianis, i. WavWavaZis, a. wereTlisa da sxva avtorTa nawarmoebebis fragmentebi qarTulad da maTi germanuli sityvasityviTi Targmanebi, axlavs ganmartebebi da leqsikoni (Cxenkeli 1958).

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aq Setanilia k. Cxenkelis mierve Targmnili 19 igavi. esenia: `utkbesi da umwaresi~ _ `Das Süesste und das Bitterste~ (397-398), `oboli bavSvi da misi deda~ _ `Das Waisenkind und seine Mutter~ (402-403), `moxuci da Wabuki~ _ `Der Alte und der Jünglig~ (407-408), `mefe da mxatvari~ _ `Der König und der Maler~ (415-416), `RvTis ganaCeni~ _ `Die Fügung Gottes~ (416-418), `ku da morieli~ _ `Die Schildkröte und der Skorpion~ (420-421), `nalbandi mgeli~ _ `Der Wolf als Hufschmied~ (422-423), `qurdi mkervali~ _ `Der diebische Schneider~ (423-424), `eniT daWrili~ _ `Der durch die Zunge Verwundete~ (427-429), `ormoSi Cagdebuli mefe~ _ `Der in die Crube geworfene König~ (429-430), `Rataki da erTi qila erbo~ _ `Der Arme und ein Topf Butter~ (436-438), `soflis amSenebelni~ _ `Der Erbauer des Dorfes~ (439-440), `mefe da mkurnali~ _ `Der König und der Arzt~ (445-448), `mefe da avsityva~ _ `Der König und das Lästermaul~ (448-451), `katis gazrdili lomi~ _ `Der von der Katze aufgezogene Löwe~ (453-454), `berad Semdgari melia~ _ `Der zum Mönch geweihte Fuchs~ (467-475), `jojoxeTSi dautevneli~ _ `Der Mann, der allein in der Hölle Platz haben wollte~ (475-476), `aqlemi da viri~ _ `Das Kamel und der Esel~ (478-480), `mefe da veziri~ _ `Der König und der Wesir~ (481-482) (igavebis qarTuli dasaTaurebebi mogvyavs k. Cxenkelis mixedviT). gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi `sibrZne sicruisa~ germanul enaze kidev erTxel Targmna ienis universitetis profesorma, qarTvelologma hainc fenrixma, romelic Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi swavlobda kavkasiologiisa da qarTvelologiis specialobebze da Txzuleba gadaiRo originalis enidan (unda iTqvas, rom h. fenrixma qarTuli literaturis araerTi sxva nimuSic Targmna germanulad: gr. abaSiZis `laSarela~ da `didi Rame~, m. Ciqovanis `amiranis Tqmuleba~, `qarTuli Tqmulebani~ da sxv.). 1973 wels berlinSi gamomcemloba `riuten und loeningma~ germanul enaze gamosca wigni: Orbeliani S. S., Die Weisheit der Lüge. Übers. von H. Fähnrich (s.-s. orbeliani, `sibrZne sicruisa~, Targmnili h. fenrixis mier) (fenrixi 1973). wignis gaformeba da ilustraciebi ekuTvnis hans ioaxim berendts. krebuls wamZRvarebuli aqvs anotacia, romelic germanel mkiTxvels acnobs sulxan-saba orbeliansa da mis Semoqmedebas. Targmanis saTauri `Die Weisheit der Lüge~ agrZelebs saTauris interpretaciis germaniaSi damkvidrebul tradicias.

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wigns darTuli aqvs ucxo sityvebis leqsikoni, geografiul da sakuTar saxelTa saZieblebi, Targmnilia 152 igavi. Targmani Sesrulebulia maRalmecnierul doneze, mTargmneli Rrmad wvdeba sabaseul sibrZnes, qmnis originalis adekvatur mxatvrul samyaros. `sibrZne sicruisas~ h. fenrixiseul Targmans erTvis mozrdili bolosityvaoba `Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani und seine zeit~ (`sulxan-saba orbeliani da misi dro~) (fenrixi 1973: 249262), romlis avtoria elke erbi. avtori mkiTxvels acnobs sulxan-saba orbelianis biografias da gadmogvcems im epoqis politikur, ekonomikur da socialur suraTs, romelSic mwerali cxovrobda da moRvaweobda; aq saubaria giorgi XI-isa da vaxtang VI-is mefobis ZiriTad momentebze da sulxan-sabas siaxloveze qarTlis samefo karTan, ixsenieba sabas evropaSi gamgzavrebis istoria, misi `mogzauroba evropaSi~ da a. S. mogvianebiT e. erbma es winasityvaoba Tavis wignSic Seitana (erbi 1975). saqarTveloSi h. fenrixis Targmans bevri gamoxmaureba mohyva (mamulaSvili 1973; `mnaTobi~ 1973; `literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1973; kaxniaSvili 1975; kaxniaSvili 1981 da sxv.). erT-erT publikaciaSi isic kia naTqvami, rom es Targmani `Sevida gdr-is im 52 wignTa siaSi, romelic 1973 wels aRiarebulia `SesaniSnav wignad~. es, ra Tqma unda, mis did warmatebaze metyvelebs~ (kaxniaSvili 1981). `sibrZne-sicruisas~ h. fenrixiseuli Targmani `Die Weisheit der Lüge~ ganmeorebiT 1974 wels daibeWda q. mainis frankfurtSi, gamomcemloba `inzel ferlagSi~ (fenrixi 1974). sulxan-saba orbelianis Sesaxeb moTxrobilia h. fenrixis wignSi `Die Georgische Literatur. Ein überblick~ (`qarTuli literatura. mokle mimoxilva~) (fenrixi 1981: 64-66). avtori germanel mkiTxvels acnobs sulxan-sabas biografiasa da Semoqmedebas. mokled mimoxilulia `sibrZne sicruisa~, `mogzauroba evropaSi~ da `qililasa da damanas~ Targmnis istoria. h. fenrixis Targmans mohyva misi maswavleblis gertrud peCis gamoxmaureba, romelic daibeWda parizSi, Jurnal `bedi qarTlisaSi~. g. peCis statiaSi `Zwei deutsche Fassungen von Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani: Die Weisheit der Lüge~ (`sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisas~ ori germanuli Targmani~) (peCi 1974: 306-310). mimoxilulia `sibrZne sicruisas~ fenrixiseuli Targmani da, rac gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, mocemulia am Targmanisa da m. wereTliseuli germanuli Targmanis Sepi-

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rispirebiTi analizi. analogiuri kvleva CvenSi ar Catarebula, amdenad, g. peCis recenzias Zalian didi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan avtori araerT sagulisxmo dakvirvebas gvTavazobs. 1984 wels TbilisSi gamomcemloba `ganaTlebam~ dastamba `sibrZne sicruisa~ germanul enaze, Targmnili elene siraZis mier. wignis redaqtoria k. jorjaneli. `Weisheit der Erdichtung~ (`sibrZne sicruisa~) (siraZe 1984) _ ase ewodeba wigns, romelSic Tavmoyrilia germanulad Targmnili 57 igavi. wigns erTvis mokle anotacia, germanuli frazeologizmebis, agreTve, igav-arakTa realiebis axsna-ganmartebani da mokle germanul-qarTuli leqsikoni. winasityvaobis avtori x. berulava mokled exeba sulxan-saba orbelianis biografiasa da Semoqmedebas da wers, rom gamomcemloba `ganaTlebis~ mier gamocemuli es momcro wigni aris mcire nawili didi qarTveli mwerlis Semoqmedebisa (siraZe 1984: 5-6). wignis mTargmneli e. siraZe iyo germanuli enis saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis avtori da zogierT maTganSi Seitana kidec sulxan-saba orbelianis calkeuli igavebi. sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisa~ inglisur enaze pirvelad Targmna da gamosca oliver uordropma (1864-1948). da-Zma marjori da oliver uordropebis damsaxureba Zalze didia inglisuri qarTvelologiis Camoyalibebasa da ganviTarebaSi. maT erToblivad Targmnes `wminda ninos cxovreba~. o. uordropma damoukideblad Targmna da gamosca `wigni sibrZne sicruisa~, `visramiani~, giorgi mexuTis kanonebi, al. cagarelis mier Sedgenili aTonis iverTa monastris xelnawerTa aRweriloba da a. S. o. uordropi Tavis wignSi `The Kingdom of Georgia. Notes of Travel in a Land of Women, Wine and Song~ (`saqarTvelos samefo. mogzauroba qalebis, Rvinisa da simRerebis qveyanaSi~) (uordropi 1888). qarTul mwerlobas uZRvnis calke Tavs, romelSic sxva mweralTa Soris sulxan-saba orbeliansac moixseniebs: `me-17 saukunis gasuls Tavadma sulxan orbelianma aRwera Tavisi mogzauroba evropaSi da Seadgina `sibrZne sicruis wigni~, romelic am xanebSi rusulad daibeWda. s. orbeliani cxovrobda ludoviko XIV-is sasaxleSi da didi megobroba hqonda lafontenTan, romelmac qarTveli TavadiSvilisagan gaigona araerTi igav-araki da gamoiyena Tavis TxzulebaSi. orbelianis udidesi Rvawli aris misi `qarTuli leqsikoni~, romelic Seicavs 25 000 sityvas da aris dedaboZi

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yvela saleqsikono TxzulebaTaTvis qarTul enaze~ (SaraZe 1984: 57). mogvianebiT oliver uordropma sagangebod daiwyo muSaoba `sibrZne sicruisas~ Targmanze, rac ramdenime weliwads gagrZelda. 1894 wlis TebervalSi igi ivane maCabels swerda: `saba orbelianis `wigni sibrZne sicruisas~ Targmna davasrule. Cemma dam is originalis teqts Seadara. axla gamomcemlis ZebnaSi var~ (SaraZe 1984: 306). imave wlis Semodgomaze ki wigni ukve daistamba londonSi (sxvaTa Soris, imave wels gamoica marjori uordropis mier Targmnili `qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi~). oliver uordropis Targmani `Orbeliani Sulkhan-Saba. The Book of Wisdom and Lies. A Book of Traditional Stories from Georgia, in Asia, Translated by O. Wardrop~ (sulxan-saba orbeliani, `wigni sibrZne-sicruisa~) (uordropi 1894) mdidruladaa gaformebuli. gamomcemelia uiliam morisi -- arqeologi da poeti, romelsac xarji da yuradReba ar dauklia, rom Targmani poligrafiuli TvalsazrisiT saTanadod yofiliyo gamocemuli. wigni mSvenier ydaSia Casmuli, daibeWda Zvirfas qaRaldze, xolo igavTa saTaurebi sagangebodaa gaformebuli. wignis winasityvaobaSi (uordropi 1894: X-XVI) o. uordropi inglisurenovan mkiTxvels mokled acnobs sulxan-saba orbelianis vinaobas, literaturul memkvidreobas, mis rolsa da adgils qarTul mwerlobaSi. winasityvaobidanve Cans, rom `sibrZne sicruisas~ uordropiseuli Targmani Sesrulebulia al. cagarelis rusuli Targmanis mixedviT (cagareli 1878). amasTanave, mTargmnelisaTvis cnobili yofila `sibrZne sicruisas~ qarTuli gamocemac (`wigni sibrZne sicruvisa~... 1892). sxvaTa Soris, al. cagarelis arqivSi inaxeba uordropiseuli Targmanis egzemplari warweriT: `To Professor Tsagareli with kind regards from Oliver Wardrop~ (maWavariani 1980: 206). `sibrZne sicruisas~ inglisur enaze Targmnas sixaruliT Sexvda qarTveli sazogadoeba. ilia WavWavaZe 1896 wlis 26 Tebervals swerda marjori uordrops: `Tqven qarTulidam giTargmniaT saba orbelianis nawerica. imedi gvaqvs, rom marto amaebs ar ikmarebT da bevrs sxvas kidev gadasTargmniT da miT dids Rvawls dagvdebT qarTvelebs. es Tqveni Rvawli imiT ki ar mixarian, rom sxvaTa Soris Cemi `gandegilic~ Rirs iqmna inglisTaTvis wasakiTxad, Tumca TavmowonebisaTvis esec sakmaoa CemTvis sakuTrad. me mixarian, rom Tqvenis ganaTlebulis SemweobiT didi eri inglisisa, cotad

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Tu bevrad, Seityobs, rom aris qveyanaze erTi miviwyebuli patara qarTveli eri da aqvs Tavisi literatura, romelSiac inaxavs Tavisis sulis da gulis saunjesa~ (SaraZe 1984: 251). qarTuli gazeTebi `iveria~, `kvali~ da sxv. adgils uTmoben am faqts: `ibeWdeba da Cqara gamova `sibrZne-sicruis wigni~. TiTo cali Rirs oci maneTi. nametani mdidruli gamocemaa, raRac feradi asoebiT ibeWdeba. am fasiani gamocema iqneba mxolod 250 cali. eseni TiTqmis yvela windawin aris gayiduli, or-sam ministrebsac uTxoviaT oliverisaTvis, uTuod mogvitaneT, rogorc ki gamovideso. es 250 cali umaRles aristokratiisaTvis aris daniSnuli. ubralo mkiTxvelebisaTvis gamova iaf-fasiani... `sibrZne sicruis wigni~ gadmouTargmnia rusulidan (cagarlis gamocema) olivers; mxolod mis das qarTul gamocemasTan Seudarebia da Seuswor-Semousworebia (`kvali~ 1894). es cnoba `kvalidan~ `iveriamac~ gadabeWda (`iveria~ 1894). cnobilma mTargmnelma ivane maWavarianma (in-mani) am Targmanis Sesaxeb 1895 wlis TebervalSi, Jurnal `Atheneum~Si, gamoaqveyna recenzia, romelic maleve gadmobeWda `iveriam~: `qarTuli zRaprebi b-n vardropis mier mSvenivrad gamocemulia. es pirveli Targmania am sakvirvelis wignisa maT Soris, romelic-ki yofila odesme romelsame aRmosavleTis enazed dabeWdili, ramdenisame zRapris garda, romlebic gadaTargmnilia frangulad. es wigni Zalian Zvirfasia folkloristebisaTvis. am zRaprebis azri hgavs `Histopadesa~ krebuls zRaprebisa da arakebisas... saTauri orbelianis sibrZne-sicruisa Seicavs sasiamovno aRmosavlurs oxunjobasa da avtori cru igavebiTa da arakebiT brZnuls azrebs gvinergavs, WeSmaritebis gzazed warmarTavs mkiTxvels... zogierTs adgilas b-n vardrops SeniSvnebiT Seumkia... sazogadod ena mSvenieria, sparsulis stilisaa da zRaparTa umetesoba sparsulisagan unda iyos aRebuli. unda gavixsenoT, rom orbeliani TanaSemwe iyo mefe vaxtang VI-isa, exmareboda `anvari-suhailis~ TargmanSi, romelic dabeWdilia xelTnawerTagan tfiliss, 1886 w. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom sviftis wigni daibeWda, daaxloebiT rom vsTqvaT, orbelianis sikvdilTan erTad. es garemoeba namdvilad rom ar vicodeT, gvegoneboda, rom orbelians scnobiao es wigni, rodesac dasavleTSi hmogzaurobda, radgan am wignis saxeli swrafad gavarda inglisSiaca da ingliss gareSec, Soreuls qveynebSi.

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b-ni vardropi Taviss movaleobas Zalian bejiTad, sinidisierad, mecnierulad uZRveba. Cven SevadareT vardropis wigns dedani, dabeWdili tfilisSi 1881 w. da gancvifrebuli varT Targmanis sisworiTa da sinamdviliT... dasasrul, imedi gvaqvs, rom es wigni miizidavs saerTo yuradRebas da Rirsic aris yuradRebisa~... (`iveria~ 1895). `sibrZne sicruisas~ uordropiseuli Targmani Seicavs 162 igavs, rac aixsneba imiT, rom mTargmnels zogierTi araki daunawevrebia da TviTonve dausaTaurebia. `oliver uordropi sizustes iCens nawarmoebis satirul-didaqtikuri xasiaTisa da mxatvruli Rirebulebis SefasebaSi. Targmanis winasityvaobaSi sulxan-saba orbelianis SemoqmedebiTi Canafiqris Sesaxeb naTqvamia: `orbelianis SemoqmedebiTi Canafiqris Sesaxeb, rogorc Cans, avtors ormagi mizani aqvs: zneobrivad aamaRlos mkiTxveli brZnuli SegonebiT da, amave dros, gaarTos igi gamonagoniT~. sworadaa axsnili igavarakebis krebulis Seqmnis sakiTxi. oliver uordropi wers: `sibrZne sicruisa~ Tavisi sqemiT emsgavseba `panCatantras~, `hidopadeSs~, `anvari-sohails~ da mraval sxva nawarmoebs, magram es ar gvaZlevs safuZvels, rom igi miviCnioT Targmanad, an Segnebul mibaZvad. ideebis arakebis saSualebiT gamoTqma gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia aRmosavluri yofisaTvis da nawilobriv ganpirobebulia despotizmiT, nawilobriv ki -- aRmosavluri azrovnebis bunebrivi midrekilebiT, fantaziis samoselSi gaaxvios saTqmeli. despotizmis pirobebSi alegoriuli Txroba pirdapiri TqmisaTvis gverdis avlis erTaderTi saSualebaa. oliver uordropi moxiblulia sulxan-saba orbelianis maneriT, ris Sesaxebac ambobs: `rac Seexeba dednis stils, misi ena gamoirCeva iseTi araCveulebrivi moxdenilobiTa da lakoniurobiT, rom ucxoeli tyuilubralod Seecdeba, daxmarebis gareSe, Sesaferisad gadmosces igi~ (Turnava 1999: 243). sainteresoa Txzulebis dasaTaurebis sakiTxi. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Txzulebis inglisuri saTauria `The Book of Wisdom and Lies~ _ `wigni sibrZnisa da sicruisa~. aSkaraa, rom o. uordropi iziarebda Txzulebis saTauris al. cagareliseul rusul Targmans: ` ~. `sibrZne sicruisas~ saTauris amgvar gagebas mxars uWerda qarTvelologi devid langi (1924-1991). 1957 wels Jurnal `mnaTobSi~ gamoqveynda misi statia `wigni sibrZne-sicruisas saTaurisaTvis~ (langi 1957b: 159-167), romlis inglisuri varianti adreve daibeWda (langi 1956: 436-448). statiaSi d. langi

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asabuTebs, rom Txzulebis saTauri unda iyos `wigni sibrZne sicruisa~. misi daskvniT: `al. cagarlisa da uordropiseuli wakiTxva sulxan-sabas ucnauri saTaurisa, rogorc `wigni sibrZnisa da sicruisa~, sworia... sulxan-saba orbelianisaTvis sibrZne da WeSmariteba ar gamodis sicruisagan da arc dafuZnebulia masze. sibrZne ufro sicruis sawinaaRmdego wamalia; tyuilTan dapirispirebiT sibrZne ufro brwyinvaleT kaSkaSebs~ (langi 1957b: 167). `sibrZne sicruisas~ xelnawerTa monacemebze dayrdnobiT d. langi werda: `umTavresi siZnele is aris, rom Cven namdvilad ar viciT, zustad ra saxis saTauri waawera orbelianma sakuTar Tavdapirvel xelnawers. Tu damtkicdeba, rom sulxan-sabam TviTonve daarqva wigns `sibrZne sicruisa~, `wignis~ gareSe, sakiTxi gadawyvetili iqneba; es forma iZleva mxolod erT gagebas `sicruis sibrZne~... Cven xelTmyof xelnawerTagan arc erTs ara aqvs mokle saTauri -- `sibrZne sicruisa~. Tavis mxriT, mokle saTauris mqone xelnawerebis ararseboba sabuTia yvela imaT winaaRmdeg, vinc sulxan-sabas krebulSi eZebs sicruis sibrZnes~ (langi 1957b: 163-164). d. langi iziarebs im Tvalsazriss, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis Semoqmedebaze garkveuli zemoqmedeba mouxdenia `balavarians~. misi sityviT: `sulxan-sabas swored balavariani hqonda gulSi, anda gulis kunWulSi mainc, rodesac Tavis wignze muSaobas Seudga~. d. langi iqve svams kiTxvas: `rogor Seesabameba wignis ganwyobilebasa da Sinaarss, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis mier gamoxatuli sibrZne mxolod da mxolod sicruesa da abdaubdaze damokidebulad vcnoT~ da am kiTxvas TviTonve upasuxebs: `upirveles yovlisa Tavidan unda moviSoroT is azri, rom Txzulebis erTi romelime gmiri brZnuli moZRvrebis warmomadgenelia, meore ki -- crusi an yalbisa. cagareli saWuris ruqas eSmakis mociqulad xatavda, winaaRmdeg brZeni leonisa da WeSmaritebis sxva warmomadgenlebisa, magram wignis saxeldaxelod gadasinjvac ki aaSkaravebs, rom namdvilad Wkuis damrigebeli da suleluri moTxrobebi met-naklebad Tanabrad nawildeba sxvadasxva mobaaseTa Soris~ (langi 1957b: 166). miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTvelma mecnierebma d. langis yvela mosazreba ar gaiziares (al. baramiZe 1957; 1964; k. kekeliZe 1959: 143), es naSromi sakmaod saintereso da gasaTvaliswinebelia sakiTxiT dainteresebul mkvlevarTaTvis.

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sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisas~ uordropiseul inglisur Targmans exeba d. langi naSromSi `Georgian Studies in Oxford~ (`qarTvelologiuri kvleva-Zieba oqsfordSi~) (langi 1955: 115-143; langi 1957a: 139-151). igi maRal Sefasebas aZlevs Targmans da iqve gamoTqvams varauds, rom `sibrZne sicruisa~ sabas moxucebulobaSi, evropidan dabrunebis Semdeg, unda daewera. 1919 wlis Tebervlidan TbilisSi gamodioda gazeTi `The Georgian Messeger~ (`jorjian mesijer~) (sul gamoica 13 nomeri). redaqtori iyo elisabed orbeliani (1871-1942), romelic cdilobda gazeTis furclebze qarTveli xalxis istoriisa da kulturis propagandas, beWdavda masalebs qarTulinglisur kulturul urTierTobaTa Sesaxeb. gazeTis mesame nomerSi gamoqveynebulia nawyvetebi o. uordropis wignidan `saqarTvelos samefo~ da uordropis mierve Targmnili sulxan-saba orbelianis igav-arakebi, romelTa beWdva gazeTis mexuTe nomerSic gagrZelda (surgulaZe 1979: 130-137). gavida dro da `sibrZne sicruisa~ xelaxla iTargmna inglisur enaze. 1959 wels gamomcemloba `codnam~ da 1973 wels gamomcemloba `ganaTlebam~ dabeWdes sulxan-saba orbelianis `The Book of Wisdom and Fiction~ (Selections) (`wigni sibrZne-sicruisa~. rCeuli igav-arakebi), I-II gamocema (mWedliSvili, petrova 1959; 1973), Targmnili da damuSavebuli saSualo skolis IX-X klasebisaTvis j. mWedliSvilisa da i. petrovas mier. anotaciaSi naTqvamia, rom wignSi Tavmoyrilia sulxansaba orbelianis rCeuli igavebi da gankuTvnilia studentebisaTvis. wignSi Setanilia `sibrZne sicruisas~ 53 igavi, yvela maTgans axlavs calke komentarebi da leqsikoni. winasityvaobis avtori x. berulava warmoaCens sulxan-saba orbelianis adgils Zvel qarTul literaturaSi, mimoixilavs mwerlis epoqas, biografiul cnobebs, axsenebs `sibrZne-sicruisas~ uordropiseul Targmans. 1982 wels londonSi gamomcemloba `oqtagon presma~ dabeWda `sibrZne sicruisas~ axali inglisuri Targmani, Sesrulebuli qeTrin vivianis mier `A Book of Wisdom and Lies~ (`wigni sibrZnisa da sicruisa~) (viviani 1982). cnobilma qarTvelologma, mweralma da mTargmnelma qeTrin vivianma qarTuli mwerlobis araerTi Zegli Targmna inglisur enaze: `vefxistyaosnis~ axali prozauli interpretacia (1977), `sibrZne sicruisa~ (1982), k. salias `qarTveli

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eris istoria~ (1983), Targmna agreTve `qarTlis cxovrebis~ erTi monakveTi _ laSa giorgis mefobis istoria (1984), gamoaqveyna werilebi qarTuli literaturis sakiTxebze. `sibrZne sicruisas~ vivianiseuli Targmani didi gemovnebiT, maRal poligrafiul donezea gamocemuli. superis gaformeba ekuTvnis mxatvar mamia malazonias. rogorc erTerTi gazeTi werda, `TbilisSi yofnisas, 1981 wels, mamia malazonias namuSevrebis personaluri gamofenis gacnobisas, qeTrin vivianma SesTavaza mas sulxan-saba orbelianis nawarmoebis inglisuri gamocemis mxatvruli gaformeba (`wignis samyaro~, 1982). Targmani Seicavs 152 igavs, wigns wamZRvarebuli aqvs samgverdiani winasityvaoba (viviani 1982: XI-XIII), romelSic mTargmneli inglisurenovan mkiTxvels acnobs sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebasa da moRvaweobas, im drois saqarTvelos, sabas Rvawls qarTuli mwerlobis istoriaSi, yuradRebas amaxvilebs avtoris zneobriv-didaqtiur Sexedulebebze. winasityvaobaSi vkiTxulobT: `sibrZne sicruisas~ zogierTi araki SeiZleba SevadaroT indur `panCatantras~, anu `bidhais arakebs~, agreTve, `qilila da damanas~ qarTul variants, garda amisa, gvxvdeba `aTas erTi Ramidan~, qarTuli folkloridan nasesxebi igav-arakebi, danarCeni ki TviT sulxan-sabas Seuqmnia. misi stili damajerebeli, lakoniuri da Seulamazebelia, magram mwerali iSviaT poetur silamazes swvdeba romelime gmirisa da mSvenieri qalis Semosayvanad gamoyenebul gamoTqmebSi. misi igav-arakebi eyrdnoba qarTul tradicias da Cveulebebs. aseTia, magaliTad, `didvaWari da mefunduke~. orbelianis moTxrobebSi STambeWdavadaa asaxuli xelgaSlili da stumarTmoyvare qarTveli xalxis xasiaTi, misi gonebis maradiuli sifxizle, gambedaoba da iumoris grZnoba. mravalgzisaa naxsenebi Zmadnaficoba _ Cveuleba, romelic dResac arsebobs saqarTvelos bevr mxareSi~ (Turnava 1999: 241). saqarTveloSi am Targmans araerTi gamoxmaureba mohyva (`literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1982; `Tbilisi~ 1982; `wignis samyaro~ 1982; `literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1983; `samSoblo~ 1984), didi interesi gmoiwvia agreTve inglisel qarTvelologTa Soris. am mxriv sainteresoa robert stivensonisa da devid langis mosazrebebi. Txzulebis saTauri q. vivians, o. uordropis msgavsad, inglisurad uTargmnia, rogorc `wigni sibrZnisa da sicruisa~. amasTan dakavSirebiT r. stivensoni werda: `cota xnis win miviRe `sibrZne sicruisas~

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q. vivianiseuli Targmani. cxadia, igi sasiamovnod da warmatebiTaa Sesrulebuli. mxolod dasanania, rom ar aqvs wamZRvarebuli gaston buaCiZis franguli Targmanis msgavsi vrceli Sesavali. sxvaTa Soris, yovelTvis mikvirda, mTargmnelebi saTaurSi rom weren `laiz~ (sicrue). ueWvelia, aq ar igulisxmeba tyuili. nuTu, cxadi ar aris, rom am sityvis mniSvneloba faqtiurad dakavSirebulia zRapruli moTxrobebidan, anu arakebidan gamomdinare sibrZnesTan? vfiqrob, bunebrivi inglisuri Targmani iqneba `igav-arakebi~ an `igavarakebis wigni~ (Turnava 1999: 240). 1982 wels inglisur JurnalSi `englou souviet jernli~ daibeWda d. langis recenzia vivianiseul Targmanze. d. langi werda: `sulxan-saba orbeliani gonebamaxvili kaci iyo da mcire mistifikaciasac mimarTa. man sagangebod airCia gariTmuli saTauri, romelic Seicavs formulas: sibrZnesicrue, Tumca sicrue SeiZleba niSnavdes `amaoebas~, `moCvenebiTobas~, `Wors~, `gamonagons~. zogierTi mTargmneli daabnia saTaurma. maT saTaurad amjobines _ `gamonagonis sibrZne~. miuxedavad amisa, qeTrin vivianis interpretacia _ `wigni sibrZnisa da sicruisa~ _ ufro Sesaferisi Cans. igi agrZelebs ser oliver uordropis mier danergil tradicias. qeTrin vivianma axla am wignis bibliografiul iSviaTobad qceuli pirveli Targmani mogvca. oliver uordropis pirveli Targmani ki uiliam morisma gamosca `qelmskot presSi~, 1894 wels. qalbaton qeTrin vivians ar aqvs moxseniebuli pirveli Targmani, romelic unda iyos moxseniebuli SeniSvnebSi aucileblad. me Zalian momwons qeTrin vivianis axali Targmani, romelic kolorituli da naTeli iumoris grZnobiTaa aRsavse. mniSvnelovani adgilebic damajereblad JRers, kargad aris gamokveTili konfliqti saWuris ruqas cinizmsa da leonis idealizms Soris~ (`samSoblo~ 1984; Turnava 1999: 245-246). `sibrZne sicruisas~ vivianiseul Targmans exeba r. Turnavas vrceli statia. mkvlevari inglisur Targmans udarebs originals, agreTve, o. uordropis Targmans da mraval sagulisxmo daskvnas gvTavazobs: `warmatebiTaa daZleuli Sinaarsis sworad gadmocemis siZneleebi, rac sulxan-sabas mier arqaizmebis xmarebasTanac aris dakavSirebuli. nawarmoebis mkacri satiruli maxvili TargmanSic aseve mwared igrZnoba, xolo moZRvrul-damrigeblobiTi toni sasiamovnod da damajereblad JRers inglisurad. ra Tqma unda, amas ganapirobebs mTargmnelis unari -- daicvas orbelianis, rogorc qar-

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Tuli saliteraturo enis reformatoris, Txrobis ZiriTadi Tavisebureba, rac mdgomareobs xalxurobasa da lakonurobaSi. gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos sulxan-sabaseuli aforizmebis gadmocemis sizuste da sisxarte~ (`literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1983; Turnava 1999: 242). o. uordropis TargmanTan q. vivianiseuli Targmanis Sepirspirebisas r. Turnava aRniSnavs, rom `oliver uordropis Targmani ar aris dazRveuli Secdomebisagan Sinaarsis gadmocemaSi, magram es ar amcirebs mis mniSvnelobas da mxatvrul Rirsebas. mowonebas imsaxurebs aforizmebis bevri oliver uordropiseuli varianti. zog SemTxvevaSi isini sjobnis qeTrin vivianis mier SemoTavazebuls, zogjer ki axal TargmanSi gvaqvs ukeTesi versiebi. amasTan erTad unda iTqvas, rom oliver uordropis namuSevari Tavis droze sasiamovno sakiTxavi iqneboda, amJamad ki, cota ar iyos, moZvelebulia. saerTod, qeTrin vivianis Targmani gamoirCeva meti TanamimdevrobiT, akademiuri da maRalmxatvruli stiliT~ (`literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1983; Turnava 1999: 244). sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisa~ ungrul enaze Targmna ungrelma folkloristma, qarTvelologma da mTargmnelma marton iStvanoviCma (1929-1992). m. iStvanoviCi 1955-1959 wlebSi swavlobda Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis aspiranturaSi. Seiswavla qarTuli ena da folklori. ungrul enaze man Targmna da calke wignebad gamosca qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi (1958), i. WavWavaZis poemebi (1961), a. wereTlis, g. tabiZis, g. leoniZis poezia. 1955 wels budapeStSi daibeWda `sibrZne sicruisas~ sruli ungruli Targmani, Sesrulebuli m. iStvanoviCis mier (iStvanoviCi 1955). Cans, imxanad mTargmnelma jer kidev kargad ar icoda qarTuli ena da Txzuleba rusuli gamocemidan (RoRoberiZe 1951) uTargmnia. wignSi Sesulia al. baramiZis narkvevi sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb (iStvanoviCi 1955: 263-268), romelic erTvoda aRniSnul rusul gamocemas. mogvianebiT m. iStvanoviCma gamoaqveyna statia `Anmerkungen zum Märchen "Der Zauberarzt" von S.S. Orbeliani~ (`SeniSvnebi sulxan-saba orbelianis arakis `grZneuli eqimis~ Sesaxeb~) (iStvanoviCi 1983: 151-159), romelSic ikvlevda sulxan-sabas igav-arakTa motivebis kavSirs germanul da keltur tradiciebTan. misi azriT, germanulkelturi tradiciebis Sesatyvisoba qarTul redaqciasTan

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iwvevs did interess da Slis axal perspeqtivebs Semdgomi kvlevisaTvis. 1959 wels ukrainis saxelmwifo literaturulma gamomcemlobam kievSi ukrainul enaze gamosca `sibrZne sicruisa~, Targmnili elene sturuasa da oleqsa novickis (1914-1998) mier. Targmans darTuli aqvs g. leoniZis winasityvaoba. am Targmans saqarTveloSic gamoexmaurnen (yazaziSvili 1959). o. novickis Targmnili aqvs araerTi qarTveli klasikosis (n. baraTaSvili, i. WavWavaZe, a. wereTeli...) Semoqmedeba. 1961 wels man m. baJanTan erTad Seadgina da gamosca `i ~ (`qarTveli xalxis poezia~) (novicki 1961), romelSic Seitana sulxan-saba orbelianis ramdenime igavisa Tu sentenciis galeqsili variantebi: ` o~ (`eniT dakodili~), ` ~ (`mterobiT gankurnebuli~) da sxv., agreTve leqsi `i~ (`qali~) (novicki 1961: 264-266). o. novickis aRniSnuli Targmanebi Setanilia agreTve r. CilaCavas mier Sedgenil qarTuli xalxuri, klasikuri da Tanamedrove poeziis krebulSi ` ~ (`oqros venaxi~) (CilaCava 2005: 72-73). `sibrZne sicruisa~ iTargmna da ramdenjerme gamoica polonur enaze. pirvelad -- 1950 wels, varSavaSi. Targmani Sesrulebulia TadeuS mongirdis mier, 1948 wlis rusuli gamocemis (RoRoberiZe 1948) mixedviT. igive Targmani ganmeorebiT daibeWda 1954 wels: `S. Orbeliani. O madroci rzeczy zmylonych~ (mongirdi 1954). am gamocemaSi ukve gaTvaliswinebuli iyo 1951 wlis rusuli gamocemac (RoRoberiZe 1951). Targmans axlavs al. baramiZis winasityvaoba sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb (mongirdi 1954: 511), romelic rusul gamocemebs erTvoda. `sibrZne sicruisa~ qarTulidan polonur enaze Targmna da 1962 wels gamoaqveyna polonelma qarTvelologma ian braunma, romelmac polonurad Targmna agreTve n. baraTaSvilis, a. wereTlis, g. leoniZis poezia, qarTuli folkloris nimuSebi da SoTa rusTavelis aforizmebi. sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisa~ iTargmna Cexur enazec. praRis gamomcemloba `svet sovetum~ didi tiraJiT gamosca Cexi mwerlisa da publicistis ivo vaculinis Targmani `Kniha Moudrosti a Lzi~ (`sibrZne sicruisa~) (vaculini

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1962). i. vaculini nayofierad muSaobda qarTvelologiis dargSi. igi iyo cnobili Cexi qarTvelologis, ieromir iedliCkas, mowafe. wignis SesavalSi mTargmneli aRniSnavs, rom sagangebod gaecno sulxan-sabas epoqas, saqarTvelos istorias, qarTul literaturas, gaiara konsultaciebi qarTvel mwerlebTan da mxolod amis Semdeg Seudga Txzulebis Targmnas. iqve aRniSnulia, rom Targmani Sesrulebulia originalidan da safuZvlad daedo sulxan-saba orbelianis TxzulebaTa oTxtomeulis pirvel tomSi gamoqveynebuli teqsti. Txzuleba sruladaa Targmnili (vaculini 1962: 7227). gamocemas erTvis Cexi mwerlisa da publicistis, vaclav Cernis, bolosityvaoba, romelSic gadmocemulia sulxansabas Tanadrouli saqarTvelos istoriuli suraTi da mwerlis biografiuli cnobebi, saubaria `sibrZne sicruisas~ literaturul Rirsebebze (vaculini 1962: 229-245). `sibrZne sicruisas~ Cexur Targmans gamoexmaurnen Cexebica da qarTvelebic. rogorc erT-erT recenziaSia aRniSnuli, `ivo vaculini guldasmiT mohkidebia wignze muSaobas. marTalia, Targmani SesaniSnavad aris Sesrulebuli, magram aqve aRsaniSnavia, Tu ra rTuli iyo mTargmnelisaTvis sityvasityviT gadaeca sabaseuli qarTuli. zogierTi xarvezis miuxedavad, `sibrZne sicruisas~ Cexuri Targmani didebuli SenaZenia Targmnili literaturis sferoSi~ (kakulia 1962). imave recenziidan Cans, rom am Targmanis gamocemas gamoexmaura Cexuri gazeTi `literarni novini~: `Tu ra popularuli gaxda es nawarmoebi Cvens samSobloSi, amas mowmobs is ubralo faqtic, rom sul ramdenime Tvea, rac igi gamoica da wignis bazarze dRes aRarc ki iSoveba~. literaturuli Jurnali `mlada tvorba~ ki aqveynebs werils _ `qarTveli klasikosis qmnileba Cexur enaze~. werilis avtoris, irJi sedlaCekis sityviT, `sruliad samarTlianad SeuZlia iamayos niWierma qarTvelma xalxma, romelmac msoflios misca geniosi moazrovne da mwerali, didaqtikosi da didi adamiani sulxan-saba orbeliani. `sibrZne sicruisa~ cxovrebis matianea. igi adamianTa pativiscemasa da aRzrdas, keTilgonierebasa da sulgrZelobas emsaxureba~ (kakulia 1962). 1983 wels vilniusSi gamoica litvur enaze Targmnili `sibrZne sicruisa~ _ `Prasimanyu Ismintis~ (ferensene 1983). wigni gamomcemloba `vagam~ dastamba 10 000 tiraJiT; mTargmnelia goda ferensene, mxatvrulad gaaforma danute graJenem. `sibrZne sicruisas~ litvuri Targmani Sesrulebulia

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Txzulebis e. RoRoberiZiseuli rusuli Targmanis mixedviT (RoRoberiZe 1959), rac Tavfurcelzevea miTiTebuli. Sesabamisad, litvuri Targmani srulia da moicavs 152 igavs (ferensene 1983: 3-256). gamocemas axlavs leqsikoni (ferensene 1983: 257-258) da mTargmnelis bolosityvaoba, romelSic mokledaa mimoxiluli sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovreba da Semoqmedeba. wignis gamosvlas mohyva pozitiuri gamoxmaurebebi (`kavkasioni~ 1983: 332; griSkenasi: 1983). `sibrZne sicruisas~ rusuli e. RoRoberiZiseuli (RoRoberiZe 1959) Targmanis mixedviT Txzuleba iTargmna agreTve yazaxur enaze da gamoica alma-ataSi, mTargmnelia m. elimbaevi (elimbaevi 1959), mxatvrulad gaaforma v. psarevma. italiur enaze sulxan-saba orbelianis Txzulebebi ar aris Targmnili, Tumca sulxan-sabas saxeli ixsenieba calkeul literaturis istoriebsa da ramdenime enciklopediaSi. sabas nawerebi moxseniebulia italieli literaturaTmcodnis jakomo prampolinis `msoflio literaturaTa istoriis~ me-2 tomSi, romelSic calke Tavi eZRvneba qarTuli literaturis mimoxilvas (prampolini 1949: 509-527). sulxan-saba orbeliani da misi `sibrZne sicruisa~ ixsenieba `aRmosavleTis kulturebis~ me-2 tomSi gamoqveynebul juzepe furlanis statiaSi `qristianuli aRmosavleTis literatura~, romelSic calke paragrafadaa warmodgenili qarTuli mwerloba (furlani 1970: 224-227). italiur enaze arsebuli masalis simwiris gamo aqve movixseniebT sulxan-saba orbelianis Sesaxeb enciklopediur gamocemebSi dabeWdil statiebs: 1932 wels j. trekanis saxelobis italiuri enciklopediis institutis mier gamocemuli fundamenturi enciklopediis XVI tomSi dabeWdilia statia saqarTveloze, romlis erT-erT TavSi `literatura~ (deetersi 1932: 644-645) aris cnoba: XVIII saukuneSi `Tavadi sulxan-saba orbeliani adgens qarTuli enis leqsikons, romelsac dRemde ar daukargavs mniSvneloba, wers igav-arakebis krebuls `sibrZne sicruisa~ (SurRaia 2003: 146). 1951 wels `kaTolikuri enciklopediis~ VI tomSi daibeWda mixeil TarxniSvilis statia `saqarTvelo~, romelSic

masala momzadebulia prof. g. SurRaias statiis mixedviT (SurRaia 2003: 140-169).

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calkea gamoyofili qarTuli literatura (TarxniSvili 1951: 64-79), `avtori mimoixilavs sulxan-saba orbelianis moRvaweobas, aRniSnavs mis diplomatiur misias romis papis klimenti XI-isa da safrangeTis mefis lui XIV-is karze. asaxelebs mis iseT Txzulebebs, rogorebicaa qarTuli kaTolikuri katexizmo, bibliis simfonia, `qarTuli leqsikoni~, `mogzauroba evropaSi~ (SurRaia 2003: 152); mcire bibliografiuli xasiaTis statia sulxan-saba orbelianis Sesaxeb gamoaqveyna j. smitma (smiti 1987: 1671). calke unda aRiniSnos luiji magarotos saenciklopedio-sacnobaro xasiaTis statiebi sulxan-saba orbelianis Sesaxeb (magaroto 1987: 1486-1487; 1989: 983) da mis mier `sibrZne sicruisas~ g. buaCiZiseul frangul Targmanze gamoqveynebuli recenzia (magaroto 1978).

damowmebani: abulaZe 1959: abulaZe i. sulxan-saba orbelianis sibrZne sicruis wignis ramdenime arakis ucxo paraleli. sulxan-saba orbeliani (saiubileo krebuli), Tb.: saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, 1959. abulaZe 1964: . " ". . .: , 1964. adelungi 1806: Adelung J. Ch. Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachkunde. Bd. I. Berlin: 1806. amiCba 1988: - . (.). wignSi: . . . . , . . . .: "", 1988. baramiZe 1948: . . wignSi: -. . . . . .: . ., 1948. baramiZe 1957: baramiZe al. sibrZne-sicruis garSemo. `mnaTobi~, 12, 1957. baramiZe... 1958: ., ., . . . .: 1952; .: . " ", 1958. baramiZe 1959: . . [.-. ], " ", 24.X.1959. baramiZe 1964: baramiZe al. narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, IV. Tb.: gamomcemloba `mecniereba~, 1964. baramiZe... 1968: ., . . . , 1968. baramiZe 1969: . (). wignSi: - . . . . . .: "", 1969.

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baramiZe 1970: . " " - . " ", 3, 1970. baumStarki 1911: Baumstark A. Die georgische Literatur. In: Die christliche Literaturen des Orients. Bd. 2. Berlin: 1911. blaixStaineri 1947: Bleichsteiner R. Die Literatur der Georgien. In: "Die Burg von Surami" ­ von Daniel Tschonkadse, Wien: 1947. bolxovitinovi 1802: [ .]. , . . ., 1802. bregaZe 1977: bregaZe l. qarTveli avtorebi `le kokaz ilustres~ furclebze, `ciskari~, 1977, 11. bregaZe 1989: bregaZe l. paralelebi. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 28, 14.VII, 1989. brose 1834: Brosset M. Notice sur le dictionnaire géorgien de Soulkhan-Saba Orbeliani, récemment acquis par la Bibliothèque Royale de Paris: Nouv. Journal Asiatique, février, t. XIII, 1834. buaCiZe 1978: Soulkhan-Saba Orbeliani. La sagesse du mensonge. Traduit du géorgien et présenté par Gaston Bouatchidze. Illustrations de Lado Goudiachvili. Editions "Ganatleba", Tb.: 1978. buaCiZe 1983: . ( ). .: `~. 1983. gamrekeli 1885: . . . .: 1885. gamyreliZe 1957: gamyreliZe al. axali ucxouri naSromi sulsan-sabas igavTa wignis saTauris Sesaxeb. `mnaTobi~, 5, 1957. gawerelia 1959: . ( 300- -C , " ", 10, 1959. gewaZe 1970: . - (" ", " "). . .: , 1970. gvarjalaZe 1982: gvarjalaZe i. `sibrZne sicruisas~ inglisuri Targmani. `Tbilisi~, 164. 16.VII.1982. gorki 1927: . . . 6, 1927. ix. agreTve, , . 24. .: . ., 1953. griSkenasi 1983: . - ­ . " ", 10.VII.1983, 159. deetersi 1932: Deeters G. Georgia, Letteratura: Enciclopedia Italiana. Di scienze, lettere ed arti, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, fondata da Giovanni Treccani, XVI, Roma. 1932. deetersi 1934: Deeters G. Orbeliani, Sulchan-Saba: Die Weisheit der Lüge, übersetzt von Prof. Tsereteli. Berlin 1933. In: Orientalische Literaturzeitung 1934. Nr.8/9. deetersi 1963: Deeters G. Georgische Literatur. In: Armenisch und die kaukasischen Sprachen. (Handbuch der Orientailistik 1,7). Leiden-Köln 1963. dodaSvili 1959: dodaSvili r. sulxan-saba orbeliani da mari brose. `literaturuli gazeTi~, 44, 30. X. Tb.: 1959. dodaSvili 1962: dodaSvili r. mari brose _ qarTuli mwerlobis mkvlevari, Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1962. `droeba~ 1885: `droeba~. Sinauri qronika. 48, 5. III, 1885.

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elimbaevi 1959: -. Fh. . . i. . . . . , 1959. erbi 1975: Erb E. Gutachten. Poesie und Prosa. Berlin: 1975. vaculini 1962: Orbeliani Sulchan-Saba. Kniha Moudrosti a Lzi. Prel. Ivo Vaculín. Ilustr. R. Malát. Praha: Svt Sovtu, 1962. viviani 1982: Orbeliani Sulkhan-Saba, A Book of Wisdom and Lies. Translated by Katharine Vivian. London: 1982. zalemani 1904: Salemann, C. Manuscrits, Correspodence et Ouvrages de feu Mr. M. Brosset. wignSi: , 1904, , . XXI, N 1. TarxniSvili 1951: Tarchnischvili M. Georgia. Letteratura. Enciclopedia Cattolica, Firenze, 6, Citta del Vaticano, 1951. Teimuraz bagrationi 1964: Teimuraz bagrationis werilebi akad. mari brosesadmi. teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, winasityvaoba, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo s. yubaneiSvilma. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1964. Turnava 1979: Turnava s. `sibrZne sicruisa~ frangulad. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 6.IV. 14, 1979. Turnava 1980: Turnava s. `sibrZne sicruisa~ ucxoeTSi. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 18.VII. 29, 1980. Turnava 1983: Turnava r. sabas igav-arakebi inglisurad. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 36, 2.IX.1983. Turnava 1984: Turnava r. qarTuli poeziis anTologia. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 6. I. 2, 1984. Turnava 1999: Turnava s. XX saukunis sazRvargareTuli qarTvelologia. I, Tb.: 1999. TvalTvaZe 1969: - . . . . . . . . . . . , .: "", 1969. `iveria~ 1878: bibliografiuli cnoba. `iveria~, 20, 25.V. 1878. `iveria~ 1894: narkvevi. `iveria~, 108, 23.V.1894. imedaSvili 1954: . . `wigni sibrZne sicruisa~ [" "]. , . XV, 5. 1954. in-man [maWavariani ivane] 1895: in-man [maWavariani ivane]. wigni sibrZnesicruisa: qarTulis zRaprebis wigni meTvramete saukunisa, sulxansaba orbelianisa. gadaTargmnili SeniSvnebiTurT oliver uordropis mier, `iveria~, 60, 18.III.1895. iordaniSvili 1933: i[ordaniSvili] s. sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisa~ germanulad. `mnaTobi~, 3, 1933. iordaniSvili 1939: . - " ". wignSi: .-. " ", . . . , . . . , .: . " ", 1939. iordaniSvili 1953: iordaniSvili s. sulxan-saba orbeliani da misi wigni `sibrZne-sicruisa~. wignSi: narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, Tb.: `sabWoTa mwerali~, 1953. iStvanoviCi 1955: Szulhan-Szaba Orbeliani, A Bölcseség mesés könyve. Második Kiadas. [Forditotta Honti Rezsö, Az illustráciok és a fedélrajz Farkas Ferengne munkája], Uj magyar könyvkiadó, Budapest, 1955.

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iStvanoviCi 1983: Jstvanovits. Anmerkungen zum Märchen "Der Zauberarzt" von S.-S. Orbeliani. krb. `aRmosavluri filologia~, V(1983). `kavkasioni~ 1983: . "", 1, 1983. kakulia 1962: kakulia a. `sibrZne sicruisa~ Cexur enaze. `Tbilisi~, 4.XII.1962, 284. kalandariSvili 1955: . . .: , 1955. kaxniaSvili 1975: kaxniaSvili v. Cveni eris saunje. `komunisti~, 66, 20.III.1975. kaxniaSvili 1981: kaxniaSvili v. Cveni mwerloba germanulad. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 34, 21. VIII. 1981. kekeliZe 1939: . . .: . , 1939; ix. agreTve etiudebi, IX, Tb., saq. mecn. akad. gamomcemloba, 1963. kekeliZe 1959: kekeliZe k. zogierTi momenti sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis istoriisa. sulxan-saba orbeliani (saiubileo krebuli). Tb.: Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 1959. `kvali~ 1894: sayuradRebo ambebi. `kvali~, 22, 22.V.1894. kinwuraSvili 1986: kinwuraSvili k. peterburgeli qarTvelologebi. Tb.: `ganaTleba~, 1986. kobalaZe 1972: . . . . . .: , 1972. laisti 1903: Leist A. Das georgische Volk. Dresden: 1903. langi 1955: Lang D. M. Georgian Studies in Oxford. In: Oxford Slavonic Papers, Vol. VI, 1955. langi 1956: Lang D. M. Wisdom and Lies. Variations on a Georgian Literary Theme. ­ BSOAS, XVIII/3, 1956. langi 1957a: lengi d. qarTvelologiuri kvleva-Zieba oqsfordSi. `ciskari~, 4, 1957. langi 1957b: lengi d. wigni sibrZne-sicruisa-s saTaurisaTvis. `mnaTobi~, 5, 1957. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1970: sulxan-saba orbeliani rusulad. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 15, 10.IV, 1970. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1973: `sibrZne sicruisa~ germanulad. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 35, 7. IX. 1973. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~ 1982: `sibrZne sicruisa~ inglisur enaze. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 25, 18.VI.1982. leoniZe 1928: orbeliani sulxan-saba. sibrZne-sicruisa. g. leoniZis redaqciiT. tf.: gamomcemloba `Sroma~, 1928. leoniZe 1961: . - . wignSi: . .: " ", 1961. leoniZe 1969: . - . . wignSi: - . . . . . .: "", 1969.

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lolaSvili 1986: lolaSvili i. aleqsandre cagareli. wignSi: Zveli qarTuli literaturis mkvlevarni, Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1986. lorTqifaniZe 1953: . - , . .: , 1953. magaroto 1978: Magarotto L. Recensione a Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani. La Sagesse du Mensonge, traduzione dal georgiano e introduzione di G. Buacidze, illustrazioni di L. Gudiasvili. Tbilisi, 1978. Oriente Moderno, Rivista mensile, Anno LVIII, n. 11, Roma. 1978. magaroto 1987: Magarotto L. La saggezza della menzogna (Sibrzne sicruisa): Dizionario dei Capolavori, III, Torino. 1987. magaroto 1989: Magarotto L. Orbeliani Sulkhan-Saba. Grande Dizionario Enciclopedico. XIV, Torino, UTET, 1989. maliugina 1979: . " " . " ", 53, 3. III. 1979. malt-breni 1810: Analyse du tableau historique, politique, ecclésiastique et littéraire de la Géorgie, écrit en russe par l'archimandrite Eugénius: "Annales des voyages", t. 12, Paris, 1810. mamulaSvili 1973: mamulaSvili m. `sibrZne sicruisa~ germanulad. `samSoblo~, IX. 18, 1973. mari 1907: . . . . " XVIII ". " ", 3 (.). 1907. mari 1917: . " " - . . VI , 7, 1917. maruaSvili 1956: . , . .: . ., 1956. maWavariani 1980: maWavariani m. al. cagarelis koleqciis avtografebi. `mwignobari~, gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1980. maxaTaZe 1955: . XVIII . . .: , 1955. menabde 2005: menabde l. Zveli qarTuli literaturis Seswavlis istoria da Tanamedrove mdgomareoba. Tb.: Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 2005. mTvareliSvili 1892; mTvareliSvili n. wigni sibrZne-sicruvisa sabasulxan orbelianisa. sxvadasxva xelTnawerebTan axlad Sedarebuli da gamarTuli n.mTvareliSvilis mier. Tb.: 1892. mnaTobi 1973: `sibrZne sicruisa~ germanul enaze. `mnaTobi~, 10, 1973. mongirdi 1954: S. Orbeliani, O madroci rzeczy zmylonych. Warzawa: "Czytelnik", 1954. murie 1885: Mourier J. Prince Saba Sulkhan Orbeliani. Les Contes Georgiens du XXII-éme et XVIII-éme siècles. D'après le texte de Tsagarelli, Professeur à la Faculté des Langues orientales à Saint-Petersbourg; par J. Mourier, Officier de J'Instruction publique, Tbilissi: 1885. murie 1888: Mourier J. Contes et Légendes du Caucase (Contes géorgiens, contes mingréliens), [traduit par J. Mourier], Paris: 1888. mWedliSvili, petrova 1959: Orbeliani Soulkhan-Saba. The Book of Wisdom and Fiction (Selections). Translated by J. Mchedlishvili and I. Petrova, Tbilisi: "Tsodna", 1959.

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mWedliSvili, petrova 1973: Orbeliani Soulkhan-Saba. The Book of Wisdom and Fiction (Selections). II. Edition, "Ganatleba", 1973. natroSvili 1991: . . " ", 9-10, 1991. novicki 1961: i . I, i . , . , C. ii. ï i. i: 1961. noikomi 1981: Neokomm R. Die Literatur Georgiens. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 295. 19/20.12. 1981. peCi 1974: Pätsch G. Zwei deutsche Fassungen von Sulchan-Saba Orbelianis: "Die Weisheit der Lüge". "Bedi Kartlisa", revue de Kartvélologie, vol. XXXII. Paris: 1974. prampolini 1949: Prampolini G. La letteratura georgiana: G. Prampolini, Storia della letteratura universale. II, Torino. 1949. reviSvili 1977: reviSvili S. germanul-qarTuli etiudebi. Tb.: Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 1977. riabinini 1889: . h h, . wignSi: h h. . . . . . . .: 1889. `samSoblo~ 1984: Turnava s. sulxan-saba inglisurad. `samSoblo~, 8, aprili, 1984. siraZe 1984: Orbeliani Sulchan-Saba. Weisheit der Erdichtung. Übersetzt von Helene Siradse. Redigiert von K. Dschordschaneli. "Ganatleba" verlag. Tbilissi: 1984. smiti 1987: Smith J. P. Orbeliani Saba-Sulkhan. Dizionario Bompiani degli Autori. III, Milano. 1987. surgulaZe 1979: surgulaZe m. gaz. `The Georgian Messeger~ qarTuli kulturis Sesaxeb. `ciskari~, 7, 1979. uordropi 1888: Wardrop O. The Kingdom of Georgia. Notes of Travel in a Land of Women, Wine and Song. London: 1888. uordropi 1894: Wardrop O. Orbeliani Sulkhan-Saba, The Book of Wisdom and Lies, A Book of Traditional Stories from Georgia, in Asia, Translated by O. Wardrop. London: 1894. fenrixi 1973: Orbeliani S. S. Die Weisheit der Lüge. Übers. von H. Fähnrich. Berlin: 1973. fenrixi 1974: Orbeliani S. S. Die Weisheit der Lüge. von H. Fähnrich. [Frankfurt/M/]: Insel, 1974. fenrixi 1981: Fähnrich H. Die Georgische Literatur (Ein überblick). Herausgeber V. Kachniaschvili. "Sabtschota Sakartvelo", Tbilisi: 1981. ferensene 1983: Sulchanas Saba Orbelianis. Prasimanym Ismintis. Is rus kalbos verte Goda Ferensiene. "Vaga". Vilnius: 1983. finki 1925: Fink N. F. Die Orientalischen Literaturen (Die Kultur der Gegenwart. Abteilung VII des I. Teils, Berlin-Leipzig: 1906), 1925. furlani 1970: Furlani G. Letteratura dell'oriente cristiano, Letteratura georgiana: Le civilta dell'oriente, Storia, letteratura, religioni, filosofia, scienze e arte, sotto la direzione di G. Tucci, redazione a cura dell'Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo oriente, redattore A. Gargano, II. Letteratura, Firenze-Roma. 1970. quTaTelaZe 1950: . - ( ). . .: 1950.

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RoRoberiZe 1948: -. . . . . . . . .: . ., 1948. RoRoberiZe 1951: -. . . . . . . . . . . . . .: , 1951. RoRoberiZe 1955: -. . . . . . wignSi: . , . . I, .: , 1955. RoRoberiZe 1959: -. . . . . . . . . .: , 1959. RoRoberiZe 1975: -. . . . . . . . . .: . ., 1975. RoRoberiZe 1982: -. . . . . . wignSi: (V-XVIII .). . . . .: . , 1982; 1987. RoRoberiZe 1987: -. , (). . . . wignSi: . .: , 1987. yazaziSvili 1959: yazaziSvili r. `sibrZne sicruisa~ ukrainul enaze, `literaturuli gazeTi~, 4.IX.1959, 36. SaraZe 1984: SaraZe g. bednierebisa da saTnoebis saunje (uordropebi da saqarTvelo), Tb.: gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1984. Sklovski 1929: . . .: . "", 1929. SurRaia 2003: SurRaia g. italiurenovani qarTvelologia da qarTuli mwerloba. wignSi: qarTuli literatura evropul mecnierebaSi. Tb.: `qarTvelologi~, 2003. CilaCava 2005: ` ~. I , , , mapi ma i i. i, 2005. Cubinovi 1846: . , . qarTuli qristomatia anu gamokrebilni adgilebi qarTulTa werilTagan d. Cubinovis mier ( . . ). ., . I, 1846. CxataraiSvili 1972: CxataraiSvili q. sulxan-saba orbelianis `mogzaurobis~ rusuli Targmanis gamo. saqarTvelos feodaluri xanis istoriis sakiTxebi, II, 1972. Cxenkeli 1958: Tschenkeli K. Einführung in die georgische Sprache. Bd. II. Amirani Verlag Zürich (Switzerland): 1958. cagareli 1873: . . . ., 1873. cagareli 1878: ( XVIIXVIII .). - . . . . 1878. cagareli 1893: . . , . . IX-. ., 1893.

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cagareli 1939: .. . . . . . , , . . . . [], . " ", 1939. caiSvili 1987: . - . wignSi: ­ . .: "", 1987. wereTeli 1933: Die Weisheit der Lüge, gesprochen von Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani (georgische Bibliothek. Herausgegeben von A. Metreveli, N1). Berlin-Wilmersdorf. Übersetzt aus dem Georgischen von Prof. Dr. M. von Tseretheli. Einleitung von Dr. Surab Avalischwili, 1933. `wignis samyaro~ 1982: [`sibrZne sicruisa~] inglisur enaze, `wignis samyaro~, 14, 28.VII.1982. wulaZe 1982: `La poésie géorgienne~. Ve­XXe siécles. Traduction et commentaires de Serge Tsouladze. Editions "Ganatleba", Tb.: 1982. xanTaZe 1966: xanTaZe S. mari brose (istoriografiuli narkvevi), Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1966. xaxanaSvili 1901: . . . 3, XIII-XVIII . .: 1901. jRarkava 1973: . - . . , 1973.

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rostom CxeiZe

`sibrZne sicruisa~ da `TeTri daTvi~

(sulxan-sabas arakTa postmodernistuli versiebi) sulxan-saba orbelianis saxeli `nakrZalis~ finalSi rom gaielvebs da misi erTi arakis siuJetur qargasac gaixsenebs personaJi, es im suraTis dasrulebasac dasWirda da tragikomikuri realobis fsiqologiuri sarCulis gamkveTrebasac _ igavur mxareze gamWvirvale miniSnebas, Torem oTar CxeiZe maSin verc ifiqrebda, oci wlis Semdgom sabas saxelisa da misi `sibrZne sicruisas~ gamoxmoba axali romanis _ `TeTri daTvi~ _ kompoziciuri struqturis asagebad Tu gamoadgeboda, da kidev _ misi simboluri fonis gasamZafreblad. originaluri struqtura ki aigeboda. da sabas saxelis moSveliebiT misi romanTa cikli `matiane qarTlisa~ uSualod gasdebda xids `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Tavmoyril istoriul TxzulebebTan, upirvelesad mainc leonti mrovelTan Tu juanSerTan. viTom sulxan-saba ra SuaSi unda iyos am simboluri xidis gadebisas?!. `TeTri daTvis~ Sinaarsidan es uSualod ar amoikiTxeba da maS ra vifiqroT _ sulxan-sabas kvalobaze Seqmnili arakebi martoden kompoziciuri daniSnulebis elementebad warmogvidgeba da CamovexsnaT `qarTlis cxovrebasTan~ am saerTos Ziebas?.. uSualod Tu ar amoikiTxeba, samagierod, oTar CxeiZis samecniero narkvevi _ `novelis sawyisebi~ _ da esei _ `novela qarTlis cxovrebisa~ dagvexmareba am CarTul arakTa ufro Rrma daniSnulebis amocnobaSi, vidre siuJeturi qargis mowesrigebaa _ TavisTavad metad mniSvnelovani garemoeba epikuri TxzulebisaTvis, da miTufro oTar CxeiZis xelSi, yovelTvis kompoziciur srulyofilebas rom aRwevs da misi mxatvruli qmnilebani (romanebsa, novelebsa da piesebTan erTad eseisturi prozac) qrestomaTiulia am kuTxiTac. iq ki, `nakrZalSi~, tragikuli da komikuri nakadebi marjved rom monacvleobs da erTmaneTSic wamdauwum ixlarTeba, am stilistikisaTvis niSandoblivi TamaSis xerxebic uxvad, feierverkuli TavbrudamxvevobiT trialebs da sulxan-sabas saxelmac swored am fonze unda amoanaTos, givi arsaiZe

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rom dascinis Sefarulad arkadi akademikoss, da viTom gulwrfelad ixsenebs da veRarc ixsenebs, es araki ruqam uambo xelmwifes Tu leonma Tu jumberma Tu... sulac gamorCenoda Cvens didebul meigaves: aqlems rom tvirTi daumZimdeboda da waiqceoda, da viri astexda gulsaklav yroyins. ra gayroyinebso? _ hkiTxavdnen virs da is gulsaklavadve miugebda, magis tvirTsac me amkidebeno. da unda Cafiqrdes arkadi akademikosi: neta romel personaJs aTqmevina an iqneb marTla gamorCa kidec im sulkurTxeulso. givi ki axalgazrdebma unda gaitacon, qorwili gagrZeldes da ambavic iseve bednierad moTavdes, jadosnur zRaprebs rom sCvevia da `vefxistyaosnis~ finalSic gadmosula esqatologiur gaazrebad. `bednierad moTavdao~ _ irwmuneba mwerali da es Sesityveba amjerad mwvave dramatizmiT msWvalavs romanis dasasruls, rakiRa am mxiarulebasa da Tavdaviwyebas erTi patiosani, Tavisi qveynis moWirnaxule kaci Seswirvia, wlobiT naSrom-najafari xelidan rom gamoucliaT, TviTon miuTvisebiaT, wodeba-jinjilebic uSovniaT, is ki iseve amaod cdilobda Tavisi naamagaris dabrunebas, rogor fuWadac eqciaT misi mondomeba _ saqarTvelo gadaqceuliyo nakrZalad, ase gamoecxadebina civilizebul msoflios, da egeb am gziT mainc gamxdariyo SesaZlebeli misi TviTmyofadobis gadarCena ruseTis klanWebisagan, sul ufro da ufro rom uWerda yelSi am uZvelesi kulturis qveyanas, gamorCeuls Tavisi istoriiTac da amJamindeli mSvenierebiTac, oRond lamis gasaqrobad ganwirulis. dampyroblis kabalas gadaegvarebina zneoba, moeSala sazogadoebrivi cnobiereba da `nakrZali~ am tragizms warmosaxavda Seuferadeblad. da bunebrivad Cndeboda finalur suraTSi es kontrasti _ ori procesiis SefeTeba saburTaloze: samgloviarosi da saqorwinosi, erTi sololakidan rom gamosuliyo da meore mcxeTidan, erTs Savi manqana miuZRoda, meores etli TeTri cxenebiT, erTs mgloviareni mihyvebodnen, meores aRgznebuli da wamonTebuli adamianebi, erTi namdvili gaxldaT _ namdvili glova da gasveneba, meore sanaxaoba gegonebodaT da Zaldautaneblad miamsgavsebdiT reJisorisa da misi amalis dabrunebas istoriuli kinofilmis gadaRebidan. da qorwilma unda STanTqas glova. mxiarulebam moTqma.

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da Seqmnas ambis bednierad moTavebis is iluzia, rac gangaSiT aRavsebs Txrobas da dazafravs mkiTxvels _ ra eSveleba qveyanas Rirseul adamianTa tragediaze amoSenebuli mxiaruleba-zeimis pirobebSi?!. da Tu vinmes saxeba unda gaelvebuliyo am gulisSemZvreli xilvisas, gaelvebuliyo nugeSadac da mxilebadac, gamamxnevebladac da mkacr ganaCenadac, usaTuod sulxan-saba orbelianisac... da kidec amoanaTebda im personaJis piriT, suli sulTagani da sisxli sisxlTagani rom Seqmnila am sazogadoebis, RviZli Svili am parodiuli, tragikomikuri sinamdvilis, da _ sxvaTagan gansxvavebiT _ Tumc mkafiod gaucnobierebia am realobis buneba, givi arsaiZes, urCevnia TviTonac am vakxanaliis monawile iyos, itivtivos im mRvrie talRebSi da miendos bedis trials, vidre raimes sasikeTo Secvlas Seecados. egaa, drodro ironiul mzeras mimoatarebs xolme irgvliv da garSemo myofTac dascinis da sakuTar Tavsac. ase iSoSminebs wamier afeTqebebs, ase ixSobs protestis grZnobas, rakiRa metis Zala ar Seswevs, vidre Cumi qirqili Tu Sefaruli dacinvaa. sulxan-sabas aqlemi da viri sxva siuJetur qargaSi moeqcia personaJebad, iq aqlemis tvirTs ki ar ahkidebdnen virs, aramed virs Tavis tvirTianad ahkidebdnen aqlems, vinc _ virze ganawyenebuli _ sastik samagieros gadauxdida Zvel Zmobils, darokdeboda da imas kldeze gadaCexavda. da maS `nakrZalis~ personaJi mis saxels ratom unda axsenebdes sul sxva _ aseve maxvilgonivruli arakis _ gaxsenebisas? romanis mxatvrul-ideuri koncefcia moiTxovda sabas landis amotivtivebas, da Tu givi arsaiZis mier gaxsenebuli siuJeti ar Tavsdeba `sibrZne sicruisas~ igavTa ciklSi, gamosavali mainc moiZebneboda: egeb uneburad gamorCenoda kacs, vinc _ ucxoelTa dakvirvebiT _ mTel saqarTvelos mamad miaCnda, mamad _ ara martoden rogorc sulieri moZRvari, aramed xorcSesxmuli mfarveli Tavisi xalxisa, misi zneobis mwvrTnelic, mamxilebelic da aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis gzebis damlaSqravic Camoxufuli sivrcis gasarRvevad. ise SeiZleba ki sulxan-sabas raime mniSvnelovani gamorCenoda igavTa sagnis SeTxzva-Sedgenisas? cxadia, yvelasa da yvelafers vercerTi wigni ver moicavs kacobriobis istoriaSi, brZnulic da brZnulze brZnu-

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lic, uSualo teqsti Segnebulad Tu uneburad faravs uamrav raimes, Tumc mkiTxvelis warmosaxvam ama Tu im teqstis karnaxiT SesaZloa bevri asociacia daatrialos, upirvelesi STamagonebeli mainc esa Tu is wigni an esa Tu is Semoqmedi iyos; da `nakrZalis~ personaJi amitomac aRar dagidevs im siuJetis warmomavlobis dazustebas _ misTvis yvela igavi Tu araki sulxan-sabas saxelSi iyris Tavs, imis miuxedavad, `sibrZne sicruisas~ teqstSi uSualod aRbeWdila Tu ara misTvis amjerad yvelaze saWiro siuJeti. egeb sulac gamorCao... parodiul garemos, satirul fons, Txrobis groteskul maneras Zaldautaneblad erwymis amgvari frazebi, da iqneb aqvec moTavebuliyo, oci wlis Semdgom cota sxvagvarad rom ar Semobrunebuliyo misi daniSnuleba da TiTqosda sasxvaTaSorisod gaelvebuli sityvebi romanis kompoziciur sayrdenad da gamWvirvale alegoriad Tu simbolur fonad ar gadaqceuliyo. oTar CxeiZe maSin amas verc ifiqrebda. `nakrZals~ dasWirda mxatvruli koncefciis gasaxsnelad, finalur monakveTs CaerTo maxvilgonivrul mignebad sulxan-sabas saxelic da misi personaJebisac, da es iyo da es, vidre wlebis Semdeg es migneba TviTonve ukarnaxebda `TeTri daTvis~ mxatvrul agebulebas _ satiris, parodiis, groteskis, tragizmis, dramatizmis im Tavisebur nazavs, romelsac aserigad gaamZafrebda dokumenturi foni da iseve gamoiwvevda mrisxanebas Tavis TanamedroveTagan, mrisxanebasa da misi Caqolvis wadils, rogorc saukuneTa winaT sulxan-saba orbelians moemko sastiki sazRauri Tavdadebuli garjis wil. am mxrivac damgvaneboda am ori moRvawis biografia. egeb sulac gamorCao... is, rac `nakrZalis~ personaJis piriT ase dauridebladac SeiZleba gamoTqmuliyo, `TeTr daTvSi~ odnav icvlida saxes da sulxan-sabas ki aRar `dabraldeboda~ misi gamotoveba, aramed `sibrZne sicruisas~ cnobil gamocemebs. es imitomac, rom _ gansxvavebiT givi arsaiZisagan _ literaturis maswavlebeli, vinc amas amtkicebs, groteskuli saxe ki ar aris, aramed realisturi; ise uCveulod ki gamoiyureba es erTaderTi kaci maswavlebeli, rakiRa skolas qalebi dauflebian, moxucebula, Tumc Warmagobs da, sxva SemTxvevaSi Tu didad ar ewinaaRmdegeba saswavlo programas, amjerad dabejiTebTi irwmuneba, ruqas erT-erTi arakia

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gamorCenili sulxan-sabas igavTa wignis gamocemebSi da aucileblad unda aRdges, zogi arakic gafermkrTalebula umkacresi sacenzuro pirobebis gamoisobiT da isinic Sesaferisad unda dazustdes, raTa xelT gvqondes `sibrZne sicruisas~ avTentikuri, dadgenili teqsti da ara misi alagalag Secvlili versiao. esec mwerluri xerxi _ `gamotovebuli~ Tu `sacenzuro pirobebis gamo damaxinjebuli~ arakebi gamoCndes ara interpolaciebad, aramed `sibrZne sicruisas~ ganuyofel nawilad, mis uSualo gadmowvdomad axal droebasTan. oRond vidre `nakrZalsa~ da `TeTr daTvs~ Soris sulxansabas landic gaabamda farul kavSirs, 80-iani wlebis damdegs es landi gadmoefineboda `Cemi soflis etiudebis~ erT-erT nimuSs, romelic asevec dasaTaurdeboda: `igavi sulxan-sabasi~. da ukve mianiSnebda, rom es saxeba kvlavac iCenda Tavs oTar CxeiZis mxatvrul qmnilebebSi, rakiRa es fraza _ `isev sabas miubrundeboda, sabasTan iyo da sabasTan midioda~ _ martoden personaJis mrwamss ki aRar gamoxatavs, aramed mwerlisac, personaJis gancdebs miadevnebs sakuTar fiqrsa da gancdas: TviTon miubrundeba isev da isev sabas, imasTan trialebs, imisken miiltvis. personaJi ki ara tydeba, Torem uRonoba mainc dautyvia sakuTari TavisaTvis, dajdeba da veRar dgeba, adgeba da dajdoma uZneldeba, Sin aris da gareT miurbis guli, gareT aris da Sin eweva, taxtze baliSebs miuwyobdnen _ zurgidanac da aqeT-iqidanac, dajafuli, daqanculi xelebis Camosayrdnobad, mxrebi rom veRarc ereva, dadrekia Tu mowyvetia mxar-iRlia, veRarafers veRar ereva, wignsac ki, erTaderTi `sibrZne sicruisa~ moudevs gverdiT da zogjer Tu striqonsac veRar CaaTavebs xel da quToToebdamZimebuli, xanac: _ aiyoliebda yoveli striqoni, Caefloboda ZirisZirobamdisa, iq Cavidoda Tu amaT amoiyvanda, _ sabas gmirebsa raRa Tqma unda, _ gaereoda anTu imaTSia, an ise sCxrekda SoriT-Soridana, anTu egona, isini mCxrekeno da moerideboda, an Tavs awonebda, _ rodis ratomao, aRar iZiebda... metad sagulisxmoa is sulieri siaxlove, rasac novelis gmiri iCens sulxan-sabas personaJebTan _ TiTqos maTSi gareula da ise Cxreks, rogorc garSemomyofT. da isinic rom aseve muStris TvaliT Semohyureben da kidec Seacbuneben, TiTqosda marTla moSlila yovelgvari samani yofiT da warmosaxviT samyaroebs Soriso.

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an raRa TiTqos... moSlila da egaa. sulier siaxloves rac SeZlebia, amjeradac ase xelSesaxebad gamoxatula, rakiRa XX saukunis mwerali, Tavis personaJianad, sabas mibrunebia, sabasTan aris da yovelTvisac sabasTan midis. da personaJi `sibrZne sicruis~ wigns kverTxiviT rom gaiSvers win _ gzisgamkvalavad, TiTqos avtorsve moumarjvebia da sworedac kverTxiviTo. novela sabas arakis qargaze amoSenebula _ pirdapir Semodis imis siuJeti, raTa gaiSalos, axal droebas miesadagos, Seupirispirdes da misi daqveiTebuli saxe da arsi TvalnaTlivi gaxados. TviTon araki xeluxleblad rCeba, postmodernistuli gadaweris, postmodernistuli redaqtirebis gareSe. `TeTr daTvSi~ ki swored amgvari `gadawerisa~ Tu `redaqtirebis~ mowme vxdebiT. pirvelad rom gaielvebs sulxan-sabas arakze miniSneba, iq jer saamiso araferi igrZnoba, mxolod tragikomikur gamWvirvalebas qmnis `moZRvari melis~ xseneba boris elcinTan dakavSirebiT, momrigeblobas rom Cemulobs, sabas personaJisa ar iyos, liliT savse samRebros qvevrSi rom Cavardeboda da, Savad SeRebili, ficils mohyveboda: marTalia Cemi dReni codvis qmniT davaRame, magram axla Wkuas movege, es sofeli uarvyavi, berad Sevdeqi da ierusalims vapireb wasvlaso. daTareSobda ruseTi saqarTvelos istoriul miwa-wyalze moxaliseTa Tu konfederatTa saxeliT, aeklo da gamoedevna qarTveli mosaxleoba, CaebRuja Cveni teritoriebi da Suamavladac TviTon dadgeboda, raTa sakuTari reputacia gadaerCina saerTaSoriso sarbielze. da rakiRa msoflio politikur sazogadoebasac ase erCivna _ Tavis motyueba ujobda simarTlisaTvis Tvalis gasworebas _ iolad yabuldeboda ruseTis prezidentis ficsa da aRTqmas da gaubedav buzRunsa da Cumi Tanadgomisa Tu TanagrZnobis gamocxadebas kmarobda CvenTvis. axali xanis `moZRvari meli~ imTaviTve gaSiSvlebuliyo, vera faravda saRebavebi, magram gatvrenil dasavleTs TavisTvis ase ujobda, melias moZRvroba erwmuna da pirispir SevetovebineT im TeTri daTvisaTvis, romlis simbolikac oTar CxeiZes romanis saTaurad gaetana da Tavdapirvelad arc dakmayofilebuliyo mokle saxelwodebiT. `TeTri daTvi, TeTri mela da ruxi mgeli~.

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esec am romanis saTauris pirvandeli versia, romlis Secvlac yovelTvis afiqrebda da romanis gamocemis Semdegac _ aramcTu Jurnalis furclebze gamoqveynebisas _ kvlav utrialebda, saboloodac ase daetovebina Tu is Tavdapirveli versia aRedgina. misi romanebis ciklisaTvis _ `matiane qarTlisa~ _ swored mokle saxelwodebania niSandoblivi: erT an orsityviani. da uecrad amxela saTauri amovardnili iqneboda saerTo rkalidan. Tumc... amovardniliyo, gana ra daSavdeboda, gamravalferovndeboda CamonaTvali _ eg iqneboda da eg. Tanac saTaurive mianiSnebda romanis istoriul personaJTa alegoriul saxeebze, saerTodac, mis igav-arakul Taviseburebasa da alegoriul gamWvirvalebaze. TeTri daTvi _ ruseTi da misi imJamindeli prezidenti, imperiuli warsulis Semosabruneblad SemarTuli, vinc mxolod saxesa Tu niRabs Seicvlida droTa kvalobaze. TeTri mela _ saqarTvelos prezidenti eduard SevardnaZe, visi alegoriuli miniSnebisTvisac oTar CxeiZes ar dasWirdeboda sagangebo Zieba, radganac pirdapir gadmoitanda mis zedmet saxels. da ruxi mgeli _ CeCneTis prezidenti johar dudaevi, Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobisaken mimswrafi suliT, mglis simbolika rogorc gamoxatula poetur warmosaxvaSi _ Cveni xalxuri poezia gnebavT Tu Sandor petefis patriotuli lirika. calke gamotanili simbolo TeTri daTvisa uSualod ruseTis xatia, prezidentebad rom aRarc qucmacdeba, da TviTon romanis siuJetSi erT prezidentsac rom gauigivdes, saxelwodeba ufro ganzogadebulad warmogvidgeba. mxolod simokle ar unda wyvetdes mis arCevas saTaurad _ es ganzogadebac aucileblad unda vigulisxmoT. magram romanTa saxelwodebebis is gamravalferovneba? sulxan-sabas dakargul Tu xelovnurad Casworebul xelnawerze miniSneba saTauridanve daTviT, melaTi da mgliT? amitomac ver moTavebuliyo mwerlis Sinagani bWoba romanis gamocemiTac. pirvelad rom Cndeba araki mis siuJetSi, sabas stilistikiT gawyobili _ parodiuli efeqtisaTvis `distanciuri pultic~ rom aris naxsenebi _ daTvi rom tors dascxebs da tbas gayinavs, yinuli ki wyalSi kudCayofil melas Zalian mouWers, qaTibs yinuli Cauyvlifavs da kudis risksRa Sear-

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Cens, iqneb erTjerad gaelvebadac aRiqvas mkiTxvelma, personaJis dabinduli cnobierebis Tavisebur gamosxivebad: he mefeo, es araki amisTvis mogaxseneo, _ da kidec unda gamoerkves warmosaxvaTa nakadidan _ sadRaa anTu finez anTu sedraq, anTu ruqao. vidre literaturis maswavlebeli amohyofdes Tavs dabejiTebuli mtkicebiT: gamorCenili da cenzurisagan gafermkrTalebul-damaxinjebuli arakebi aucileblad unda aRdges `sibrZne sicruisas~ axali gamocemisaso. xalxuri Tqmuleba _ marti sam dRes rom isesxebs aprilisagan, raTa mwyemss mwared ananos kadnieri dacinva: ise gavida martio, ver mohkla ciknis bartyio _ sulxan-sabas stiliT gaimarTeboda (`iyo mwyemsi erTi dia laRi, xalisiani. ra marti uSfoTvelad gavida, fandurs Camohkra, daimRvra...~) da ruqas miewereboda misi warmoTqma. `eniT dakodili~ axleburi saTauriT moinaTleboda: `eniT dakodili TeTri daTvi~ _ da cenzuris mier amoSlil sityvad `TeTris~ garda `samitic~ gasaRdeboda, rac kidev ufro gaamkveTrebda parodiul efeqts. amasobaSi maswavleblebi unda gaificnon da gagrZeldes da gagrZeldes maTi gaficva, rakiRa mTavroba dapirebas ver asrulebs, parlamentisa ki ara sjeraT. darbeviT ver daurbeviaT, radganac arc mitingebs marTaven, arc demonstraciebs, sxedan skolebis ezoebSi da lanZRva-gmobas ar akleben xelisufalT dabal xmaze. qarTulis maswavlebels ki Semougrovebia Tavisi jgufi da axal arakebs ukiTxavs: kidev aRmoCnda, `sibrZne sicruisas~ cnobil xelnawerebSi rom ar SeutaniaTo. da malulad, mofarebiT acnobs ymawvilebs mis mier mikvleul ruqas araks. Tan wuxs, Tan imedovnebs: sponsori rom gamomiCndebodes, sabas arakTa marTebul redaqcias meve gamovcemdio. `eniT dakodilSi~ TeTri daTvi Tu ufro uwyinarad gamoiyureboda, am nimuSSi ukve gaSiSvlebulia alegoria, radganac: _ daTvman TeTrman awvia TaTbiri. da iyo igi yovlisa borotisa moqmedi. cxoveli cxovels mosdevs am TaTbirze dasaswrebad, yvela TavTavisi bewviT modis, mxolod mela gamocxaddeba TeTri qaTibiT da, gulmosuli daTvis davalebiT, saqanelaze moxtunave TriTina curcliT aavsebs melas, vinc miuxvdeba daTvs am xriks da gaifiqrebs: me rom es mixrika, gangeba magas uaress uxrikavso. da kidec unda gamoCndes rusi mgeli da daTvis saqanelaze Sextes. uecrad movlenilma kacma ki

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daTvs unda urCios: avnaqmarTa SenTaTvis mogeniWa es yovelive da, Tuki ar gnebavs, sxva gza unda eZioo.. daTvi? gaqirsaa, aba, risi daTvia: aseTi didi Semqmna RmerTma da Cems meti amqveynad veravin daetioso. cxovelebi xtian saqanelaze da kidec erTbaSad moisxipeba araki, rac uCveuloa am JanrisaTvis, magram niSandoblivi Cveni drois literaturisaTvis: Ria finali. ase iWreba modernizmis elementi `sibrZne sicruisas~ redaqtirebul nawilSi. da postmodernizmisaTvis maxlobeli is gaTamaSebac amohyofs Tavs, TiTqosda aSkara interpolaciad rom Seereva axali araki literaturis maswavleblis mier redaqtirebul teqsts _ viTom aqamde marTlac yvelaze sando xelnaweridan imowmebdes nimuSebs. es axali arakic sabaseburad iwyeba (`iyo daTvi erTi TeTri~), magram arc misi unda iyos, arc iakob gogebaSvilisa, Targmans ufro waagavs da lafontenisken gadagiqanebs fiqrs, magram arc misi kuTvnileba dasturdeba da arc krilovis, radganac am SemTxvevaSi akaki wereTels ar darCeboda uTargmneli. alegorias arc amjerad ara sWirdeba gaxsna, boiarebisagan gaxelebuli daTvi TeTri melas moyvanas rom brZanebs da saxrCobelis aRmarTvasac, rakiRa daurwmunebiaT: cbierebas ar iSlis, Sen `babais~ geZaxis, CumCumad ki lomTan da vefxvTan daZvreba da Sen winaaRmdeg aqezebs oriveso. melia rom erTgulebas eficeba, daTvi branwis Cvenebas moindomebs imis niSnad, ver momatyuebo, magram ar mouxerxdeba branwi, radganac axalgazrdobisas brakonierobda Turme, maSin afeTqeboda xelSi dinamiti da TiTebic imas waewyvita. da arakSi goeTes `raineke melas~ is epizodi unda CaerTos, mura daTvs Taflis sixarbem rom daakargvina TiTebi. magram rakiRa goeTes mura daTvis Tavgadasavali moexseneba da TeTri daTvisa araferi gaegeba, TeTri daTvis ambavs im qveynis mwerali Tu mohyveba, am TeTri daTvis gisosebSi rom gamoketila, da kidec sakoncentracio banaks damgvanebia aseT yofaSi Cavardnili qveyana da suls Rafavs... da kidec daRafavs, Tu sakuTar Zal-Rones ar irwmunebs, Tu ar Seerkineba av bedisweras da kidec ar gadasZalavs.

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goeTes alegoriebi aseT ganzogadebas ver iZenda da arc sWirdeboda _ sasworze ar Segdebuliyo misi samSoblos bedi. aq ki tragizms komizmic unda Caewnas da arakSi gaielvos am moulodnelma _ da aRarc moulodnelma _ Sesityvebebma: `saqmiani viziti~, `konfidencialuri saubari~, `saerTaSoriso arbitraJi~, da `proeqtic~ Sesaferisad moergos am stilistikas. da melia TeTri daTvis winaSe ficils rom mohyveba: lomsa da vefxvs Sens winaaRmdeg ki ar vaqezeb, qulajebi acviaT iseTi, sadac dabertyaven, oqros mtveri cviva, stumrad viwvioT, aq davabertyinoT, mere mizezi vukrifoT da Tan ar gavatanoTo, _ da daTvic ase rom moiqceva, isini ki, nabertyis sazRaurad, moiTxoven am miwa-wyalze gvirabebisa Tu rkinigzebis gayvanasa da darbazebis wamoWimvas, amasobaSi ki madneulis gazidvasac aqedan, TeTr melas kvlav saxrCobela rom daemuqreba da saerTaSoriso arbitrad mowveuli spilo boiarebs aitacebs xorTumiT da daaprowialebs, TeTri daTvi ki axarxardeba da abarciburcdeba, kvlavac Ria finalma unda daagvirgvinos es siuJetic. momdevno arakis personaJma enis gasatexidan unda gadmoinacvlos am JanrSi (`erTsa kacsa bliskinelsa blis kalaTiT blis xidzeda bali gaaqvs da gamoaqvs~), egaa, blis xidi ufskrulis Tavze gakidebul bewvis xidad unda gardaisaxos, erTi kaci bliskineli ki jambazad da TeTr melad, bali rom verc SeuWamia da verc gauyidia. sal kldeTa Soris ki qari Rmuis, ulmobeli, susxiani, monaberi yinuleTidan, yinulTa Tavze ki TeTri daTvi gadmomdgara da suls is uberavs _ civsa da gayinuls, suli amosdis da ukanasknel suls uberavs; xolo sal kldes ruxi mgeli mixeTqebia, CabRauWebia brWalebiT, verc adis, verc Cadis, Cafrenia ganwiruli, ekvris, egliseba, yinuleTi ar uSvebs, cdilobs Seidnos, SeinivTos, Tavisad aqcios, yinuleTs Sematos, is ki gaZlebazea da farTxalebs, egeb meore kldidan siTbom miaRwios, Tan jambazs Sescqnavis, egeb mec mag bewvis xidze amiyvanoo, da is rom latans Caawvdis da ruxi mgelic moeWideba, is TeTri daTvi gadaireva, TaviT daerWoba, atrialdeba, abzrialdeba, da kidec mowydeba latans mgeli da ufskrulSi CainTqmeva, xiTxiTebs daTvi, mgels ki yinulis lodic daecema da gasress, magram mglis lekvebi unda amocvivdnen lodze, asrialdnen da acekvdnen qaris xmaze, TeTr daTvs xiTxiTis guneba wauxdes da veRarc ibzrialos, TiTqos TviTonac gayi-

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nulao. TeTri mela ki kvlav gadi-gamodis blis kalaTiT blis xidze. da kvlav axleburi finali, uecrad mosxletili da gadaxsnili mkiTxvelis SeSvelebis molodinSi _ dae iman daasruloso. aRarcsad TeTri daTvia, aRarcsad TeTri melia da aRarcsad ruxi mgeli. arak-xilvas SeniTebuli baadur rikoTelis cnobierebac TandaTan unda amoZravdes. maswavlebelma ki kidev erTi aRmoCenili araki unda waukiTxos bavSvebs, da Tund bavSvebma gaicinon: ra icoda `samiti~ sabamo, _ is ar unda daibnes: rogor Tu ar icoda, yvela is sityva moexseneboda, rac Semdgom unda SemoWriliyo qarTul metyvelebaSi, da Tumc avto jer ar gamoegonebinaT, stradac Zalian kargad icoda, eg aris, gzaSaras ar daagdebda da avtostradas ar dagvidgendao. da am fraziT dawyebuli araki _ awvia esenges samiti TeTrma daTvmao _ dabejiTebTi ganagrZos, TeTrad gadapentili daTvi uecrad rom aburdRundeba Wrela-Wrulad Semosili cxovelebis danaxvisas, xolo melas Sindisferi yabalaxi (gamWvirvale miniSneba 26 maisis saqarTveloze, romlis aRdgenac, Tanac erovnul safuZvelze, SesaZlebeli gamxdariyo 1991 wlis 9 aprilis aqtiT) Semouxvevia, aburdRundeba da sarkis motanas brZanebs, sarkeSi ki gabrdRvnili mgeli unda gamoCndes, aRarc bewvi SerCenia da aRarc tyavi, rakiRa ar gascloda qarsa da qaraSots, arc sxva ram ubedurebas ar Sepueboda da myudro alagi ar eZebna, fexi ar moecvala adgilidan _ amitomac dawretila sisxlisagan da xorcis ukanaskneli nafleTebic scviva. _ ratom arsad gaiqeci, ratom aravis Seafare Tavio, _ viTomda TanaugrZnobs TeTri daTvi, TiTqos misi movlenili ar iyos is yinuleTi da is sastiki qariSxlebi. pasuxad unda gaikvirvos ruxma mgelma: gaqceva ras miqvia an vinmesTan TavSefareba, es aris samSoblo Cemi, aq davibade da aq unda movkvdeo. da rafiel erisTavis striqonebic unda moadevnos: ar gavcvli me Cems samSoblos sxva qveynis samoTxezedao. postmodernistul samosSi gamowyobilma sulxan-sabam, cxadia, `samSoblo xevsurisac~ icis, da ruxi mglis piriT warmoTqmuli es striqonebi kavkasiuri mTlianobis ideadac gardaisaxeba, aserigad SemaSfoTeblad TeTri daTvisaTvis, vinc mrisxaned unda daemuqros sxva cxovelebs: emag Wrela-

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Wrulebs Tu ar moeSvebiT da isev Cems Wkuaze ar dadgebiT, Tqvenc is mogeliT, rac rux mgels daemarTao. postmodernistuli TamaSi imiTac grZeldeba, rom maswavlebeli `elgujas~ im epizodSi, maTia daTvs rom Seebmis da kidec gamofatravs, daTvis epiTetad `TeTrs~ umatebs da amtkicebs: cenzuram amoSala, Torem Tavdapirvelad ase da mxolod ase ewerebodao. aba, rusuli tyveobisagan TavdaxsnisaTvis brZolis istoriis gaxseneba aleqsandre yazbegis xsenebis gareSe?!. `sibrZne sicruisas~ viTomda uZvelesi xelnaweriT sargebloba ki aq mTavrdeba _ TeTri daTvis muqarasTan, blis xidze mimomaval TeTr melasTan, nafleTebad qceul, Tund kvlavac Seupovar rux mgelTan da gulanTebul mglis lekvebTan, mglisa da ciknis megobrobis realisturi suraTic _ yofiTi sinamdvilidan uSualod gadatanili romanis furclebze _ rom gadaebmis da moxdeniladac amoaxvevs siuJetis igavarakul xazs. siuJeturi xazi siuJetur xazad, miTumetes, `qarTlis cxovrebasTan~ garegnuli siaxlovis gasamkveTrebladac marjve mofiqreba gaxldaT am patar-patara ambavTa Calageba TxrobaSi. am garegnuli siaxlovis niSnebi imTaviTve gaCndeboda da sul ufro gaTvalsaCinovdeboda oTar CxeiZis romanebSi, romlebic ciklad ganzraxuliyo, oRond am Canafiqrs mwerali mogvianebiT gaamJRavnebda, romanTa ukve mTeli wyeba rom dalagdeboda, da saerTo saxelwodebasac maSin gaamxelda: `matiane qarTlisa~. am cikls unda moecva meoce saukune, mokidebuli xelmeored dakarguli damoukideblobidan am saukunis miwurulamde... Tumc bediswera ise moitanda, rom XXI saukunesac gadmowvdeboda. es unda yofiliyo mxatvruli istoria _ Tavisi gamokveTili realisturi foniT, dokumenturi mxare Tu nakadi sul ufro da ufro rom gamkveTrdeboda da 90-iani wlebidan moyolebuli, erTi SexedviT, sulac saistorio qronikebs daemgvaneboda oTar CxeiZis romanebi. `matiane qarTlisa~ ukve ara metaforad Tu miniSnebad, aramed pirdapirac iTqmoda. manamde Tu gamWvirvale miniSnebebSi amoikiTxeboda qveynis dramatuli Tavgadsavali, axla ambebic da personaJebic TavTavisi saxelebiTa da realiebiT gadasaxlebuliyvnen romanTa furclebze da nuRa gagikvirdeboda, Tuki romelime

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istorikosi sulac `qarTlis cxovrebis~ SemadgenlobaSi miuCenda adgils romanTa am cikls, sxva saistorio qronikebis gverdiT. saistorio qronikebisaTvis ki imTaviTve niSandoblivi yofila patar-patara ambavTa CarTva, sailustraciod moxmobilTa. ase yofila yvela qveyanaSi da es Tviseba amoikiTxeba qarTvel mematianeTa TxzulebebSic, qveSecneuladac grZnobdnen mis saWiroebas da TandaTan tradiciadac gamomuSavdeboda TxrobisaTvis meti simZafrisa da saxierebis miniWebisaTvis. mkvlevarebs arc gamorCeniaT am CarTul ambavTa es mxatvruli daniSnuleba. oTar CxeiZe gaiTvaliswinebda am dakvirvebebsa da mosazrebebs qarTuli novelis safuZvlebis Seswavla-damuSavebisas, monografiasac rom CaiTqvamda, da Tumc es monografia aRar Seqmnila, misi calkeuli monakveTebi mainc daiwereboda _ zogi samecniero narkvevad, zogic eseid. da msoflio novelis Casaxva-ganviTarebis Seswavlis irgvliv dagrovebuli gamocdileba didad waadgeboda qarTuli novelis Casaxvisa da mis mier gamovlili gzis irgvliv msjelobisas. `sibrZne sicruisas~ kompoziciuri aRnagobis warmoCena uSualod daWirdeboda qarTuli da saerTod msoflio novelis Tavgadasavlis aRdgenisas. novela, rogorc mxatvruli Janri, Sua saukuneebSi ukve sabolood gamokveTiliyo da srulyofiliyo da Tundac jovani bokaCos `dekameroni~ an sulxan-sabas `sibrZne sicruisa~ TvalnaTliv adasturebda am Janris TviTmyofadobas; arada, misi niSnebi, ase vTqvaT, noveluri situaciebi uZveles istoriul Tu geografiul TxzulebebSi Cndeboda, esa Tu is naambobi novelasaviT gamodioda da Camwersac, radganac TviTmxilvels endoboda, sxva ara darCenoda ra, garda imisa, rom pirdapir Seetana es monaTxrobi Tavis nawarmoebSi. saamisod uamravi Txzuleba daegulebinaT novelis genezisis mkvlevarebs, oTar CxeiZe ki herodotes gamoarCevda, istoriis mamad wodebuls, da misi saistorio matianidan amokrebda calkeul epizodebs, romelTac _ sailustraciod CarTulT _ damoukidebeli siuJetebi moepovebodaT. oratorTa gamosvlebic uxvad Semkobiliyo amgvari CanarTebiT, dasrulebul ambad rom warmodgeboda, magram oTar CxeiZisaTvis mTavari da umTavresi mainc saistorio qronikebSi CarTuli, siuJeturad dasrulebuli epizodebi gaxldaT da, didi xani ar gavidoda, herodotes saistorio

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qmnilebidan `moqcevai qarTlisas~ teqstze rom gadmoinacvlebda, raTa gaeTvaliswinebina, Tu rogor aeTvisebinaT qarTvel JamTaaRmwerelTac saistorio Txzulebis es niSandoblivi Tavisebureba da ra ostaturad da moxdenilad SeezavebinaT TavianTi qronikebi patar-patara, dasrulebuli ambebiT. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ sxvadasxva nawilSi rom SeWriliyo es Tavisebureba, vidre es yovelive detalurad gaanalizdeboda da TaviT bolomde gadaiSleboda mkiTxvelis Tvalwin, dae jerjerobiT ekmara am kuTxiT gansja erTaderTi saistorio Txzulebisa. ganzogadebisaTvis Zaldautaneblad giyoliebda TviTonve `qarTlis cxovrebis~ qronikebi da isRa gevaleboda, axal-axali sailustracio masaliT Segevso da axali, vrceli narkvevis saTauric Sesaferisi SegerCia: `novelebi qarTlis cxovrebisa~. masala marTlac uxvad mogyveboda xelT. xolo leonti mrovelisaTvis SemTxveviToba rom ara yofila am yaidis CanarTebi da garkveul mxatvrul daniSnulebas aniWebda, imiTac cnaurdeboda, rom TviTonvec gamoerCia calke es siuJeturad dasrulebuli epizodebi: es Tqmuli abiaTar mRvdlisao, es Tqmuli sidonia dedakacisao. ase sagangebod rom arc gamoecalkevebina, TviTon Txroba amoitanda zedapirze da mkiTxvels miaxvedrebda, es ambebi saerTo siuJetis nawilebia, magram meti damajereblobisa Tu STambeWdaobisaTvis TavTavisi formac SeuZeniaTo. ki magram, aSkarad beletistuli yaidis CanarTebi, maincdamainc am formisa da maneris arCeva xom ar daazianebda istoriul movlenaTa Sesaferis Secnobas, yofili realobidan mxatvruli warmosaxvebisaken xom ar gadaxrida mkiTxvelis gonebas? oTar CxeiZe amjeradac drois Sesaferisad ganixilavda am movlenas, da leonti mrovelis xanas swored iseT drod warmoaCenda, rodesac mxatvruli sityva da gaazreba dasabuTebisa da darwmunebis saSualebad gvevlineboda sworedac saistorio TxzulebebSi. es fiqri, es Teoriuli gansja iCenda Tavs misive romanSic _ `TeTri daTvis~ gaazrebisas igumanebda am stiluri xerxis aRdgenas ZvelqarTuli saistorio qronikebidan da am mxrivac dakavSirebisas `matiane qarTlisas~ romanTa ciklisa `qarTlis cxovrebis~ istoriul matianeTa ciklTan.

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calkeuli dasrulebuli epizodebi, siuJeturad Sekrulni, ucxo ar aris romanisaTvis saerTod da arc oTar CxeiZis romanebisaTvisaa raRac uCveulo movlena, magram meti simkveTris, gamWvirvale alegorizmisa da matianuri struqturis ganmeorebisaTvis yvelaze umjobesi gaxldaT sulxan-sabas igav-arakTa wignTan Sexmianeba _ Tanac es didebuli landic xom unda amoZravebuliyo kidev erTxel Camowolil did RameSi, im qaotur realobaSi, zneobriv sayrdenTa aRdgenis gareSe uSuqurod rom vrCebodiT. novelis swrafva damoukideblobisaken grZeldeboda saukuneTa manZilze da saistorio an geografiul TxzulebebSi Tu moxdenil CanarTebad gaielvebda, mere da mere ufro momZlavrdeboda da sulac daupirispirdeboda im saerTo qarga-rkals, romelic Tavis mxriv cdilobda daemorCilebina mis SuagulSi moqceuli siuJetebi, xelidan ar gaeSva gamokveTili ambav-Tqmani, noveluri CanarTebi ki lamobdnen Tavi gamoexsnaT vrceli epikuri qargis sapyrobiledan da dadgomodnen damoukidebeli ganviTarebis gzas. es Widili epikur CarCo-qargasa da CarTul mcire siuJetebs Soris xelSesaxebad ikveTeboda `aTas erTi Ramis~, `dekameronis~, `sibrZne sicruisas~ da `kenterberiuli moTxrobebis~ fonze da oTar CxeiZec maT Seswavla-gaazrebas Caujdeboda da dabejiTebiT gamoarkvevda, raoden xelovnuri gaxldaT arabul, italiur da inglisur qmnilebaTa is saerTo qarga-CarCoebi, romelTa Camocilebac sul advilad SeiZleboda ambavTa ciklisaTvis, odnavadac rom ar SeetyobodaT es Camocileba, rakiRa am TxzulebebSi ZiriTadi RerZi sakmaod mkrTali gaxldaT, moklebuli damoukideblobas da mxolod ambavTa meqanikuri gaerTianeba evaleboda. `sibrZne sicruisa~ ki aSkarad gamoirCeoda am rigidan, da Tumc sulxan-sabas igav-arakTa ciklidanac Zaldautaneblad amoikribeboda es mcire nimuSebi da ase calkec SeinarCunebdnen TavTavis momxibvlelobas, ZiriTadi RerZi arc ise xelovnuri iyo da Tavisi damoukidebloba masac moepoveboda _ gamocalkevebulic SeinarCunebda mxatvrul Rirsebas, ukve usargeblo CarCosaviT ki SeerTvoda daviwyebas. am arakTa postmodernistuli mibaZvani amitomac moergeboda bunebrivad romanis klasikurad agebul kompoziciur qargas. jer maSinac ra dauSlida mwerals, miemarTa am mxatvruli xerxisaTvis, `sibrZne sicruisas~ saerTo CarCoqarga metad myifec rom yofiliyo da `aTas erT Ramesa~ Tu `dekameronis~ zogad CarCosaviT xelovnuri.

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Tumc amjerad sulxan-sabas am wignis gamorCeulobac sagulisxmoa da kidev erT biZgad gvevlineba motivTa im erTobliobaSi, ramac gansazRvra `TeTri daTvis~ alegoriuli foni, politikuri qveteqstis gamWvirvaleba, kompoziciuri struqtura da... saxelwodebac. postmodernizmi nTqavda yvelafers da Tavis wiaRSi iqcevda, qarTul literaturasac gadmowvdenoda da aqac lamobda gabatonebas, rasac oTar CxeiZe ar Seegueboda da mkveTradac daupirispirdeboda eseebiT, Tumc calkeuli xerxebi ratomac ar unda gamoeyenebina, Tuki sakuTar mxatvrul mrwamssa da stilistikas daumorCilebda?!. miTufro _ xidi Tu gaideboda sulxan-saba orbelianTan. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mematianeebTan Tu gaideboda xidi.

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sulxan-saba orbeliani

rCeuli anotirebuli bibliografia

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sulxan-saba orbeliani

rCeuli anotirebuli bibliografia

(dabadebidan 350-e wlisTavi) 2008 wels Sesrulda sulxan-saba orbelianis dabadebidan 350-e wlisTavi. gansakuTrebulia misi Rvawli saqarTvelos istoriaSi. mwerali, mTargmneli, leqsikografi, enaTmecnieri, RvTismetyveli, bibliologi, filosofosi, diplomati, mogzauri, kartografisti, enciklopedisti, sazogado moRvawe _ adamiani, romelmac gamoaRviZa rusTavelis epoqis Semdeg miZinebuli literaturul-inteleqtualuri cxovreba da warmoSva axali kulturuli talRa. sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb sakmao literaturaa Seqmnili rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise sazRvargareT. didi moRvawis 350-e wlisTavis aRsaniSnavad SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis institutma moamzada rCeuli anotirebuli bibliografia, romelic daexmareba specialistebs, pedagogebs, studentebsa da dainteresebul mkiTxvelebs. bibliografiaze muSaoba dasrulda 2009 wlis TebervalSi. mecnier-konsultanti: ivane amirxanaSvili anotaciebis avtorTa inicialebi (anbanuri rigiT) i.a. -- ivane amirxanaSvili S.k. -- Sarlota kvantaliani l. r. --lali ruxaZe q. S. -- qeTevan Sengelia z. c. -- zoia cxadaia

winamdebare bibliografiaSi ar Sesula ucxoenovani literatura. sulxansaba orbelianis Sesaxeb arsebuli literaturis bibliografia Seadgina filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtorma darejan menabdem, romlis Sroma gamoqveynebulia amave krebulSi, ix. gv. 90-127.

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I. sulxan-saba orbelianis Semoqmedeba a) sulxan-saba orbelianis Txzulebani orbeliani s. s. Txzulebani, t. I, `sibrZne sicruisa~; `mogzauroba evropaSi~, gamosacemad moamzades s. yubaneiSvilma da r. baramiZem, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1959. orbeliani s. s. Txzulebani, t. II1, `qilila da damana~, al. baramiZisa da e. metrevelis redaqciiT, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1962. orbeliani s. s. Txzulebani, t. II2, `qilila da damana~, al. baramiZisa da e. metrevelis redaqciiT, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1962. orbeliani s. s. Txzulebani, t. III, `swavlani~, gamosacemad moamzada, SeniSvnebi da leqsikoni daurTo ivane lolaSvilma, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1963. orbeliani s. s. Txzulebani, t. IV1, `leqsikoni qarTuli~, avtografiuli nusxebis mixedviT gamosacemad moamzada ilia abulaZem, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1965. orbeliani s. s. Txzulebani, t. IV2, `leqsikoni qarTuli~, avtografiuli nusxebis mixedviT gamosacemad moamzada ilia abulaZem, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1966. b) calkeuli nawarmoebebi orbeliani s. s. `mogzauroba evropaSi~, solomon iordaniSvilis redaqciiT, winasityvaobiT, SeniSvnebiT da leqsikoniT, `federacia~, Tb., 1940. orbeliani s. s. `sibrZne sicruisa~, giorgi leoniZis winasityvaobiT da solomon iordaniSvilis redaqciiT, `sabWoTa mwerali~, Tb., 1957. `qilila da damana~, sparsulidan Targmnili mefe vaxtang meeqvsisa da sulxan-saba orbelianis mier, teqsti daadgina, Sesavali, komentarebi da leqsikoni daurTo magali Toduam, `merani~, Tb., 1975. orbeliani s. s. `leqsikoni qarTuli~, avtografiuli nusxebis mixedviT moamzada, gamokvleva da ganmartebaTa leqsikis saZiebeli daurTo ilia abulaZem, Tb., `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1965; `merani~, 1991. orbeliani s. s. `leqsikoni qarTuli~, avtografiuli nusxebis mixedviT moamzada, gamokvleva da ganmartebaTa leqsikis saZiebeli daurTo ilia abulaZem, Tb., `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1966; `merani~, 1993.

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II. cxovreba da Semoqmedeba

al. baramiZe

sulxan-saba orbeliani (cxovreba da literaturuli moRvaweoba) narkvevi

Tb., `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1959 naSromi eZRvneba sulxan-saba orbelianis dabadebis 300 wlisTavs, moicavs mwerlis cxovrebasa da SemoqmedebasTan dakavSirebul yvela mniSvnelovan sakiTxs. I TavSi saubaria orbelianTa gvaris saxelovan warmomadgenlebze, sabas naTesaur kavSirebze im drois mefeTa da didebulTa garemosTan. Sah-navazad wodebul vaxtang mefis, giorgi XI-is, arCilis da sxvaTa damsaxurebaze qveynis winaSe, tragikul xvedrze giorgi XI-isa da didebulTa Tu mdabioTa, romlebic avRanelebTan brZolebSi daiRupnen `sparseTis Seryeuli kedlebis gasamagreblad~. `sulxan orbelianis cxovrebis gza~ asaxavs mwerlis biografias berad Sedgomamde: ojaxuri garemo, aRzrda da ganswavluloba, axlobelTa da gansakuTrebiT mamis roli sulxanis ganaTlebaSi; saubaria mis enciklopediur codnaze, literaturul da mecnierul saqmianobaze; CarTulia sulxan-saba orbelianis oTxtaepiani anbanTqeba. `almas basri galesuli~..., romlis pasuxad analogiuri anbanTqeba dauweria arCils (`sulxanis pasuxad~). wignis vrceli monakveTi moicavs `sibrZne sicruisas~ ganxilvas. aRniSnulia, rom mwerali iyenebda xalxur wyaroebs. dasasrul CamoTvlilia wignis ucxouri Targmanebi. `naTlismcemlis udabnos mowese~ asaxavs sulxan orbelianis berad aRkvecas naTlismcemlis monasterSi- xsnis mizezebs, ramac ganapiroba sulxan-sabas es gadawyvetileba, aRniSnulia, rom mas amis Semdegac ar auRia xeli nacionalur-gamaTavisuflebel brZolaze; amave TavSi saubaria sabas axlo kavSirze vaxtang VI-sTan, amagze, rac man gawia vaxtang mefisaTvis; rom sulxan-sabas vaxtangTan erTad ganuxilavs da SeniSvnebiT Seumkia swavlul kacTa komisiis mier momzadebuli `qarTlis cxovreba~, daxmarebia mas sastambo-sagamomcemlo saqmeSi. mokled aris mimoxiluli sulxan-sabas diplomatiuri saqmianoba.

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momdevno Tavi -- swavlani -- eZRvneba sulxan-sabas oratoruli mWevrmetyvelebis literaturul nimuSs `swavlani~, romelic amxels adamianTa mankierebas, wuTisoflis daudgromlobas, mefeebs, `romelni mZlavroben sofelsa amas~ da sxv. ioane naTlismcemlis monasterSi yofnis dros sulxansabas dauweria Txzuleba `saqristiano moZRvreba anu samoTxis kari~, romelzedac saubaria wignis VII TavSi (samoTxis kari). aRniSnulia, rom `samoTxis kari~ yuradRebas iqcevs, uwinares yovlisa, misi avtoris sarwmunoebrivi aRmsareblobis xasiaTis gamosarkvevad. miTiTebulia, rom avtobiografiul krebulSi (A303) `samoTxis karis garda moipoveba sulxan-sabas mier damuSavebuli 17 teqsti (TiToeuli maTgani dasaxelebulia). wignis Tavi -- evropaSi, exeba sabas mogzaurobas evropaSi, xolo calke Tavad ganxilulia misi Txzuleba `mogzauroba evropaSi, romliTac, mkvlevris azriT, sabam daamkvidra dokumenturi proza qarTul mwerlobaSi. cal-calke TavebSi gadmocemulia sabas damsaxureba `qilila da damanas~ `gaCalxvaSi~ da qarTuli leqsikonis anu sityvis konis Seqmnis istoria. me-13 Tavi exeba sulxan-sabas sicocxlis bolo periods, ruseTSi gamgzavrebas da aRsasruls. wigni mTavrdeba sulxan-sabas portretze msjelobiT. aRniSnulia, rom arsebobs mwerlis ori portreti -- siWabukisa da moxucebulobis asakisa. feradi portreti, sadac sulxan-saba orbeliani qilila da damanas wigns miarTmevs vaxtangs, moTavsebulia wignis I gverdze. z. c. revaz baramiZe sulxan-saba orbelianis biografiisaTvis literaturul Studiebi, Tsu gamomcemloba, 1988. statiaSi ganxilulia sulxan-saba orbelianis gakaTolikebis sakiTxi. avtori eTanxmeba im Tvalsazriss, rom didi moRvawis gakaTolikebas safuZvlad politikuri mosazrebebi edo. es unda momxdariyo evropaSi gamgzavrebis win, 1713 wels. saba gaxda basilianelTa ordenis wevri. basilianelTa ordeni iyo erTaderTi ordeni, romelic iRvwoda aRmosavluri da dasavluri eklesiebis SeerTebisaTvis. basilianelebi TiTqmis yvelaferSi icavdnen aRmosavluri eklesiis

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principebs, xelmZRvanelobdnen nikeis krebis simboloTi, CacmulobiT, RvTismsaxurebis yvela detaliT, religiuri saidumloebisa da marxvis dacviT mTlianad eyrdnobodnen aRmosavluri eklesiis tradiciebsa da wesdebas. amasTanave, basilianelTa ordenis mesveurebi moiTxovdnen, ordenis axal wevrs aRmosavlur RvTismsaxurebasTan erTad eRiarebina romis papi da nikeis simbolosaTvis daematebina, rom suliwmida gamodis ara marto mamisagan, aramed `Zisaganac~. basilianelTa ordenis wevri yvela niSnis mixedviT, samosiT, RvTismsaxurebis Sesrulebisa da marxvis dacviT marTlmadidebluri eklesiis wevris STabeWdilebas tovebda, xolo is faqti, rom is paps aRiarebda, icoda TviTon man da ordenis xelmZRvanelma, gareSe morwmuneTaTvis es SeumCneveli rCeboda. revaz baramiZis azriT, sulxan-saba orbelianis basilianelTa ordenis wevrad gaxdoma iseTive mozomili da frTxili nabiji iyo, rogoric mis mier dawerili `saqristiano moZRvrebis pirveli redaqcia, romelic Sedgenilia im TvalsazrisiT, rom misi gamoyeneba SesaZlebeli yofiliyo marTlmadidebluri da kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis mimdevar yrmaTa aRsazrdelad. i.a. k. kekeliZe, a. baramiZe

sulxan-saba orbeliani

Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1969. (wigni Sedgeba ori nawilisagan. I nawilis (sasuliero mwerloba, V-dan XII saukunemde) avtoria k. kekeliZe. II nawili (a. baramiZe) warmoaCens XII-XVIII saukuneebis mwerlobas). naSromi Sedgeba sami nawilisagan: Sesavali, sibrZnesicruisa da mogzauroba evropaSi. SesavalSi mocemulia sulxan-sabas vrceli biografia, saubaria orbelianTa gvaris istoriaze, maTs kavSirze qarTlis samefo dinastiasTan. aRwerilia XVII saukunis qarTlkaxeTis politikuri viTareba, romelmac gansazRvra sulxan -saba orbelianis tragikuli xvedri, aseve -- sabas mogzauroba evropaSi, ganxeTqileba, romelic `Cxubianma kacebma~ Camoagdes vaxtang VI-sa da sulxan-sabas Soris. aqve mocemulia sabas avtobiografiuli xasiaTis sami igav-arakis istoria, romelic mas `qilila da damanas~ winasityvaobaSi CaurTavs

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(igav-arakSi mefe vaxtangia, erTguli maZebari -- saba, xolo ucxo nadiri _ `qilila da damana~). biografia sruldeba sabas moskovSi gadasaxlebiT da gardacvalebiT; aqve daskvnis saxiT naTqvamia, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis literaturuli memkvidreobidan gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs: 1. wigni sibrZne sicruisa, 2. mogzauroba evropaSi, 3. swavlani, 4. qilila da damanas redaqcia da 5. qarTuli leqsikoni. II TavSi `sibrZne sicruisa~ saubaria igavarakuli Janris Sesaxeb, ganxilulia wignis saTauri, Txzulebis didaqtikuraRmzrdelobiTi Tvalsazrisi da mZafrad kritikuli paTosi, mwerlis mxatvruli metyvelebis xerxebi da stiluri Taviseburebani. III Tavi _ `mogzauroba evropaSi~ _ mokled aris ganxiluli sulxan-sabas mogzauroba evropaSi, romlis nawili, mkvlevris azriT, dakargulad miiCneva. ZiriTadad saubaria im STabeWdilebebze, romelic sabam am mogzaurobis dros evropis qalaqebisa da kulturis Zeglebis daTvalierebisas miiRo. amave Tavis dasasruls aRniSnulia sulxan-sabas leqsikonisa da `swavlanis~ mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb. z.c. korneli kekeliZe

Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. II sibrZne sicruisa

Tb., `mecniereba~, 1981. wignis IV TavSi -- didaqtikur-moraluri eposi, erT-erTi naSromia `sibrZne sicruisa~. mkvlevris daskvniT, is Seicavs 110-mde igav-araks, am terminis zusti gagebiT, rogorc is dasZens; 60-mde sentencia-aforizms, anegdotsa da amocanas. axsnilia krebulis saxelwodeba `sibrZne sicruisa~. uSualod wignis ganxilvamde k. kekeliZe exeba sabas biografias, orbelianTa sagvareulos istorias, maTs naTesaur kavSirs samefo ojaxebTan, daaxloebas kaTolike misionerebTan, sulxan orbelianis politikuri ideebis katastrofaTa mizezebs, berad aRkvecis faqts, romelsac naCqarev nabijad miiCnevs, asaxelebs im motivebs, romlebiTac xelmZRvanelobda saba. misi azriT, es iyo politikuri mosazrebiT miRebuli gadawyvetileba. aqve saubaria sulxan-sabas mogzaurobaze evropaSi, samSobloSi dabrunebaze, oficialuri

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eklesiis warmomadgenelTa da mefis ganrisxebaze (saqarTveloSi sabas mier kaTolike misionerebis Camoyvanis gamo) moskovSi iZulebiT gamgzavrebaze. biografiis dasasruls mkvlevars SesaZleblad miaCnia, rom saba kvlav daubrunda marTlmadideblobas, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, misi azriT, mas marTlmadidebluri eklesiis galavanSi ar daasaflavebdnen. k. kekeliZe sulxan-saba orbelians, pirvel yovlisa, did mecnierad aRiarebs, misi mecnieruli erudiciis nayofad ki _ `leqsikons~. saero mwerlobidan, pirvel rigSi, ganixilavs sabas memuaruli Janris naSroms `mogzauroba evropaSi~, rogorc im epoqisTvis saukeTesos, aqve asaxelebs sabas `anbanTqebas~ da sam strofs, romelic Teimuraz I-is mier dawerili `qeTevanianisTvis~ daumatebia; yvelaze mniSvnelovnad mkvlevars misi igav-arakTa krebuli `sibrZne sicruisa~ miaCnia. igav-arakebze msjelobisas yuradReba gamaxvilebulia wignis daweris TariRze, darTulia saTanado argumentebi, mkvlevars misaRebad miaCnia prof. a. cagarelis daskvna, rom `sibrZne sicruisa~ orginaluri nawarmoebia; rac Seexeba igav-arakebs, k. kekeliZis azriT, isini amoRebulia xalxis wiaRidan. igi gamoricxavs literaturul gavlenebs. wigns qarTuli mwerlobis axal da araCveulebriv movlenad miiCnevs da ara marto qarTuli, aramed msoflio masStabiTac saukeTesod aRiarebs. `qilila da damana~ ganxilulia calke, IV Tavis me-3 qveTavad. mocemulia nawarmoebis Targmnis mTeli istoria da TariRebi, mTargmnelebi da redaqciebi; vrcelia msjeloba vaxtang mefis Targmanze da sabas damsaxurebaze, romelsac `Calxi~ gaukravs vaxtangis SromisaTvis mTlianad -- prozisTvisac da leqsisTvisac. k. kekeliZe aRniSnavs, rom aRmoCenilia `qilila da damanas~ erTi xelnaweri, romlidanac irkveva onana mdivnis Rvawlic teqstis TargmanSi. vaxtangs Tavisi Sroma `gasaCalxavad~ da leqsebiT Sesavsebad misTvisac gaugzavnia. mkvlevris daskvniT, onana zedmiwevniT zustad icavs vaxtangis teqsts, saba ki ufro Tavisuflad epyroba. gamoTqmulia mosazreba (saTanado argumentebiT), rom onanas da sabas erTdroulad unda mieRoT es windadeba. upiratesoba sabas redaqcias mieniWa~, _ askvnis k. kekeliZe. z.c.

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Tamaz kvaWantiraZe

monaRvleebi (sulxan-saba orbeliani da d. guramiSvili)

sasityveTi, Tb., 2002. werili Sesavlis saxiT uZRvis qarTuli enisa da literaturis maswavlebelTa msjelobebs sulxan-saba orbelianisa da d. guramiSvilis skolaSi swavlebasTan dakavSirebiT; T. kvaWantiraZis azriT, am or mwerals Soris gansxvaveba ufro garegnul-zedapirulia, msgavseba ki -- siRrmiseuli da arsebiTi. amitomac mizanSewonilad miaCnia garkveuli paralelebis gavleba maTi Semoqmedebis swavlebisas; gakveTilze yuradReba maxvildeba nawarmoebTa ideur mizandasaxulobasa da Tematur-Sinaarsobriv mxareze da, misi azriT, es asec unda iyos, magram miaCnia, rom mkafiod unda gamoikveTos nawarmoebis mxatvruli qsovili, stilistikis sakiTxebi. `sibrZne sicruisas~ stiluri daxasiaTebisas, upirveles yovlisa, Janris specifika unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli. z.c. giorgi leoniZe

sulxan-saba orbeliani

qristianuli Teologiisa da kulturis centris gamocema, Tb., 2004. g. leoniZis biografiuli narkvevi Sedgeba 6 Tavisagan: I TavSi vrclad aris saubari orbelianTa gvaris da konkretulad sulxan-sabas ojaxuri garemos Sesaxeb. II TavSi naCvenebia qarTlis politikuri viTareba da sabas, rogorc saxelmwifo moRvawisa da mamuliSvilis, roli, sulxani -- meamboxe erekle nazaralixanis winaaRmdeg; III TavSi warmodgenilia saba-gandegili, daviT garejis naTlismcemelSi misi sulieri moRvaweoba. g. leoniZe emociurad da logikuri TvalmidevnebiT xsnis sabas berad aRkvecis faqts. igi mraval savaraudo mizezs asaxelebs da uaryofs saTanado argumentebiT. igi askvnis, rom sulxan orbelianis dros iyo momentebi, roca gza `sasaxlidan monastramde~ ar iyo Sori... aseTi `mcire manZili~, g. leoniZis azriT, gamowveuli iyo epoqis mZime politikuri da ekonomikuri pirobebiT, Tumca, naTlismcemlis monasterSi is politikur mRelvarebas ar damalvia... igi asaxelebs da aRwers sulxan-sabas 46 qada-

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gebas, rogorc saeklesio oratorobis nimuSebs. vrcelia msjeloba sabas gakaTolikebis TariRsa da mizezebze; kerZod: saba kaTolikobaze unda gadasuliyo 1692 wels (dasabuTebulia saTanado argumentiT), e. i. evropaSi wasvlamde igi yofila nominaluri kaTolike, xolo san-bazilis monasterSi sabas mier kaTolikeTa aRsarebis Tqma unda miRebul iqnas, rogorc kanonizacia kaTolicizmSi gadasvlisa. aseTia g. leoniZis daskvna. IV Tavi exeba sulxan-sabas damokidebulebas vaxtang VITan, mis diplomatiur misias da evropaSi mogzaurobas, romelsac man sicocxlis ukanaskneli wlebi Seswira; g. leoniZe saqarTvelos evropasTan urTierTobis istorias jvarosnebis periodidan iwyebs, msjelobs sulxan-sabas mogzaurul STabeWdilebebze, romsa da parizSi gatarebul mRelvare dReebsa da tragikul dasasrulze, romlis finals warmoadgens V Tavi -- sabas gandevna samefo karidan; VI Tavi eZRvneba sabas sicocxlis bolo wlebs, ruseTSi gadasaxlebas da gardacvalebas. gardacvalebis TariRad _ 1726 wlis 26 ianvari. narkvevis dasasruls g. leoniZe gulistkiviliT aRniSnavs Tavis amao mcdelobaze, aRmoeCinaT moskovSi dasaflavebuli sulxan-saba orbelianis saflavi. aRwers im suraTs da viTarebas, rac daxvda realurad moskovSi, vsesviatskoeSi stumrobisas. wignis boloTqmaSi (avtori m. RaRaniZe) vkiTxulobT, rom am gamocemas safuZvlad udevs g. leoniZis narkvevis 1928 wlis versia, romelic Semdgom gamocemebSi mniSvnelovnad Semoklda, nawilobriv Seivso da nawilobriv Seicvala (rac xSirad ganpirobebuli iyo mkacri ideologiuri da cenzuris moTxovniT, g. l.); amdenad, narkvevis pirveli gamocema warmoadgens vrcel variants, teqstSi SenarCunebulia am versiis stiluri, orTografiuli da bibliografiuli Taviseburebani; SeniSvnebi, didi moculobis gamo, gadatanilia narkvevis dasasruls. SeniSvnebSi Setanilia mcireodeni cvlilebebi miTiTebaTa erTgvarovnebis misaRwevad, Casworebulia mxolod aSkara orTografiuli da punqtuaciuri Secdomebi. z. c.

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ivane lolaSvili sulxan-saba orbelianis literaturuli moRvaweobidan (1698-1713 ww.) saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1959. wignis mTavari Rirsebaa warmoCena imisa, Tu ra damsaxureba miuZRvis sulxan-saba orbelians qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis istoriaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom im droisaTvis sabas Sesaxeb didi literatura arsebobda, ZiriTadi mecnieruli naSromebi mxolod mwerlis biografiisa da saero Txzulebebis SeswavliT ifargleboda. sasuliero xasiaTis nawarmoebebidan mkvlevari ganixilavs sulxan-saba orbelianis homiletikur Txzulebas `swavlani~, warmoTqmuls daviT-garejis udabnoSi didmarxvis periodTan dakavSirebiT; meore naSromi `bibliis konkordansi~, romelic, k. kekeliZis TqmiT, Cveulebrivi tipis simfoniaa, Targmnilia somxuridan da masSi `Tavmoyrilia paraleluri adgilebi bibliidan~. garda amisa, mkvlevari ganixilavs sabas sxva Sromebs, romlebic Seudgenia winaswarmetyvelTa bibliuri wignebidan amokrebili citatebiT: `wamebani winaswarmetyvelTani~ ieso qristes Sesaxeb; saqristiano-kaTolikuri Sinaarsis Txzuleba, `saqristiano moZRvreba pirvelad saswavlo yrmaTaTvis, romelsa ewodebis samoTxis kari~, `aRTqma qristianeTa, romelTa ewodebis swavlebad keTilisa gzisa Jamsa sikvdilisasa~, `Sendobis wigni wmidis papisa romaelisa mitevebisaTvis codvilTa monanulisa~, `viTar jer ars aRsarebaTa Tqma winaSe moZRvrisa mowafisa mier~, `col-qmarTa naTesavni -- qmrisa da colis xorcTerTobisa da maTTa naTesavTa erTobisaTvis~, `ambavni wmidisa saxlisani~ da `wameba wmidisa flavios klementosisa~. wignis avtori aRniSnavs, rom dasaxelebuli Txzulebebidan im droisTvis arc erTi ar yofila gamoqveynebuli. Tavad gaumzadebia dasabeWdad da mizanSewonilad miuCnevia manamde am narkvevis gamocema. mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom TxzulebaTa umetesoba dawerilia sabas mier garejis naTlismcemlis monasterSi 1698-1713 wlebSi. amitomac saWirod miuCnevia saba orbelinis epoqis zogadi daxasiaTebac da daviT-garejis samonastro cxovrebis mimoxilvac. wignis II Tavi epoqis vrceli mimoxilvaa. es

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istoriuli eqskursi qmnis STambeWdav suraTs. dasaxelebuli arian XVII-XVIII saukuneebis mijnaze daviT-garejaSi moRvawe qarTuli literaturis istoriis mcodne Teologebi, mqadageblebi, mwerlebi, gadamwerebi, maTi Segirdebi, saubaria maTs wvlilze daviT-garejis kulturul-samonastro saqmianobaSi. wignSi CarTulia sxvadasxva xelnawerTa fotomasala. z. c. levan menabde

sulxan-saba orbeliani

`nakaduli~, Tb., 1980. levan menabdis monografia Sedgeba sami Tavisagan: sulxan-saba orbelianis cxovrebis gza; sulxan-saba orbelianis Semoqmedeba da sulxan-saba orbelianis adgili qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi. naSromis pirvel TavSi avtori dawvrilebiT gvawvdis cnobebs sulxan-saba orbelianis warmomavlobisa da me-15, me-16, me-17 saukuneebis feodaluri saqarTvelos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. narkvevSi saubaria sulxan-saba orbelianis dabadebisa da aRzrdis wlebze, gvaxsenebs misi bavSvobisa da Wabukobis periodSi tanZiasa da dmanisSi gatarebul wlebs. is siyrmidanve dauflebia sxvadasxva dargis mecnierebas da enebs. avtori dawvrilebiT aRwers qarTlis taxtisaTvis brZolaSi giorgi meTerTmetis mxardasaWerad sulxan-sabas monawileobis faqtebs da mefis warumateblobiT imedgacruebuli orbelianis 1698 wlidan, garejaSi, berad Sedgomasa da moRvaweobis periods, sadac did moazrovnes umZimes pirobebSi uxdeboda moRvaweoba da, miuxedavad amisa, man am periodSi dawera Zalze sayuradRebo Txzuleba _ `swavlamoZRvrebani~. amis Semdeg sulxan-saba kvlav ubrundeba sazogadoebriv saqmianobas da gverdiT udgas missave aRzrdils _ vaxtang mefes. naSromSi vxvdebiT cnobebs am periodis Sesaxebac, sadac sulxan-saba gvevlineba, rogorc politikuri da kulturuli reformebis sulisCamdgmeli. l. menabde aRwers qaixosros mefobis periodsac, roca sulxan-saba orbelians kvlav didi roli eniWeboda, swored is gaigzavna mefis davalebiT 1711 wels sparseTSi da ukan male gamobrunda. amis Semdeg moTxrobilia sulxan-sabas

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evropaSi mogzaurobisa da Rvawlis Sesaxeb, rac miznad isaxavda vaxtang mefis daxsnas sparseTidan da saqarTvelos momavalze zrunvas. naSromSi aris cnobebi sulxan-saba orbelianis konstantinopolSi yofnisa da safrangeTis elCTan Sexvedris, aseve im mimowerebis Sesaxebac, romelic vaxtang mefes ukavSirdeboda. sulxanma moiara safrangeTi, italia, SeZlo lui meToTxmetesTan audienciac. avtori aRwers periods, roca samSobloSi dabrunebuli da imedgacruebuli sulxan-saba Tanamemamule eklesiis msaxurebisagan devnas ganicdida, evropaSi yofnis dros politikuri mosazrebiT miRebuli kaTolikuri rwmenis gamo. avtori meore TavSi mimoixilavs sulxan-sabas srul Semoqmedebas: `sibrZne-sicruisas~, sadac ZiriTadi prioritetia didaqtikur-moralisturi elementi da brZola uzneobis winaaRmdeg; mkvlevari gansakuTrebiT gamoyofs leqsikons _ `sityvis kona~, romlis Sesadgenadac avtors biblia da sxavadasxva leqsikonebi gamouyenebia; aqvea ganxiluli `swavla-moZRvrebani~. es qadagebaTa krebuli sulxan-sabas berobis periodSia dawerili. avtori miiCnevs, rom `mogzauroba evropaSi~ udidesi mniSvnelobis Zeglia, radgan qarTveli mkiTxveli amiT pirvelad ecnoba dasavleT evropis xalxis zne-Cveulebebs, adaTebs da nawarmoebi gvawvdis cnobebs maTi politikuri da geografiuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. amave TavSia ganxiluli `qilila da damana~ da sulxansaba orbelianis poezia. mesame TavSi mkvlevari kidev erTxel msjelobs sulxansaba orbelianis Rvawlisa da Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb da miiCnevs, rom `sibrZne sicruisa~ qarTuli literaturis Sedevria. gansakuTrebiT aris aRniSnuli mwerlis redaqtoroba da mis mier qarTuli enis erovnul-xalxuri safuZvlebis ganmtkiceba. aRniSnulia agreTve, enciklopediuri ganaTlebis, misi sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb da mwerlis gavlenaze, romelic SeiniSneboda qarTuli literaturis istoriis ganviTarebis Semdgom etapzec. q. S.

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solomon yubaneiSvili sulxan-saba orbelianis gamgzavreba moskovSi literaturuli Ziebani, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, rusTavelis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis institutis Sromebis krebuli, 1958. naSromi asaxavs vaxtang VI-isa da misi amalis gamgzavrebas moskovSi. dasaxelebulia mefis Tanmxlebi ramdenime pirovneba, maT Soris -- sulxan-saba orbeliani da misi Zmebi; dokumentur masalebze dayrdnobiT gadmocemulia gamgzavrebis TariRi (1724 wlis 15 ivlisi), saxifaTo gzis konkretuli punqtebi da winaaRmdegobebi, rac sulxan-sabas da mis Tanmxleb pirebs gadaxdaT; mkvlevari ar iziarebs mosazrebas, rom saba moskovSi Tavisi surviliT wavida, es ufro diplomatiuri misiiT unda yofiliyo gamowveuli (amasTan dakavSirebiT naSromSi CarTulia sabas Txovnis teqsti, mimarTuli sagareo saqmeTa kolegiis moskovis kantorisadmi); savaraudo daskvnaSi aRniSnulia, rom vaxtang mefem moxuc sabas peterburgSi wasvla aarida da gagzavna moskovSi, sadac is arCil mefis sasaxleSi, darejan batoniSvilTan unda darCeniliyo. naSromSi saubaria darejan batoniSvilze, rogorc Suamaval personaze vaxtang VI-sa da imperators Soris, mis damokidebulebaze sulxan-sabasTan; mkvlevari iziarebs samecniero literaturaSi gabatonebul azrs, rom sabas unda ecxovra vsexsviatskoeSi da iqve gardacvlila. asaxelebs amis damadasturebel dokuments, romelic moupovebia ruseTis sagareo politikis arqivSi; naSromSi mravali saintereso faqtia sabas Zmebis Sesaxeb, romlebic mas axldnen, maTs saqmianobaze moskovSi sabas gardacvalebis Semdeg. gamokvlevaSi saubaria vaxtang mefis amalis sxva savaraudo wevrebze, gansakuTrebiT -- dimitri da tite kargareTelebze, arqimandrit arsenze da sxv. mkvlevris mtkicebiT tite kargareTeli moskovSi, SesaZlebelia, 1726 wels Cavida. aRwerilia astraxanSi myofi qarTvelebis mdgomareobac, maTi damokidebuleba vaxtangisadmi, mefis gardacvaleba. naSroms erTvis mniSvnelovani dokumenturi masalebi rusul enaze: sagareo saqmeTa kolegiis moskovis kantorisadmi Txovnebi, sapasuxo brZanebebi, imperatoris brZanebulebebis safuZvelze Seqmnili dokumenturi masalebi da vaxtang mefis amalis sia (722 kaci rusuli variantiT, sqolioSi qarTul enaze miTiTebulia 710). z. c.

217

sargis caiSvili

sulxan-saba orbeliani

maradiuli saxeebi (Tanamedroveni da winamorbedni), gamomc. `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1981. naSromi iwyeba sulxan-saba orbelianis biografiiT, asaxavs atmosferos, romelSic uxdebodaT moRvaweoba sulxansa da mis TanamebrZolebs. saubaria ojaxur garemoze, naTesaur urTierTobaze mefeebTan da qarTlis sxva warCinebul pirebTan, sulxan-sabas aRzrdaSi saero da sasuliero pirTa damsaxurebaze, mis enciklopediur codnaze. mkvlevari sulxan-saba orbelianis berad aRkvecisa da kaTolikobis aRiarebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT iziarebs k. kekeliZis azrs, rom am gadawyvetilebas safuZvlad daudo politikuri mizezebi. aqve vrceli msjelobaa sulxan-sabas evropaSi mogzaurobis mizezebsa da miznebze, warmatebasa da warumateblobaze, rac man am gzaze ganicada. naSromSi saubaria sulxan-sabas udides wvlilze qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi, masTan erTad, vaxtang VI-isa da misi TanamebrZolebis damsaxurebaze qarTveli xalxis SemoqmedebiTi unaris gamococxlebaSi. mkvlevari enciklopediur xanas uwodebs sulxan-sabasa da vaxtang VI-is erTad moRvaweobis periods, ganixilavs `qilila da damanas~ Targmnisa da sabas mier `gaCalxvis~ istorias, aRniSnavs leqsikonis Seqmnis udides mniSvnelobas. sulxan-sabas mwerlur geniad aRiarebs wigns `sibrZne sicruisa~, daskvnaSi naTqvamia, rom `vefxistyaosnis~ Semdeg es aris yvelaze popularuli Zegli Zvel saqarTveloSi. z. c. aleqsandre xaxanaSvili

saba-sulxan orbeliani (uZvelesi droidgan XVIII saukunis gasulamde)

tfilisi, 1904. avtori aRniSnavs, rom me-17-me-18 saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi `ayvavda rogorc leqsTwyobiTi mwerloba, agreTve prozad naweri originaluri Txzulebani, evropis ganaTleba TvalsaCinod daetyo saqarTvelos, safuZveli Caeyara evropul kulturas~. aqve saubaria imaze, rom am dros romSi

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daarsda `qarTuli wignebis sabeWdavi~ da qarTuli enis Semswavleli kaTedra. naSromis biografiul nawilSi saubaria sulxan-sabas ojaxur garemoze, berad aRkvecaze, evropaSi mogzaurobis mizansa da Sedegebze. mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom saba am mogzaurobis dros dauaxlovda misionerebs, romelTac gaecno tfilisSive da maTi `zed-moqmedebiT~ gadavida kaToliked. biografia sruldeba sabas gardacvalebis adgiliTa da TariRiT (moskovi, 1726 w. 26 ianvari). sulxan-saba orbelianis Txzulebebidan ganxilulia leqsikoni (dabeWdili TbilisSi, 1884 w.), mogzauroba `samzRvar gareT~ (`ciskari~, 1852 w.), rogorc pirveli nimuSi evropis aRwerisa qarTul enaze; aqve saubaria sabas mier `qilila da damanas~ Sesworebasa da leqsebiT Sevsebaze. naSromis ZiriTadi nawili eTmoba `sibrZne sicruisas~ ganxilvas. mkvlevris azriT, wigni didaqtikuria, `masSi moCans kvali mosiarule arakebisa; saerTo gegma da dedaazri `xeluxlebliv ekuTvnis TviT saba-sulxan orbelians~... mkvlevari sabas enaze aRniSnavs, rom adgil-adgil Zvelia, magram ufro metad -- martivi, sasaubro, azri `cxovlad gamoTqmuli~, `oxunjuri kilo wrfel sicils iwvevs~... z. c.

III. literaturuli portretebi

konstantine gamsaxurdia

sulxan-saba orbeliani (TbilisSi wakiTxuli sajaro leqciebis stenogramebi)

saq. ssr polit. da mecn. codnis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba, Tb., 1949. qarTuli enis geniam Tavisi Zalmosileba araerTi didi pirovnebis SemoqmedebiT gaamJRavna, _ ambobs konstantine gamsaxurdia da `did pirovnebaTa~ Soris asaxelebs iakob curtavels, merCules, rusTvels, sabas, daviT guramiSvils, akakis, iliasa da vaJas. kacobriul vnebaTa didi mesityveni diadi ideebisTvis iRvwodnen da ibrZodnen da ara materialuri keTildReobisTvis. `udides adamianTa qmnilebani mxolod maSin warmoSobi-

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lan, roca maTi avtorebi TavisTvis werdnen~. aseT avtorad miaCnia gamsaxurdias sulxan-saba. SesavalSi igi mokled mimoixilavs V-X saukuneebis mwerlobas da amis Semdgomad exeba aRorZinebis xanis literaturas, kerZod, sulxan sabas. `araodes gamxdara igi didi mwerali, visac `didi biografiis~ Crdili ar dasdgomia Tavze~, _ ambobs gamsaxurdia da gvacnobs sulxanis biografiis zogierT epizods. leqcia iwyeba igavis `mocinari da motiralis~ analiziT. gamsaxurdia aRniSnavs, rom am igavSi `uaRresad biografiuli, lirikuli parabolaa gamJRavnebuli~ da is `msubuqi ironiis saburveliT aris Seburvili~. `WeSmaritad avTandiluris raindobiT emsaxureba saba orbeliani Tavis svegamwarebul qveyanas da mis patrons~. saba orbeliani kargad xedavda qarTuli orTodoqsuli eklesiis ideur gakotrebas, -- aRniSnavs gamsaxurdia. amis gamoZaxili kargad Cans mis igavebSi, magaliTad, `meli moZRvrad~, `Seufarveli dacinvaa klerikali filisterebisa~, riTac sabas devnas biZgi mieca. k. gamsaxurdia sulxan-sabas gakaTolikebis safuZvlad mis `did patriotizms~ miiCnevs. iqve exeba evropaSi sabas uSedego diplomatiur moRvaweobas. k. gamsaxurdia aRniSnavs, rom `saba orbeliani Tavisi universaluri ganswavlulobiT gancvifrebas iwvevs~. saTanado masalaze dayrdnobiT askvnis, rom sabam icoda berZnuli, Turquli, laTinuri, rusuli, somxuri, italiuri da arabuli enebi. amis gareSe is ver Targmnida `qilila da damanas~, ver dawerda `sibrZne sicruisas~, ver Seadgenda Tavis leqsikons, `romelic TavisTavad warmoadgens gansacvifrebeli universalizmis dokuments~. k. gamsaxurdia sagangebod exeba mwerlis stils. igi ambobs, rom nawarmoebis `saTauri igivea, rac Tvali adamianisa an sarkmeli caTa samyofelosi~, sabas `geniis originaloba~ saTaurSiveao gamJRvanebuli. `leqsikonis~ avtori yuradRebas amaxvilebs aseve sulxan-sabas igavebis originalurobaze. akritikebs germanul enaze gamocemuli sabas igavebis winasityvaobas, romelsac `yovelive ucxouris winaSe monurad qedmoxras~ uwodebs da ambobs, rom sabas igavTa personaJebs qarTul sazogadoebaSi eZebneba prototipebi da sulxanis biografia iZleva mravali igavis Sinaarsis gasaRebs. avtori ixsenebs `amiranis miTs da aRniSnavs, rom SesaZlebelia berZenma mekobreebma qarTuli folkloridan miiRes is da Semdeg aqcies promeTes miTad.

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k. gamsaxurdia mobodiSebiT amTavrebs leqcias sulxansabaze: `did ars Zala siyvarulisa, romelic morCilyofs gonebasa, Sekadrebad SeukadrebelTaca~. leqcia 22 gverdisgan Sedgeba. S.k. simon sxirtlaZe

sulxan-saba orbelianis gadanaxuli saganZuridan

wignSi -- werilebi, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1977, gv. 11-54. werilSi saubaria Zveli qarTuli literaturis xelnawerTa umdidres saganZurze, romelSic inaxeba sazogadoebisTvis naklebad xelmisawvdomi teqstebi, kerZod, sulxansaba orbelianis qadagebaTa krebuli `swavlani~ da Teologiuri xasiaTis Sroma `samoTxis kari~. s. sxirtlaZe aRniSnavs, rom orive Zegli axali da Zveli aRTqmis damrigeblobiT motivebsa da mamxilebel igavebzea agebuli, magram `maTSi saero TvalsazrisiT iseTi mebrZoli suli trialebs, rom dRes sul sxvagvarad unda iqnas wakiTxuli da Sefasebuli~. werilis avtori aRniSnavs, rom am gamouqveynebel (Semdeg es teqstebi sulxan-sabas tomeulebSi daibeWda -- S.k.) Txzulebebs, Tuki `religiur mantias~ SemovacliT, `SesaniSnav mxatvrul saxeebad aelvardeba~ da `zneobis gamakeTilSobilebeli margalitebi gabrwyindeba maTi siRrmidan~. s. sxirtlaZe werilSi gvacnobs sulxanis `swavlanis~ teqstis aRmoCenis istorias. kerZod imas, rom mis Sesaxeb sazogadoebas pirvelad acnoba p. karbelaSvilma 1899 wels gazeT `iveriaSi~ gamoqveynebuli weriliT `sulxan-saba orbelianis `swavla-moZRvrebani~. aRniSnuli Txzulebani mRvdel z. daviTaSvils imereTis episkopos leonidesaTvis gadaucia. pirveli mecnieruli gamoxmaureba sabas qadagebebze istorikos mose janaSvils ekuTvnis, Semdeg am Temas Sexebian k. kekeliZe, a. baramiZe, iv. lolaSvili, l. menabde. am Temisadmi meti interesi gamouCenia g. leoniZes. igi aRniSnavs, rom sulxanis `qadagebani da swavlani~ XVIII saukunis qarTuli oratoruli literaturis SesaniSnavi Zeglia. s. sxirtlaZe mokled mimoixilavs sulxan-sabas `swavlans~. igi 47 qadagebisagan Sedgeba, `arsebiTad sasuliero-

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saeklesio Sinaarsis nawarmoebia da am Janris sakacobrio Sedevrebs ganekuTvneba~. s. sxirtlaZe mokle mimoxilvis Sedegad askvnis, rom sulxan-saba religiuri Sinaarsis qadagebebSi moxerxebulad aqsovs Tavis social-politikur da zneobriv idealebs. werilis avtoris mier aseve ganxilulia sabas `samoTxis kari~. es Txzuleba avtors sainteresod miaCnia pedagogiuri da moralisturi TvalsazrisiT. sabas es Txzuleba gansakuTrebiT hyvarebia da Turme sikvdilamde ubiT daatarebda. S.k. geronti qiqoZe

sulxan-saba orbelianis `wigni sibrZne-sicruisa~

wignSi -- werilebi, eseebi, narkvevebi, `merani~, Tb., 1985 (gv. 271-279). geronti qiqoZe aRniSnul werils sulxan-sabas biografiiT iwyebs, aRniSnavs, rom daibada 1658 wels sof. tanZiaSi. igi didi feodalis vaxtangis Svili iyo, mamida rodami ki Sahnavazis (vaxtang mexuTis) meuRle. misi gazrdili iyo vaxtang meeqvse. mefe giorgi XI-is wyalobiT mas SesaniSnavi ganaTleba miuRia, ocdaaTi wlis arc yofila `sibrZne sicruisa~ rom dausrulebia. sulxan-saba xifaTiT savse epoqaSi cxovrobda. gamahmadianebuli mefeebi ekra gars, rostomi, Sahnavazi, nazaralixani (Teimuraz pirvelis SviliSvili), sazogadoebis zneobrivma daqveiTebam sulxanze damTrgunveli STabeWdileba moaxdina da is ormoci wlis asakSi, daviT garejSi, sabas saxeliT, berad Sedga. vaxtang meeqvsis gamefebis Semdeg datova monasteri da mefes amoudga mxarSi. Sahma vaxtangs gamahmadianeba mosTxova, razec uari miiRo. is daatyveves, xolo mefed, misi gamahmadianebuli Zma iase dasves. sulxan-saba safrangeTSi farulad gaemgzavra, iq kaTolikoba miiRo da sami weli dahyo. cdilobda lui XIV-isagan Semweoba mieRo vaxtangis gasaTavisufleblad. safrangeTs ar ecala qarTveli mefisTvis. Semdeg sulxanma imogzaura evropaSi da dRiurebis saxiT aRwera iq nanaxi da gancdili. saqarTveloSi dabrunebul sulxans qarTvelma sazogadoebam kaTolikobisTvis pasuxi mosTxova. sulxani tyveobidan

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dabrunebul da kvlav gamefebul vaxtang VI-s amoudga mxarSi. vaxtangi male iZulebuli gaxda petre didis miwveviT peterburgSi gadasaxlebuliyo ojaxiT da warCinebulTa TanxlebiT, romelTa Sorisac iyo sulxani. man petremde ver miaRwia. gzaSi gardaicvala, moskovis maxloblad, sof. vsesviatskoeSi, arCil mefis sasaxleSi da iqve daasaflaves, karis eklesiis ezoSi. geronti qiqoZe mokled mimoixilavs im Rvawls, rac sulxan-sabam dasdo mSobliur kulturas. `sibrZne sicruisas~ qarTuli mxatvruli prozis Sedevrs uwodebs. aRniSnavs, rom es Txzuleba originaluria, miuxedavad imisa, rom masSi Tavmoyrili igav-arakebi, novelebi, zRaprebi da anegdotebi nasesxebia sxvadasxva qveynis xalxuri Semoqmedebidan. mkvlevari ganixilavs `sibrZne-sicruisas~ igavebs, uZebnis maT paralelebs. igi aRniSnavs, rom sulxanis wignSi ori zneobrivi tendencia ebrZvis erTmaneTs: pesimisturi da mizantropuli moralis damcvelad ruqa gvevlineba, xolo humanistur ideebs mefiswulis aRmzrdeli leoni icavs. sulxani `abezari moralistis~ rolSi ar gvevlineba, is mkiTxvels sTavazobs zneobrivi daskvna damoukideblad gamoitanos. S.k.

IV. Semoqmedebis calkeuli aspeqtebi

mixeil TamaraSvili

qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRemde

`kandeli~, Tb., 1995, gv. 645-663. wignSi ori Tavi eZRvneba sulxan-saba orbelianis moRvaweobas. yuradReba gamaxvilebulia romis papTan da lui meoTxmetesTan mis urTierTobaze. saubaria agreTve sabas gakaTolikebaze. dawvrilebiTi cnobebi sabas kaToliked moqcevis Sesaxeb mixeil TamaraSvils ar moepoveba, Tumca safrangeTis sagareo uwyebisadmi 1714 wels wardgenili moxsenebis mixedviT adgens, rom kaTolikoba 1701 wels unda mieRo. aqve motanilia mTargmnelis mier safrangeTis arqivebSi daZebnili dokumentebi: sulxan-sabas werili romis pap

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klimenti meTerTmetisadmi, safrangeTis sagareo ministrisadmi, lui meToTxmetisadmi, propagandis winamZRvar kardinalisadmi, TviT klimenti meTerTmetis pasuxi sabasadmi, safrangeTis moxeleTa da vatikanis warmomadgenelTa mimowera sulxan-sabas Taobaze. werilebis mTavari Temaa vaxtang meeqvsis daxsna sparseTis Sahis tyveobidan da saqarTveloSi misionerebis gamogzavna. yuradReba mipyrobilia sulxan-sabas gancxadebaze, rom misi evropaSi mogzaurobis mizani iyo kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis gavrceleba mTel saqarTveloSi. safrangeTis oficialuri uwyebisadmi gagzavnil moxsenebaSi sulxan-saba miuTiTebs, rom samegrelos mRvdelmTavrebs ganzraxuli aqvT, jer TavianTi Tavi, Semdeg ki mrevli gaakaTolikon. amisTvis frangi patrebisa da iezuiti mamebis gamogzavnas iTxoven. 1715 wlis agvistoSi lui meToTxmetis gardacvalebam yvela gegma CaSala. sulxan-saba konstantinopolSi moTminebiT eloda axal frang misionerebs saqarTveloSi wamosayvanad. bolos, roca imedi gadaewura, saqarTveloSi gamoemgzavra kapucinel patrebTan erTad. i.a. nikoloz kandelaki

qarTuli mWevrmetyveleba, I

`xelovneba~, Tb., 1975. mcire istoriul-biografiuli eqskursis Semdeg iwyeba msjeloba sulxan-saba orbelianis oratoruli xelovnebis mTavari sferos -- samqadageblo mWevrmetyvelebis Sesaxeb. sulxan-saba orbelianis `swavlani da moZRvrebani~ didaqtikuri da sadResaswaulo xasiaTisaa, Tumca zogjer gvxvdeba bibliuri teqstis ganmartebanic. mis moZRvrebaSi mTavari adgili ukavia adamians. amitom adamianis individualuri arseba da misi sazogadoebrivi urTierTobani warmoadgens am werilis kvlevis sagans. sulxan-saba orbelianis samoZRvro diapazoni moicavs adamianTa bevri mankieri Tvisebis, vnebisa da gatacebis daundobel gakicxvas. misi mkacri mxilebis farglebSi eqceva cxovrebis farTo sarbieli, dawyebuli yoveldRiuri yofidan, damTavrebuli adamianis Sinagani, fsiqologiuri samyaroTi.

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mwerlis umTavres oratorul xerxs warmoadgens kontrastuli niSnebis monacvleoba. aq erTmaneTs enacvleba muqi da naTeli ferebi, maRali da dabali tonebi, Zlieri da susti xmebi. igi metyvelebs mtkice rwmeniT, misgan Sors aris eWvi da orWofoba. ukidures fantastikur gamonagons gvisaxavs uaRresad cocxali da metyveli ferebiT, xelSesaxeb da konkretul saxeebs iyenebs ganyenebuli azrebis gadmosacemad da sinamdvilis xiluli elementebiT qmnis warmosaxuli xatebis realuri gancdis STabeWdilebas. sakiTxis dasmas mosdevs Txrobis gaRrmaveba. oratori afarToebs metyvelebis Tematikur ares, iSveliebs mosazRvre sakiTxebs, mimarTavs magaliTebs, ayalibebs debulebebs da negatiuri gamosaxvis fonze win wamoswevs movlenebis pozitiur mxareebs. qadagebis daskvniT nawilSi uSualod mimarTavs msmenels, iwvevs mis dainteresebas da metyvelebis vrceli moraluri darigebiT amTavrebs. rogorc n. kandelaki wers, aseTi kompoziciiT aris agebuli sulxan-saba orbelianis TiTqmis yvela homiletikuri Txzuleba. n. kandelaki yuradRebas amaxvilebs agreTve iseT sakiTxebze, rogorebicaa metyvelebis stili, mxatvruli ena, zepiri sityvis specifika, ritorikuli gameorebis xerxi da sxv. sulxan-saba orbelianis oratoruli ostatobis wyarod ki qarTuli sasuliero mWevrmetyvelebisa da berZnuli oratoruli xelovnebis tradiciebs miiCnevs. i.a. paata nacvliSvili

Jurnalizmebi sulxan-saba orbelianis SemoqmedebaSi

Jurn. `xelisufleba da sazogadoeba~, 2, 2006. Teoriul SesavalSi gaanalizebulia Jurnalistikis arsi, mocemulia termin `Jurnalizmis~ definicia da ganxilulia pirvel Jurnalistad Seracxuli pietro aretinos (14921556) SemoqmedebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Jurnalizmebi. avtoris azriT, Jurnalizmi aris calke aRebuli yvela is specifikuri forma, romelic JurnalistikisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli da romelic ama Tu im Jurnalistur teqstSic ama Tu im formiT SeiZleba arsebobdes. Jurnalizmi SeiZleba

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aRmoCndes rogorc literaturul, ise araliteraturul teqstebSi. Tu am TvalsazrisiT ganvixilavT, sulxan-sabas `mogzauroba evropaSi~ gajerebulia JurnalizmebiT, metic, avtoris azriT, es aris Jurnalistika Jurnalistikamde. `mogzaurobis~ erTi mTavari Jurnalizmi zedapirze Zevs da istoriuli cnobebiT dasturdeba. sulxan-saba, romelic Tavis Txzulebebze TveobiTa da wlobiT muSaobs, samogzauro dRiurebs saxeldaxelod, movlenaTa kvalze, JurnalistisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli `zedapirulobiT~ wers. garda amisa, aRniSnul TxzulebaSi gvxvdeba iseTi cnobebi, Tanamedrove eniT -- informacia, rac aramc da aramc ar aris prozis Tviseba, SeiniSneba agreTve reportaJis tipis Canawerebi: geografiuli garemos aRwera, xalxis, maTi adaTwesebis, saqmianobis, sarwmunoebis, politikur ambavTa aRwera. yvelaferi es nawarmoebs aaxloebs egreT wodebul samogzauro reportaJTan. didZali empiriuli masalis ganxilvis safuZvelze paata nacvliSvili daaskvnis: `sulxan-saba orbeliani... pirvel qarTvel Jurnalistadac SeiZleba CaiTvalos. swored ise da iseTad, rogorc da rogoradac pietro aretino iTvleba italiur Tu msoflio Jurnalistikis arqeologiasa da istoriaSi~. i.a. nino popiaSvili

personaJis xatvis Taviseburebani `sibrZne sicruisaSi~

`universali~, Tb., 2005. nino popiaSvilis wignSi pirvelad aris ganxiluli sulxan-sabas `sibrZne sicruisas~ personaJebis xatvis Taviseburebebi, meTodebi da principebi. `sibrZne sicruisas~ xuT personaJs: finezs, jumbers, leons, sedraqsa da ruqas rTuli da winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse cxovreba aqvT. sulxan-saba maTi portretebis CvenebiT zogadad adamianis xasiaTs, mis fsiqikas gviCvenebs. n. popiaSvilis wigni xuTi Tavisagan Sedgeba, aqvs daskvna, reziume inglisur enaze da erTvis gamoyenebuli literaturis sia. wigni 129 gverdisgan Sedgeba.

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mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom is xerxebi, romliTac sulxansaba orbeliani Tavis gmirebs axasiaTebs, sakmaod Taviseburi da originaluria. garda tradiciuli modelebisa -- portreti, mwerlismieri daxasiaTeba, sxva gmirebTan Sepirispireba da sxv., mwerali personaJebis xasiaTebs warmoaCens maT mier Tqmuli igav-arakis mixedviT, rac fsiqologiur daxasiaTebas utoldeba. sulxan-saba ar ereva siuJetur msvlelobaSi, xasiaTebi ikveTeba personaJTa qmedebaSi, dialogebSi, Segonebebsa da igav-arakebSi. wignis pirvel TavSi `igav-araki da misi funqciebi `sibrZne sicruisaSi~, gansazRvrulia igav-arakis funqciebi, aRniSnulia, rom sulxanis Txzuleba ar aris mxolod igav-arakTa krebuli, rom is siuJetiani nawarmoebia, sadac igav-arakebi xSir SemTxvevaSi siuJetis ganviTarebas uwyobs xels, garda imisa, rom mas damoukidebeli Rirebulebac gaaCnia. meore TavSi `portreti da personaJi mxatvrul teqstSi~, gamokveTilia personaJis mTavari niSan-Tvisebebi. aRniSnulia, rom portreti personaJis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia. mesame TavSi mimoxilulia personaJis xatvis tradicia qarTul mwerlobaSi `sibrZne sicruisamde~. meoTxe TavSi `personaJebisa da fabulur pasaJTa urTierTmsgavseba `sibrZne sicruisas~ mixedviT~, gamoTqmulia azri, rom saerTo siuJetebi, pasaJebi, Tanmxvedri epizodebi sxvadasxva avtorTa TxzulebaSi yovelTvis ar niSnavs mibaZvasa Tu gavlenas. mexuTe TavSi warmoCenilia personaJebis xatvis Taviseburebebi `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ da nawarmoebis specifikidan gamomdinare, yvela personaJi daxasiaTebulia cal-calke Tavis mier Tqmuli igav-arakebis Sinaarsebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rac gvexmareba personaJebis srulyofili portretis warmodgenaSi. S. k. lili quTaTelaZe

s.-s. orbelianis konfesiuri Sexedulebani misi leqsikonis mixedviT

mravalTavi, filologiur-istoriuli Ziebani, III, `mecniereba~, Tb., 1973.

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sulxan-saba orbelianma kaTolikuri sarwmunoeba oficialurad evropaSi miiRo, magram am religiis mimarT did interess jer kidev berad aRkvecamde iCenda. avtori mimoixilavs sulxan-sabas gakaTolikebis Sesaxeb arsebul literaturas, kerZod, aleqsandre cagarelis, aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis, korneli kekeliZis, giorgi leoniZis, aleqsandre baramiZis, ivane lolaSvilis Sexedulebebs. kaTolikuri da marTlmadidebluri dogmebis gansxvavebaze saubars mohyveba msjeloba sabas leqsikonSi SemCneul jojoxeTis cnebis ganmartebaze. am ganmartebaSi mocemulia marTlmadidebluri eklesiisaTvis miuRebeli swavla jojoxeTis Sesaxeb, kerZod, daSvebulia `gansawmendelis~ arseboba. sulxan-saba Segnebulad ar uTiTebs, Tu romel aRsarebas ganekuTvneba ganmartebuli cneba. miuxedavad amisa, gadamnusxavebsa Tu komentatorebs SeumCneveli ar darCeniaT leqsikonis avtoris damokidebuleba am sakiTxisadmi. motanilia daviT reqtoris, grigol zurabis Ze wereTlis, ioane iaRluzis Zis, anton pirvelisa da iona xelaSvilis kritikuli SeniSvnebi. garda amisa, aRniSnulia, rom sulxan-sabam Tavis `samoTxis karSi~ Seitana kaTolikuri locvebi (`locva savardisa ganwesebuli~, `xuTni saidumloni didebanisa~, `wylulTagan mxsneli rokesadmi~ da sxv.). statiis bolos gaanalizebulia sakiTxi sulxan-sabas mier teqstebis gamarTvis Sesaxeb. sailustraciod Sedarebulia xelnawerTa institutSi daculi kaTolikur locvaTa wigni anu `baRi sulieri~ da sulxan-sabas `samoTxis kari~. i.a. apolon canava

wigni `sibrZne sicruisa~ da qarTuli saistorio maxvilsityvaoba

saq. ssr mecn. akad. gamomcemloba, Tb., 1959. wigni iwyeba SesavliT, sadac aRniSnulia, rom `sulxansaba orbelianis SesaniSnavi igav-arakebis erT-erT wyaros zepirsityviereba warmoadgens~. wignSi naCvenebia, Tu ra akavSirebs sabas igav-arakebs qarTuli xalxuri Semoqmedebis garkveul ubanTan, kerZod, maxvilsityvaobasTan. avtors Tematurad daulagebia xalxuri maxvilsityvaobis nimuSebi da maTi `sibrZne sicruisas~

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igav-arakebTan Sedarebisas Semdegi jgufebi gamouyvia: cxovelTa eposi, socialuri da klasobrivi Tematika, sayofacxovrebo, istoriuli, aseve calkeuli soflebisa da adgilebis maxvilsityvaoba da mola nasredinis oxunjobani. wignis pirvel TavSi, `sibrZne sicruis~ igav-arakTa paralelebi qarTul folklorSi~, apolon canava gvacnobs qarTvel mkvlevarTa im azrebs, gamonaTqvamebs, Sefasebebs, romlebic sulxan-sabas igav-arakTa krebuls exeba. al. baramiZis azriT, `sulxan-saba orbelianis ZiriTadi wyaro unda yofiliyo folklori~, g. leoniZis figuraluri gamoTqmiT, `sibrZne-sicruisa~ aris katexizmo qarTuli gonebamaxvilobisa. a. cagarelma `sibrZne-sicruisa~ Seudara ~panCatatras~, `hitopradeSas~, `aTaserTRamians~ da sxva, da mivida im daskvnamde, rom sulxanis Txzuleba originaluri qarTuli nawarmoebia da ZiriTadad eyrdnoba xalxur sityvierebas. korneli kekeliZes miTiTebuli aqvs Teqvsmeti igavi, romlebic emTxveva sxvadasxva krebulebSi arsebul igavebs, magram iqve aRniSnavs, `erTi da igive igav-arakuli siuJeti SeiZleba moiZebnos iseT erebsa da tomebSi, romelTac erTmaneTSi araviTari urTierToba ar hqoniaT. siuJeturi damTxveva socialuri naTesaobis Sedegia~. mixeil Ciqovanis azriT, `sibrZne-sicruisas~ wignSi qarTuli eposi Sesulia ori gziT: pirveli, dasrulebuli siuJetebisa da zRaprebis saxiT, xolo meore , calke motivebisa da Tqmebis saxiT~. 1939 wels rusul enaze gamovida sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisa~, romelsac darTuli aqvs s. iordaniSvilis winasityvaoba da SeniSvnebi. igi aRniSnavs, rom ` ~ - ~. s. iordaniSvilma daZebna sulxanis igavebis 183 paraleli sxvadasxva krebulebTan, maT Sorisaa `aTas erTi Rame~, `vardanis arakebi~, `qilila da damana~, `sindbadi~ da sxv. wignSi miTiTebulia aseve el. virsalaZisa da al. Rlontis werilebi aRniSnul Temaze. apolon canavas mier warmodgenili paraleluri teqstebi sam jgufad iyofa. esenia: I. maxvilsityvaobaze damyarebuli satirul-iumoristuli xasiaTis novelebi (`cocxlad damarxuli da usaxod didi adamianebi~, `sami yru~, `mefe da avsityva~, `anCxli rZali~, `qosa da yadi~, `glaxa da mdidari~, sul 19 igav-araki).

229

II jgufia -- zRaprebi, sadac Sevida: `orni Zmani~, `cru da umecari~, `basreli mefe da aqimi~, `ganSorebuli da martvili~ da sxv. sul 6 igav-araki. III jgufSia anekdotebi, sadac Sevida igavebi: `Tivaze mocileni~, `mklavi da viri~, `glaxaki da fluri~, `mTiuli da kaklis xe~, `Zunwi da oqro~. sul 9 nimuSi. mkvlevari warmodgenil igav-arakebs aanaalizebs da aRniSnavs, rom maT paralelebi eZebnebaT qarTul xalxur sityvierebaSi, rom maxvilsityvaobis TiTqmis yvela nimuSi, romelsac saba iyenebs, Cawerilia aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. sulxan-saba igav-arakebisTvis iyenebs zRapris epizods, anekdots, frTian gamoTqmebs, satirul-iumoristul novelebs da sakuTar SemoqmedebiT quraSi gamowrTobis Sedegad gvaZlevs originalur literaturul Txzulebas. wigni Sedgeba 97 gverdisagan. S. k.

V. paralelebi

levan bregaZe

paralelebi

,,literaturuli saqarTvelo", 13.VII.1989 ganxilulia sulxan-saba orbelianis igav-arakebis ori paraleli. ,,glaxa da fluris" paraleli moZebnilia aRorZinebis xanis italieli mwerlisa da mecnieris pojo braColinis (1380-1459) anekdotebis koleqciaSi. braColinis variantisgan gansxvavebiT, sabas versiaSi arc erTi iseTi detali ar aris, arakis ideis mimarT mkacrad relevanturi rom ar iyos, rac am Janris did literaturul Rirsebaze metyvelebs. ,,usamarTlo SirvanSas" msgavsi fabula aqvs gamoyenebuli me-13 saukunis siriel swavlulsa da mweral-enciklopedists grigol-ioane abul-faraj barhebraias (1226-1286) ,,gasarTobi ambebis wignSi", romelic aRmosavlur-dasavluri warmoSobis miniaturebis krebuls warmoadgens (abul-faraji qristiani iyo da kargad icnobda dasavlur kulturasac).

230

amasTan dakavSirebiT levan bregaZes mohyavs zurab avaliSvilis mosazreba: ,,aq saqme gvaqvs ara analogiasTan an mxolod Tematikur naTesaobasTan, aramed es, ubralod, igive arakia", Semdeg ki empiriuli masalis moSveliebiT amtkicebs, rom Tumca am igavebs Soris garegnulad marTla didi msgavsebaa da genetikurad isini uTuod dakavSirebulni arian erTmaneTTan, magram sxvaobac imdenad arsebiTia, rom SeiZleba iTqvas: saqme gvaqvs ara erTsa da imave, aramed erTmaneTisgan mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebul arakebTan. i.a. levan bregaZe

,,sibrZne-sicruisas" mistifikaciebi

Jurnali ,,laSari", 2, 1991 statia exmaureba cnobil polemikas, romelic gaimarTa gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi sulxan-saba orbelianis igavarakTa krebulis saTauris gaazrebis Taobaze. avtori ganixilavs revaz TvaraZis (,,axalgazrda komunisti", 28.02.95), ioseb megreliZis (,,axalgazrda komunisti", 12.02.85), jimSer leJavas (,,literaturuli saqarTvelo", 28.08.87), levan menabdis (,,literaturuli saqarTvelo", 09.10.87) mosazrebebs da gamoaqvs daskvna, romelic antimimeturi literaturis Teorias eyrdnoba. l. bregaZis mosazreba aseTia: ,,sibrZne-sicruisa" antimimetur TxzulebaTa krebulia. ,,sicrue" aq marTlac sicrues niSnavs, oRond iseT sicrues, romelsac gonierebasTan, sibrZnesTan da samarTlianobasTan aqvs kavSiri. motyuebas, ganzrax Secdenas xSirad mimarTaven sulxan-saba orbelianis e.w. dadebiTi personaJebi TavianTi samarTliani, keTilSobiluri miznebis misaRwevad. ,,nalbandi mgelis", ,,moZRvari melis", ,,soflis maSenebelnis", ,,usamarTlo SirvanSas", ,,didvaWrisa da misi Zis", ,,brZeni da mdidaris" da sxva igavebis analizis paralelurad ganixilavs bibliis iseT epizodebs, rogorebicaa iosebisa da misi Zmebis, solomon brZenis, ivdiTis, petre mociqulis mistifikaciebi, romlebSic tyuili keTilSobilur rols asrulebs adamianis bedis gansazRvraSi da amtkicebs Semdegs: wminda werili, qristianuli ideologia, aSkarad ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisagan ori saxis sicrues: 1. egoisturs, boroti ganzraxviT naTqvams, romelic satanisgan iRebs saTa-

231

ves da sastikad isjeba; 2. iZulebiTs, keTili ganzraxviT Tqmuls, brZnulad mofiqrebuls, romelic suliwmididan momdinareobs da pativiscemas, zogjer aRtacebasac ki imsaxurebs. asevea sabasTanac, ,,sibrZne-sicruisa" aRsavsea maxvilgonivruli, brZnuli sicruiT anu mistifikaciebiT da amiTac SeiZleba am saTauris gamarTleba. i.a. qsenia sixaruliZe

,,sibrZne sicruis" ramdenime arakis paraleli qarTul eposSi

sulxan-saba orbeliani, saiubileo krebuli, Tsu, 1959 avtori exeba sakiTxis or mxares: 1. ra ideebis warmoCenas emsaxureba ,,sibrZne sicruisas" teqstebSi gamoyenebuli xalxuri siuJetebi da motivebi; 2. saidan aiRo mweralma siuJetebi da motivebi Tavisi igav-arakebisaTvis. Tu ra funqcia akisria xalxur siuJetebsa da motivebs, amis dadgena iolia, vinaidan ,,sibrZne sicruisa" ganmanaTlebel-sazogadoebrivi ideebis gamomxatvelia da amitom xalxuri motivebic amgvari ideebis gaRrmavebas emsaxureba. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania meore sakiTxi: saidan aiRo mweralma siuJetebi da motivebi Tavisi igav-arakebisaTvis. originaluria es masalebi Tu ara. statiaSi dawvrilebiT aris ganxiluli qarTul sazRapro eposSi variantebad arsebuli sulxan-saba orbelianis arakebis ,,grZneuli aqimis", ,,nalbandi mgelis", ,,berad Semdgari melis" da ,,jizi gurgenis" motivebis paralelebi. avtoris azriT, sagulisxmoa, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,berad Semdgari melis" yvela motivi variantebad aris cnobili qarTul cxovelTa eposSi. amas garda, ZiriTadi analogiuri motivebi ,,sibrZne sicruisas" arakisa da qarTuli zRaprebis variantebisa moaruli, saerTaSoriso xasiaTisaa. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom ,,berad Semdgari melis" analogiuri qarTuli xalxuri zRapris ,,melis berad Sedgoma" erTerT motivze aris agebuli ,,sibrZne sicruisas" meore damoukidebeli araki ,,nalbandi mgeli". sulxan-sabas arakebis ,,berad Semdgari melisa" da ,,nalbandi mgelis" Sedareba qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebis variantebTan da maTi saerTo motive-

232

bis saerTaSoriso xasiaTi maCvenebelia imisa, rom am arakebis wyaro qarTuli zepirsityvierebaa. i.a. akaki wereTeli

SeniSvna `saba orbelianis igav-arakebSi~

wignSi _ `publicisturi da kritikuli werilebi~, t. V, `saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1990. akaki wereTlis `SeniSvna~, romelic 1898 w. `akakis krebulSi~ daibeWda, exeba sulxan-sabas igav-arakTa originalobis da misi msgavsebis sakiTxs sxvadasxva qveynis zepirsityvier Tu literaturul teqstebTan. akaki wers, sabas arakebSi zogjer iseTi ambebic urevia, evropis Soreuli qveynebis zepirsityvierebaSic rom vxvdebiT. zogierTebs CvenSi miaCniaT, rom sabam es arakebi evropaSi mogzaurobis dros moagrova da Semdeg gadmoaqarTulao. akaki ar eTanxmeba am azrs, _ sabam evropaSi xandazmulma imogzaura, xolo `sibrZne sicruisas~ arakebs axalgazrdobaSi agrovebdao. Tumca im faqtsac ixsenebs, lui XIV-s karze lafontensac Sexvedria da SesaZloa, erTmaneTisTvis bevri ram gaeziarebinaTo. sabas `ku da morieli~ lafontenis `bayayi da morielis~ identuriao. akaki im azrs ufro emxroba, rom SesaZloa orive meigavis pirvelwyaro ezopes igavi yofiliyo. akaki am `SeniSvnaSi~ xalxuri sityvierebis nimuSebis Segrovebis aucileblobazec laparakobs, aRniSnavs, rom CvenSi mravlad moipoveba sxvadasxva qveynis zepirsityvierebis nimuSebi mogzaurTa, misioner berTa Tu sxvaTa meSveobiT gavrcelebuli da Semdeg gaqarTulebuli. magaliTisTvis moaqvs bokaCios erTi novela, romelic axalqalaqis mazraSi mousmenia `gulkeTili terteras~ saxelwodebiT. sabolood ki imas amtkicebs, rom qarTuli xalxuri sityvierebaa is usazRvro salaro, saidanac iRebs Tavis `margalitebs~ sulxan-saba da rom am salarodan jer `fioric ara gvaqvs Segrovili, magram raca gvaqvs, iqidanac Cans qarTuli zepir-sityvaobis simdidre da saistorio-msoflio mniSvneloba~. SeniSvna 2,5 gverdisgan Sedgeba. S.k.

233

VI. diplomatiuri moRvaweoba

jibo lomaSvili

sulxan-saba orbeliani, rogorc diplomati

etiudebi, ,,merani", Tb., 1984. jibo lomaSvilis naSromSi warmodgenilia sulxan-saba orbelianis diplomatiuri moRvaweobis arasruli, magram mniSvnelovani faqtebi. werili iwyeba sulxan-saba orbelianis Rvawlis aRweriT, Semdeg avtori gvawvdis mwir cnobebs misi biografiidan. naSromSi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia me-18 saukunis pirvel meoTxedze, roca sulxan-saba orbeliani moRvaweobda qarTlis mefeebis: giorgi me-11, qaixosrosa da vaxtang me-6is karze. avtori yuradRebas amaxvilebs giorgi me-11-is dasaxmareblad sulxan-saba orbelianis mier samcxis aTabagTan warmoebuli molaparakebis Sesaxeb. naSromSi saubaria orbelianis berad aRkvecis mizezebze da misi xelaxali politikuri moRvaweobisas legitimistebis lideris funqciaze. werilSi aRwerilia datyvevebuli vaxtang meeqvsis dasaxmareblad da misive davalebiT, 1913 wels evropaSi diplomatiuri misiiT qarTveli elCis gamgzavrebisa da iq moRvaweobis faqtebi: kavSiri misioner i. riSarTan, romelmac 1913 da 1914 wlebSi safrangeTis ministr tursis miswera sulxansabas gegmebis Sesaxeb; Tavad sabas mier romis kardinalisadmi da 1914 wlis 23 marts safrangeTis ministr ponSartrenisadmi miwerili werilebis Sesaxeb. naSromSi naTlad Cans is diplomatiuri Rvawli, Tu rogor moipova sulxan-saba orbelianma romis papis _ klimenti meTerTmetis mxardaWera, ris Sedegadac orjer miaRwia lui meToTxmetesTan audiencias vaxtang meeqvsis dasaxmareblad. naSromSi aRwerilia sulxan-sabas mier frangulad Sedgenili werili, romelic man safrangeTis mefes gadasca. aseve, lui meToTxmetesTan saubris mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi, romelic saqarTvelosa da qarTveli mefis keTildReobis sanacvlod, saqarTveloSi kaTolikuri mrwamsis damkvidrebas gulisxmobda; 1715 wels, safrangeTis mefis gardacvalebis Semdeg, safrangeTidan daxmarebis imedi gaqra. avtori gvacnobs sulxan-saba orbelianis ukanasknel mogzaurobas ruseTSi, roca is vaxtang mefis amalas axlda

234

da 1725 wels iqve gardaicvala. iq mas diplomatiuri moRvaweoba aRar dascalda. q.S. ilia tabaRua

sulxan-saba orbelianis elCoba saqarTveloSi

Jurnali ,,macne", 1965, 3, 5. ilia tabaRuas naSromSi detalurad aris ganxiluli is dokumentebi, romlebic exeba sulxan-saba orbelianis elCobas safrangeTSi; agreTve diplomatiuri misiis Sedegebi, romelic me-18 saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi elCma vaxtang meeqvsis davalebiT Seasrula. naSromSi qronologiurad aris ganxiluli is masalebi, romlebic gvamcnoben parizsa da versalSi sulxan-sabas molaparakebis Sesaxeb da Sedgenilni arian im periodSi, roca qarTveli elCi safrangeTSi imyofeboda. werilSi aRniSnulia, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis saqarTveloSi dabrunebis Semdeg safrangeTis samefo karze ar Sewyvetila msjeloba saqarTvelosTan urTierTobis sakiTxebze. ilia tabaRuas werilSi gvxvdeba CamonaTvali im werilebisa, romlebic saqarTvelos mdgomareobas exeboda da sulxan-sabas romSi gamgzavrebis Semdeg lui me-14-is gardacvalebamde grZeldeboda. mimoweras awarmoebdnen safrangeTis samefo karis warmomadgenlebi: grafi de ponSartreni, markiz detorsi, grafi dezalori, Jan riSari... cnobilia agreTve sulxan-saba orbelianis werilebi grafi de ponSartrenisadmi siciliidan da konstantinepolidan. statias Tan erTvis sami dokumentis fotofiri, romlebic safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros arqividanaa wamoRebuli; saxeldobr, vaxtang VI-is werili lui me-14sadmi, safrangeTis ministrisa da saxelmwifo mdivnis grafi de ponSartrenisadmi. werilebi sulxan-sabas mier aris dawerili qarTul da frangul enebze. q.S.

235

ilia tabaRua

evropaSi sulxan-saba orbelianis diplomatiuri misiis Sedegebi

Jurnali ,,macne", 1966, 6 naSromSi aRwerilia, Tu ra sakiTxebi ixileboda safrangeTis samefo karze sulxan-saba orbelianTan molaparakebis periodSi. es iyo: iranis tyveobidan vaxtang VI-is gaTavisufleba da misi TbilisSi qristian mefed dabruneba; misionerebis gagzavna saqarTveloSi, rac miznad isaxavda kaTolikobis gavrcelebas ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed mis mezobel mxareebSic; agreTve saqarTvelos teritoriis savaWro gzad gadaqcevas da Tbilisis sasaqonle sawyobad gamoyenebas; saqarTvelosa da safrangeTs Soris vaWrobis dawyeba-gafarToebas; safrangeTsa da saqarTvelos Soris samxedro TanamSromlobis damyarebas; TbilisSi safrangeTis sakonsulos Seqmnas. avtori, erTi mxriv, mimoixilavs safrangeTisa da iranTurqeTis urTierTobebs, xolo meore mxriv, ruseTis imperatoris petre pirvelis politikas axlo aRmosavleTSi; kerZod, kaspiis akvatoriis midamoebSi. am urTierTobaTa fonzea ganxiluli saqarTvelos elCis moqmedebaTa diapazoni da saerTod, am diplomatiuri misiis warumatebeli Sedegebi. sulxan-sabas elCobas Tuki hqonda erTgvari warmatebis winapiroba da Tu man miaRwia safrangeTis mefis mxardaWeras, es yvelaferi gaaqarwyla 1715 wels, pirvel seqtembers, lui me-14-is gardacvalebam. amis Semdeg versalSi xelmZRvanelobas CamoSordnen is pirebi, romlebic saqarTvelo-safrangeTis urTierTobaSi zemoxsenebuli gegmis ganxorcielebis momxreni iyvnen. avtori SeniSnavs, rom safrangeTis axal xelmZRvanelebs sxva gegmebi da interesebi hqondaT. q.S.

236

VII. leqsikologiuri sakiTxebi

cisana abulaZe

sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis sityvanis Turquli Targmanebi

saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis k. kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa instituti, ,,mecniereba", Tb., 1968. naSromSi warmodgenilia sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis mxolod qarTul-Turquli TargmniTi nawili. qarTul gansamartavTa Turquli Targmanebi mocemulia leqsikonis meoTxe gamocemis msgavsad, aqamde arsebuli yvela avtobiografiuli nusxis CvenebiT. gamovlenilia saintereso masala Turquli da azerbaijanuli enebis istoriuli dialeqtologiis sakiTxebisa da Turqul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobis Sesaswavlad. ganxilulia leqsikonis aqamde arsebuli oTxive gamocema: r. erisTavis (1884 w.), i. yifSiZis da ak. SaniZis (1928 w.), s. iordaniSvilisa (1949 w.) da il. abulaZisa (1965-66 ww.). paralelurad warmodgenilia saTanado literaturuli formebi azerbaijanul an Turqul enaze. amiT ufro gasagebi gaxda leqsikuri erTeulis Sinaarsi yvela Turqologisa da Turquli enis mcodnisaTvis; naTlad warmoCndeba Turquli Targmanebis saxe da gaadvildeba Turqul-azerbaijanuli enebis istoriuli fonetikis, morfologiisa Tu leqsikis istoriuli ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT analizi. Turqulenovani masalis fonetikur-morfologiuri da leqsikuri Taviseburebani gaanalizebulia Tanamedrove azerbaijanul da Turqul enebTan mimarTebaSi, gaTvaliswinebulia am enaTa dialeqtebis monacemebi. leqsikonis qarTul-Turquli Sesatyvisobani isea mowodebuli, rom igi xelmisawvdomi iqneba qarTulis aramcodne TurqologTaTvisac. wigni Sedgeba Sesavalis, Svidi Tavisa da sityvaTa saZieblisagan, axlavs mokle Sinaarsi rusul enaze. avtori xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom termini ,,Turquli" ar gulisxmobs mxolod TurqeTis Turquls, aramed igi gamoiyeneba saerTod Turquli enebis (azerbaijanulisa da anatoliuri Turqulis) mniSvnelobiT. l.r.

237

ilia abulaZe

leqsikologiuri sakiTxebi

sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,leqsikoni qarTuli", t. I, II, III, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis k. kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa instituti, ,,merani", Tb., 1991, 1993, 1998. sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,leqsikoni qarTulis" winamdebare gamocema fototipurad imeorebs 1965-1966 wlebSi s.-s. orbelianis TxzulebaTa oTxtomeulSi il. abulaZis mier gamoqveynebul teqsts. I tomSi qveyndeba leqsikonis masala an-idan san-is CaTvliT. mas win uZRvis winasityvaobebi redaqtorebisa da il. abulaZisa, aseve ,,saswavlo yrmaTa" - s.-s. orbelianis mierve Sedgenili qarTuli enis ,,Rrammatika". gansamartav sityvaTa rigSi gansxvavebuli SriftiT (Savi petitiT) warmodgenilia is saleqsikono erTeulebi, romlebic adreul redaqcias daucavs mxolod da bolomde ar gahyolian leqsikons. ,,qarTuli leqsikonis avtobiografiul nusxebs ilustraciebic moepoveba Semdegi sityvebis dasasuraTeblad: naTesavi, qari, queyana, ca da jojoxeTi. suraTebi aRebulia leqsikonis iseTi avtografiuli nusxebidan, romlebSic isini kliSisaTvis ufro gamosadegi saxiT iyo warmodgenili. II tomSi qveyndeba masala rae-dan t-s CaTvliT. Semdeg warmodgenilia: ucxo Sesatyvisobani (italiur-Turqulsomxuri), Targmani qveyanaTa da kacTa saxelebisa, qveynis zomaTa ricxvi, bolosityva da danarTi. III tomSi Sesulia il. abulaZis gamokvleva da mis mierve Sedgenili saZiebeli iseTi sityvebisa, romlebic ganmartebebSia naxmari, xolo saleqsikono erTeulebad araa gamoyofili. mkvlevris mier Seswavlilia leqsikonis nusxebi da redaqciebi, gansamartav sityvaTa wyaroebi da maTi damowmebis wesebi, sabaseuli muSaobis meTodi, ucxo wyaroebis gamoyenebis Taviseburebebi da sxv. il. abulaZis dakvirvebiT, ucxo wyaroebs, romlebsac saba ,,sxvaTa wignebs" uwodebs, warmoadgens biblia da leqsikonebi. igi maT ecnoboda berZnul (elinur), laTinur, somxur da arabul enebze. sabas Turqulis msgavsad unda scodnoda ara mwignobruli, aramed sasaubro somxuri. avtografebSi daculi sabaseuli SeniSvnebis safuZvelze garkveulia misi ganaTlebis farglebi filosofiasa da RvTismetyvelebaSi.

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mkvlevris mosazrebiT, ,,leqsikoni qarTuli" ZiriTadad ganmartebiTia, magram imis gamo, rom masSi Setanilia pirTa da geografiuli saxelebi (onomastika da toponimika), agreTve qarTul sityvaTa ucxouri Sesatyvisebi (laTinuri, somxuri, Turquli), is ganmartebiTis farglebs scildeba da erTsa da imave dros aris enciklopediuric da TargmniTic. leqsikonis amgvari wesiT Sedgena ki ganapiroba im faqtma, rom igi gankuTvnili iyo rogorc saswavlo wigni ,,swavlis moyvarulTaTvis". mniSvnelovania saZieblis darTvac. igi rva aTasamde sityvas Seicavs, maT saba ganmartebebSi moixmobs, Tumca gansamartav erTeulebad ar gaaqvs. mecnieri am faqtsac ganmartavs: wyaroebma, romelTa mixedviTac saba leqsikons adgenda, es sityvebi ar ukarnaxes. saZiebelSi bevrma saintereso sityvam moiyara Tavi, romelTa indeqsi Zvirfas masalas Seicavs qarTuli leqsikiT dainteresebuli yvela mkiTxvelisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa igi enaTmecnierTaTvis, kerZod ki qarTuli leqsikis mkvlevarTaTvis. l.r. ivane gigineiSvili

sulxan-saba orbelianis enisaTvis

wignSi _ sulxan-saba orbeliani, saiubileo krebuli, Tsu, 1959, gv. 29-42. werilis dasawyisSi mkvlevari ganixilavs im problemebs, romlebic axlavs yoveli mwerlis enis Seswavlas; kerZod, Semoqmedis enobrivi Taviseburebebi, erTi mxriv, saerTo literaturuli enis faqts warmoadgens, literaturuli enis ganviTarebis erT-erTi rgolTagania, meore mxriv, literaturis faqtia, literaturis enis nimuSia. cnebebi literaturuli ena da literaturis ena ki erTmaneTs ar faravs. sulxan-saba orbeliani, rogorc mwerali, is iSviaTi magaliTia, romlis mniSvneloba daufasebelia ara marto literaturis istoriis, aramed qarTuli literaturuli enis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiTac. avtori ganixilavs qarTuli literaturuli enis istoriaSi or gansakuTrebul etaps: XII s-Si igi ukavSirdeba SoTa rusTavels, XIX s-Si ki ilia WavWavaZes, magram es ukanaskneli mobruneba-ganaxleba axali qarTuli saliteraturo enisa swored sulxan-sabasa da daviT guramiSvilis SemoqmedebiT

239

daiwyo. amis Semdeg ganxilulia sulxan-saba orbelianis nawarmoebTa enobrivi Taviseburebani, araerTgvarovneba da mniSvneloba qarTuli saliteraturo enis TvalsazrisiT. gamoTqmulia Tvalsazrisi, rom sxvagvaria ena ,,swavlanisa" da sxvagvaria ena ,,sibrZne sicruis wignisa~ an ,,evropaSi mogzaurobisa", kidev meti, erTgvari ar aris TviT sabas ,,leqsikonis" ena, kerZod, leqsikologis ena da stili misi wyaroebis enisa da stilis Sesabamisia. filosofiur Tu saRvTismetyvelo mwerlobaSi naxmar sityvaTa ganmartebisas, qarTuli leqsikuri fondis sityvebis ganmartebani ki axali qarTuliTaa Sesrulebuli, martivi, gasagebi eniTa da virtuozulad sxarti da ekonomiuri stiliT (rac saTanado magaliTebis moxmobiT dasturdeba). mkvlevars sulxan-sabas enobrivi poziciis gasarkvevad mniSvnelovnad miaCnia ara ,,swavlani" (misi msgavsi nawarmoebi) da ,,leqsikonis" didi nawili, aramed ,,mogzauroba evropaSi" da ,,sibrZne sicruisa". am nawarmoebTa ena ukve axali qarTuli enis ganviTarebis etaps warmoadgens; sabam ,,sibrZne-sicruisaSi" Tavi daaRwia dialeqtizmebis moWarbebas da erTgvari arqaizacia gaatara. Tumca es ar iyo mibruneba Zveli qarTulisaken, arqaizacia mwerlisTvis enis literaturulobis, dialeqtisa da sasaubro enisagan gansxvavebulobis xazgasmas warmoadgenda. iv. gigineiSvili aRniSnavs, rom sabas ena da stili gansxvavebulia imisda mixedviT, Tu ra xasiaTis, ra Janris nawarmoebs wers. rCeba STabeWdileba, romelic badebs kiTxvas: xom ar iyo saba momxre nairstilovani literaturuli enisa, romelsac icavdnen klasicizmis warmomadgenlebi, miT ufro, rom misTvis cnobili iqneboda adreul klasicistTa moRvaweoba? avtori Tavisi mosazrebis gasamyareblad erTmaneTs upirispirebs, erTi mxriv, ,,sibrZne sicruisasa" da ,,mogzaurobis" enas, stils, meore mxriv _ sasuliero xasiaTis Txzulebebsa da leqsikonis garkveul nawils. misi azriT, originalurad gadawyvita sulxan-sabam stilis sakiTxic; man am mizniT calke sityvaTa formebi da sintaqsuri damokidebulebebi ki ar gamoiyena, aramed winadadebaTsaxeobani, winadadebaTwyoba da sityvaTa wyoba winadadebaSi. hipotaqsi Zvels, saeklesio amaRlebul stils daumkvidra, xolo parataqsi axlis, ,,msofliuris" gadmosacemad moixmara. iv. gigineiSvilis Rrma rwmeniT, sulxan-saba orbelianis mier arCeuli gza erTaderTi marTebuli da swori iyo axali

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qarTuli saliteraturo enis Camosayalibeblad, magram enis bunebriv ganviTarebas, samwuxarod, arsebiTi xasiaTis dabrkolebebi gadaeRoba win. l.r. elene metreveli

sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis uZvelesi avtografi

akad. s. janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe, t. XIX, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1956. ganxilulia sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis mogvianebiT aRmoCenili avtografi, romelic daculi iyo saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis xelnawerTa ganyofilebaSi (H416). samecniero literaturaSi sabas leqsikonis redaqciebisaTvis miRebulia literebi: C, B, A. vinaidan axlad mignebuli nusxa gansxvavdeba cnobili redaqciebisagan, amitom mkvlevari mas D literiT aRniSnavs. D xelnaweri Tavisi mravalricxovani minawerebisa da SeniSvnebis gamo unda warmoadgendes samuSao egzemplars, romelSic aisaxa leqsikonze muSaobis pirveli, ZiriTadi etapi. nusxaSi yvelaze naTlad Cans sabas muSaobis meTodebi, Ziebisa da kvlevis gzebi ganmartebaTa Camoyalibebis procesSi. D xelnawerSi damowmebuli literatura ufro mcirea, vidre Semdgom redaqciebSi. leqsikonis yoveli axali redaqcia axali wyaroebiT aris gamdidrebuli. amave dros, sabolood dadgenili da ganmartebuli sityva xSirad kargavs miTiTebas im wyaroze, romlis safuZvelzec ganimarta sityva. amdenad, gamoyenebul wyaroTa raodenoba da Semadgenloba sxvadasxva suraTs iZleva redaqciebis Seqmnis manZilze. uZvelesi nusxis Sedgenis droisaTvis leqsikologiuri TvalsazrisiT sabas bevri im wyaroTagani, romelic Semdgom redaqciebSi Cndeba, damuSavebuli ar aqvs. am nusxaSi ar Cans originaluri qarTuli agiografiis Zeglebidan ioanesa da efTvimes cxovreba, ninos cxovreba, Sios cxovreba da sxva, romlebic momdevno redaqciebSi ikargeba. nusxis kideebze da furclis SigniT mravali minaweria, romelTa gacnoba saSualebas iZleva vimsjeloT imaze, Tu

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damatebiT ra xasiaTis masalis Setana miuCnevia saWirod sabas jer kidev leqsikonis redaqciaze muSaobis dros da ra axal wyaroebs ecnoba saba leqsikonis ZiriTadi teqstis Sedgenis Semdeg. erTi rigis masala, romelic minawerebis saxiT aris Setanili leqsikonSi, enciklopediuri xasiaTisaa. am masalis SetaniT gafarTovda ganmartebiTi leqsikonis sazRvrebi. rac Seexeba TariRs, elene metrevelis azriT, uZvelesi xelnaweri Sedgenili unda iyos XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi, kerZod 1704-05 wlebSi. i.a. lili quTaTelaZe

sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis redaqciebi (avtografebis mixedviT)

saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1957. wignSi warmodgenilia sulxan-saba orbelianis mier Seqmnili qarTuli ganmartebiTi leqsikonis avtografebis istoria: dadgenilia maTi qronologiuri Tanamimdevroba da ZiriTadi redaqciebi, mecnierul-SemoqmedebiTi muSaobis procesi da leqsikonis saxecvlilebani (ZiriTadi redaqciebi), maTi mimarTeba ,,sityvis konis" ukanasknel redaqciasTan. naSromis erT-erTi umTavresi Rirsebaa leqsikonSi Setanili ,,Zneli" sityvebis warmodgena dokumentaciiTa da maTi TandaTanobiTi axsnis procesiT. rogorc cnobilia, leqsikonis Seqmnis dros sabas gverdiT edgnen Tavisi umcrosi Zma zaal, yofili zosime da vaxtang VI. naSromSi sagangebodaa Seswavlili maTi Rvawli. ganxilulia zosime orbelianis mier sabas sicocxleSi gadawerili, avtorisagan nasworebi da Sevsebuli calebi, gamovlenilia misi gardacvalebis Semdeg zosimes leqsikologiuri saqmianoba. vaxtang VI-is leqsikografiuli muSaobis Sesaxeb pirvelad aRniSnes akaki SaniZem da n. marma, warmodgenil naSromSi ki detaluradaa Seswavlili es sakiTxi, kerZod, rogor iyenebs saba vaxtangis mier miwodebul masalas da ra xasiaTisaa igi. wigni Sedgeba winasityvaobis, Sesavlisa da oTxi Tavisagan: avtografiuli nusxebi da maTi aRweriloba, avtogra-

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fiuli nusxebis TariRisaTvis, sabas leqsikonis redaqciebi, sabas uaxloesi TanamSromlebi; aseve warmodgenilia daskvnebi, damatebani (e.w. ,,Zneli sityvebi", naklebad ganmartebuli avtoris mier), leqsikonis sxvadasxva redaqciaze arsebuli minawerebi da sxvadasxva redaqciis nusxebi; mocemulia mokle Sinaarsi rusul enaze da pirTa saZiebeli. l.r. SoTa ZiZiguri

sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,sityvis kona"

wignSi: ena da literatura ,,literatura da xelovneba", Tb., 1965, gv. 57-67. wignSi ganxilulia zogadad enis sakiTxebi: erTi mxriv, erovnuli realizmisa da enobrivi naturalizmis Teoriuli safuZvlebi, meore mxriv, samwerlo enis TvalsazrisiT Seswavlilia ramdenime klasikosi mwerlis Semoqmedeba (efrem mcire, sulxan-saba orbeliani, daviT guramiSvili, ilia WavWavaZe, akaki wereTeli, vaJa-fSavela) da garkveulia maTi adgili saliteraturo enis istoriaSi. avtori sulxan-sabaseuli enis kvlevisas sagangebod msjelobs ,,sityvis konis" _ rogorc ,,qarTuli enis amourwyavi saunjis", Sesaxeb da mimoixilavs imJamindel da Semdegdroindel qarTvel da ucxoel mkvlevarTa (vaxtang VI, mariam batoniSvili, melqisedek kavkasiZe, robert bleiki, niko mari, akaki SaniZe, ilia abulaZe, elene metreveli, aleqsandre baramiZe) damokidebulebas am naSromisadmi. werilSi saubaria ,,sityvis konaSi" Semavali TargmniTi leqsikonis elementebze. kerZod, mraval sityvas miwerili aqvs somxuri, Turquli da italiuri Sesatyvisobani qarTuli transkripciiT, rac pirveli cdaa qarTul-somxuri, qarTul-Turquli da qarTul-italiuri mcire leqsikonebisa. Tavis mxriv, sabas mier ucxour enebze Targmnil sityvebs damoukidebeli mniSvnelobac aqvs saenaTmecniero miznebisaTvis; aseve mniSvnelovania leqsikoni qarTuli dialeqtologiis Sesaswavlad, radgan saba xSirad xalxur metyvelebas mimarTavda calkeuli sityvis mniSvnelobis dasazusteblad. aq vxvdebiT iseT sityvebs, romlebic ar icis arc Zvelma da arc axalma saliteraturo qarTulma. isini Semonaxulia

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dRevandel qarTul dialeqtebSi, kerZod, svanursa da zanurSi (megrul-WanurSi). dasasrul Sejamebulia sulxan-sabas ,,sityvis konis" roli qarTuli leqsikografiis istoriaSi. l.r. zurab WumburiZe

,,vefxistyaosani" _ rogorc sabas leqsikonis wyaro

wignSi: sulxan-saba orbeliani, saiubileo krebuli, Tsu, 1959, gv. 235-243. sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,sityvis konis" wyaroTa Soris mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs ,,vefxistyaosans", romlis teqstzec leqsikografs sagangebo dakvirveba uwarmoebia. amis kvali aSkaradaa aRbeWdili leqsikonSi. z. WumburiZes ormxrivad sainteresod miaCnia amgvari kvleva: am gziT SesaZlebelia gavecnoT sabas damokidebulebas poemis teqstisadmi da amasTanave, gaviTvaliswinoT misi leqsikografiuli muSaobis zogierTi mxare. avtori ganixilavs ,,vefxistyaosnidan" citirebul (daaxloebiT 50-mde sxvadasxva redaqciaSi) sityvebs da sabaseuli leqsikologiuri meTodis ganxilviT cdilobs axsnas, Tu ratom ar aris xSirad miTiTebuli ,,vefxistyaosani", ufro metic, is faqti, rom poemis zogierTi sityva leqsikonSi ar Sesula, ar niSnavs, TiTqos saba nakleb angariSs uwevda an kargad ar icnobda mis leqsikas. sainteresoa, rom ,,vefxistyaosnis" sityvaTa ganmartebebSi naTlad warmoCndeba sulxan-sabasa da mefe-poet vaxtang VI-is literaturuli TanamSromlobis kvali. ,,vefxistyaosnis" 1712 wlis gamocemas vaxtangma vrceli ,,Targmanebi" anu komentari daurTo, romelSic, sxvaTa Soris, mravali sityvis ganmartebac aris mocemuli; qronologiuradac emTxveva leqsikonisa da ,,Targmanebis" dawera, amdenad, cxadia sulxanis gavlena Tavis aRzrdilze. z. WumburiZe miuTiTebs ak. SaniZis mosazrebas da Tavadac dasZens, rom sabasac usargeblia vaxtangiseuli komentarebiT, rac gamovlinda leqsikonis gviandel redaqciebSi. mkvlevari svams kiTxvas: ,,vefxistyaosnis" ra xelnaweriT sargeblobda leqsikografi, ramdenad SeiZleba gamovric-

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xoT is faqti, rom igi zepir wyaros dayrdnoboda saleqsikono masalis amokrebis dros? uSualod is xelnaweri, romliTac sabas usargeblia, ukve dakarguli Cans, es iqidan irkveva, rom leqsikonSi poemidan damowmebuli zogierTi adgili zustad am saxiT ar dasturdeba amJamad cnobil arcerT ZiriTad xelnawerSi. varaudis saxiT gamoTqmulia, rom sabaseuli ,,vefxistyaosani" vrceli redaqciis unda yofiliyo, igi Seicavda indo-xataelTa ambavsac (amas mowmobs sityvebi: damajneba da xarxanCosa). es faqti safuZvels aZlevda s. caiSvils, rom indo-xataelTa ambavi poemis organul nawilad mieCnia da amiT uareyo am sakiTxSi vaxtangis pozicia. l.r.

VIII. anTropologiuri sakiTxebi

avlipi zurabaSvili

personologiuri problemebi sulxan-saba orbelianis SemoqmedebaSi

wignSi: ,,personologiuri problemebi qarTul mwerlobaSi". Tsu gamomc., Tb., 1973, gv. 200. avlipi zurabaSvili gamokvlevis SesavalSi mimoixilavs im epoqas, romelSic moRvaweobda sulxan-saba. es iyo dro, roca ,,qarTlis Wirs vervin mosTvlida". roca gamahmadianebuli qarTveli mefeebi qveyanas awiokebdnen da anadgurebdnen, sulxan-sabam ganizraxa moralur katastrofamde misuli xalxi gamoefxizlebina, gaeRviZebina maTSi patriotizmi, adamianuri movaleobani, sikeTe, ndoba, samarTlianoba da sxv. ,,cnobilia, _ wers avlipi zurabaSvili, _ rom orbelianis qadagebani ar warmoadgens originalur nawarmoebs viwro gagebiT... magram aq saqme gvaqvs iseTi donis, siRrmis, mWevrmetyvelebisa da mizandasaxulobis oratorTan, rom misi mimarTva sazogadoebisaTvis iqneboda ueWvelad axali sityva".

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avlipi zurabaSvili ganixilavs ,,sibrZne sicruisas" iseT Temebs, rogorebicaa ampartavneba, Tavmdabloba, sizarmace, Sromismoyvareoba, siyvaruli, megobroba, sikeTe, boroteba, erTguleba, Ralati. avtoris azriT, dadebiTis da uaryofiTis, Rirseulis da uRirsis, kargisa da avis, borotebisa da sikeTis, maRalisa da dabalis, sitkbosi da simwaris urTierTdapirispireba ufro qmediTi gzaa mxatvruli miznis misaRwevad. statiaSi aRniSnulia, rom sulxan-sabas kargad esmoda sityvis rogorc fsiqoTerapiuli, ise fsiqotravmuli mniSvneloba. ufro metic, misi gagebiT avi sityva da avkacobis problema erT mTlian kategorias warmoadgens. sulxan-saba deontologiur-personologiuri fsiqologiis, ese igi, moqmedebis fsiqologiis brwyinvale warmomadgenelia... misi Semoqmedeba aqtualuri iqneba, sanam arsebobs adamiani Tavisi dadebiTi da uaryofiTi TvisebebiT. S.k. zurab kiknaZe

sulxani da saba

,,avTandilis anderZi", ,,merani", Tb., 2001. rogori iyo sulxan-saba orbeliani rogorc kerZo kaci, rogorc pirovneba? am kiTxvaze sapasuxod avtori ikvlevs sulxan-sabas cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis iseT sferoebs, romlebSic ikveTeba personologiuri aspeqtebi. avtoris azriT, sulxan-sabas yoveli qmedeba gamiznulia stiqiuris, pirvelyofilis dasaurveblad, qaoturis artaxebSi mosaqcevad. stiqiuri metyvelebidan gamosWedavs saxelovno enas, bunebis movlenidan qmnis myar kulturas. aseTia misi igavebi da misi pirovneba. Sepirispirebulia sulxan-sabas saero da sasuliero xasiaTebi da gamotanilia daskvna: sulxan-saba orbelianma sruli cxovrebiT icxovra. ra aris sruli cxovreba? Tu sicocxle xorcisa da sulis erTianobaa da maTi gayrisas sikvdili dgeba, sruli sicocxle, maRali azriT, xorcielisa da sulieris harmoniul TanxmobaSi unda mdgomareobdes. man SeZlo Tavisi pirovnebis, rogorc sulxaniseuli, ise sabaseuli Zalebis realizacia. Secdomaa imis mtkiceba, TiTqos saba ewinaaRmdegebodes sulxans, TiTqos berad aRkveca

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sulieri katastrofis Sedegi yofiliyos, an mxolod iZulebiTi politikuri motivebiT aixsnebodes. am aqtis Semdeg misi pirovneba radikalurad ar Secvlila, sulieri wyoba igive darCa, oRond sxva registrSi gadainacvla. erobidan sulierobamde asvla _ meditaciuri cxovreba naTlismcemlis udabnoSi, CaRrmaveba sakuTar TavSi, qadagebani _ da Semdeg kvlav erobaSi gamosvla politikur sarbielze. es imeorebs macxovris gzas, mis Sesvlas udabnoSi samarxulod da mere gamosvlas xalxSi saaSkarao moRvaweobisTvis. sulxan-saba orbeliani samagaliTo pirovneba unda yofiliyo im Znel saukuneSi Tavisi saqcieliT da SemoqmedebiT. marTalia, igi aswavlida xalxs: ,,anu monazonoba qeniT anu erTaganoba. ara ars orisagan kideo", magram Tavad orive gamocada da orive sarbielze Rirseulad imoRvawa. Seagonebda xalxs: ,,monazonTa _ senakTa Sina jdoma, eriskacTa _ slva zRvaTa RelvaTao..." TumcaRa Cveni warmodgena Cinebulad iTavsebs locvad damdgar eriskacsac da zRvaTa Relvis ganmcdel bersac, raki erTi iyo arseba sulxanisa da sabasi. i.a. neli ruxaZe

sulxan-saba orbeliani, vin aris ruqa?

wignSi: ukvdaveba SemoqmedTa... ,,merani", Tb., 1999, gv. 53-64. krebulSi Sesulia Sromebi, narkvevebi, werilebi did qarTvel korifeTa (SoTa, sulxan-saba, nikolozi, ilia, vaJa, konstantine, galaktioni) Sesaxeb. zogi maTgani pasuxobs ara marto pedagogikis ZiriTad amocanebs (ra vaswavloT, ra mizniT, rogor?), aramed iTvaliswinebs filosofiuri anTropologiis TvalsazrisiT wamoWrili problemebis Rrma da farTo analizs. yoveli maTgani dRevandelobas exmianeba da erTgvar axsnas warmoadgens adamianis sicocxlis sazrisis saRad ganWvretisa da maRali idealebiT cxovrebisaTvis. wignSi ganxiluli sakiTxebi warmoaCens am did SemoqmedTa ideebis masStaburobasa da maradisoba-ukvdavebas. amgvari rakursiTaa warmodgenili erT dros didi davis sagani _ ,,vin aris ruqa?!" werilis dasawyisSi mocemulia sakiTxis istoria da mokledaa Sejamebuli cnobil avtorTa (e. javeli-

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Ze, g. xornauli, r. baramiZe, al. baramiZe) mosazrebebi, romelTa gaTvaliswinebiT problema TiTqos gadawyvetilad CaiTvala. avtori axleburi kuTxiT cdilobs mwerliseuli poziciis warmoCenas mefe finezisa da sefeTuxuces ruqas mxatvrul saxeTa gaTvaliswinebiT; gaanalizebulia yvela is ZiriTadi mizezi, ramac ganapiroba am personaJis garSemo azrTa sxvadasxvaoba. n. ruxaZe filosofiuri anTropologiis TvalsazrisiT ganixilavs ruqas pirovnebas da gvTavazobs saintereso daskvnebs. werilSi Camoyalibebulia saxelmwifos marTvis sulxansabaseuli principi, ,,qveynis samjobinari saqmis uzenaesoba", romlis mixedviT unda SeirCes e.w. samTavrobo elita. bolos aRniSnulia, rom werili sakmaod dagvianebiT gamoqveynda, radgan igi ewinaaRmdegeboda oficialur Tvalsazriss (ruqas pirovnebasTan dakavSirebiT) da gamocemaTa mesveurebi Tavs ikavebdnen misi publikaciisgan. l.r. aleqsandre frangiSvili

adamianis sulieri cxovrebis sakiTxi aRorZinebis xanis qarTul literaturaSi (sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,sibrZne-sicruisas" mixedviT)

wignSi: ,,narkvevebi adamianis fsiqologiuri codnis istoriidan saqarTveloSi", saq. mecn. akad. d. uznaZis sax. fsiq. instituti, Tb., 1959 w. aleqsandre frangiSvili aRniSnul wignSi saubrobs axali ideologiis im ZiriTad tendenciebze, romlebic aRorZinebis xanaSi fsiqologiuri codnis ganviTarebis istoriul pirobebs qmnida. mkvlevari miuTiTebs, rom es tendenciebi gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT warmoCnda qarTul literaturaSi, romelic aRorZinebis periodSi qarTuli kulturis wamyvani dargi iyo. am mosazrebis dasadastureblad mkvlevari aanalizebs sulxan-saba orbelianis igav-arakTa krebuls. aleqsandre frangiSvili farTod ganixilavs igav-araks ,,motirali da mocinari" da daaskvnis: ,,amrigad, ,,sibrZnesicruisas" mxatvrul saxeebSi warmodgenili msoflmxedvelobis amosavali debuleba, winaaRmdeg im dros gabatonebuli religiuri Sexedulebebisa, realisturia. avtorisaTvis amqveyniuri, adamianis praqtikaSi da gamocdilebaSi mo-

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cemuli sinamdvile ,,SemTxveviTi" ki ara, namdvili sinamdvilea. amqveyniuri sinamdvile, ,,sawuTro", Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, TavisTavis kanonebiT moqmedebs". iqve naTqvamia, rom sulxan-sabas azriT, yoveli movlena adamianTa sazogadoebaSi, calkeuli adamianis qcevaSi da mis sulier wyobaSi amqveyniurive movlenebiT unda aixsnas. ,,sawuTros" manki ,,sawuTrosave" ZalebiT unda gamoswordes. avtori kvlevas amTavrebs daskvniT: Tu adamianis sulieri cxovrebis amsaxveli dargis _ fsiqologiis, rogorc filosofiuri codnis, problemebi wamoiWra e.w. aRorZinebis xanaSi da am mimarTulebiT daiwyo kidec am periodSi filosofiuri azris ganviTareba, es SemTxveviTi da garegani zegavleniT gamowveuli movlena ki ar iyo, aramed es iyo saqarTvelos socialuri mdgomareobiT gamowveuli. S.k. asmaT jiqia

adamianis problema sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,swavlanSi"

SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis instituti, Tb., 2006. naSromSi saubaria codviTdacemuli adamianis problemebze, kacis Tavisufal nebasa da am nebis gamovlenis Sedegad mis adgilze samyaroSi, marTlmadidebeli mqadageblisa da qadagebis rolze adamianis gonebis wurTvisaTvis, rom mqadageblisagan samyaros mTliani erToba, savseba warmodgenilia xilulisa da uxilavis, adamianisa da sxva danarCenis funqciur erTobaSi, rac saRvTo wesrigiT _ gangebiT samyaros dabadebiT daewesa. wesrigi _ gangeba sayovelTaoa (yvelasaTvis da yvela droSi). gangebis Sesamecnebeli avtorisaTvis ZiriTadad Zveli da axali aRTqmaa, adamiani ki _ misi mimRebi. amdenad, misTvis misaRebia, Rirebulia (viTarca RvTiuris gamovlena) es sofelic. qadagebebic swored am sofelSi mocemuli RvTiuri wesrigis dasacavadaa mowodebuli, risi ganxorcielebac msgavsebis aRdgeniTaa SesaZlebeli, rasac WeSmariti codnis miReba ganapirobebs. maSasadame, gonieri morwmunea da mxolod aqedan gamomdinare aqvs ,,mecniereba keTilTa da borotTa". qadagebaTa mixedviT, znesru-

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lobis mosaRwevad gadasalaxavi siZneleebi eklesiis meSveobiT gaadvilebulia. gamokvlevaSi aRniSnulia, rom ,,swavlanSi" saTqmelis formac ki srulyofilebis SesaZlebel maqsimums aRwevs, rac im fsiqo-emociur sivrces qmnis, romelSic msmeneli (mkiTxveli) mzadaa taZruli cnobierebis misaRebad. saba saxeTa meSveobiT ayalibebs miseuli ganwyobis Teorias da dasturdeba is, rasac XX saukunis fsiqologiaSi dimitri uznaZisagan daerqmeva ,,ganwyobis Teoria". ,,swavlanSi" daunjebulia ,,Zali sityvisai", rac SesaZlebels xdis RvTis xilvas, misiT masSi davanebas. l. r.

IX. filosofiuri sakiTxebi

Salva nucubiZe

1. sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi XVII-XVIII saukuneTa mijnaze. s.s. orbelianis naazrevis zogadi mimoxilva 2. s.s. orbelianis filosofiuri Sexedulebani,

Sromebi, t. IX, ,,mecniereba", Tb., 1985, gv. 234-264. Salva nucubiZe jer ganixilavs sulxan-saba orbelianis azrovnebis oTx elements: 1. moralisturi filosofia; 2. pedagogiur SexedulebaTa sistema; 3. filosofiuri Sexedulebani; 4. mxatvruli Semoqmedeba. avtoris azriT, sulxan-saba orbeliani naTlad gamoxatavs im saazrovno ganwyobas, romelic XVIII saukuneSi arsebobda. es ganwyoba memkvidreobiT gadmovida XI-XII sakuneebidan. aRorZineba, romelic XVII saukunidan iwyeba, upirveles yovlisa, klasikuri xanis tradiciebis aRdgenas niSnavda. sulxan-saba orbeliani erTnairad sargeblobs rogorc ioane petriwis, ise misgan sruliad gansxvavebuli moazrovnis arsen iyalToelis nawerebiT. es garemoeba naTelia im sityvaTxmarebidan, romelic sulxan-saba orbelianTan gvxvdeba, gansakuTrebiT mis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi.

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qveTavi ,,s.s. orbelianis filosofiuri Sexedulebani" iwyeba saubriT sulxan-sabas leqsikonis filosofiur wyaroebze. kerZod, es wyaroebia: biblia, agreTve prokle diadoxosis, nemesios emeselis, porfires, ioane damaskelis da sxvaTa Sromebi. sulxan-saba orbelianis filosofiur SexedulebaTa gasarkvevad S. nucubiZe erTgvar mniSvnelobas aniWebs imis garkvevas, Tu rogor esmis mwerals cneba ,,sibrZne". amisaTvis ikvlevs saTauris filosofiur etimologias da askvnis, rom ,,sibrZne", romelzec saubaria sabas wignis saTaurSi, niSnavs imas, rom igi sicruis sibrZnea, anu sicrue qceuli sibrZned, anu kidev, sibrZne miRweuli sicruis sicrued aRiarebiT. sabas msoflmxedveloba qarTuli neoplatonizmisaken ixreba, Tumca ioane damaskelis teqstiT ufro xSirad sargeblobs, risi mizezic unda iyos Semdegi: 1. ioane damaskeli aris aristoteluri filosofiis Semomtani qristianul azrovnebaSi; 2. saba agrZelebs qarTul filosofiur tradicias, rac imaSic gamoixateba, rom ioane damaskelis mTavari nawarmoebi samjer iTargmna qarTul enaze da sakmaod popularuli iyo. i.a.

X. ekonomikuri Sexedulebebi

vaxtang daTaSvili

ekonomikuri istoria da koncefciebi leqciebis kursi

Tema _ sulxan-saba orbelianis ekonomikuri Sexedulebebi, Tb., 2006. qarTuli ekonomikuri terminologia, pirdapir Tu arapirdapir, damuSavebulia sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis safuZvelze. sulxanis leqsikonSi vpoulobT Tanamedrove qarTuli ekonomikuri terminebis saTaveebs. amave dros, leqsikoni da masTan erTad ,,sibrZne sicruisa"da ,,swavlani" SesaZlebelia gamoyenebul iqnes mis ekonomikur SexedulebaTa gasarkvevad.

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SesavalSi saubaria XVIII saukunis saqarTveloSi feodalizmis krizisis pirobebze. avtoris azriT, saqarTveloSi gviani feodalizmis xana SesaZlebelia gaiyos or fazad _ pirveli xasiaTdeba saTavadoebis warmoSobiT da saqarTvelos saxelmwifos samTavroebad daSliT; meore _ TviT feodalizmis daSlis elementTa warmoSobiT. saqarTveloSi feodalizmis daSlis winamZRvarTa zrdis maCvenebelia saxelmwifo manufaqturebis da samTo warmoebis mowyoba XVIII saukunis meore naxevridan. leqciebis Tematika eyrdnoba vasil CantlaZis koncefcias: sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis safuZveli; simdidris wyaro; moTxovna, mowodeba da ganawileba fasis mixedviT; fuli, rogorc kapitali; xelfasi; krediti; finansebi; saqarTvelos mTlianobisa da misi meurneobriv-politikuri aRorZinebisaTvis brZola. i.a. n. qoiava

ZiriTadi ekonomikuri terminebi sulxan-saba orbelianis ,,qarTul leqsikonSi"

sulxan-saba orbeliani, saiubileo krebuli, stalinis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1959. sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi mocemuli yvela ekonomikuri termini metad faseulia maSindeli ekonomikuri viTarebis, agreTve qarTuli ekonomikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebis SeswavlisaTvis. leqsikonSi mocemuli terminologia ar aris sruli. im dros arsebuli mravali termini ar aris Sesuli leqsikonSi. es imiT aixsneba, rom sulxan-saba orbelians ar gamouyenebia ,,dasturlamali", sakmaod mniSvnelovani da popularuli dokumenti, romelic mdidaria ekonomikuri terminebiT. leqsikonSi ar Cans agreTve is terminebi, romlebic sulxan-sabas dros cnobili iyo evropaSi, maSin ukve arse-

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bobda merkantilistebis Sromebi, politikuri ekonomiis erT-erTi fuZemdeblis u. petis wignebi da sxv. avtors ganxiluli aqvs leqsikonSi mocemuli ZiriTadi ekonomikuri terminebi, kerZod, Sromis iaraRebis, satransporto da warmoebis saSualebaTa, soflis meurneobisa da finansur urTierTobaTa aRmniSvneli orasze meti termini, maT Soris: ,,erquani", ,,mangali", ,,Rala", ,,begara", ,,yalani", ,,gamosaRebi", ,,bareba", ,,xelfasi", ,,mizdi", ,,zRvevineba", ,,fasi", ,,sasyideli", ,,saqoneli", ,,savaWro", ,,salaro", ,,vanSi", ,,vali" da sxv. i.a. vasil CantlaZe

sulxan-saba orbelianis ekonomikuri Sexedulebebi

saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, Tb., 1959. vasil CantlaZis naSromis winasityvaobaSi saubaria sulxan-saba orbelianis samwerlo da saxelmwifo moRvaweobis Sesaxeb; CamoTvlilia im mecnierTa gvarebi, romelTa kvlevebic mis Semoqmedebasa da cxovrebas mieZRvna. avtori iqve aRniSnavs, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis ekonomikur SexedulebaTa Sesaswavlad gamorCeulad eyrdnoboda nawarmoebebs: ,,sibrZne sicruisa" da ,,swavlani". naSromi Sedgeba Sesavlisa da aTi Tavisagan: sulxan-saba orbelianis sociologiuri Sexedulebani; sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis safuZveli; simdidris wyaro; fasi; fuli, rogorc kapitali; zedmeti produqtis problema; xelfasi; krediti; finansebi; saqarTvelos erovnuli mTlianobisa da misi meurneobriv-politikuri aRorZinebisaTvis brZola. mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom ,,sulxani gvaZlevs religiisa da misi Tanadrouli socialur-politikuri wyobis ulmobel kritikas". mwerali aRSfoTebulia socialuri ukuRmarTobiT, magram XVIII saukunis saqarTvelos sazogadoebaSi ver xedavs Zalas, romelic SeZlebs daZlios usamarTloba; miuxedavad amisa, sulxan-sabas Sexedulebebi optimisturia, misi azriT, simarTle imarjvebs usamarTlobaze. avtoris azriT, sulxan-saba orbelians esmis, rom sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis safuZveli materialuri warmoebaa da Sroma aris ara ubralod energiis xarjva, aramed adamianis mizanSewonili moqmedeba. misive azriT, Sroma warmoadgens

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bunebaze zemoqmedebis saSualebas adamianis moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad, romelic moiTxovs Sromis saSualebebs, e.i. warmoebis iaraRebs. mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom sulxan-saba orbelianma Tavis TxzulebaSi _ ,,sibrZne sicruisa" daayena mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri problema _ ra aris simdidre. miwaTmoqmedebaSi Sroma sulxans ganxiluli aqvs, rogorc saqonlis mwarmoeblis Sroma, garda amisa, simdidris wyarod miiCnevs xelosnur warmoebas da mopovebiT mrewvelobas. mecnieri miiCnevs, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis azrovneba uaxlovdeba fiziokratul Sexedulebas, rac sulxanis did damsaxurebad da progresul azrad unda CaiTvalos. Tundac mxolod imis SecnobiT, rom simdidris wyaro ,,soflismeurneobrivi" Sromaa (marqsi amgvari mosazrebis gamo fiziokratebs miiCnevda mecnieruli politikuri ekonomikis fuZemdeblebad), vasil CantlaZe dawvrilebiT ganmartavs am sakiTxebs da miuTiTebs, rom mwerali didad uswrebs dros, radgan namdvili fiziokratuli skola Camoyalibda safrangeTSi, sulxan-sabas gardacvalebidan 25 wlis Semdeg. sulxan-saba msjelobs fasze, rogorc saqonlis sacvlel Rirebulebaze da fasze, rogorc fulze. mkvlevars amis dasturad misi leqsikonidan da Semoqmedebidan mohyavs magaliTebi, aRniSnavs mwerlis progresul azrovnebas ekonomikur sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT da mas am sakiTxebSic Tavisi drois mowinave moazrovned miiCnevs da ara marto qarTvel moRvaweTa Soris. mecnieri yuradRebas amaxvilebs sulxan-sabas leqsikonSi Setanil Sromis aRmniSvnel ganmartebebze da miiCnevs, rom mwerlis mier mogeba gagebulia, rogorc araSromiTi Semosavali. naSromSi vxvdebiT msjelobas ,,xelfasis", rogorc fuladi anazRaurebis sabaseuli variantebis irgvliv. aseve gamoTqmulia mosazrebebi sakredito urTierTobaTa variantebisa da terminebis Sesaxebac. dabolos, mecnieri amaxvilebs yuradRebas sabas ukvdav ideaze: ekonomikurad da sulierad aRorZinebuli mTliani saqarTvelosTvis brZolis aucileblobaze. q.S.

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XI. geografia-kartografiis sakiTxebi

grigol zardaliSvili

sulxan-saba orbeliani

wignidan: gamoCenili qarTveli geografebi da mogzaurebi, ,,sabWoTa saqarTvelo", Tb., 1966. mcire istoriul-biografiuli Sesavlis Semdeg iwyeba saubari sulxan-saba orbelianis geografiul da kartografiul Sromebze, romlebic migviTiTeben geografiuli mecnierebis ganviTarebis maRal doneze Zvel saqarTveloSi. avtoris azriT, sulxan-saba mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli winare xanis qarTul geografiul azrovnebasTan. man bevri ram aiRo da SeiTvisa XVII-XVIII saukuneebis evropuli istoriografiidan, razec naTlad metyvelebs ,,sityvis kona", ,,mogzauroba evropaSi" da misi masalebis mixedviT Sedgenili kavkasiis ruka. ,,sityvis konis" geografiuli mxare. am qveTavSi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia geografiul monacemebze. aRniSnulia, rom sulxan-saba orbeliani iZleva reliefis formis gamomxatveli, klimaturi, hidrografiuli, niadaguri da geobotanikuri xasiaTis cnobebs, agreTve mTeli rigi wiaRiseuli simdidreebis dasaxelebas. wiaRiseul simdidreTa codnis farTo horizonti imis maCvenebelia, rom sabas unda gamoeyenebina adre arsebuli mineraluri klasifikaciebi al-birunisa, ibn-sinasi da sxva wyaroebi. savaraudoa, rom evropuli da sxva saxelwodebebi sulxan-sabas unda Camoetana evropidan, sadac samogzaurod gaemgzavra 1714 wlis aprilSi Semdegi marSrutiT: Tbilisikonstantinopoli-marseli-parizi-savoia-monako-genua-romi-florencia-piza-livorno-palermo-malta-konstantinopoli-qobuleTi-axalcixe-Tbilisi. sulxan-sabas ,,mogzauroba evropaSi" warmoadgens ucxo qveynebis mxatvrul-geografiuli aRweris saintereso cdas. aq gvxvdeba vrceli cnobebi movlili qveynebis Sesaxeb. didi adgili eTmoba italiis aRweras. mravalferovania dakvirvebisa da aRweris obieqtebi _ esaa geografiuli daxasiaTeba mxareebisa da qalaqebisa, mosaxleobis saqmianobisa da qveynebis politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi struqturebisa, bunebisa da RirsSesaniSnavi istoriuli Zeglebisa.

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sulxan-sabas monawileobiT Sedgenil rukaze datanilia mTeli amierkavkasia da kaspiispira sanapiroebi, saqarTvelos ruka TviTon sulxan-sabas Seudgenia da Tanac imdenad kargad, rom evropeli specialistebis mowoneba daumsaxurebia. kerZod, hamburgis geografiuli muzeumis reqtori iohan hiubneri Tavis wignSi wers: ,,gansakuTrebiT gulmodginedaa damuSavebuli cnobili provincia georgia". i.a. koba xaraZe

sulxan-saba orbeliani

wignidan: geografiuli codnis istoria Zvel saqarTveloSi, ,,mecniereba", Tb., 1996. biografiuli eqskursis Semdeg avtori iwyebs msjelobas sulxan-sabas evropaSi mogzaurobis Sesaxeb. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas miapyrobs mogzaurobis marSruts. misi dakvirvebiT, ,,mogzaurobis" Canawerebs aklia marseli _ parizi _ versalis aRwera. ,,mogzaurobis" mniSvnelobaze saubrisas aRniSnulia, rom sulxan-saba aris farTo diapazonis mqone mecnieri, romelsac didi Rvawli miuZRvis qarTuli kartografiisa da geografiis ganviTarebaSi. sulxan-sabas didi intersi gamouCenia evropuli kartografiuli miRwevebisadmi. amas mowmobs mogzaurobidan wamoRebuli msoflio atlasi da rukebi. Cvenamde moaRwia mis mier saqarTveloSi Camotanilma 1711 wlis msoflio atlasma, romelSic aris qarTuli minawerebi. paleografiuli analizis Sedegad dadginda, rom atlasis minawerebi ZiriTadad sabas mier aris gakeTebuli. atlasze mocemuli saxelebi geografiuli koordinatebiT gadatanil iqna mis leqsikonSi. garda amisa, sulxan-sabas leqsikonis geografiuli masala TvalnaTliv migvaniSnebs, rom XVIII saukunis saqarTveloSi sakmao pirobebi yofila geografiuli mecnierebis Seswavla-ganviTarebisaTvis, rac im dros axal simaRleze aiyvanes vaxtang meeqvsem da vaxuSti bagrationma. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sulxan-sabas leqsikoni Taviseburi geografiuli enciklopediaa. i.a.

256

pirTa saZiebeli

abaSiZe giorgi malaqia 39 abaSiZe grigol 166 abdula-begi 42 abulaZe ilia 94, 101, 102, 109, 110, 111, 114, 121, 125, 134, 156, 165, 180, 206, 237, 238, 243, abulaZe cisana 237 adelungi iohan qristof163, 180 avaliSvili giorgi 148 avaliSvili zurab 76, 77, 78, 79, 165, 231 avTandili 82, 84, 86, 89, 220 avicena ( ix. ib sina abu ali) akaki (ix. wereTeli akaki) al-biruni 255 aliyuli-xani (ix. iese batoniSvili) amartoli grigol (ix. grigol amartoli) amiranaSvili SoTa 47, 54 amirani 83, 220 amirejibi Wabua 84 amirxanaSvili ivane 205, 209, 224, 225, 226, 242, 247, 228, 231, 232, 233, 251, 252, 253, 256 amiCba g. 156, 180 andria marqvis episkoposi 14 anTimoz iverieli 42 anton I kaTalikosi 82, 134, 139, 142, 149, 228, aretino pietro aristotele 11, 27, 61, 64, 65, 72, 74, 96, 100, 251 arkadi 189 arsaiZe givi 190, 191 arsen arqimandriti 217 arsen iyalToeli 116,118, 121 arturi 2 arCili 30, 42, 53, 81, 82, 9, 163, 164, 20, 217 astriani 129, 134 aRmaSenebeli daviT ( ix. daviT aRmaSenebeli) babunaSvili 119, 135 bagrationi 133 bagrationi vaxuSti 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 142, 143, 144, 145, 148, 256 bagrationi Teimuraz 158, 182 bagrationi ioane (ix. ioane batoniSvili) bagrationi konstantine (ix. konstantine muxran-batoni) bakuraZe lia 102, 106, 114, 116, 135 baJani mikola 177 baraTaSvili nikoloz 177, 247 baramiZe aleqsandre 75, 79, 154, 156, 161, 165,172, 176, 177, 180, 185, 206, 207, 209, 221, 228, 229, 243, 248, baramiZe revaz 155, 180, 181, 206, 208, 209, 210, 248 bar-hebraia grigol-ioane abulfaraj 77, 230 batkini 57, 73, 74 baumStarki a. 163, 181 baxtini mixeil 87, 91 bekoni rojer 25 bekoni frensis 25 belarmino roberto 147 beli r. 94, 114 benvenisti emil 111, 112 berendeti hans ioaxim 166 beriZe v. 54 beriZe T. 40, 54 bernando maria neapoleli 119, 132 berulava xuta 168, 173 berZeniSvili niko 36, 40, 54, 148, 149, besiki (ix. gabaSvili besarion) bikertoni 101, 114 blaixStaineri robert 164, 181 blankofi Jan 162 bleiki robert 243

257

blumfildi leonard 92, 114 bokaCo jovani 233 bolqvaZe TinaTin 92, 101, 111, 114, 133, 135 bolxovitinovi evgeni 150, 156, 157, 163, 181 botkini mixeil 47 boWoriSvili l. 38, 54 brauni ian 177 braColini pojo 230 bregaZe levan 75, 77, 79, 16, 165, 18, 230, 231 brokhauzi 152 brose mari 157, 158, 159, 161, 181, 187 bodriari Jan 21 buaCiZe gaston 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 175, 180, 181, buioni JorJ 162, 163 gabaSvili besarion 30, 32, 40, 43, 82 gabro 89 galaktioni (ix. tabiZe galaktion) gamrekeli n. 151, 181 gamsaxurdia konstantine 219, 220, 221, 247 gamyreliZe aleqsandre 102, 108, 114, 181 gaspar qarTveli 39 gaCeCilaZe giorgi 73, 74 gawerelia akaki 156,181 gelovani gabriel 52 gelovani 53 gewaZe d. 102, 114, 120, 13, 156, 181 gvarjalaZe i. 181 gvaxaria 56, 74 gvritiSvili d. 36, 54 gigineiSvil ivane 125, 135, 239, 240 givi ( ix. arsaiZe givi) giorgi 44 giorgi V 168 giorgi XI 30, 31, 43, 94, 167, 207, 215, 222, 234

glavani qsaviero 39, 50, 54 goeTe iohan volfgang 84, , 196, 197 golovini mixeil 53 gogebaSvili iakob 196 gorki maqsim 156 graJene danute 178 grigol amartoli 121 grigoli (dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikosi) 39 griSkenasi a. 179, 181 gudiaSvili lado 154, 161 gukovski m. 72, 74 guramiSvili daviT 82, 87, 91, 163, 211, 219, 239, 243 dadiani giorgi IV 39 dadiani daviT 158 daviT aRmaSenebeli 22 daviTaSvili z. 221 daviT beri 32 daTaSvili vaxtang 251 daTiko 89 damaskeli ioane (ix. ioane damaskeli) danelia korneli 96, 110, 114, 121, 125, 135 danelia sergi 100, 114 dante aligieri 154 darejan batoniSvili 217 d' arnu pier 32, 52 deetersi gerhard 164, 181 devali 54 dezalori 235 dekarti 24 demandri bernar 161 demetre I 47 detorsi 235 diadoxosi prokle (ix. prokle diadoxosi) diumeni filip 162 dodaSvili rusudan 157, 159, 181 doiaSvili Teimuraz 55 domenti 42 dondua d. 52, 53, 55 dondua k. 125, 135

258

dosiTeosi 38, 42 doCanaSvili guram 84 doCanaSvili elene 135 dudaevi johar 194 duSani 26 ezope 75, 76, 78, 79, 161, 233 elimbaevi m. 179,182 elcini boris 193 empidokle 83 erbi e. 167, 182 erekle I nazaralixani 30, 36, 212, 222 erekle II 42 erisTavi rafiel 113, 114, 237 ermisi amonios 117 esaia 36 etiambli rene 162 efrem mcire 118, 243 efroni 152 vaTeiSvili j. 92, 93, 114 vaJa-fSavela 83, 86, 219, 243, 247 vardani 75, 76, 78 vardropi (ix. uordropi oliver) vaculini ivo177, 178, 182 vaxtang V Sahnavazi 36, 207, 222 vaxtang VI 18, 19, 26, 28, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 51, 52, 82, 94, 95, 154, 158, 161, 164, 167, 170, 206, 207, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 217, 218, 222, 223, 224, 234, 235, 236, 242, 243, 244, 245, 256 vaxtangi 222 vaxtang mefe (ix. vaxtang VI) vaxtang janiSini 32 vaxuSti batoniSvili (ix. bagrationi vaxuSti) veJbicki a. 99, 100, 114 viviani qeTrin 163, 173, 174, 175, 176, 184 virsalaZe elene 229 volteri 162

zaali 242 zardaliSvili grigol 255 zalemani k. 159, 182 zariZe n. 132, 135 zosime (ix. orbeliani zosime) zurabiSvili avlipi 245, 246 z. c. (ix. cxadaia zoia) TavaqaraSvili mamuka 82 TamaraSvili mixeil 38, 52, 53, 55, 138, 146, 147, 149, 223 TamaraSvili miqel (ix. TamaraSvili mixeil) TarxniSvili mixeil 179, 18, 182 TayoaSvili mikirtum 36 Teimuraz I 82, 163, 164, 211, 222 Teimuraz II 36 Teimuraz batoniSvili 41 Temur lengi 42 Teofilaqte bulgareli 117, 121 TvalTvaZe fati 155, 182 TvaraZe revaz 231 Todua magali 206 Turnava rusudan 171, 174, 175, 182 Turnava sergo 162, 163, 182 i. a. (ix. amirxanaSvili ivane) iakobsoni roman 97, 114 iakob Semoqmedeli 82 ialRuziZe ioane 157, 228 ib sina abu ali 59, 74, 255 iedliCka ieromir 178 ievlevi 47 iese batoniSvili 41 ivanovi 58, 59, 74 ivdiTi 231 iverieli anTimoz (ix. anTimoz iverieli) ilia (ix. WavWavaZe ilia) imedaSvili gaioz 156,182 in-mani (maWavariani ivane) ioane-aleqsandre 26 ioane batoniSvili 84 ioane damaskeli 96, 251 ioane naTlismcemeli 207

259

voroncovi mixeil 5 ioane qsifilinosi 121, 123, iordaniSvili solomon 41, 53, 77, 79, 154, 206, 229, 237 iosebi 231 ioseb qarTveli 39 ioseliani platon 36,41, 42, 44, 47, 53, 54, 55 irbaxi nikifore 42, 53, 92, 128, 132 irmSeri ioanes 75 iStvanoviCi marton 176, 182, 183 kagemuSa 26 kavkasiZe melqisedek 243 kazanova jakomo 24, 25 kakulia a. 178 kalandariSvili g. 156, 183 kaliostro alesandro 24 kandelaki nikoloz 224, 225 kanti emanuel 81 karbelaSvili polievqtov 221 kargareTeli dimitri 217 kargareTeli tite 217 kacitaZe d. 54, 55 kaxniaSvili v. 167 kekeliZe korneli 59, 74, 75, 79, 92, 137, 146, 147, 148, 149, 156, 161, 165, 172, 183, 209, 210, 211, 214, 218, 221, 219 kvantaliani Sarlota 205, 221, 222, 223, 227, 230, 233, 246, 249 kvaWantiraZe Tamaz 212 kvaWi 12, 16, 17 kikviZe cotne 125 kiknaZe zurab 246 kiknaZe revaz 54, 55 kinwuraSvili k. 152, 183 kiferi rozmari 162, 163, klimenti XI 25, 150, 180, 224, 234 kobalaZe m. 156, 183 kolumbi 82 konstantine muxran-batoni 50 koWlamaZaSvili eqvTime 146, 149 kurosava akiro 26

ioane oqropiri 117 laibnici gotfrid 9 laisti artur 164, 183 langi devid 3, 55, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 183 lafonteni 161, 162, 168, 196, 233 laSa-giorgi 174 levan II 43, 53 leoni 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 78, 84, 90, 172, 175, 189, 223, 226 leonide 221 leoniZe giorgi 30, 37, 52, 53, 55, 75, 79, 155, 156, 161, 164, 165, 177, 186, 212, 213, 221, 228, 229 leonti mroveli 201 livorneli justino 138, 139, 146 lozola 48 lolaSvili ivane 138, 144, 145, 147, 148, 152, 184, 206, 214,221, 228 lomaSvili jibo 234 lorTqifaniZe grigol 32, 47, 52 lorTqifaniZe e. 184 156 l. r. (ix. ruxaZe lali) luarsabi 12, 16, 17 ludoviko XIV 23, 24, 25, 32, 52, 168, 180, 216, 222, 223, 224, 233, 234, 235 lui (ix. ludoviko XIV) lundbergi e. 154, 186 magaroto luiji 161, 180, 184 maTe 58, 60 maizeli m. 135 makari antioqieli 14, 15, 29 makiaveli nikolo 65, 74 malazonia mamia 174 maliugina a. 162, 184 malt-breni 157, 184 malqoz uria 59, 60, 61 mariam batoniSvili 243 mari niko 75, 78, 79, 151, 242, 243 martirosovi aram 128, 129, 135 maruaSvili l. 156 marqsi karl 254 maCabeli ivane 16 maWavariani ivane 170, 182

260

majo franCesko-maria 42, 92, 106, 119, 127, 132 mahmadyulixani 43, 44 mgelyanaSvili zurab 143 megreliZe ioseb 231 melori Tomas 25 menabde darejan 150 menabde levan 148, 149, 184, 215, 221 merCule giorgi 219 mesxia SoTa 54 metreveli arCil 164 metreveli elene 95, 110, 112, 114, 206, 241, 242, 243 mTvareliSvili n. 184 miTridate 163 mindia 83 mirandola piko de la 65 molieri Jan batist 24 mongirdi TadeuS 177, 184 morisi Carlz uiliam 97, 98, 99, 102, 114, 169 morCilaZe aka 84 mohamed riza-xani 33 mroveli leonti (ix. leonti mroveli) murie Jiul 159, 160, 161, 184 mWedliSvili j. 173, 184, 185 nadir-Sahi 36 nazaralixani (ix. erekle I nazaralixani nazari 62, 63 nakaSiZe e. 55 natroSvili T. 185 nacvliSvili paata 225 nemesios emeseli 96, 251 nikolozi (ix. baraTaSvili nikoloz) novicki oleqsa 177, 185 noikomi ruT 164, 185 nucubiZe Salva 250, 251 odisevsi 82

maWavariani m. 169, 184 orbeliani grigol 7, 165 orbeliani elisabed 173 orbeliani vaxtang (ix. vaxtangi) orbeliani zosime 242 orbeliani mzeWabuk 142, 146 orbeliani nikoloz 142, 143, 145, 146 orbeliani sulxan-saba 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 163,, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239,240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256 orlovskaia natalia 109, 115, 119 oseSvili ioane 44 pavle mociquli 148 paolini stefane 42, 92, 128, 132 pero Sarl 75, 76, 78 petefi Sandor 194 petre I (ix. petre didi) petre didi 27, 223, 236

261

oilenSpigeli til 163 onana mdivani 211 orbeliani giorgi 159 petrova i. 173, 184, 185 peCi gertrud 167, 168, 185 platoni 72, 73 ponSartreni 234 popiaSvili nino 226 porfire 251 poti 121 prampolini jakomo 179, 185 prokle diadoxosi 251 118 psarevi v. 179 JamTaaRmwereli 12 Jordania Tedo 38, 42, 55 rambuie de markiza 23 ramiSvili g. 97, 101, 115 ratiani irma 9 rafava maia 135 reviSvili SoTa 163, 185 riabinini m. 156, 185 riSari 30, 32, 39, 51, 52, 234, 235 rodami 222 rorti riCard 24 rostevani 86 rostom xani 36, 42, 222 roterdameli erazm 162 rusTaveli SoTa 7, 58, 64, 70, 74, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 16, 177, 249205, 219, 247 ruqa 57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 78, 172, 175, 189, 191, 195, 223, 226, ruxaZe lali 205, 237, 239, 240, 241, 243, 244, 248, 250 ruxaZe neli 247, 248 saba (ix. orbeliani sulxan-saba) salia kalistrate 173 sarjvelaZe zurab 125, 126 sedlaCeki irJi 178 sedraqi 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 78, 195, 226 servantesi migel de 82

petre mociquli 147, 231 petriwi ioane 117, 118, 135 siraZe elene 168, 185 siraZe revaz 72, 74 sixaruliZe qsenia 231 skiuderi JorJ 2 skvorcova b. 135 smiti j. 180, 185 sokrate 73 solomon brZeni 231 solomoni 78 sosiuri ferdinand 111, 112, 113 spinoza 91 stalini 12, 16, 22 stivensoni robert 162, 163, 174 sturua elene 177 sulxani (ix. orbeliani sulxansaba) surgulaZe m. 173, 185 sxirtlaZe simon 221, 222 tabaRua ilia 45, 55, 235, 236 tabiZe galaktion 83, 91, 247 takeda 26 taso da aristo 88 tinianovi i. 154 tolCanovi 47 trekani j. 179 tuRuSi a. 38, 55 tfileli orbeliani nikoloz (ix. orbeliani nikoloz) uznaZe dimitri 248, 250 uTurgaiZe Tedo 109, 115, 119, 135 ulise 82 umikaSvili petre 139 uordropi marjori 168, 169 uordropi oliver 164, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 185 urban II 22 uruSaZe akaki 116, 135 favleniSvili otia 148, 149 farnavazi 95 fatmani 89

262

svifti jonaTan 16, 170 sidonia 201 sizife 83 simon batoniSvili 41 finezi 57, 59, 62, 63, 67, 195, 226 finki f. 163, 185 firaliSvili zaza 10 fogti hans 162 focxiSvili aleqsandre 108, 115 frangiSvili aleqsandre 248 fridrix vilhelm III 158 furlani juzepe 179 185 qavTaria mixeil 94, 95, 101, 115 qaixosro mefe 32, 40, 215, 234 qebaZe petre 158 qiqoZe geronti 222, 223 qoiava n. 55 51, 54, 251 qorToZe anika 38 qriste 78 qsifilinosi ioane (ix. ioane qsifilinosi) quTaTelaZe lili 54, 55, 94, 115, 118, 136, 147, 148, 149, 156, 185, 227, 242 q. S. (ix. Sengelia qeTevan) RambaSiZe e. 149 RaRaniZe merab 137, 147, 213 RoRoberiZe elene 154, 155, 176, 77, 179, 185 yazaziSvili 177, 186 yazbegi aleqsandre 7, 199 yamari 83 yauxCiSvili simon 136 yaflaniSvili sulxan (ix. orbeliani sulxan-saba) yenia r. 47, 55 yvaryvare 12, 16, 17 yifiani g. 50, 55 yifSiZe i. 237 yubaneiSvili solomon 31, 59, 74 148, 206, 217 SaniZe akaki 102, 103, 104, 106, 115,

fenrixi hainc 166, 167, 185 ferensene goda 178, 179, 185 ferne 75, 76, 78 SarvaSiZe rostom 50 SarvaSiZe yvapu 50 SarvaSiZe jiquSia 50 Sah-ismaili 43, 53, 54 Sahnavazi (ix. vaxtang V Sahnavazi) SevardnaZe eduard 195 Seleri maqs 23 Semoqmedeli iakob (ix. iakob Semoqmedeli) Sengelia qeTevan 205, 216, 235, 236, 254 Sermadini 89 Seqspiri uiliam 15, 25 SilakaZe i. 129, 136 S. k. (ix. kvantaliani Sarlota) Sklovski viqtor 156, 186 SoTa (ix. rusTaveli SoTa) SurRaia gaga 180, 186 SuSaniki 129 CantlaZe vasil 253, 254 CaCikaSvili Toma 148 CaCikaSvili korneli 148 CaCikaSvili nikoloz 142, 144, 145, 147, 148 Cerni vaclav178 CilaCava raul 177, 186 Ciqobava arnold 103, 104, 107, 115 Ciqovani kacia 39 Ciqovani mixeil 166, 229 ColoyaSvili nikifore (ix. irbaxi nikifore) ColoyaSvili qaixosro CubinaSvili niko 54 CubiniSvili daviT 151, 186 Cubinovi daviT (ix. CubuniSvili daviT) CxataraiSvili qveli 155, 156, 186 CxeiZe rostom 188 CxeiZe t. 129

263

116, 135, 237, 242, 243, 244 SanSovani zurab 134 SaraZe guram 169, 170, 186 Sardeni 92, 93 SarvaSiZe zegnay 50 cagareli aleqsandre 151, 152, 153, 154, 159, 161, 164, 165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 186, 187, 211, 228, 229 caiSvili sargis 155, 156, 186, 187, 218, 245 canava apolon 228, 229 curtaveli iakob 129, 219 cucqiriZe l. 155 cxadaia zoia 205, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 217, 218, 219 Zampi ioseb mari 52 Zampi juzepe 38 ZiZiguri SoTa 243 wereTeli akaki 165, 177, 196, 219, 233, 243 wereTeli giorgi 48, 55 wereTeli grigol 228 wereTeli mixako 164, 165, 167, 187 wulaZe sergi 162, 163, 187 WavWavaZe ilia 7, 9, 19, 21, 89, 165, 169, 177, 219, 239, 243, 247 WaSnagiri 89 WumburiZe zurab 122, 136, 244 xanTaZe SoTa 157, 187 xaraZe koba 256 xarbedia malxaz 30 xaxanaSvili aleqsandre 151, 161, 187, 218, 228 xelaSvili iona 228 xoranauli g. 248 javaxiSvili ivane 48, 53, 55, 124, 136 javaxiSvili mixeil 84 javeliZe elizbar 247 janaSvili mose 221

CxeiZe oTar 84, 188, 191, 192, 193, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203 Cxenkeli kita 165, 166 juanSeri 188 jumberi 189, 226 jRarkava i. 156, 187 haidegeri 12 haugeni 93, 94, 95, 97, 110, 115 heraklite 83 herodote 200 hiubneri iohan 256 hoizinga 56, 58, 74

264

janaSia simon 241 jizi-gurgeni 89, 90 jiqia asmaT 249 jonsoni semuel 31 jorjaneli karlo 168

265

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