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METAL TECHNIQUES FOR CRAFTSMEN

A Basic Manual.for Craftsmen

I

on the Methods ~ of Forming and Decorating Metals By OPP! UNTRACHT

--"

DOUBLE]

ROBERT HALE. LONDON ISBN 0 7091 0723 4

{, NEW YORK

Contents

Introduction

xiii

Part One

METALS: BASIC INFORMATION

METALS: ORIGIN, BEHAVIOR, AND MANUFACTURE

3 3 3

4

Origin Metallurgy Characteristic Physical Properties of Metals The Behavior of Metals: Their Mechanical Properties Hardness. Malleabili~y. Ductility. Tensile strength. Compressiqn. Shear. Toughness. Elasticity. Torsion. EII:ittleness. Impact resistance. Rigidity

CLASSIFICATION OF METALS

5

Aluminum Aluminum alloys. Soldering aluminum. Brazing aluminum. Casting aluminum. Sand casting of aluminum. Plaster mold casting of aluminum. Other casting procedures with aluminum Nickel Considerations in working nickel. Soldering and joining nickel. Polishing nickel and its alloys Nickel alloys Nickel silver. Monel Metal. Nichrome wire. Invar Mercury Amalgam gold plating. Preparing gold amalgam. Applying the amalgam Ferrous Metals Iron Steel Carbon steel. Alloy steel

THE MANUFACTURE OF METALS

26

26 28 29 29 29

31 31 32 32 35 35 38 38

5

7

7 7

Nonferrous Precious Metals Gold Gold alloys. Karat gold. Karat gold solders. Purchasing gold. Using karat gold: General considerations. Testing for gold with acid Silver Silver alloys. Purchasing silver. General considerations in the use of silver. Testing for silver. Cleaning silverware by electrolytic action Platinum Base Metals Copper Copper-based alloys Brass Bronze Lead Forms of lead. Casting lead. Soldering lead. Lead welding. Lead wiping. Decorative patina finishes for lead Tin Hot-tinning nonferrous metals. Antimonial tin solder White metal Zinc Uses of zinc

7

11

12

13

16 16 18 18 18 19

Manufacture of Sterling Silver Sheet Metal Wire Drawing Procedure for hand drawing wire Annealing the wire. Using the drawplate Mechanical wire drawing The flat rolling mill Adjusting the rolling mill. Using the rolling mill Sheet and Wire Gauge Measuring Systems Extruded Metals Shotting Annealing Texture of Metal Surfaces Toxicity of Metals Part Two

42

43 46 46

46

47

48

49 49

50

51

20 22

23

METAL DECORATIVE TECHNIQUES

METAL TECHNIQUES THAT DO NOT REQUIRE SOLDERING

54 54 65 65

24 25 25

Preparing the Metal for Outline Cutting The leweler's Saw Inserting the saw blade in the frame CONTENTS

vii

Outline Pierced blade Pierced Pierced

cutting with the jeweler's saw work: Using a saw frame and work: Using chisels work: Using stamping dies

67 71 73

78

Bidri Work Casting the bidri base Bidri sand casting Bidri inlay process Coloring the bidri alloy Damascene Work Kuftgari, A Form of Damascene The kuftgari process Finishing kuftgari Coloring the steel. Charcoal bluing of steel. Another steel bluing method

METAL TECHNIQUES THAT REQUIRE SOLDERING

138 138 142 145 147 150 153 153 155 155

Doming: Using Punched Discs Forming the dome Punching Tools Punch work Decoration Stamping: For Metal Identification and Hallmark Applying the stamp Repousse Preparation of pitch Repousse and chasing tools and their uses Repousse tools. Chasing tools. Making your own tools ; The Repousse Process

83 83 84 85 85 89 93 94 97 97 98 100 . 105 110 111 111 113 115 116 116 116 120 121 121 121 122 124 126 126 126 128 130 131 131 131 132 132 133 134 134 134 134 135 136

159 159 161 162 162 162 162 163 165 165 166

I

Removi~g

the work from the pitch

The Chasing Process Repousse and Chasing on Deep Pieces Engraving Engraving tools Tool preparation and maintenance Applying thel design Using engravmg tools Correcting engraving errors Florentine finish with liners Splitting Carving Filing Pickling Common pickling bath Pickle containers Stripping Stripping solution Etching Acid resists or covering agents Etching fluids or acid solutions Containers for acid in use Etching procedure Acid etching solutions for particular metals Bright dip Matte dip Metal Fusing

DECORATIVE TECHNIQUES EMPLOYING CONTRASTING METALS

Silver Solders Composition, melting, and flow points Choosing a solder Melting point and flow point: Solidus and liquidus Preparation of solder Preparing the metal for soldering Fluxes and Their Application Removing flux after soldering Placing the solder Fuels for soldering Simple heat devices. Torches for separate gas and air or oxygen supplies. Single unit heat sources. Plumber's torches. Lighting the flame. Regulating the flame Soldering surfaces General soldering considerations Soldering gold Visual judging of approximate temperatures during the soldering of silver and gold Annealing and pickling gold Basic soldering situations Joining flat surfaces. Perpendicular joints. The use of soldering jigs. Butt joints. Soldering wire to sheet Controlling the flow of solder Solder inhibiting pastes The use of stick solder Unsoldering SpeIter solders Soft Solders Soft-solder fluxes Soft-soldering procedure Soldering coppers or irons Tinning the soldering copper Using the tinned soldering copper Sweat soldering Soft-solder removal Soft-solder stripping solution Mokume Mexican Married Metals

166 170 172 172

173 174 174

174 176 176 177 177 177 178 178 179 179 179 180 180 182 182 184

Metal Encrustation or Applique Tanjore Swami Work Procedure for swami work Positive and negative mold stamping Inlaying or encrusting the medallions viii CONTENTS

Niello Preparing metal for niello Preparing niello for metal Charging the niello Fusing the niello Finishing niello Niello formulas Wire Hand-drawn gold-plated silver wire

186 186 188 189 189 191 191 192 193 196 202 203 204 206 208

PEWTER: BRITANNIA METAL

264 264 265 265 266 267 267 267 268 268 268 271 271

278

The Forming of Pewter Soldering Pewter Soft solders Low-melting soft solders Polishing Pewter Decorative Treatments for Pewter: Applique Other decorative possibilities Casting Pewter Low-melting metals Slush casting of pewter

FORGING

Filigree

Granulation Granulation technique: Making the granules Joining the granules General considerations Making Shot

COMBINING METALS WITH NONMETALLIC MATERIALS

212

Metal Inlay in Wood Tarkashi Work Wood as a Filler Tortoise Shell and Pique Work Pique Work with Tortoise Shell, Horn, Ivory, and Bone The pique process! Leather and Cloth Stones Abalone Shell Inlay

212 213 215 218 222 222 224 226 237

Wrought Iron Forging Wrought Iron and Steel Forging Tools Forging Operations Forge Welding Other Joining Methods General Considerations in Forging Cold Forging

OXYACETYLENE FUSION WELDING

278 281 283 283 283 287 288 288 290 290

292 292

Equipment Procedural Preparations for Welding Adjusting the regulators for pressure Oxygen. Acetylene The torch Regulating the flame The Welding Process Welding rods Braze or bronze welding Flame-cutting metal

292 293 295 295 298 301 301 301 301 304 304 304 305 305 308

Part Three

METHODS OF METAL FABRICATION

SILVERSMITHING

240 240 244 245 246

246

COLD METAL SPINNING

Metals Used in Forming Processes Use of the Hammer when Raising Stakes and anvils Annealing or Softening Work-Hardened Metal Annealing Temperatures of Some Metals Use of the Annealing Torch Quenching Annealed Metals Compressed Metal Forming Methods Metal raising Angle raising Edge thickening Planishing Squaring a bottom Dutch raising Crimping Stretched Metal Forming Methods Sandbag Blocking Pressing

General Considerations Lubrication Spinning Lathes Spinning Tools and Their Functions The chuck: · The spinning form Basic Spun Shapes The technique of spinning Before the disc is in motion. After the disc is in motion. Trimming General considerations

JOINING WITH RIVETS, N AILS, AND SCREWS

246 247 247 247 247 248 249 249 249 249 255 255 255 256

311 311 311 311

313

Riveting Choosing the rivet The riveting process How to avoid riveting faults Riveting wire for jewelry findings Rivet wire used to hold pierced stones

314 314

ix

CONTENTS

Nails Joining with Screws The female thread The male thread Two-piece dies

CASTING

314 314 317 317 317 319 319 321 321 325 326 326 327 329 329 330 331 331 331 332 332 333 333 336 336 338 338 341 341 344 351 357 357 357 358 358 358 359 362 365 366 366 366 367 367 367 368 370 370 371

Heating the metal Removing investment and sprues

ELECTROPLATING AND ELECTROFORMING

372 374 379 379 380 381 383 383 383 383 384 386 387 387 389 390

Casting an Ingot Casting a Lead Block Vocabulary of Casting Sand Casting Casting sand Preparing the mold Preparing the metal Pouring the metal Finishing the casting Metal Casting 'with Two-PaJ Plaster Molds I Materials for patterns Parting compounds Preparing the plaster Placing the pattern: Symmetrical shape Setting of the plaster Drying the mold Casting an irregularly shaped pattern Core Casting Creating the core Lost-Wax Casting Benin bronze casting: Primitive lost-wax casting Lost-wax casting of sculpture Small, solid castings Making the mold. The burnout kiln. Pouring the mold. Finishing the casting Centrifugal Investment Casting Casting waxes Mineral waxes Petroleum waxes Vegetable Waxes Wax additives Centrifugal casting waxes Tools for shaping wax Spruing the model Mounting the model Positioning the model Debubblizing the wax model The investment material Preparing the investment Preparing the asbestos flask liner Applying the investment, and pouring The burnout Recommended burnout cycle Measuring the metal The centrifugal casting machine

The Electroplating Process Electric power Electroplating and electroforming equipment Electroplating and Electroforming Procedures Electrocleaning Electrostripping Electrolytic plating solutions Gold baths. Silver baths. Copper baths. Nickel baths. Rhodium baths. Chromium baths Electroforming on Metal Models Nonmetallic models Solid or hollow objects Elec~roconductive coatings Plating Miscellany

Part Four METAL FINISHING

POLISHING AND GRINDING

394 394 394 396 398 399 400 403 404 405 407 407 409 409 410 410 411 412 412 412 415 415 416 416 419

Polishing Hand polishing Motor polishing Polishing compounds The natural abrasives The artificial abrasives General polishing and buffing considerations Polishing and buffing wheels Polishing and buffing practice Bristle brushes Wire brushes Burnishing Common polishing and buffing situations Polishing hazards and precautions Grinding and Abrasives Grinding wheels Tool maintenance Sharpening stones Judging steel composition by spark observation

COLORING METALS

Cleaning the Metal before Coloring Chemical Coloring Formulas for chemical coloring Coloring by Heat

x

CONTENTS

Part Five HAND TOOLS AND THEIR USES

BASIC TOOL GROUPS

422 422 422 422 422 423 423 423 427 430 437 438 442 442 444

Basic metalwork and jewelry-making tools Decorative metalwork tools Basic soldering tools and equipment Hard soldering. Soft soldering Basic forming and raising tools The Hand Tools Marking and measuring tools and materials Cutting and piercing tools and materials Forming tools and materials Special stakes Holding tools and materials Stone-setting tools The flexible shaft and motor Heat treatment for small tools

Part Six CHARTS AND TABLES

Periodic Table of the Elements Weights and Measures Equivalent of Measures Comparison of Standard Gauges Sheet Metal: Weight per Square Inch by B. & S. Gauge Round Wire: Weight in Pennyweights or Ounces per Foot in B. & S. Gauge Approximate Length per Troy Ounce of Sterling Silver Wire 448 450 450 451 452 453 454

Sterling Silver Square and Half Round Wire; Weight in Ounces per Foot Sterling Silver Sheet Weight in Troy Ounces per Square Inch Silver and Gold Wire Forms Available in Standard MiIIimeter Sizes Sterling Silver Seamless Tubing Circles and Squares; Circumferences and Areas Comparison of Measurements (Inch, Mm., B. & S. Gauge, Stubbs Steel Wire, Drill No.) Fractional, Decimal Inch, and MiIIimeter Equivalents Comparison of Saw Blade Sizes and Drills Jeweler's Saw Blades, Thickness and Width in Inches Straight Shank Twist Drills, Wire Gauge Sizes U. S. Standard Ring Sizes, Length and Diameter in Inches Standard Copper Sheet Thickness: Rolled to Weight Temperature Conversion Tables: Fahrenheit to Centigrade Centigrade to Fahrenheit The Melting Points of Selected Metals Coefficients of Linear Expansion of Metals Table of Specific Gravities and Weights Relative Characteristics of Common Metals Sources of Supply Glossary of Terms Bibliography Index

454 454 454 455 455

457 458 459 459 460 461 461

462 463 463 464 464 467 481 487

491

CONTENTS

xi

Index

A-I Craft Products Company, 469 Aars, Ferdinand, 268 Abalone shell, inlaid, 237 Abbott Laboratories, 475 Abomey, Dahomey (Africa), 286, 315, 316 Abrasive blasting, defined, 481 J Abrasives, 394ff., 399-403, 404, 410-13', 446; defined, 481; sources, 474 ; Abrasive Sales Company, 474 Abyssinian silver armlet, 103 Acetic acid for coloring, 417, 418 Acetylene torches, 62, 63, 168, 170. See also Oxyacetylene welding; Torches Acids (See also Etching; Fluxes; Pickling; specific acids): specific gravities, weights, 464-65 Adams, Robert, 356 Adhesives, 401, 441, 477 Adhesives, Inc., 477 African work: cast bronzes, 338-41, 353, 376, 420; cast gold, 377; chasing, 17, 281; filigree, 196; forged iron, 286; repousse, 101; wood wijh metal, 87, 215, 216, 315, 316 Agar-agar, 331 Aging, age hardening, 13, 33; defined, 481 Agra, India, 226 Air, specific gravity, weight of, 465 Airbrasives, Inc., 474 Air-gas torches, 166, 169, 170, 247 . See also Torches Air Reduction Chemical and Carbide Company, 475 Air Reduction Company, 475, 476 Air Reduction Sales Company, 476 Ajmer, India, 212 Akron, Ohio, 330 Alams, 75 Albert, Gilbert, 14, 16, 51 Alchemists, and mercury, 31 Alcob Metals, Ltd., 479 Alcohol, specific gravity, weight of, 464 Alcohol lamps, 168 Ale for cleaning metal, 409 Algerian work, 11, 87 Alkaline cleaning, defined, 481 Allcraft Tool and Supply Company, 466, 471 Allied Chemical Corporation, 475 Alloys, 4, 7 (See also specific alloys, kinds, uses); defined, 481; sources of supply, 468-69; specific gravities, weights, 464-65 All-State Welding Alloys Company, Inc., 476 Alluvial (placer) gold, 3, 7 Almandite, 399 Alpaca, silver, 70 Alpha brasses, 18 Alum for coloring, 419 Aluminum, 4, 6, 7, 26-28, 32-33, 463, 464 (See also specific techniques); in alloys (see main compo-

I

nents; specific techniques, uses); articles made of (See specific objects, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; etching solution, 132; extruded, 49; ore, bauxite, 2, 26; sources of supply, 467, 46869; temperature for annealing wrought, 246 (see also Annealing); toxicity, 51; welding, 295 Aluminum chloride for coloring, 418 Aluminum Company of America, 469 Aluminium Goods Ltd., 479 Aluminum Ltd., Inc., 475 Aluminum oxide, 400, 402, 411 Aluminium Wire & Cable Company, Ltd., 479 Amalgams, amalgamation, 7, 11, 31-32; defined, 481 Amber, 358, 465 Amenemhet Ill, 75 American Brass Company, The, 468 American Brass and Copper, 469 American Cyanamid Company, 475 American Gold Chain Company, 472 American Handicrafts Company (East Orange, New Jersey), 472 American Handicrafts Company, Inc. (New York City), 477 American Jewelry Chain Company, Inc., 468, 472 American Marietta Company, 474 American Metal Climax, Inc., 467 American Metalcraft, Inc., 469 American Metalizing Corporation, 468 American Platinum and Silver, 468 American Standard gauge. See Brown & Sharpe Standard gauge American Steel & Wire Company gauges, 451. See also Washburn & Moen American Wire Gauge. See Brown & Sharpe Standard gauge American work (See also Indians, American; United States; specific craftsmen, places): copper, repousse, 99; iron, 35; pewter, 264, 266; tin, 24, 86; wire, 201 American Zinc Institute, Inc., 468 Ames, Jean, 75 Ammeters, 381 Ammonia (See also Aqua ammonia): specific gravity, weight, 465 Ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) , 179, 180, 485; and casting lead, 21; for coloring, 147,417,418; for niello, 191 Ammonium molybdate for coloring, 418 Amozoc, Mexico, steel bluing in, 158 Ampere, defined, 481 Anaconda Aluminum Company, 469 Anchor Alloys, Inc., 477 Anchor Tool Company, 471 Andersen, David, 269 Andirons, wrought iron, 277 Angle raising, 247-48

INDEX

491

Ankle bracelet, silver, 209 Anklet, white metal, 70 Annealed temper, defined, 486 Annealing, 49-50, 170, 246--47 (See also Soldering; specific metals, tools); bright, defined, 482; crystalline structure of brass after, 4; defined, 481; of wire, 43-45 Anodes, 379ff.; defined, 481 Anodizing, 26, 481 Antimony, 463; alloys with, 23, 24, 264; solders with, 24, 266; specific gravity, weight of, 464 Antiquing, 13, 417 Anvils, 61, 67, 72, 244-46ff., 278-79 (See also Stakes; specific uses); defined, 481; snarling irons, 110, 244, 252, 437 Apex Welding Supplies, Inc., 476 Apothecaries' weight, 450 Applique, 134-38, 267 Aqua ammonia, 31,417. See also Ammonia Aqua fortis. See Nitric acid Aquamanile, bronze, 109 Aqua regia, 10, 131, 481 Aragon of Oaxaca, Mexico, 129 Araucanian work, 88 , Architectural bronze, annealing temperature of, 246 "Architectural Landscape" (aluminum panel), 28 Arkansas oilstone, 114, 115 Armlets: Abyssinian gilded, 103; Egyptian wire, 194 Armor, 186; chain-mail, 192 Arrow Metal Spinning Company, 306-10, 477 Arsenides, arsenical ores, 3, 29 Arts and Crafts Distributors, Inc., 472 Asbestos, 481 (See plso specific equipment, uses); sources of supply, 477 Ashanti work, 100-1, 377, 420 Ash & Lacey Ltd" 479 Ashtrays: cast iron, 37; pewter, 268 Asphaltum, 73-74, 127, 130 Aspic mold, copper, 99 Assaying (testing), 9, 41, 481 Associated Crafts, 478 Assyrians, and lead, 19 Aston Aluminium Warehouse Company, Ltd., 479 Astro Lapidary Company, 478 Atlas Chain Company, 472 Atlas White Metal Company, 468 Atomic weights, 4, 448, 463. See also specific metals Auromet Corporation, 479 Aurora Plastics Corporation, 478 Automatic Chain Company, 472 Aveyron, France, 234 Avoirdupois weight, 450 Awls, scratch, 55, 115, 425 B. & D. Polishing & Plating Corporation, 479 B & I Manufacturing Company, 478 B. & S, gauge. See Brown & Sharpe Standard gauge Babbitt metal, 465; casting, 268 Babylonia, and lead, 19 Backstick, defined, 481 Badger Aluminum Extrusions Corporation, 467 Bager, J91rgen, 217 Bags (See also Carry-all; Purses): gold with cloth, 225 Baker Platinum, 473 Baking soda to clean silver, 13 Bakota funerary figure, 87 Balamun, Egypt, 194 Balances and scales, 426, 427 Bali, granulation in, 202, 207 Ballou, B. A., and Company, Inc., 472

Ball peen hammers, 72, 74, 187, 435. Se~ a/so specific uses Balls (shrinkage lumps), defined, 321 Ball vise (engraver's block), 113, 114, 413; in use, 116--17 Baltimore, Maryland, 79 Bangalore, India, 95 Barium sulphide for coloring, 417 Barry, John J., Company, 478 Bars, metal, 40. See also Ingots; specific metals Bartlett & Company, Inc., 472 Bartlett-Snow-Pacific, Inc., 468 Base metals, 7, 16-32. See also specific metals Basic Products Corporation, 476 Batter, defined, 481 Batteries, 379, 380-81 Battersea, England, 70 Bauxite, 2, 26 Bayberry wax, 358 Beader, 84 Beads (See also Necklaces): silver, being polished, 394 Beaker, silver, 119 Beating metal. See Malleability Bedi-Rassy Art Foundry, 476 Beer for cleaning metal, 409 Beeswax, 42, 45, 66, 67, 429; for casting, 357; for cutlery cement, 441; for etching, 128-30; as spinning lubricant, 30 I, 302 Behanzin, King, 315, 316 Behr-Manning Company, 474 Beissinger, Ernest W., 469 Bell, cast aluminum, 354 Bellows, 169, 324; defined, 481 Belmont Lapidary Supply, 478 Belmont Smelting and Refining Works, 468 Belt buckles: cast bronze, 350; niello on, 188 Belts, leather, with metal, 88, 225 Bence Buffing and Polishing Wheel Manufacturing Company, 474 Benches, 288, 382, 397; tools for (see specific techniques, tools) Bending (See also Elasticity): in forging, 282 Benin bronze casting, 338-41, 376 Bennett, Charles A., Company, Inc., 478 Benney, Gerald, 33, 80 Berg Chemical Company, Inc., 475 Bergen Handcraft Supplies, 472 Berliner Koniglichen Eisengiesserei, 35 Bernadotte, Sigvard, 107 Berneman, Ross, Associates, 473 Berng, Otto, Company, Inc., 468 Bernz-O-Matic torch unit, 168 Bertinus, F., 258 Bertoia, Harry, 296, 301 Beryllium, copper alloy with, 18 Beta brasses, 18 Betel box, brass, 153 Bevington, Alistair, 20 Bezel-making mandrels, 436 Bezel setter (pusher), 442 Bibliography, 487-90 Bidar, India, 139 Bidri work, 24, 138-49, 481 Bihar, India, 18 Billet, defined, 481 Billings, Leonard, 306-10 Bina ry alloys, 7 Binding, defined, 481 Binding wire, 171, 441. See also Jigs, soldering; Wire, wirework; specific uses

492

INDEX

Binford, T. E., 479 Bingham Canyon, 2 Biot, France, 12 Bird, centrifugal-cast silver, 356 Birdcages, wire, 201 Birmingham, England, sources of supply in, 479-80 Birmingham Metal Gauge, 48 Birmingham Wire Gauge (B. W. G.), 48, 451 Bismuth, 191, 266, 463; specific gravity, weight, 464 Blackburns, Ltd., 479 Black and Decker Manufacturing Company, 473 Blair, Joseph, Ltd., 480 Blank, defined, 481 Blank tools, 97-98 Blende, 25, 465 Blocking, 255-56; defined, 481 Blocking hammers. See Hammers Blocks. See specific kinds, materials, uses Blom, Franz, 275 Bloom, 281 ; defined, 481 Blooming, 132, 482 Blower, hand-operated, 142 Blowhole, defined, 482 Blowhorn stake, 244 Blowpipes, 166, 266, 292; pictures of, 167, 169 Blows (casting defects), 326 Blue vitriol. See Copper sulphate Blumberg, Dan, 204 Boabdil, 226 Boar, welded steel, 294 Bobbing compound, 401, 403 Boiling point, 4, See also f pecific metals Bolivia, 22 . Bolster, defined, 482 Bolts, bolting, 283 ; sources of supply for, 477 Bombay, India, 70, 204 .-Bonbonniere, silver, 248 Bone: buttons with silver, 219; pique work, 222-23 Bonnell, WiIliam L., Company, Inc., The, 467 Book covers : filigree, 201; with metals and stones, 232 Books on metalcrafts, 487-90 Boot scrapers, 75 Borax, 163-64 (See also Fluxes; specific uses); cones, 163, 164; glass, 163, 165; slate, 163, 164 Boric acid and firescale , 13 Bossing (See also Embossing) : tools, 97 Boston, Massachusetts, 119 Bottles (See also specific uses) : Egyptian silver, xii; hand raised, sterling silver, 263 ; pewter, with stopper, 268 Bottoming, 249; defined, 482 Bottoming hammer, 257 Bottoming stakes, 249, 437. See also Stakes Bouging, 24711., 482 Bowls (See also Silversmithing; specific kinds, uses): bidri work, 138; cast bronze, 346-47, 349; electroformed copper, 386; engraved silver, ebony-tipped feet, 120; fluted form, Iranian gold, 248; glass and bronze epergne, 237; irregular form, solid silver base, 11; repousse, 111; spinning of, 305, 306-10; swami decorated, 137; as tools (see specific techniques, uses) Bow Solder Products Company, Inc., 477 Boxer Adhesives, 477 Boxes (See also specific kinds, techniques, uses): filigree, 197; inlaid, 213; pewter, 269; repousse, 110; shot-decorated, 208; wrought iron on wood, 277 Box furnaces, 39 Bracelet mandrels, 436. See also Mandrels

Bracelets, 69, 71, 391; cast bronze, 376; cast iron, 35; cast silver, 337; chased, engraved silver, with raven, 101; chiseled gold, 123; domed silver, 81; drilled surface on, 50; electroformed over Styrofoam, 388; filigree, 197, 198, 199; with granules, shot, 50, 203, 205, 209; grooved surface, with jewels, 51; hollow sterling silver, 490; pierced work, 76, 78; stamped silver, 93; turquoise in silver, 229; wire, Egyptian, 194 Brass, 18, 26 (See also specific techniques, i.e., Plating; Silversmithing; Welding); articles of (see specific items, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; coloring, 417-18, 419; crystalline structure of sheet, 4; and discovery of zinc, 25; etching solutions, 131, 132; extruded, 48, 49; fabricated sheets, strips, 40; gauges for, 48; hot-tinning, 2324; quenching, 49-50 (see also Annealing); sources of supply for, 467, 468-{;9 Brass sand, 326 Braune of St. Petersburg, 31 Braun-Knecht-Heiman Company, 475 Brayer, 115 Brazing, 27, 482 ; braze welding, 295-98, 482 Brazing solders, alloys. See Spelter solders Break-out, break-up (shake-out), 324, 349, 485 Bridal headgear, silver, 93 Bright annealing, defined, 482 Brightboy, 395, 443, 446 Brightboy Industrial, 474 Bright dip, 132, 482 Brindaban, India, 447 Brinell test, 5 Britain. See England (Great Britain) Britannia metal, 23, 246, 264-{;9 British Columbia, 101 British Imperial Standard Wire Gauge, 48, 451 Brittleness, 6, 482. See also Shortness Broaches, 430 Broaching, defined, 482 Brodhead-Garrett Company, 469, 472 Brogen, John, 202 Bronze, bronzes, 17, 18, 23, 464 (See also specific techniques); articles made of (see specific articles, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; d iscovery of, 22; extruded, 49; hot-tinning, 23-24; sources of supply, 467, 468-69; temperature for annealing, 246 (see also Annealing) Bronze Age, 17 Bronze solders. See Spelter solders Bronze welding. See Brazing: braze welding Brooches (See also Pins): engraved silver with quartz, 121; with granulation, 206-7; inlaid with ebony and ivory, 222; inland Zufii silver, 229, 230; lost-wax cast, 356, 372-73; pierced work silver, 76; with shot, Israeli, 210 Brookside Metal Company, Ltd., 480 Brown Brothers, Ltd., 479 Brown cutting compound, 402 Brown & Sharpe Standard gauge (B. & S. ), 9, 12, 47, 48,425,45111. Brushes, brushing, 395, 407-9, 410, 416; for asphalturn, 127; flexible shafts and, 396, 443, 445; for investment casting, 364, 367; solder, 163 Brynner, Irena, 8 Buccellati, Mario, 119, 219 Buckeye Products Company, The, 474 Buckingham Products Company, The, 474 Buckles with niello work, 188, 191 Buckskin bu1ls, 395, 396

INDEX

493

Buffs and buffing, 254, 394, 396, 404-7ff., 446 (See also Polishing and grinding; specific metals, techniques); "buff," defined, 482; and polishing supplies, sources of, 473-74 Bulb sponge with brush, 324 Biilow-Hube, Torun, 12 Bunsen burners, 168 Burell Corporation, 475 Burgess Vibrocrafters, Inc., 473 Burins. See Scorpers Burmese work, 103, 111 Burnett, James, 479 Burnishers, burnishing, 115, 116, 409, 442, 482 Burnout (See also Lost-wax casting): defined, 321 Burnsides, Tom, 334-36 Burrs, on metal, 58, 482 Burs (tools), for flexible shaft, 444 Bus bars, 380, 381 Butler finish, 410 Butter lamp, Tibetan silver, 93 Butt joint (See also Soldering; Welding): !defined, 482 Button (in casting), 370, 373 I Buttons, bone with silver; 219 I Butt welding (See also Welding): defined, 482 Byzantine work, 76, 85 C-clamps, 67, 439 Cabochon: defined, 482; setting in bezel, 442 Cadmium, 463; alloys (see main components, specific techniques); -plated steel, toxicity of, 51; solders with,266 Cairo, Egypt, 93, 197,228 Cake knives, chasing of, 106 Calamine, 25 Calcium carbonate, 417. See also Whiting Calcium chloride for coloring, 417 Calcutta, India, 302 Calipers, 424, 425-27 Canada, 29, 48 Canadian Laboratory Supplies, Ltd., 475 Candelabra, 259 (See also Candlesticks); being buffed, 392 CandelilIa wax, 358 Candlesticks; candlestick holders (See also Candelabra): brass, modern, 259; crystal ball in pricket, 238; forged and split, 121; inlaid Persian bronze, 150; patterned tin, 23; pierced, chased, repousse silver, 78; screws in silver-plated, 318; welded steel, 296; wrought iron, 273, 277 Cane and Company, Ltd., 475 Canteen, Syrian brass, 150 Canton de Thuir, 275 Canton-flannel buffs. See Buffs and buffing Capillarity, defined, 482 Capitol Tool and Findings Company, Inc., 472 Cap Screw and Nut Company, Inc., 477 "Carat," 9, 482 Carbon, 463, 465; as component (see Iron; Steel); for intaglio etching, 130; as residue (see Casting); ring stick, 175; sparks from steel, 413 Carbonates, 3 Carbon dioxide, specific gravity" weight of, 465 Carbon monoxide, specific gravity, weight of, 465 Carbon paper, 55, 115 Carborundum Company, The, 474 Carborundum equipment, 398, 405, 411, 418. See also specific techniques, uses Carnauba wax, 358

I

Carry-all, Florentine finish on, 119 Carter Products Company, 474 Cartier, 14 Carving, 121 Casket, ivory, 220 Casseroles: a1uminum, 328; steel, 303 Cassiterite, 22, 465 Castellani, Fortunato Pio, 202 Castillo brothers (Los CastilIo), 154, 184-86, 226, 237 Castin~, 319-78 (See also specific metals, techniques); centnfugal, 350-74, 482; core (see Core casting); defined, 482; lost-wax, 16, 205, 338-77; with plaster molds, 28, 330-35; sand, 27-28, 324, 325-30 (see also Bidri work); slush, 268, 324; sources of supplies, 475-76; vocabularIy of, 322-25 Casting strains, defined, 482 Casting Supply House, 476 Cast iron, 6, 24, 33-34, 35 (See also specific techniques, i.e., Welding); articles of (see specific articles, techniques) Cast metals. See Cast iron; specific metals Cathodes, 379, 380, 482 Cement brasses, 441-42 Cements, 441. See also Adhesives Center, finding, 56 Center (prick) punches, 71, 247, 249, 425, 430; pictured, 56, 58, 72 Centrifugal Casting Supply Company, 476 Centrifugal investment casting, 351-74, 482 Ceresine, 357 Cetin, 357 Chain polishing, 406 Chains, 470; soldering shown, 167; sources, 472-73 Chairs: welded steel, 291; wrought iron, 274 Chalices, 258 Chamois, 394, 395, 404, 405, 446 Champagnat, Jean Claude, 69, 209, 374, 377 Champa-kali, 90 Channel-work tufa casting, 334-36, 337 Chaps, defined, 482 Charcoal (See also specific uses), 64, 163, 170 Charts and tables, 449-65 Chase Brass and Copper Company, Inc., 469 Chasing, 84-85, 105-10 (See also Repousse); defined, 482; demonstrations, 94, 105, 106 Chasing hammers, 85, 97, 435. See also Chasing, demonstrations Chasing tools, 85, 97 (See also specific tools); handmade, 105; hardening, 447 Cheeks, defined, 323 Chelmsford, England, 318 Chemetron Corporation, 476 Chemicals, sources of supply for, 475 Chemionics, 477 Chenier, defined, 482 Chess sets, 87, 353 Chest, brass and white metal dowry, 315 Chibcha Indian work, 8, 82 Chief's collar, copper, 17 Chile, mate cup bombiIla from, 216 Chilled cast iron, 34 China, Chinese work: cast bronze, 348, 350, 351; damascene, 150, 153; filigree, 200; nickel, 29; pewter and brass, 268; pierced work mirror back, 77; repousse plaque, 101 Chinese tallow, 358 Chinese white, 55, 115 Chisels, 74, 75, 279, 281, 429 (See also specific techniques); hardening, 447

494

INDEX

Chloral Chemical Corporation, 477 Chlorides, 179. See also specific chlorides, uses Chou Dynasty, 101, 150, 153, 348, 351 Chromatic acid to anodize aluminum, 26 Chrome (See also Chromium): buffing composition, 431 Chromic acid for coloring, 418 Chromium, 463, 464 (See also Chrome): alloys (see Nichrome; main components; specific uses); plating, 385-86; toxicity, 51 Chucks, 301, 340ff., 398; breakdown, defined, 482; defined, 482; for flexible shaft, 443, 446; sectional, defined, 485; in use, 306-10 Chud,93 Cigar box, married metal, 184-85 Cigarette boxes: bid ri, 148, 149; cast iron, 37; gold, 51; pewter, 268 Cincinnati, Ohio, 301 "Cinema, The" (cast bronze sculpture), 356 Cinnabar, 31 Circles, circumferences and area of, 15-57 Cire perdue. See Lost-wax casting I Cistern, cast lead, 20 I City Chemical Corporation, 475 Cladding, 6, 16, 196, 482 Clamp-on vise, 438 Clamps, 67, 114, 174,175,281,439 Clark, L. A., Company, 473 Clarke, Geoffrey, 354 Clay Brothers & Company, 479 Cleveland Crafts Company, 478 Cleveland Dental Manufjlcturing Company, 475 Clip's, electrician's, 380, 1382 Clock, welded iron, 299; stainless steel, 331 Clock case, engraved, 120 Cloth: buffing, polishing, 394, 395, 401, 40-2, 404, 406 (See also Buffs and buffing; Polishing and grinding); metalwork with, 224-26 Coastal USA, Inc., 474 Coated abrasives. See Abrasives Cobalt, 36, 463, 464 Co bb, W. R., Company, 472 Coefficients of linear expansion, 4, 463-64 Coffee pots: silver, wood handle, 217; tin-lined, brass, Italian, 261; tin-lined copper, 17; tin punchwork, 86 Coffee set, married metal, 186 Coffee urn, silver with wood, 257 Coffer, German etched, 129 "Cogging," 281, 482 Cohn Sigmund Corporation, 468 Coin silver, 12, 13, 452, 453, 482 Cold forging (working), 4, 287 Cold metal spinning, 301-10 Cold shut, defined, 323, 482 Collaring, 283, 482 Collars: copper chief's, 17; Egyptian gold, 90 Collet hammers, 434 Colombia (See also Chibcha Indian work): gold plaque, 98 Color, coloring, 4-5, 64, 409, 415-19, 482 (See also specific metals, techniques); compounds, 402-3 Comb, sterling silver, 12 Commercial Standards, 87 Compression, 6. See also Silversmithing "Concha" belt, 88 Cones, abrasive, 402, 405 Congo, 22 Conklin, T. E., Brass and Copper Company, Inc., 467

Conques, Cathedral of, 234 Constantine, Albert, & Son, Inc., 478 Containers (See also Boxes; specific uses): bronze, with wrought silver ornament, 286 Cooke, Alvin, 290 Cookie cutters, tin, 24 Cooper, Charles, 479 Copal, 358 Cope (See also Sand casting): defined, 482 Copeland, Lawrence G., 268 Copenhagen, 392. See also Jensen, Georg, Silversmiths Copper, 3, 4, 6, 7, 16-18, 461, 463, 464 (See also Silversmithing; specific techniques); alloys, 24 (see also main components; specific techniques); articles (see specific objects, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; coloring, 416, 417, 418, 419; crystallized native, 2; etching solutions, 131, 132; extruded alloys, 48-49; fabricated metal pieces, wire, 40; gauges for, 48; hot-tinning, 23-24; mine, 2; and pickling (see Pickling); plating, 385 (see also Plating); sources of supply, 467, 468-69; stripping, 126; testing for silverplated, 13; toxicity, 51 Copper and Brass Research Association, 467 Copper carbonate for coloring, 417 Copper nitrate for coloring, 417, 418 Copper oxide (firescale), 483. See also specific metals Coppers and irons, soldering, 179-80, 181 Copper-Stone Age, 17 Copper sulphate (blue vitriol), 145, 385, 417, 418; toxicity, 51 Copper-zinc solders. See Spelter solders Cordoba, Spain, 220 Core; core casting, 321-23, 336-37, 338, 350, 378, 482. See also Lost-wax casting Coring, in forging, 282-83 Cork, specific gravity and weight of, 465 Cornwall, England, 22 Corrosion, 4, 5 (See also Tarnish; specific metals): defined, 482 Corundum. See Aluminum oxide Cotter pin, defined, 482 Coursing, defined, 483 Covering agents, defined, 483 Cow's tongue stakes, 435 Craftool, Inc., 471, 477 Crafts, books on metal, 488-89 Craft Service, 472, 478 Craft Service Supply, 478 Craftsman's Supply House, 478 Craftsman Wood Service Company, 479 Crayfish, copper, 99 Craythorne, William, 70 Cream of tartar for coloring, 418 Creasers, 442 Crimping, 240, 249-50, 251, 263, 483 Crimping stakes, 244, 246, 249, 435 Cristobalite, 364-65, 366, 370 Critical range, defined, 483 Crocodile god pendant, 338 Crocus composition, 394, 402, 403 Cronstedt, Axel F., 28 Crosses: cast and forged silver with quartz, 284-85; pierced Monel Metal, 79; wrought iron Mexican, 275 Cross-peen hammers, 247, 249, 279 Crowns: repousse Peruvian, 101; repousse Torah, 105; wire Torah, 196 Crozals, Jean-Vincent de, 294, 299

INDEX

495

Crucibles (See also specific techniques, uses): defined, 323, 483 Crysacolla stone for granules, 204 Crystallinity, crystals, 2, 'I; crystallization defined, 483; in electroforming, 386-87 Cuff links: cast silver, 374, 376, 377; chased gold, 119; silver with wood, 215 Cupellation, 11, 483 Cupric hydroxide for granules, 204 Cups: commemorative, with ivory and ebony, 222; pierced work wedding, 110 Curtin, W. H., & Company, 475 Cushion tools, 97 Cutlery cement, 441 Cuttack, India, 196, 198 Cutting, 54, 240, 427-30 (See also specific techniques, tools); in finishing: compounds, techniques, 401-3, 409; flame-, 298; as forging term, 281 Cyanides, cyanidation, 7, 11, 384, 385. See also specific cyanides, uses Cylinders. See specific techniques Cyprus copper mines,' 17 Dahomey (Africa), 286, 315, 316 Damar, 358 Damascene, 8, 119, 150-58, 483 "Dancing Siva" (cast bronze), 322 Danish work. See Denmark Dapping blocks, 83, 84, 483 Dapping punches, dies, 83-84 Dapping tools. See specific tools, uses Darius, 248 Darjeeling, India, 99 Dauber, 130 Davis-K Products Company, 479 DebubbIizers. See Wetting agents Decanter, silver, with ivory stopper, 90 Deep drawing, defined, 483 Delhi, India, 71 Denmark, Danish work, 392. See also Jensen, Georg, Silversmiths Dental amalgam, 12 Dental tools, 359ff., 396,441; hardening, 419 Deoxidized copper, 18 De Patta, Margaret, 36, 195 Deposited metal, defined, 483 Dessau, Maurice S., Inc., 473 Deutch & Brenner Ltd., 479 De Wait Power Tools, 473 Dhaemers, Robert, 361-65ff., 376, 377 Diamond jewelry. See Necklaces Diamond Tool Research Company, Inc., 473 Diamond wheels, 411 Diehl, William, and Company, 475 Dies (See also specific metals, techniques) : for extruded metal, 48-49; hardening, 447; in screwmaking, 317-18,486 Direct current, 379, 380 Disc punch set, 81 Discs (See also specific kinds, uses): for flexible shafts, 444, 445 Disodium phosphate, 384 Ditzel, Nanna and J!6rgen, 69 Dividers, 56, 57, 59, 242, 425 Dixon, WilIiam, Inc., 472 Doming, 83-84 (See also Encrustation); examples of, 81ff., 86, 197, 336 (see also specific objects) Doming and embossing hammer, 243 Donald, John, 51 Don Jer Products, 477

Door escutcheons, 237, 292, 327 Door handles, 325, 354 Door knob, welded wire, 292 Door pulls, 28, 237 Doors: cast iron aumbry, 354; riveted bronze panels, 312; wrought iron for, 275, 276 Dore silver, defined, 483 Dow Chemical Company, The, 477 Downgate (runner), defined, 321, 485 Drackett Products Company, 474 Drag (See also Sand casting): defined, 483 Drag-out, 384 Drawfiling, defined, 483 Drawing out (forging down), 281 Drawing wire. See Wire, wirework; specific metals Drawplates, 42, 45, 145, 438, 483 Drill presses, 430 Drills, drilling, 58, 71-72, 73, 396, 429-30, 483 (See also specific techniques, uses); bracelet decorated with, 50; gauges for, 425; hardening, 447; and sawblade sizes, 459; and wire gauges, 457-58, 460 Drop, in casting, defined, 323-24 Drop forging, defined, 483 Dross, defined, 483 Drumm, Don, 28, 325, 327, 329, 330, 354 Duby-Blom, Gertrude, 275 Ductility, 4, 464, 483. See also specific metals Dunand, Jean, 153 Du Pont de Nemours, E. I., & Company, 475 Dust, metal, 52, 410, 477 Dustfoe respirator mask, 410 Dutch raising, 240, 249 Dwinnell Art & Craft Supply, 478 Ear ornaments, Peruvian, 209, 230 Earrings: cast iron, 35; inlaid, 218; repousse, 99 Eastern Abrasives, Inc., 474 Eastern Chain Works, 472 Eastern Findings Corporation, 472 Eastern Metalizing Company, 468 Eastern Mohair and Trading Company, Inc., 475 Ebony, 465. See also Inlay Edge thickening, 248, 249, 282, 486 Egyptians, Egyptian work: copper, 17; damascene, 150; engraved gold-footed goblet, 248; fluted silver bottle, xii; and forging, 271; and granulation, 202; intaglio die, impression, 82; and lost wax, 338; and niello, 186, 191; pierced, engraved pectoral, 75; and pitch, 96-97; stamped work, 90, 93, 228; stone with metal, 228; wirework, 194, 197 Elasticity, 6 . Electricity (See also Electric tools; Electroplating): metals as conductors, 4 Electric Smelting Company, 476 Electric tools, equipment, 442-46 (See also specific techniques, uses); sources of supply, 473 Electrocleaning, 382, 383 Electroforming. See Electroplating and electroforming Electrolytic action, 379-91; cleaning silver by, 13 Electrometallurgy, 3 Electrolating and electroforming, 4, 33, 379-91 Electrostripping. See Stripping Electrum, 12 Elements, table of, 448 Elephant, metal, being set with gems, 231 Ells, Dick, Company, 469 Embosser punch, 84, 85 Embossing, 85; examples of, 86, 93 (see also specific objects)

496

INDEX

Embossing hammers, 243, 255, 434 Embroidery with metallic yarn, 224, 226 Emery, emery buffs, 115, 394, 395, 399--400, 439; with brushes, 407; cloths illustrated, 147, 395; discs illustrated, 446; for niello, 191 Emulsion, defined, 483 Enamels, enameling, 10, 119, 390 Encinitas, California, 374 Encrustation, 134-38, 183, 483 Engelhard Industries, Inc. (Newark), 468 Engelhard Industries, Inc. (San Francisco), 469, 473 Engine turning, 111 England (Great Britain), English work, 264 (See also London; specific craftsmen); cast iron door with quartz, 354; cast lead cistern, 20; embossed bronze shield, 70; engraved pewter, 265; gauges, 48, 451; niello, 190-91; pique work watchcase, 219; Sheffield plate, 6, 196; sources of supply in, 47980; stamping, 87, 90; threaded, bolted candlesticks, 318; tin mines, 22 Engraver's block (ball vise) , 113, 114, 439; in use, 116-17 Engraver's marker, 425 Engraver's tools, 112, 119. See also Engraving; specific tools, uses Engraving, 111-19, 483; aquamanile with, 109; bracelets with, 78, 101; canteen with, 150; casket mounts with, 220; coffer with, 129; demonstrated, 116-17; ewer with, 26; goblet with, 248; lock and key with, 76; platter, trays with, 109, 152, 265; wedding cup with, 110 Epergne, bronze and glass', 237 I Epoxy, 441 Ericson, Estrid, 269 Escapement files, 433 Escutcheons. See Door escutcheons Etching, "126-33, 267, 483 Eternal Light, spun pewter, 269 Etruscan work, 86, 109; granulation, 202, 205 Europe (See also specific countries): filigree in, 196; stamping in, 9, 12, 87 Eutectic alloys, 159, 483 Eutectic Welding Alloys Corporation, 476 Evening bag, metal-embroidered, 226 Everdur-l0l0, 463 Ewers (See also Pitchers): Korean silver and gold, 261; Persian cast bronze, 350; Tibetan, encrusted, 139 Expansion, coefficients of linear, 4, 463-64 Extrusion, extruded metals, 6, 48--49, 483 Eye loupes, 114 Eyeshields, 288, 293 Face shields, 410. See also Eyeshields False core, defined, 323 Fans, exhaust, 410. See also specific uses Faraday, Michael, 379 Far East (See also Orient; specific countries): filigree, 196; granulation, 202; inlay, 212; pierced work, 73; silver alloys, 12; yellow gold, 9 Fats (See also specific fats, uses): specific gravity, weight, 465 Federal Stamping Law, 9, 87 Federal Trade Commission, 87-88 Federated Sales Company, 474 Feeder heads, defined, 321 Felt buffs, 191, 396, 404; shown, 405, 446 Ferrosilicon, 464 Ferrous metals, 3--4, 7, 32-37. See also specific metals

Fiber-backed abrasives, 401 Fiber hammers, mallets, 256 Fibula, Greek wire, 193 File Cards, 264, 433, 435, 483 Files, filing, 121, 430-33, 434 (See also specific techniques); drawfiling, 483; for flexible shaft, 444; float, 180-82, 264, 432, 433; needle, 61, 121, 125, 405; objects as examples of, illustrated, 123, 124, 205, 287; rifflers, 432, 433, 434, 485; use shown, 58, 60, 61, 254 Filigree, 196-200, 201, 483 Filler metal, defined, 483 Fillet weld, defined, 483 Filters, paper, for electroplating, 382 Findings, 12-13, 175, 314, 483; sources of supply, 472-73 Fine gold, 7. See also Gold Fine silver, 12. See also Silver Fine solder, 178 Fingerprints, removing, 407 Finishing, 50, 64-65, 254, 392--419 (See also Polishing and grinding; specific metals, techniques); hardening of too~s, 447 Finnish work, 17, 20, 121. See also specific craftsmen, techniques Fins, 323, 369 Firescale (firestain; fire; scale), 323, 483. See also specific metals Fireworks, 26 Fish, gilded silver, 33 Flame-cutting, 298 Flames. See Torches Flannel buffs. See Buffs and buffing Flasks, casting, 344, 372-73, 483 (See also Casting); illustrated, 324, 371, 373 Flask tongs, 329, 370, 371, 372 Flatters, 279, 280 Flatware, 13, 106 (See also Knives; Spoons); patterns for, 69 Flexible shafts and motors, 396, 442--44ff.; accessories, equipment shown, 444, 446 Flint: as abrasive, 394, 400; lighters (see Lighters) Float files, 180-82, 264, 432, 433 Florentine finish, 116-19 Flores, Gabriel, 353 Flow points. See Soldering; specific solders Fluidity, defined, 483 Fluoboric acid for stripping solution, 182 Fluting stakes. See Crimping stakes Fluxes, 62, 63, 160, 163-65, 178-79 (See also Soldering; specific metals); defined, 323, 483 Foil, defined, 484 Fontenay (metalsmith), 202 Footprint, copper, 107 Forceps for pickling, 127 Forging, 205, 271-87, 484 Forging brass, 18, 246 Forging down, 281 Forging hammers, 435. See also Forging Forks : filigree-handled, 200; inlaid wood handle, 212 Forming tools and materials, 423, 430-37. See also Silversmithing Forswall, Matthias, 119 Foundries, 476 Foundry sand, 326 Fourpoint Products, 474 Fractional equivalents, 458 France, French work, 12. (See also Paris; specific craftsmen); repousse, 103, 232; stones with metal,

INDEX

497

232, 234, 238; welded pieces, 299; wire drawing, 192; wrought iron, 274, 275, 277 Frankfurt-am-Main, 201 Franklin, New Jersey, 25 Franklinite, 25 Franklin Plating and Polishing Company, 479 Franklin stove, 35 Free-cutting brass, 18 Freezing point, 4 French Sudan, 215 Fullers, 279, 280 Funerary figure, wood and stamped brass, 87 Funerary (funeral) masks, 103, 228 Funnel, glass, for electroplating, 382 Furnaces, 278, 323, 327 (See also specific processes); illustrated, 39, 180, 320, 343, 344ff. Fused borax, 164 Fuses, plater, 382 Fusibility, 4. See also specific metals Fusing, 133 Fusion solder, 178 Fusion welding, oxyacetyiene, 288-99 Gabon Republic, 87 Gagers Handicraft, 473 Galena, 19, 464 Galvani, Luigi, 26 Galvanizing, 26, 299 Gamzon Brothers, 471 Ganeshi Lal and Sons, 226 Gang, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard, frontispiece Ganging, 366, 484 Gangue, 3, 484 Gar-AHoy, 469 Gardberg, Bertel, 121, 183,215,230,312 Garnet, 399 Gas-air torches. See Air-gas torches Gases, specific gravity, weight, 465 Gasoline, 465 Gate, gate assembly, 321, 484. See also Casting Gated pattern, defined, 323 Gau, 101 Gauges, 47-48, 72, 425, 460 (See also specific gauges); comparison of standard metal, 451; degree spring, 424; oxygen tank, 289ff.; ring sticks, 397; surface, 242, 255, 486 Gaya, India, 107 Gems. See Stone(s) General Findings, Inc., 472 Geneva, Switzerland. See Patek Philippe "German" silver. See Nickel silver German work (See also specific craftsmen): cast iron jewelry, 35; etched coffer, 129; filigree, 200-1; inlaid goblet, 223; pierced, engraved lock and key, 76; punchwork coffee pot, 86; wire necklet, 194; wrought iron lamp hook, 272 Gesswein, Paul H., & Company, Inc., 471 Ghana. See Ashanti work Ghost. See Skull Gilbert, Stephen, 41 Gilding. See Plating Gilding metal, 18, 49-50,246 Gilding water, 419 Girard, Charles, 78 Giuliano, Carlo, 202 Glaser, Georges, 76 Glass: articles of (see specific articles, techniques); for coloring, 415; containers (see specific uses); specific gravity, weight, 465

Glossary, 481-86. See also specific techniques Gloves, 131, 288ff., 320, 329, 370, 372; rubber, 382 Glues, 401, 441. See also Adhesives Goblet brushes, 407, 408 Goblet buffs, 404-5, 406 Goblets: Egyptian gold-footed, 248; inlaid silver, 223 Godwin Warren & Company, Ltd., 480 Goggles, 288, 293, 329, 412, 413, 438; illustrated, 289 Gold, 2, 3, 4, 5-6, 7-11, 463, 464 (See also specific techniques); alloys, 7-11 (see also main components; specific alloys); articles of (see specific objects, techniques); balances and sales, 426, 427; coefficient of linear expansion, 463; coloring, 41617, 418-19; definition of gold leaf, 484; etching solution, 131; extruded, 49; making of foil, leaf by hand, 5; plating (see Plating); quality stamping, 9, 89; solders, 172-74; sources of gold leaf, 467, 469; stripping, 126; and toxicity, 52; weight per square inch, 452; weights of wire, 453 Gold chloride for coloring, 419 "Gold filled," 9 Gold Leaf and Metallic Powders, Inc., 467 "Gold rolled," 9 Goldsmith Brothers Smelting and Refining Company, 469 Goldsmith's Hall, 87 Gouges, hardening, 447 Graduates, 427 Grain, metal, 49 Granulation, 202-8, 484 Graphic Chemical and Ink Company, 474 Graphite: plumbago, 323; stirring rods, 187, 188 Grauert, Ralph W., Inc., 467 Gravers. See Scorpers Gravity pour, defined, 484 Gravy bowl, sterling silver, 255 Gravy ladle, chased, 107 Gray, E., & Son, Ltd., 479 Gray compound, 403 Grease. See specific uses Greaseless compounds, 401, 402, 403 Great Britain. See England (Great Britain) Greeks, 12, 25, 186; works by, 108, 193 Green compound, 403 Green gold, 8, 10, 173, 174,246 Green rouge, 403 Green Tara, gilded bronze, 30 Grenville, John, 90 Grieger and Company, 473 Grinding, 484. See also Polishing and grinding Groove weld (See also Welding) : defined, 484 Grounders, grounder punches, 85, 96 Grundy, B., & Company, Ltd., 479 Guilds, 87 Gum arabic and gum tragacanth, 441 Gypsum, 28, 366-67. See also Plaster H. J. Company, Ltd., 356 Haas Wood and Ivory Works, 479 Hacksaws, 427-28, 447 Hagstoz, T. B., & Son, 469, 472 Haida Indians, 101 Hair ornaments: filigree, 198; silver, 54 "Half and half" solder, 178 Hall, Harry, 103 "Hallmark," 87 Hammering. See Malleability; specific metals, techniques

I 1

1

J f

f

IIfi

lJ H H "I H

H H H H: H: H]

j

498

INDEX

Hammers, 56, 71, 243, 244-46, 256, 433-35 (See also specific kinds, techniques, uses); hardening faces of, 447 Hammett, J. L., Company, 478 Handcrafters, The, 478 Hand tools, 421-47. See -also specific kinds of tools, uses Handy and Harman, 39-41,467, 477 Hardening, 444-47, 484, 485 (See also Tempering); age hardening (aging), 13, 33, 481 Hard ground, 130 Hardies, 279 Hardness, 5 Hard solders. See Silver (hard) solders Hard temper, defined, 486 Hardy, Charles, Inc., 468 Harrison Abrasives Metals Disintegrating Company, 474 Harshaw Chemical Company, The, 475 "Harvest" (lead-glass construction), 20 Hastings and Company, Inc., 469 Hatchet stake, 245 Hauser and Miller, 469 Havemeyer, Mrs. H. 0., 223 Headbands, silver, 88 Headgear, bridal, Persian, 93 "Head of Girl" (lead), 103 Heading, defined, 484 Heads: cast brass, Goddess Lakshmi, 353; lead "Head of Girl," 103; si- ver-giit reliquary, 315 I Hearth (See also Furnaces): defined, 484 Heating frames (See also specific uses): pictured, 163, 187 d Heat treating, defined, 484 Heavy-Duty Electric Company, 476 Hematite, .33, 464 Herring, Morgan & Southon, Ltd., 479 Herrold, Clifford, 128 Higgins Ink Company, Inc., 477 High-carbon steel, 36, 278. See also Steel High fine silver, 12. See also Silver Highlands University (Las Vegas, New Mexico), 345 High-zinc brasses, 18 Hill, C. R., Company, 472 Hill, V. D., 478 Hill Cross Company, Inc., 479 Historical books, 487-88 Holding furnace, defined, 323 Holding tools and materials, 438-42 Holland, J., and Sons, Inc., 474 Hollenbeck, R. L., 478 Hoover and Strong, Inc., 468, 479 Horn: hammers, 256; pique work, 222-23 Horse and rider, cast bronze toy, 351 Hoses, 168, 288ff. Hot forming, defined, 484 Hot metal spinning, 305 Hot plates, 380, 381-82 "Hot short," 18, 49 House of Wood and Crafts, 478 Howe and French, 475 Hunting knives, etched, 129 Husted-Andersen, Adda, 105, 255 Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, 141, 148 Hyderabad, Deccah, India, 24 Hydrochloric (muriatic) acid (See also Aqua regia): for coloring, 418; for etching, 131, 132; for finishing dip, 132; flux with, 24, 179; to pickle platinum, 16

Hydrogen (See also Electroplating): specific gravity, weight, 465 Hydrogen peroxide for stripping solution, 182 Hydrogen potassium carbonate for coloring, 419 Hydrometallurgy, 3 Ikons, 82, 108, 232 lllinois Bronze Powder Corporation, 469 Illinois Zinc Company, 469 Immerman and Sons, 469 Impact resistance, 6 Imperial Buff Company, Inc., 473 Imperial Standard Wire Gauge, 48, 451 Incas (See also Peruvian work) : metal on cloth by, 225 Incense burner, Persian bronze, 19 Inches, decimal equivalents of, 458 India, Indian work, 25, 70, 338, 471; bidri, 24, 25, 138-49, 481; burnishing by hand, 409; carving, 121, 123; cast brass, 18, 227, 302, 353, 447; cast bronze. 106-7, 322, 350, 351; chasing, 94, 101, 105, 106-7, 216; embroidery with metallic yarns, 224, 226; filigree, 196, 198, 200; gold leaf being made by hand, 5; granulation, 202, 204, 207; intaglio ikons, 82; kuftgari, 153-58, 484; pierced work, 71, 73, 75; planished brass water pot, 50; repousse, frontispiece, 99, 101, 110; shot on jewelry, 209, 210; siah _ qalam work, 109; soldering demonstrated, 167; stamped jewelry, 90, 93; stones with metal, 8, 227, 231, 232; swami work, 134-38; tarkashi work, 21314; wirework, 43, 192, 196, 198, 210, 232 (see also specific techniques); wood and metal, 213-14, 216, 217, 315 India ink, 59 Indians, American (See also South America; specific countries, tribes): filing by, 121; metal on cloth, 225 India oilstones, 114, 115 Indonesia, 22 Ingots, 38ff., 319-22 (See also Silversmithing); defined, 484 Ink, use of, 59 lnkrustac;a, 213 Inlay, inlaying, 134-58, 212-14, 484. See also specific techniques Intaglio, 130, 186; examples of, 82, 128 International Gem Corporation, 478 International Nickel Company, Inc., 468 Interstate Commerce Commission, 288 Invar, 31 "10" (bracelet), 71 Iranian gold fluted bowl, 248 Iridium, 13, 14, 16, 463 Iron, 4, 6, 7, 32-35, 463, 464 (See also specific techniques); alloys (see main components; specific alloys); articles of (see specific objects, techniques); cast, 6, 24, 463, 464 (see also specific articles, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; etching solutions, 132; gauges for, 47, 48 (see also specific gauges); Monel Metal in contact With, 30-31; platinum's attraction for, 16; wrought, 6, 34-35, 271-78 (see also spe~ific techniques); zinc to prevent corrosion, 25-26 Iron oxide, 417. See also Rouge Iron perchloride, 131 Irons, snarling. See Snarling irons Irons, soldering (coppers), 179-80, 181. See also Soldering Israel Creations, 24

I

INDEX

499

Israeli work: brooches with shot, 210; link necklace, 211; coppertray,24 Italy, Italian work, 31, 202 (See also specific craftsmen); tin-lined brass collee pot, 261 Ivory, use of, 21911., 258, 312 Ivory Coast, 353 J. J. Jewelcraft, 473 Jadau work, 232 Jain deity, 409 Jain shrine, 228 Jaipur, India, 228, 231 Janes Asbestos Company, 477 Japanese work: brass smoking pipes, 123; cast iron, 37; inlaid sword guard, 223; mokume, 182-84; repousse crayfish, 99 Japan wax, 358 Jelrus Company, Inc., The, 476 Jensen, Georg, 258, 259 Jensen, Georg, Silversmiths, xiv, 11,69,81,217; craftsmen chasing flatware, 106; making p f silver pitcher at, 250-54; repousse work demonstrated, 94 Jensen, S~ren Georg, 262 ; Jerarts House of Many Crafts, 478 Jewel box, silver, 70 Jeweler's cement, 441 Jeweler's tools (See also specific kinds): basic, 422 Jewelers Vigilance Committee, Inc., 87 Jewelry Craftsman Company, The, 472, 478 Jewels. See Stone(s) Jigs, soldering, 163, 174--75,254,266 (See also Binding wire); defined, 486 Johns-Manville, 477 Johnson, Matthey & Company, Ltd., 479, 480 Johnson Clapham & Morris, Ltd., 480 Johnson Gas Appliance Company, 476 .__ Joints, 283, 293. See also Forging; Riveting; Soldering; Welding Jutrem, Arne Jon, 267 Kabat Arts and Crafts, Inc. , 478 Kairouan, Tunisia, 75 Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Sales, Inc., 468 Kalimpong, India, 94, 101 Kalsi,302 Kamesar, Katia, 132 Kansas City Laboratory Supply Company, 475 Karat gold, 8-11, 172-73, 410 (See also specific techniques); "karat" defined, 484; weights, 452, 453 Kastical, 331 , 332 Kawai, Kanjire, 123 Keeling, A. D., & Company, Ltd., 480 Kemetrade, Inc., 467 Kemp & Son Ltd., 480 Kennedy, John F., 184 Kerr Centrifico machine, 372 Kerr Dental Manufacturing Company, 476 Kester Solder Company, 477 Keloh, Navajo, 337 Keys: in casting, 333; pierced, engraved, 76; wrought iron, 277 Khundun work, 231 Khurasan, Persia, 350 Kickapoo Indian pipe tomahawk, 215 "Killed acid," 179 Kilns (See also Furnaces; specific uses): burnout, 342, 344, 345, 346, 370 King, Robert J., 249 King and Malcolm Company, Inc., 474 King's water. See Aqua regia

Knives : chasing on, 106, 281; cutlery cement for, 44. etched, 129; filigree-handled, 200 Knox, Charles, 70 Koln, West Germany, 202 Koppel, Henning, 11, 248, 250, 251, 258 Koran case, leather with silver, 226 Korean wine ewer, 261 Kramer, Sam, 478 Krishna figures, 106, 107; polishing of, 447 Krohn, J. William, 477 Krueng Tome. See Niello Kuftgari, 153-58, 484 Kultaseplinliike Ossian Hopea, 49, 116-17, 208, 226, 315 Kunkei,216 Kwickheat Soldering Irons, 473 Kyoto, Japan, 99, 123

L. S. Plate and Wire Corporation, 467 Lacquer, 382, 389. See also specific uses Ladles : with chased handle, 107; as tools, 320, 324 Lamination, defined, 484 Lamp hook, wrought iron, 277 Lamps : for blowpipes, 167, 168; cast brass, 18; Tibetan silver, 93 Lanterns, 22; pierced work, 71, 73-74, 75 Lapcha women's earrings, 99 Lap joint (See also specific joining techniques): defined, 484 Lapping, 410 Lasalco, Inc., 474 Lassaw, Ibram, 292 Las Vegas, New Mexico, 345 Lata, J. S., and Son, 478 Lathes. See Cold metal spinning Lathe splasher, 396 Lathe tools (See also specific tools) : hardening, 447 "Layout dye," 55 Leach and Garner Company, 467 Leaching, 3 Lead, 4, 6, 7, 19-22, 463, 464; alloys (see main components; specific alloys); articles of (see specific articles, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; coloring, 418; etching solution for, 132; solder (see Soft (lead) solders); sources of supply, 468-69; tools (see specific tools, uses); toxicity of, 51-52 Lead acetate for coloring, 417, 418 Lead blocks, 81, 84, 9311., 409; casting, 321 Lead burning, 22 Leaded brasses, 18 Lead Industries Association, 468 Lead solders. See Soft (lead) solders Lea Manufacturing Company, The, 474 Lea's Compound, 29 Leather : metalwork with, 224--26, 274; mallet tipped with,256 Lechtzin, Stanley, 269, 379, 380, 388, 389, 390 Leicester University, 80 Leighton, Henri, 375 Lemberg, Poland, 105 Lemel, defined, 484 Liberty and Company, 70 Lighters, flint, 63, 169,288, 289,292 Lime, 400, 407 Limoges, France, 103 Limonite. See Yellow ochre (limonite) Linde Company, 476 Liners, 105, 116-19; examples of use, 119

500

INDEX

Linick, Ernest, Company, 472 Linoleum : cutting tools for wax, 359; on plywood, for repousse, 93, 95 Linotype metal, cutting, 268 Lions: aquamanile in form of, 109; wood with metal, 316 Lipchitz, Jacques, 339 Liquid measure, 450 Liquidus temperature, 4. See also specific metals Lisbon, Portugal, 237 Lithium, 4 Liver of sulphur, 416-17, 484 Loam, 323. See also Yellow ochre Lock and key, pierced and engraved, 76 London, 33, 87, 202 (See also specific craftsmen); sources of supply in, 479 London gauges, 451 London Metal Warehouses, Ltd., 479, 480 Lost-wax casting, 16, 205, 338-77; centrifugal, 351-74; defined, 484 Loucks Dental Supply, 476 Low-alloy steels. 36. See also Steel; specific techniques Low-carbon (soft) steel, 6, 35-36 (See Ialso Forging; Welding); cold spinning, 301 Low-zinc brasses, 18 Lubrication, 301. See also specific techniques Lucknow, India, 75, 110 Lukula, Mayombe, 216 Luster, 5. See also Polishing and grinding Lute, defined, 323, 484 Lye, specific gravity, weight of, 465

I

M . D. R. Manufacturing Cbmpany, Inc., 478 McCracken, R. S., and Sons, 476 McKinney Welding Supply Company, 476 Madhya Pradesh, India, 211 Madonnas: silver, Mexican, 220; welded iron, 299 Madrid, Spain, 276, 277, 299 Magnesium, 463, 464; alloys (see main components; specific techniques); soldering blocks, 170, 171 Magnetite, 33, 464 Magnifiers, optical, 114 Magnus Craft Materials, Inc., 477 Maher, Pat rick F ., 414 Mahua, India, 315 Malay Peninsula, Malaya, 22, 188 Malleability, 5-6, 464, 484.- See also specific metals Malleable iron, 33 Mallets, 256, 435 Mallory, D. N., 474 "Man" (sculpture), 312 Mandrels, 283, 425, 437, 484; examples of, 436, 446; for flexible shaft, 443, 446 Manganese, 463, 464; alloys (see main components; specific techniques); platinum's attraction for, 16; toxicity, 52 Manhattan Adhesives Corporation, 477 Manhattan Aluminum Corporation, 467 Manhattan Brass and Copper Company, Inc., 467 Mani, 103 Mani, P., 157 Manin lewelers Supply Company, Inc., 472 " Man of War" (pendant-brooch), 207 Marggraf, Andreas, 26 Marinha Grande factory, 237 Marking and measuring tools and equipment, 425-27. See also specific equipment, uses Marking out, defined, 484 Married metals, 184-86

I

Marshall, C. and E., Company, 473 Marshall, William L., Ltd., 478 Masks: French funerary, 103; for metal dust, 52, 438; Mexican tin, 23; Senufo cast bronze, 353; Sudanese metal on wood, 215 Mastic, 358 Matchplate plaster, 330, 332 Mate cup bombilla, 216 Matheson's Stone House, 478 Matte, 3 Matte finishes, 409 (See also Polishing and grinding); dips, 132 Matting tools, 84-85, 97, 99, 105; examples, 85, 96 Mayombe, 216 Meaker Company, The, 479 Measurements, measuring equipment, 55, 57, 59, 39599, 450 (See also specific equipment, uses); comparison of, 457-58; equivalents of, 450 Medieval guilds, 87 Medieval times, lead in, 19 Medium-carbon steel, 36 Melior, David, 259 Melting points, 4, 173, 463. See also specific metals Mercer, William, 478 Mercuric chloride for coloring, 418 Mercuric sulphide, 31 Mercury, 4, 31-32, 463, 464; toxicity, 52 Meshed, Persia, 109 Mesopotamians, and pitch, 96-97 Metales casados, 184-86 Metal Findings Corporation, 472 Metal fume fever, 52 Metal Goods Corporation, 469, 478 Metalizing Company of America, Inc., 468 Metallurgy, 31-41 Metal Powder Producers Association, 468 Mexico, Mexican work, 22, 23 (See also Oaxaca; Taxco); bluing of steel in, 158; married metals, 184-86; and mercury, 31; pique work, 218, 220, 223; polishing of silver beads, 394; pressing of metal, 256; wirework ring, 200; wrought iron crosses, 275 Miami, Florida, 296 Mica for soldering, 198-99 Michigan Buff Company, Inc., 474 Mickelson, A., Silversmith Company, 392 Microcrystalline, 357 Micrometers, 47, 48, 427 Middle East (See also specific countries) : filigree, 196 Milan, Italy. See specific craftsmen, techniques Milch, Hermine, 215 Mild steel. See Low-carbon steel Miller, Frederick, 120, 217, 223 Miller, I., Inc., 469 Miller, John Paul, 202, 206, 207 Millers Falls Company, 473 Miller Tool and Supply Company, 473 MiIlimeter equivalents, 458 Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation, 473 "Minerva" (bracelet), 50 Mine Safety Appliances Company, 410, 477 Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, 474, 477 Miracle Adhesives Corporation, 477 Mirko, 354 Mirror, Etruscan bronze, 109 Mirror back, gold pierced work, 77 Mirror finish, 29, 407 Mirror lapping, 403, 410 "Mission" (cast aluminum sculpture), 355 Mixtec gold wirework ring, 200

INDEX

501

Mochica, Peru, 83 Modeling tools, 97, 99, 105. See also specific tools Modern Art Foundry, Inc., 339, 341, 342-43, 476 Mohammed Abu Abdullah, 226 Mohammedan work. See Muslims, Muslim work Moharram, 75 Mohs table of hardness, 5 Mokume, 182-84 Molds, 484 (See also Casting); chasing of flatware, 106; forming, 255 (see also Silversmithing); repousse copper aspic, 99 Mold wash, defined, 323 "Mollusk" (pendant-brooch), 207 Molybdenum, 37, 463, 464; and sparks, 413 Mona Industries, Inc., 477 Monel Metal, 18, 29, 30-31, 246, 464; cold spinning, 301, 302; examples of use, 29, 79 Mongolian youth, cast bronze statuette of, 350 Monogramming demonstrated, 116-17 Monte Alban, ring from, 200 Monteath, J. H., Company, 478 Mops, soldering, 172, ' 486 Moradabad, India, 105, 109 Mortars and pestles, 187, 188 Mother of pearl pique work, 223 Motors. See Electric tools; specific uses Mundt, Charles, and Sons, 468 Munich, Germany, 194 Munning and Munning, Inc., 474 Muntz brass (muntz metal), 18, 246 Muriatic acid. See Hydrochloric acid Murti, 82 Mushroom stakes, 246, 4f5-37 . See also Stakes Muslims (Mohammedans), Muslim work, 75, 109, 110 Mysore, India, 106-7

'-. Nach, Florence, 49, 356 Nagas work. See Swami work Nails, nailing, 216, 314, 315, 316 Najahe pendant, casting of, 334-36 Nanubhai Jewelers, 204 Nasca, Peru, 209 National Bureau of Standards, 9, 12, 16, 87, 425 National Cylinder Gas, 476 National Distillers & Chemical Corporation, 477 National Foil Company, 468 National Lead Company, 468, 469 National Welding Equipment, 476 Native ores, 3; nuggets of, 2 Navajo Indians, 88, 89, 334-36, 337 Naval brass, 18 Near East (See also specific countries): wood inlaid with metal, 212 Necklaces, 69; cast iron, 35; chiseled gold, 123; domed gold, 83; etched, 128; filed, with ball-andsocket joints, 124; forged and split silver, 121; fused gold, 133; with granules, 205, 206; link, 211; lostwax cast, African, 377; mokume, 182; with niello, 190; pique work , 218, 219, 220; platinum, 14, 16; with shot, 210, 211; stainless steel with pearls, 36; stamped gold, 85, 90; tufa cast, 336; turquoise with silver, 229; wire, 192, 193, 195, 210 Necklet, gold wire, 194 Needle files, 61, 121, 125, 433 Needle-point scribers (markers), 55, 115 Needles: etching, 127; gold testing, 10; hardening, 447; soldering, 160 Nele, E. R., 194 Nepal, .99, 232 Nepir ltd., 237

502 INDEX

Nests, soldering (mops), 172, 486 Netherlands, spun pewter vase from, 302 Neutral flame, 292-93 New Caledonia, 29 New Delhi, India, frontispiece New Orleans Jewelers Supply Company, 473 New Year's Eve, Finnish lead form as custom of, 20 New York. See specific craftsmen, jewelers New York Laboratory Supply Company, 475 New York Welding Supply Company, Inc., 476 Ney, J. M ., Company, The, 468 NicholsQn File Company, 474 Nichrome, 4, 31. See also specific tools, uses Nickel, 4, 6, 7, 28-31, 246, 463, 464 (See also specific techniques); as alloy (see Nichrome; main components; specific techniques); extruded, 49; plating, 13, 385 (see also Plating); and sparks, 413; toxicity, 52 Nickel silver, 18, 29-30, 246; gilding, 419; testing for, 13; welding, 295 Niello, 119, 186-91, 484 Nigeria. See Benin bronze casting Nippers, 202, 427 Nitric acid, 465, 481. See also Aqua regia; specific uses Nitrogen, specific gravity, weight of, 465 Nobema Products Corporation, 473 Noble metals, 4, 13. See also specific metals Nokorode flux paste, 178, 179 Nonferrous investment plaster, 330-31, 332 Nonferrous metals, 3-4, 7-32 (See also specific metals); cold forging, 287; hot-tinning, 23-24 Nordman & Aurich, 473 Norton Company, 474 Norvell Marcum Company, 473 Norwegian work: appliqued tankard, 138; pewter, 267, 268, 269 Novgorod, U.S.S.R., 312 Nowe, Francoy, 120 Nuggets, 2, 484. See also specific metals Nursing bottle, pewter, 266 Nuts (See also Bolts, bolting): source for, 477 Nylon, objects using, 154, 258 Oakite, 383 Oaxaca, Mexico, 75, 129, 200 Oersted, Hans Christian, 26 Ohio Jeweler's Supply, Inc., 472 Oil lamps, 167; contemporary brass, 18 Oils, 465. See also specific oils, uses Oilstones, 114, 115, 412 Old English gauges, 451 "Olga" (bracelet), 50 Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, 467 Olive spoon, 78 Omvik, Mons, 267, 268 Opacity, 4 Open casting; open-face casting, 321, 331 Ores, 3, 464, 465, 485 (See also specific metal§); examples, 1 Orient (See also Far East; specific countries) : stones and metal with rivets, 314 Orissa State, India, 350 Ornaments (See also specific kinds): cast gold, Panamanian, 352; jade with stones, 231 Oslo, Norway, 267, 268, 269 Osman, Louis, 195, 284 Osmium, 13, 14, 16, 463 Ottapalam, India, 217 Oxidation. See Corrosion Oxide ores, 3

Oxides, 3, 29 (See also Firescale; specific oxides); fluxes and (see Fluxes) Oxidizing flame, 170,292,293,485 Oxyacetylene welding, 288-99. See also specific metals Oxygen, 4, 465; as component (see specific metals, techniques) Oxygen-free copper, 18 Oxygen-gas torches, 27, 169. See also Torches Ozokerite, 357 Pacific Metals Company, Ltd., 469 Pai,216 Pail, Etruscan bronze, 86 PaiIlon, defined, 485 Paktong,29 Palitana, India, 409 Palladium, 13, 14, 452, 453, 463; alloys, 16 (see also main components; specific uses); polishing, 438; and toxicity, 52 Panama, cast ornaments from, 338, 352 , Panang, Malaya, 188 Pandan, brass, 11 0 ; Pane hammers. See Peen (pein) hammerl. Panels (See also Screens): cast alumlnum, 28; cast pewter, vi; copper, 386 Pangborn Dust Control Equipment (Pangborn Corporation),477 Pans: annealing, 171, 172 (see also Annealing); pickling, 124, 127 (see also Pickling) Papers. See specific techniques, uses Paraffin: for casting, 357; for etching, 128; as lubricant (see specific techniques) Parcel-gilt, 485. See also plating Pardon, Earl B., 222 Paris, 202. See also specific craftsmen Parting compounds, 331,485 Parting line, defined, 323, 485 Parting sand, defined, 323 Pastes (See also specific kinds, uses): solder-inhibiting, 176-77 (see also specific techniques) Patek Philippe, 14, 16, 51 Patina, 485. See also Color, coloring; specific metals Pattern, defined, 323, 485 Pearson, Ronald Hayes, 79, 121, 124,286 Pectoral, gold, 75 Peen (pein) hammers, 435 (See also specific uses); ball, 72, 74, 187, 279, 435; cross, 247, 249, 279 Peerless Roll Leaf Company, 467 Pencils, 59 (See also specific uses); soldering, 181 Pendants, 56-65; cast metal, 8, 333-36, 338; fused silver, 132; with granulation, 207; pique work, 218; platinum, with diamonds, 14; shot-decorated, 210; stamped silver, 88; wirework, 8, 194 Pennsylvania Dutch work, 35, 86 Perak, Malaya, 188 Periodic table, 448 Perloir, 84 Persian work, 19; cast bronze ewer, 350; chased silver Torah case, 109; damascene candlestick, 150; embossed headgear, 93; granulation on bracelet, 203; leather belt with metal, 225; niello, 186 Pertot, Frank, Company, Inc., 476 Peruvian work, 70 (See also Incas); cloth with metals, 224, 225; doming, 83; repousse crown, 101; shot, use of, 209; stone inlay, 230 Pet Power Tools, 473 Petrolatum for casting, 357 Petroleum, 465. See also specific techniques, uses Pewter, vi, 23, 264-69, 319; coloring composition, 431; etching solution, 132; sources of supply, 468-69

Philadelphia, 298. See also specific craftsmen Philippine betel box, 153 Phillips, Robert, 202 Phillips Manufacturing Company, 477 Phoenicians, and lead, 19 Phosphor bronzes, 18,246 Phosphorus, 463, 465; in deoxidized copper, 18; in iron ore, 33; for steel alloy, 37 Physician's Hospital Supply Company, 475 Pickling, 7, 63-64, 121-26, 174, 247, 416 (See also specific metals); of filigree, 198, 199, 200; granulated pieces, 208; "pickle" defined, 485; repousse work, 100; tools shown, 127 Piercing, pierced work, 58-59, 60, 71-79, 427-30, 485; examples of, 71ff., 110, 219, 221; in swami process, 135-36 Pig, defined, 323, 485 Pinart, Robert, 294 Pinchbeck metal, 18 Pinding, 188 Pine, Alvin, 219 Pinhole porosity, defined, 323, 485 Pink compound, 403 Pinning, 283 Pins (jewelry), 49 (See also Brooches); cast metal, 29, 35, 374, 377, 378; electroformed, 380, 389, 390; filigree, 11, 198; forged in silver and gold, 286; forged gold, with pearl and opal, 287; pique work, 218; stainless steel screen on silver, 36; wirework, 11, 193, 195; yellow metal relief on silver, 414 Pins (metal particles), 433 Pins, bench (tools), 67, 429 Pins terns, riveting, 314 Pin vises, 430, 439 Pipes, 19, 40; smoking, 123 Pipe tomahawk, inlaid, 215 Pipkin, sterling silver, 255 Pique work, 218-23 Pitch (See also Chasing; Engraving; Repousse): for hard ground, 130 Pitchers (See also Ewers): bidri work, 139; raised silver, 250-54; silver, with ebony handle, 217; silver, with ivory handle, 223 Placer (alluvial) gold, 3, 7 Planisher (spinning tool), 304, 310 Planisher punch, 84, 85 Planishing, 247, 249, 485; brass water pot finished with, 50; silver teapot finished with, xiv Planishing hammers, xiv, 243, 249, 252, 257, 435 Planishing stakes. See Stakes Plaques: lost-wax cast, 340; repousse, 95, 98, 101; with stamped edge, 82 Plaster, 330-32 Plaster-mold casting, 28, 330-35ff. Plaster of Paris for cements, 441 Plastic(s): containers for pickling, 126; for electroforming, 387; pique work with, 222, 223 Plates (See also Trays): bidri, 24, 140-49; damascene, 154, 157; filigree, 198; kuftgari, 156; spinning of, 304-5; swami decorated, 135, 137 Plates (tools), 187, 188,255,437 Plate stakes, 437 Plating, 4, 31, 193, 379-91, 485; examples of gilding, 33 (see also specific objects); "parcel-gilt" defined, 485; Sheffield plate, 6, 196; sources of supply, 479 Platinum, 3, 4, 6, 7, 13-16, 452, 453, 463, 465 (See also specific techniques); alloys (see main components; specific alloys); articles of (see specific objects, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; extruded, 49; polishing, polishing compounds, INDEX 503

402, 403, 410; refractory brick for soldering, 172; sample nuggets, 2; stripping, 126; and toxicity, 52 Platters (See also Trays): English pewter, 265; Spanish silver-gilt, 84 Pliers, 61, 62, 202, 437-38 Plinking, 13 7 Plumbago, defined, 323 Plumber's torch, 168, 170 Plumbing, 19; solders, 178 ' Plunkett, A. J., & Company, Ltd., 479 Point hardening. See Hardening Point tempering. See Tempering Poison. See Toxicity Pokers, 281; hard solder, 160 Polishing and grinding, 5, 29, 394-414 (See also Buffs and buffing; specific metals, techniques); sources of supply, 473-74 Polish work: forged metal, 270, 273; repousse, 105; wood with metal inlay, 212, 213 Pomodoro, Arnaldo and Giorgio, 39 1 / Porbandar, India, 192 Porcelain, 465 I Porcelain rouge, 403 I Porosity, defined, 323 Portugal: epergne from, 237; and zinc, 25 Porvoo, Finland. See Kultaseplinliike Ossian Hopea Pot, spun brass water, 302 Potassium carbonate (potash), 385,416 Potassium chloride for coloring, 418 Potassium cyanides, 384, 385 Potassium hydrogen tartrate, 418 Potassium nitrate (saltpeter), 147, 419 Potassium sulphide. See Liver of sulphur Poulat, Matilde Lugenia, 220 Pouring gate or basin, defined, 321 Prayer wheel, Tibetan silver, 103 Precious metals, 7-16 (See also specific metals); sources of supply, 467, 468-69; stamping, 85-89 (see also Stamps, stamping, quality); and toxicity, 52 Pre-Columbian silver alpaca, 70 Prehistoric man, and nickel, 28-29 Pressing, metal, 255, 256 Prest-O-Lite tank, 63 Prest-O-Lite torches, 63, 168 Primary metals, 3 Prip, John, vi, 194, 208, 210, 262, 263, 286 Propane torches, 170, 247 Protractor, 55 Ptolemaic Period, xii, 82, 194 Public Law 87-354, 88-89 Puddling, 271, 296 Pueblo, New Mexico, 229 Pumice, 400,407,409,415; wheels, 446 Pump, vacuum, in investment casting, 368 "Punch," defined, 485 Punches, punchwork, 78ff., 83-84, 430, 485 (See also Center punches; Chasing tools; Piercing, pierced work; Repousse; Stamps, stamping); in forging, 28283; hardening, 447 Punch Set, raised silver, 262 Purses: filigree, 198; metal-embroidered evening bag, 226 Pyrex containers. See specific uses Pyrites, 464 Pyrometallurgy. See Smelting Pyrometer, defined, 485 Quenching, 49-50, 247, 485. See also specific metals Quicksilver. See Mercury

R. & B. Art Craft Company, 478

Rack, hammer, 243 Radakovich, Ruth, 374 Radakovich, Toza, 205 Raising, 485. See also Forming tools; Silversmithing Raising hammers, 405. See also Silversmithing Rajasthan, India, 351,353 Rakes, 281; wheel, 403-4 Rammer, sand, 324, 326 Ramming, defined, 485 Randals Ltd., 480 Rasps, 281, 432, 433 Ratcliff, J. F., Ltd., 480 Ratton, Charles, 315, 316 Reamers, 429 Rectifiers, 379, 380, 381 Red brass, 18, 246 Redfern, Keith, 258 Red gold, 8, 10, 173, 174, 246 Red rouge. See Rouge Red scar, defined, 485 Reducing (reduced) flame, 170, 204, 292, 293, 485 Reed and Barton, 468 Reef gold, 7 Reemer-Kareer Company, 475 Refining, defined, 485 Refractory, defined, 485 Refractory brick, 172 Regent Products Company, 475 Registered trademark, 88-89 Renaissance, and engraving, 111 Renk, Merry, 54 Repousse, 84, 85, 93-103, 485; articles with (see specific objects); deep pieces, 11 0 Repousse hammers. See Chasing hammers Repousse tools. See specific techniques, uses Residual stress, defined, 485 Resinoid abrasive wheels, 411 Resins, 465. See also Rosin Revere, Paul, 119 Revere Copper and Brass, Inc., 467 Reynolds Metals Company, 467 Rheostats, 381, 485 Rhoden, John, 298 Rhodium, 13, 14, 16, 463; plating, 13, 385 Rhodolite, 399 Rice measuring bowls, 216 Rice measuring container, 217 Riddles, 324, 485 Rimers, 432, 433, 434, 485 Right angles (tools), 423 Rigidity, 6 Rigidized Metals Corporation, 468 Ring buffs, 400, 405 Ring mandrels, 283, 425, 436, 437, 484 Ring pads, 93, 114 Rings, 69, 226, 230 (See also various ring tools); casting of, 363, 371, 372; cast metal, 8, 205, 37475; with crumpled metal soldered to shank, 69; encrusted silver, 183; forged, 205, 286; forging of, 283; with granules, 49, 204, 205; inlaid with dacron, 154; how to remove gold ring from swollen finger, 32; repousse, 103; with rivets, silver, 312, 315; with shot, 49, 208, 209, 210; stamped, production, assembly of, 80-81; stamping tool for quality marking, 89 Ring sizers, 427 Ring sizes, 425; table of, 461 Ring sticks, 427; soldering, 170, 175 Ring tongs, 329

504

INDEX

Ring tools, 97. See also specific tools Ring vise or clamp, 439 Riser, defined, 321 Riveting hammer, 435. See also Rivets, riveting Rivets, riveting, 225, 283, 311-15, 318 (See also Pique work); rice measuring bowls with, 216; rice measuring container with, 217; shrine with, 101; source for, 477 Roach, Ruth S., 50, 71 "Rock Lines" (copper panel), 386 Rods, welding, 294, 295-96, 486 Rohde, Johan, xiv Roller, William G., Inc., 473 Rollett, H., & Company, Ltd., 479 Rolling, 46-47, 485. See also Malleability; specific metals, processes Rolling mills, 39,46-47,438 Roman Bronze Works, Inc., 476 Romanoff Rubber Company, 476 Romans, ancient: and electrum, 12; and lead pipes, 19; and niello, 186; tin mines of, 2-'2; and zinc, 25 Rome. See specific craftsmen fI Rosebowl, gilded silver, 80 I Rose engine, 111 Rosin, 22, 130, 179, 465; for cements, 441; synthetic, 401; as wax additive, 358 Ross, Frank B., Company (Ross Industrial Waxes), 475 Rothschild, Salomon de, 223 Rouge, 160, 176, 191, 199; for polishing, buffing equipment, 394, 395, 402-3, 407, 409 "Roughing," 281 . "Rounding up," 281 Routers for flexible shaft, 444 Rowe Brothers, Ltd., 480 Rowland, William, Ltd., 480 Royal water. See Aqua regia Rubber, 465. See also specific tools, uses Rubber cement, 441 Rulers (rules), 55, 59, 423 Run, in casting, defined, 323 Runner, defined, 321, 485 Runout, defined, 485 Russell Investment Corporation, 474 Russia, church doors in, 312 Russian niello, 191 Russian Tula, 191 Ruthenium, 13-14, 16, 463 Salad utensils: cast pewter, 269; ebony with silver handles, 217 Sal ammoniac. See Ammonium chloride Salt, table (sodium chloride): to clean silver, 13; for coloring, 147,418 Saltpeter (potassium nitrate), 147, 418 Sambayeque, Peru, 101 San Cristobal de las Cas as, Mexico, 275 Sandbags, 93, 94, 114, 116,255, 437 Sand burning, defined, 323, 485 Sar.d casting, 27-28, 324, 325-30. See also Bidri work; Casting Sandpapers, 394 Sand rat, J. M., 201 San Francisco. See specific craftsmen Santa Clara del Cobre, Mexico, 256 Santhals, work of, 18 Saponify, defined, 485 Sargent, E. H., and Company, 475 Satin finish, 254. See also specific metals

Saunders, Alexander, and Company, 476 Saws, sawblades, 56-57, 65-73, 425-29 (See also specific uses); charts of, 459; for flexible shaft, 444; hardening, 447 Sax Crafts, 473 Sbar's, 478 Scabs (casting defects), 326 Scale (firescale), 323, 483. See also specific metals Scales, 426, 427 "Scalping," 41-42, 485 Schaffner Manufacturing Company, Inc., 474 Schatz, Zahara, 24 Scherr, Mary Ann, 36, 128 Schor, lIya, 78, 110, 312 Schwarcz, June, 379, 386 Scientific Supplies Company, 475 Sconce, brass with mirror, 315 Scorpers (gravers), ll1ff., 116-18, 482, 485 Scotch stone, 191 Scrapers, 127; hardening, 447 Scrap metal, 38, 40, 485 Scratch awls, 55, 115, 425 Scra tch brushing. See Brushes, brushing Screens (See also Panels): cast aluminum, 330; welded, 296, 298 Screwdrivers, hardening, 447 Screwplates, 317, 318 Screw punch, 81 Screws, screwing, 283, 314-18, 477; thumbscrews, 65, 66 Scribers, 55, 115,425 Sculp Metal Company, The, 469 Sculpture (See also specific artists, techniques): cast aluminum "Mission," 355; cast bronze "The Cinema," 356; cast bronze "Dancing Siva," 322; riveted brass "Man," 312; sheet metal "Structure 14B," 41; welded bronze and chrome, 296; welded steel "Star 1I," 290 Sculpture Associates, 475 Sculpture House, 475 Scythian cast bronze openwork belt buckle, 350 Sealing wax, 93, 441, 477 Secondary metals, 3 Seidler Chemical & Supply Company, 475 Selenious acid for coloring, 418 Sells, John, and Sons, 472 Sel-Rex Corporation, 479 Selvyt polishing cloth, 395 Senier, T. W., & Company, Ltd., 479 Senufo, Ivory Coast, 353 Serabian, H., 473 Set hammers, 279-80 "Setting down," 282 Setting hammer, 243 Sgrol-Yan, gilded bronze, 30 Shake-out, 324, 349, 485 Sharpening tools, 113-15,412 Shear, 6 Shears, 60, 162, 240, 241, 399; hardening, 447 Sheet metals, 38ff. (See also Rolling; Soldering; specific metals); crystalline structure of brass, 4; gauges for (see Gauges); sculpture, "Structure 14B," 41; weights per square inch, 452 Sheffield, England, 259, 264; sources of supply in, 480 Sheffield plate, 6, 196 Sheffield Smelting Company, Ltd., 479, 480 Shell. See Stone(s); specific kinds Shellac, 411, 441; sticks, 93, 115,441 Sheraton Hotel (Philadelphia), 298

INDEX

505

Shere, Surrey, England, 354 Shield, bronze, 70 Shift (casting defect), defined, 485 Shift spalling, defined, 323-24 Shock, resistance to, 6 Shor, I., Company, Inc., 471 Shortness, 485. See also "Hot short" Shot, shotting, 49, 50, 197, 199, 208-11 Shovels, 281, 324 Shrines: brass with crystal, 228; repousse, chased, 101 Shrinkage lumps, defined, 321 Siah qalam work, 109 Siam. See Thailand Siderite, 33 Sidi-Bou-Said, Tunisia, 201 Sifter for niel\o, 187, 188 Silica flour for investment casting, 366 Silicates, 3. See also specific silicates Silicon, 33, 463, 465; alloys with (see main components; specific alloys, techniques); platinum's attraction for, 16; and sparks, 413 Silicon bronzes, 18, 295 . Silicon carbide, 400; wheels, 411 Silken, Paul, Inc., 473 Silvaloy, 414 Silver, 4, 6, 7, 11- 13, 31, 452, 463, 465 (See also specific techniques); alloys (see Sterling silver; main components); articles of (see specific objects, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; coloring, 416-17; drawing of wire shown, 44; etching solution, 131; extruded tubing, 48, 49; forms of wire available, 454; gauge for, 48 (see also Gauges; specific gauges); grains, 49; native formation, ore, 2, 3, 11; plate, plating, 13: 384-85 (see also Plating; specific plates); quality stamping, 9, 12, 89, 90; stripping, 126; testing for plate, 13; and tOlticity, 52; weights of wire, 453, 454 Silversmith hammers, 433. See also Silversmithing Silversmithing, 240-63 Silversmith's mandrel, 436 Silver (hard) solders, 29, 159-77, 422 Simmons, L. E., Refining, 469 Sinking, 486. See also Silversmithing Skil Corporation, 473 Skimmer, defined, 324 Skin, dermatitis, 410 Skoogfors, Olaf, 154 Skull, 166, 176, 177, 324, 486 Skura, Stanislaw, 270, 273 Slag, 3, 271,295,464 Sledge hammers, 279 "Slicing," in forging, 281 Slick and oval; slick and square, 324 Slush casting, 268, 324 Smelting (pyrometallurgy), 3, 4, 486. See also specific metals Smit, J. K., & Sons, Inc., 473 Smith, J., & Sons, Ltd., 479 Smith, T. A., Welding Supply Corporation, 476 Smith's hand hammer, 279 Smithsonite, 25 Smoking pipes, Japanese, 123 Smut finish, 390 Snapvent Company, 472 Snarling irons, 110, 244, 252, 437 Snippets, 162. See also Soldering Snips, 160, 162,241,427 Soap: as debubblizer, 366; as lubricant (see specific processes)

I

Soda ash. See Sodium carbonate Sodium bicarbonate to clean silver, 13 Sodium bichromate, 122 Sodium bisulfite, 384 Sodium carbonate, 126, 385, 416 Sodium chloride. See Salt, table Sodium cyanide, 126, 384, 385 Sodium ferrocyanide, 384 Sodium hypo sulphate, 418 Sodium silicate, 411 Sodium thiosulphate for coloring, 417 Soft annealing, 50 Soft (lead) solders, soldering, 6, 20ff., 159, 178-82, 422 (See also specific metals); and electroplating, 390 Soft steel. See Low-carbon steel Solderall, 178 Soldering, 24, 62-64, 81, 159-211, 253, 486 (See also Silver (hard) solders; Soft (lead) solders; specific metals); basic equipment, 422; sources of supply, 477 Solidus. See Melting points Solvents, sources of, 477 Somers, C. W., Company, 472 Soul washer's badge, gold, 101 South America. See specific countries, objects, techniques " Southern Cross" pins, 11 Southland Jeweler's Supply Company, 473 Southwest Smelting and Refining Company, 469 Spain, Spanish work, 31; ivory casket, 220; leather Koran case, 226; silver-gilt platter, 84; welded iron, 299; wrought iron, 276, 277 Spalling, 323-24, 369, 486 Sparex No. 2, 126 Sparks, in grinding of steel, 412-13 Spatulas and spreaders, 187fI., 359ff., 364, 441 Spearheads, 75 Specific gravities, 4, 464-66. See also specific metals Speeds, table of surface, 399 Speiss, 3 Spelter solders, 177-78,486 Sperisen, Francis J., 478 Spermaceti, 357 Speyers Smelting and Refining Company, 469 Sphalerite. See Blende Spiegeleisen, 464 Spinning, 301-10, 477, 486 Splash pan, 410 Splitting, 120, 121, 277, 486 Spoons: being chased, 94; Lapland with raised bowls, 258; mold for, 319; monogramming demonstrated, 116-17; pierced silver, 78 Spoon stakes, 245 Spoon-straw, silver, 216 Spotting hammer, 243 Spratling, William, 218 Spraying, metal, 484 Springs, hardening, 447 Spring temper, defined, 486 Sprue cutter, 324 Sprue formers, 364ff. See also Casting Sprues, 368ff., 373, 374 (See also Casting); in centrifugal casting, 361-64; defined, 321 Squares, areas of, 455-57 Squares (tools), 55,423 Sri Chamarajendra Technical Institute, 106 Stainless steel, 24, 295, 301, 391; objects illustrated, 36,303, 331

506

INDEX

Stakes, 244-46fI., 435-37, 486. See also specific uses Stamps, stamping, 96, 486 (See also Dies; Punches, punchwork; Stamps, stamping, quality); examples of, 85-93 passim, 103, 108, 111, 152, 215, 228; production and assembly of ring, 80-81 Stamps, stamping, quality, 9, 12, 16, 85-89, 427; on decanter, 90; tools for, 89, 427 Standard Birmingham gauges, 451 Standard Diamond Tool Company, Inc., 472 Standard Rolling Mills, 468 Standard Tinsmith & Roofer Supply Corporation, 467 Stanley Works, The (Stanley Electric Tools), 473 Stannous chloride, 24, 389 Stan Pak Products, 467 "Star II" (sculpture), 290 "Starfish" (silver with granules), 204 Statues (See also specific subjects, techniques) : Mayombe ritual, wood with nails, 216; reliquary, of St. Foy, 234; Tibetan gilded bronze, 30 Steadco Waxes, 475 Steadman, F. W., Company, Inc., 475 Stearic acid, 402 Stearin fluxes, 179 Steel, 6, 7, 35-37 (See also specific techniques); alloys (see Stainless steel; main components); articles of (see specific objects, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; coloring, 158, 417, 418, 419; etching solutions, 132; extruded, 49; gauges for, 4748 (see also Gauges; specific gauges); plating of, 22, 23 (see also Plating; specific metals); spark observation in grinding, ·412-13; tools (see specific tools); toxicity of cadmipm-plated, 51; zinc-coating, 26 . Steel blocks, 93 Steel wool, 160, 395, 396 Stephensen, Magnus, 262, 303 Sterling silver, 12-13, 14, 173, 246, 247, 452, 453, 454; articles made of (see specific objects, techniques); centrifugal casting of, 370; manufacturing of sheet metal, 38--42; scratch brushing, 410; testing for, 13; tubing, measurements of, 454 Stevens, Ronald, 120 Stick solder. See Soldering Stirrers, electromagnetic, 382 Stirring rods for niello, 187, 188 Stirring rod tongs, 187, 329 Stockholm, Sweden, 269 Stone(s) (See also Encrustation; Inlay) : black testing, for gold, 10; and electroforming, 390; metal with, 226-38, 442 (see also specific metals, objects, techniques); oilstones, 114, 115, 412; relief modeling, 82; riveting wire for, 314; sources of supply, 478 Stone Age, 17 Stoneware crocks, 131, 415 Stove, Franklin, 35 Strength,6 Stress equalization annealing, 50 Stretching, 486. See also Silversmithing Stripping, 126, 182, 382, 383, 486 Strips, 40 "Structure 14B," 41 Stubbs gauges, 47--48, 441,451, 457-58 Studs on leather, 224-25 Stumps, tree, 246, 255, 256 Styrofoam, 331, 387, 388, 389, 390 Sudanese dance mask, 215 Sudbury, Ontario, 29 Sugar bowls, plated, 196

Sugar castor, engraved, 120 Sulphates (See also specific sulphates): for plating, 385 Sulphide ores, 3 Sulphides, 29 (See also specific sulphides); tarnish, 13 (see also Corrosion) Sulphur, 3, 465 (See also Corrosion); iron ore, 33; in Monel Metal, 30; for niello, 188, 191 Sulphuric acid, 465; to anodize alurninum, 26; as byproduct of zinc purification, 26; for copper baths, 385; for etching, 131, 132; for finishing dips, 132; for layout dye, 55; for pickling (see Pickling); to remove investment material, 373, 374; for swami work (see Swami work) Sunbeam Equipment Corporation, 476 Superior Gems and Materials, 478 Supply, sources of, 467-80 Surface blocks and plates, 72,255,437 Surfaces. See Finishing Surface speeds, 399 Suri, India, 216 Sutton, Thomas, Ltd., 480 Sutton-Hoo, England, 191 Swage blocks, 280-81 Swages, 279, 280 Swaging, 248, 282; example of edge thickening, 249 Swart, Jan de, 28, 355 Sweat soldering, 180, 267 Sweden: iron ore, 33; pewter boxes from, 269; silver beaker from, 119 Sweeps, defined, 486 Swiss files, 431,433 Switzerland. See specific craftsmen Sword guards, Japanese, 182,223 Syrian canteen, 150 T-joint, defined, 486 T-stakes, 435. See also Stakes Tallow, 22, 42, 179; as casting additive, 358; as spinning lubricant, 301, 302 Tang, defined, 486 T'ang Dynasty, 77 Tanjore, India, 134-38, 322 Tankard, coin-appliqueed, 138 Tanks, welding, 63, 298 Tapemeasure, 55 "Tapering," 281-82 Taps,tapping,317,318,486 Tarkashi work, 213-14, 486 Tarnish, 486. See also Corrosion; specific metals Taxco, Mexico, 23, 218, 353. See also Costillo brothers Teapots: engraved silver, 119; planished silver, xiv; silver with horn handle, 262 Technical Adhesives, Inc., 477 Technical books, 489-90 Technicraft Lapidaries Corporation, 478 Teke tribe, chief's collar by, 17 Tellurium, copper alloy with, 18 Temper (See also Tempering) : defined, 486 Temper annealing, 50 Temperature conversion tables, 462 Tempering, 115,444-47,486 Tensile strength, 6, 464 Tepping Studio Supply Company, 473 Ternary alloys, 7, 159 Terrazzo, 226; strip, 26 Testing. See Assaying Thailand: and niello, 186; silver-gilt bowl, 111

INDEX

507

Thebes, gold-footed goblet from, 248 Theophilus, 191 Thermometer for electroplating, 382 Thor Electric Tools (Thor Power Tool Company), 473 Thrumming, 396, 486 Thuma, 94 Thumbscrews, 65, 66 Thutmose Ill, 90 Tibetan work: chasing, repousse, 93, 94, 101, 103; encrusted ewer, 139; gilded bronze statue, 30 Tie clip, chased gold, 119 Tie tacks, wood-filled, 215 Tiffany and Company, 33, 193 Tiger, cast bronze, 351 Timbers, specific gravities, weights of, 464 Tin, 6, 7, 22-25, 463, 465; alloys (see main components; specific alloys); articles of (see specific objects, techniques); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; etching solution, 132; nontoxicity of, 52 Tin brasses, 18 Tin cry, defined, 486 Tinning, defined, 486 Tiruchirapalli, India, 471 Tomahawk, Kickapoo pipe, 215 Tongs: crucible, 187, 188, 320, 329, 346; draw, (drawplate tongs), 42-43, 45, 410; for etching, 131; flask, 329, 370, 371, 372; forging, 280, 281; foundry, 347; jaw, 329; pickling, copper, 27; ring, 329; safety, 329; soldering, 163, 171; stirring rod, 187, 329 Tools, 56-64, 421-47 (See also specific techniques, tools, uses); sharpening, 113-15, 412; sources, 47173 (see also specific kinds) Tool steel, 36 Torah case, chased, 109 Torah crowns: repousse, 105; wire, 196Torches, 62, 63, 166-70, 288ff. See also Reducing flame; Soldering; Welding Torit Manufacturing Company, 477 Torsion, 6, 486 Tortoise-shell work, 218, 219, 222-23 Toughness, 6 Tough pitch copper, 17-18 Tower stands, lathe turned, 301 Toxicity (poisonousness), 31, 51-52,486 Tracers, 84, 85, 97, 98; duplex, 55 Trademark, registered, 88-89 Trade Practice Rules, 87-88 Transfer pad, 115 Transite board, 170 Trays (See also Platters; specific techniques): forming mold, 255; inlaid Tunisian brass, 152; inlaid wood with brass, 212; for pitch, 93; siah qalam work, 109; tin-washed copper, 24 Tray stakes, 437 Trenton Iron Company gauges, 451 Treskow, Elisabeth, 202 Tridex, 276, 277, 299 Tripods, 163,172, 187 Tripoli, 191,400, 401,403 Trivets, 172; cast iron, 35 Troy weight, 9, 450 Truing, defined, 486 Tsuba, 182,223 Tubes, tubing, 40; extruded, 48, 49; forming with drawplate, 45; measurements of sterling silver, 455; purchasing silver, 12; spun, 305 Tufa (tuff) casting, 334-36, 337 Tull, J. M., Metal and Supply Company, 469

Tungsten, 37,463,465 Tunic, Peruvian gold, 224 Tunisian work: inlaid brass tray, 152; pierced work lantern, 75; wire birdcage, 201 Turkish filigree box, 197 Tutenkhamon, 202,228 Tweezers, 62,80,175,439,440 Twist drills. See Drills, drilling Twisting (See also Torsion) : in forging, 282 Two-man pouring shanks, 344-48 Type metal, 23, 268 Tyzack, S., & Son, Ltd., 479 Uele Zande throwing knife, 281 Undercuts, 324-25 Underhill, William, 345-46, 347, 349 Union Carbide Corporation, 476 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), church doors in, 312 United Mineral & Chemical Corporation, 474 United States (See also American work): gauges in, 47-48 (see also Gauges; specific gauges); and mercury, 31; quality stamping in, 9, 87-89 United States Bureau of Mines, 410 United States Bureau of the Mint, 9 United States Bureau of Standards. See National Bureau of Standards United States Department of Commerce, 87 U. S. Grinding Wheel Company, 474 United States Gypsum Company, 330, 331,468 U. S. Industrial Chemicals Company, 477 United States Stamping Law, 9, 87 United States Standard gauges, 47,451 United States Treasury Department, 89 Universal Chain Company, Inc., 472 Unsoldering, 177 Untracht, Oppi, 286, 291, 374 Untracht, Saara Hopea, 49, 103, 208, 226, 296, 315; creating silver pendant, 56-65 Upsetting, 248, 282, 486; example of edge thickening, 249 Urn: Chinese bronze, 150; silver coffee, 257 V-boards, 67, 429 Vacit, Mr. and Mrs. Homer, 229 Valley stakes. See Crimping stakes Vanadium, 37, 463,465 Vanadium Corporation of America, 468 Van Dugteren, A. J., & Sons, 302 Van KIeeck, A., 356 Vases: appliqueed pewter, 267; chasing demonstrated, 105; inlaid bronze, 153; repousse, stamped, 103; soldering, 176; sterling silver, hammered, 249; spun pewter, 302 Vegetable waxes, 358 Veins (casting defects), 326 Vence, France, 294, 299 Venetian lime, 405 Vents, 321,486. See also Casting Vermeil fish, 33 Vernier, Pierre, 427 Vibrators for centrifugal casting, 364, 365,367,368 Virgin metal, defined, 486 Viscosity, defined, 486 Vises, 281, 430, 438-39; engraver's ball (block), 113, 114, 116-17,439 Vitrified abrasive wheels, 411 Volatility, defined, 486 Voltmeters, 381

I

508

INDEX

Waffle iron, 35 'Warsaw, Poland, 270, 273 Washburn and Moen Wire Gauge Standard, 408. See also American Steel & Wire Company gauges Watch bracelet, gold, 51 Watchcase, pique work English, 219 Water, specific gravities, weights of various forms, 465 Waterbreak, 383 Water ewers. See Ewers Water gilding, 419 Water glass, 411 Water jug, swami decorated, 137 Water pitchers. See Pitchers Water pots: copper, frontispiece; planished brass, 50; spun brass, 302 Waxes, 465; casting, 357-58 (see also Casting); engraver's, 115; sealing, 93, 441, 447; supplies, 475-76 Wedding cup, gold and silver, 110 Weidinger, Charles, 469 Weights, 9, 450, 464-65 (See also specific metals); atomic, 4, 463, 466; balances and scaMs, 426, 427 Welch, Robert, 257, 318 Welders Supply, Inc., 476 Weldex Equipment Company, Inc., 476 Welding, 288-99 (See also Brazing; specific metals); forge, 283; supplies, sources of, 476 Welding rods, 294, 295-96, 486 Weldon Roberts Rubber Company, 474 Werkhaven, William, and Son, 469 Western Gold and Platinum Company, 469 Wetting agents (debubblizers), 364, 366, 367, 486; sources'of supplies, 477 I Wheel rake,403-4 . Wheels, polishing and grinding, 404-5, 410--13 White, S. S., Dental Manufacturing Company, The, 475,476 . White compound, 403 White diamond polish, 402, 403 White gold, 7-8, 9,10,173,174 White metal, 24, 70, 268, 315; sources of supply, 468-69 White Metal RoIling and Stamping Corporation, 468 Whiting, 176, 199,400,407 Whiting Corporation, 476 Wiener, Ed, 133 Wigs, soldering. See Mops, soldering Wildberg Brothers Smelting and Refining Company, 469 Wild boar, welded steel, 294 Willbraham & Smith, Ltd., 479 Will Corporation of Georgia, 475 Willemite, 25 WiIliams, Ichabod T., & Sons, Inc., 478

Williams & Peterson, 473 Wilson, Byron, 220 Wine ewer, Korean silver and gold, 261 Wine jug, lost-wax cast bronze hollow, 350 Wine vessels, Chinese, 153, 348 Winston, Robert (Bob), 29, 338, 378 Wiping, lead, 22, 178 Wire, wirework, 6, 40, 192-200, 210, 212-14, 221, 228, 232 (See also Bidri work; Damascene; Niello; Swami work; specific metals, techniques); binding, 171, 441 (see also Jigs, soldering); drawing 42-47; forms available, 454; gauges, 47-48 (see also Gauges; specific gauges); rivet, 311, 314; weights, charts of, 453-54 Wolpert, Ludwig J., 196 Wood: with metal, 212-17, 232, 257, 275, 277, 312, 315 (See also specific objects); sources of supply, 478-79; specific gravities, weights, 464, 465; tools (see specific techniques, tools) Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, 87 Wrenches, 281, 282, 289, 318 Wrist guard, Navajo cast silver, 337 Wrought aluminum. See Aluminum Wrought iron, 6, 34-35, 271-78. See also specific techniques X-chair, 274 Yale Lock Collection, 273 Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, The, 354 Yarns, metallic, 224, 226 Yasugo, Japan, 123 Yellow brass, 18 Yellow gold, 8, 173,452,453; annealing, 10, 174,246; use in necklace, 14 Yellow ochre (limonite), 33, 115,160, 176,199,464 Yemen, necklace with beads and shot from, 211 Yo, cast bronze, 348 Zari work, 226 Zinc, 4, 6, 7, 25-26, 463, 465 (See also specific techniques); alloys (see Bidri work; Brass; main components); coefficient of linear expansion, 463; coloring, 446; etching solutions, 132; to refine lead, 19-20; toxicity of, 52 Zinc-ammonium chloride, flux with, 24 Zinc chloride, 179 Zinc-copper solders. See SpeIter solders Zinc oxide fumes, 52 . "Zinc shakes," 52 Zinc sulphate for matte dip, 133 Zufii Indians, 229, 230

INDEX

509

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