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saqarTvelos marTlmadidebel eklesiasTan arsebuli qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri

andria pirvelwodebulis nakvalevze

Tbilisi 2009

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krebulSi ganTavsebulia `andria pirvelwodebulis gzis mkvlevi eqspediciis~ sruli angariSi da misi xelmZRvanelis, awgansvenebuli prof. devi berZeniSvilis bolo, gamouqveynebeli dRiuri, romelSic aisaxa V eqcpediciis winaswari Sedegebi: mogzauroba TurqeTsa da taoklarjeTSi. wigni gankuTvnilia saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriiT dainteresebuli mkiTxvelebisaTvis.

redaqtori: akad. daviT musxel iSvil i SeniSvnebi da komentarebi daurTo mixeil fxaWiaSvil ma recenzenti: prof. al eqsandre dauSvil i

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa: ana ruaZe mariam fxaWiaSvil i

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mixeil fxaWiaSvil i eqspediciebis qro nikebi qristeSobis 2000 wlis saiubileo TariRis aRniSvnasTan dakavSirebiT sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqis, uwmidesisa da unetaresis il ia II-s locva-kurTxeviT da cxum-afxazeTis mitropolitis, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos misiisa da evangelizaciis ganyofilebis xelmZRvanelis, meufe danielis TaosnobiT SemuSavda saiubileo programa, romelic iTvaliswinebda mTel rig misionerul da kulturulsaganmanaTleblo RoniZiebebs, gadawyda mowyobiliyo molocviTi mogzaurobebi qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblebis wm. andria pirvelwodebulis dasavleT saqarTveloSi, xolo wm. ninosi aRmisavleT saqarTveloSi. amave periodSi meufe danielTan movidnen batonebi Temur beriZe da givi bolqvaZe, romlebmac meufes SesTavazes saiubileo RonisZiebebis nusxaSi CarTuli yofiliyo samecniero eqspedicia, romelic Zvel werilobiT wyaroebze dayrdnobiT gamoikvlevda wm. andria mociqulis saqarTveloSi mosvlisa da samociqulo moRvaweobis marSruts. am mizniT Seiqmna jgufi, romelic daadgenda wm. andria pirvelwodebulisa da misi Tanxlebi mociqulebis mier ganvlil svlagezs. samuSaod jgufi ikribeboda feriscvalebis dedaTa monasterSi, darejanis sasaxleSi, kviraSi erTxel; am SexvedrebSi monawileobdnen sasuliero pirebi, mecnierebi (istorikosebi, arqiologebi, eTnografebi, literatorebi, xelovnebaTmcodneebi da a.S) da sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi. am Sexvedra-dia3

logebs uwmindesisa da unetaresis locva-kurTxeviT xelmZRvanelobda meufe danieli. samwuxarod, saiubileo periodis ganmavlobaSi amis ganxorcieleba ver moxerxda. 2001 wels sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqma, uwmidesma da unetaresma il ia II-m saqarTvelos marlmadidebel samociqulo eklesiasTan daafuZna fondi "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri", romelsac daeqvemdebara arsebuli samuSao jgufis bazaze Seqmnili samecniero eqspedicia ­ `wm. andria pirvelwodebulis gzis mkvlevi eqspedicia". es samecniero eqspedicia Seiswavlida wm. andria pirvelwodebulis mier ganvlil gzas saqarTveloSi da mis farglebs gareT. samecniero eqspediciis wevrebma moiZies da Seiswavles wm. andria pirvelwodebulis samociqulo mogzaurobis Sesaxeb arsebuli werilobiTi wyaroebi da samecniero gamokvlevebi. gacnobili masalis (Sromebis) analizis safuZvelze devi berZeniSvilma, givi bolqvaZem da mixeil fxaWiaSvilma SeimuSaves samoqmedo gegma ­ savaraudo marSrutebi da maTi prioritetuloba. avirCieT mTavari mimarTulibebi: 1. samxreT-dasavleTi saqarTveloSi ­ md-bis xaniswylis, qerSaveTis, Cxerimelas da saxvlaris xeobebis gavliT aWara-mesxeTis (fersaTis) qedze zekaris "rkinis jvris" da xaragaulis "rkinis jvris" uReltexilebis gavla, jgufs unda daeTvalierebina md. oZrxis wylis xeoba, kurorti abasTumani (ist. oZrxe), zadengora, sofeli andriawminda, awyuri md. qvablianis xeoba; aWaraSi ­ gonios (afsaris) cixe, md. aWariswylis xeoba, daba xulo, sofeli didaWara, mesxe4

Tis da aWaris sasazRvro regionebi, aWara-mesxeTis (fersaTis) qedi, goderZis uReltexili; 2. Crdilo-dasavleT saqarTveloSi afxazeTi, svaneTi, raWa, md-bis rionis, enguris, cxeniswylis, kodoris xeobebis saTaveebi da kavkasionis mTavar qedze gamavali uReltexilebi; 3. dasavleT saqarTveloSi qalaqebi zugdidi, martvili, daba jvarzeni da Savi zRvis sanapiro zoli; 4. daigegma mogzaurobebi andria pirvelwodebulis nakvalevze TurqeTSi, israelSi (wminda miwaze), saberZneTSi, siriaSi, ruseTsa da ukrainaSi. 2001 wlis zafxulSi meufe danieli saeqspedicio jgufis wevrebTan erTad SevxvdiT bunebis dacvis msoflio fondis (WWF) saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobis direqciis wevrebs batonebs zaza gamcemliZes da kote jandiers da gavacaniT eqspediciis Sinaarsi da miznebi. gavacaniT, rom wm. mociqulis Sesaxeb arsebul wyaroebSi moxseniebuli marSrutis punqtebi _ zekari ­ "rkinis jvris" uReltexili da xaragaulis "rkinis jvari" mdebareobs WWF-is borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkSi, xolo gzebi, romlebiTac wm. andria pirvelwodebuli "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT samcxeSi mosula aseve gadis parkis teritoriaze. aseTi Zveli istoriuli saqaravno gza aRniSnulia axali welTaRricxvis romaeli geografis kastoriusis Sedgenil rukaze, romelzec somxeTis qalaqi "artaSati" artaani-javaxeTi-samcxe ­ argveTaegrisiT ukavSirdebada "sebatopolis" (soxums). mere ki vTxoveT daxmareba proeqtis ganxorcielebaSi. WWF-is direqcia gulisyuriT moekida Cvens Txovnas.

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daiwyo mzadeba samecniero mogzaurobisaTvis da saeqspedicio jgufis dakompleqteba. Tavdapirvelad saeqspedicio jgufSi Sedioda xuTi kaci: samecniero xelmZRvaneli istoriul mecnierebaTa doqtori devi berZeniSvili, "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris" da eqspediciis moZRvari, Tbilisis wm. ilia marTlis taZris winamZRvari, dekanozi basili (JorJikaSvili), "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris" koordinatori mixeil fxaWiaSvili, istoriul mecnierebaTa kandidati, arqeologi givi bolqvaZe, mwerali kote jandieri da operatori levan pataraia. saeqspedicio jgufis Semadgenloba garkveul etapebze icvlebida; mas SeuerTdnen istoriul mecnierebaTa doqtori eldar bubulaSvili (II eqspediciidan bolomde), xelovnebaTmcodneobis kandidati nikoloz vaCeiSvili (II eqspedicia), alpinisti Tamaz SaraSeniZe (III eqspediciidan bolomde), fotoJurnalisti giorgi fxaWiaSvili (III da IV eqspedicia). sxvadasxva dros eqspediciaSi monawileobdnen: arqimandriti andria (kbilaSvili), dekanozi miriani (samxaraZe), respublikis samaSvelo centri "sanTelis" prezidenti, alpinisti giorgi berZeniSvili, WWF-is TanamSromlebi iase cincaZe da avTandil lursmanaSvili. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, eqspediciis mTavari mizani iyo da aris im savaraudo marSrutis dadgena, romelic samociqulo qadagebiT gaiara wm. andria pirvelwodebulma sxva mociqulebTan da mowafeebTan erTad. am samecniero mogzaurobis mizania agreTve eqspediciis Sedegad mopovebuli masalis analizi da Semdgom misi farTo sazogadoebisaTvis gacnoba samecniero publikaciebiT, bukletebiT, fotoalbomebiTa da

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samecniero-dokumentaluri filmis saSualebiT. amitomac eqspediciaSi Tavidanve CarTuli iyo operatori ­ levan pataraia, romelic kuratorobda videogadaRebas. man I da II mogzaurobaSi uSualod miiRo monawileoba, III da IV-Si ki Tavis Semcvlelebad gamogvigzana operatorebi paata keresiliZe (III eqspedicia) da jaba kldiaSvili (IV eqspedicia). rac Seexeba V mogzaurobas, romelic Sedga TurqeTis teritoriaze da miznad isaxavda, garda proeqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli mTavari amocanisa, TurqeTis qarTuli regionebis kompleqsur Seswavlasa da maT dokumentalur videogada-Rebebs, amitomac saeqspedicio jgufSi SeviyvneT reJisori kaxaber imnaiSvili, operatori daviT asaTiani da Tarjimani da megzuri TurqeTis moqalaqe, qarTuli warmoSobis, daud xakan berki, romelmac itvirTa ZiriTadi mZRolis movaleobac. Cveni eqspediciebis Sedegebis analizma dagvarwmuna, rom wm. andria pirvelwodebulis saqarTveloSi mogzaurobis Sesaxeb arsebul ucxour da qarTul wyaroebSi moxseniebuli gadmocemebi, marSrutebi da toponimika da Cvens mier ganvlili marSrutebi, am gzebze arsebuli Tu Cvensmier moZiebuli punqtebis Zveli Tu Tanamedrove dasaxelebebi xSirad erTmaneTs emTxveva. amis Sesaxeb SemdgomSi devi berZeniSvilma asaxa Tavis publikaciebSi.

I eqspedicia

2001 wlis 4-10 oqtombers saqarTvelos marTmadidebel samociqulo eklesiasTan arsebuli fondis "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris" organozebiT gaimarTa pirveli eqspedicia wm. andria pirvelwodebulis nakvalevze, romlis sponsori gax7

ldaT WWF-i. eqspediciaSi monawileobdnen samecniero xelmZRvaneli, istorikosi devi berZeniSvili, dekanozi basili (JorJikaSvili), koordinatori mixeil fxaWiaSvili, arqeologi givi bolqvaZe, WWF-is warmomadgenlebi ­ mwerali kote jandieri, operatori levan pataraia da iase cincaZe, alpinisti giorgi berZeniSvili, mZRoli malxaz caciaSvili. kote jandierma Tavidan ver SeZlo wamosvla, magram boloSi SemogvierTda. jgufs baRdaTSi SemouerTda da megzuroba gauwia baRdaTis eTnografiuli muzeumis xelmZRvanelma ­ elguja yuraSvilma, eqspediciaSi monawileobdnen borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis TanamSromlebi: iuza vefxvaZe, alima da karlo msxviliZeebi da sxvebi. eqspediciis dawyebis win, 3 oqtombers, jgufi sapatriarqoSi migviRo sruliad saqarTvelos patriarqma, mcxeTa-Tbilisis mTavarepiskoposma ilia II, mas mivawodeT informacia mogzaurobis Sesaxeb, Semdeg mamaSvilurad dagvariga da dagvloca. gamomSvidobisas Cven sapativisacemod moiwvia mgaloblebi da qarTuli galobiT gamogvacila. sapatriarqodan Cven gavemgzavreT mcxeTaSi, sadac sveticxovlis sakaTedro taZarSi mama basilma gadaixada mgzavrobis paraklisi. I eqspediciis svlagezi (marSruti) aseTi iyo: Tbilisidan gavemgzavreT geguTSi (quTaisSi); geguTidan varcixis gavliT baRdaTSi CavediT; baRdaTidan avuyeviT md. xaniswylis xeobas, gaviareT wyalTaSua, kakasxidi da avediT sofel xanSi; xanidan CamovediT isev kakasxidTan. aq SevicvaleT manqana, gadavsxediT orxidian avtomanqanaSi da avuyeviT md. qerSaveTis xeobas, gaviareT kurorti zekari, venaxWala, qerSaveTi da salaSqro; salaSqrodan faxiT SevuyeviT uRe8

texilisaken mimaval gzas (biliks) da avediT aWaramesxeTis (fersaTis) wyalgamyof qedze ­ "rkinis jvris" (zekaris) gadsasvlelze, uReltexilidan WWF-is manqaniT daveSviT samxreTisaken (mesxeTisaken), gza miuyveboda md. oZrxis wylis xeobas, gavCerdiT kurort abasTumanSi, sanatorium "arazindoSi", sadac davisveneT; abasTumnidan CavediT WuleSi; Wuledan SemovbrundiT ukan gaviareT da davaTvaliereT zadengora; ganzraxuli gvqonda avsuliyaviT safaris monasterSi da iqidan gadavsuliyaviT sofel andriawmindaSi, magram uamindobam xeli SegviSala; axalcixis gavliT awyurSi ganaTlebis saministros banakSi gavCerdiT da davisveneT; awyuridan borjomis gavliT davbrundiT TbilisSi. geguTidan zemoT aRniSnuli marSrutiT mogzaurobisas davaTvaliereT varcixeSi saintereso rodopolisis-varcixis cixe, rokiTis eklesia, dimis cixis adgilmdebareoba, wiTelxevSi deviZeebis ubnis wm. giorgis eklesia, kedlis mxatvrobis saintereso fragmentebiT, fersaTis eklesia da aqve salxinos (Subani) XII-XIII ss. eklesia, wyalTaSuas (koriSi) wm. ninos eklesia, sofel alismereTis eklesiis nangrevebi, md. xaniswyalze Zveli xidis burji, kakasxididan gzis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT, uRran tyaSi, adgil berieTSi, daaxloebiT XIV saukunis eklesia, gareTa fasadze saintereso warweriTa da cxovelebis figurebiT, romelic devi berZeniSvilma gadmoiRo pergamentze; sofel xanSi vnaxeT ori eklesia, erT-erTi ufro adrindeli, Tormeti mociqulis saxelobis, rogorc Cans ufro Zveli eklesiis nangrevebze agebuli (devi berZeniSvilis SefasebiT, daaxloebiT X saukunisa); kakasxididan kurort zekarisa da venaxWalas monakveTze batonma elguja yuraSvilma gvaCvena "Tamar me9

fis gzad" wodebuli Zveli "qvafenili" da bolos "rkinis jvris"-zekaris uReltexilis aRmarTze vnaxeT adgili salaSqro. devi berZeniSvilma gviambo istoriuli gadmocema, rom cotne dadians koxtas cixis Sekrebidan egrisisaken mimaval gzaze am adgilas daewien da Seatyobines SeTqmulebis datyvevebis ambavi da wm. cotne erisTavi aqedan ukan mibrunda Tavis megobrebTan; zekaris gadasavlelze aRmarTul rkinis jvarTan mama basilma gadaixada wm. andriapirvelwodebulis mcire paraklisi. abasTumanSi davaTvaliereT oZrxis qveda da zeda cixe, cixis ZirSi SemorCenili md. oZrxis wylis Senakadis kurcxanis marjvena sanapiroze SemorCenili monastris nangrevi da iqve md. oZrxis wyalze Semonaxuli qvis TaRovani xidi, moviloceT abasTumnis taZari "axali zarzma" rusi fermweris m. nesterovis moxatuli freskebiT, wm. giorgis VIII-XII ss. Zveli eklesia; Wules monasterSi SevxvdiT da vesaubreT monasteris iRumens ­ stefane kalaijiSvils (amJamad cagerisa da lentexis episkoposi), romelmac gviambo mis mier mowyobili mogzaurobis Sesaxeb. man gaiara wm. andria pirvelwodebulis gzis savaraudo monakveTi awyuridan xaragaulis "rkinis jvrisaken"; awyurSi davaTvaliereT awyuris cixe, awyuris RvTismSoblis cnobili taZris nangrevebi, saqrisis veli, romlebic dakavSirebulebulia wyaroebSi gadmocemuli wm. andria pirvelwodebulis samociqulo mogzaurobasTan saqarTveloSi; borjomisaken mimaval gzaze davaTvaliereT taZrisisa (kvirikes) da mwvane monastrebi, slesis cixe. aRsaniSnavia agreTve devis monaTxrobi taZrisis monasterze, sadac 7 wlis asakdan izrdebodnen da swavlobdnen cnobili qarTveli Teologi, sasuliero da saero moRvawe wm. giorgi mTawmindeli da misi da Tekla.

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borjomSi WWF-is borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis xelmZRvanelobam, b-ni zviad gociriZis xelmZRvanelobiT mogviwyo Tbili miReba, davaTvaliereT erovnuli parkis muzeumi, Sedga preskonferencia JurnalistebTan da sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebTan, sadac gaimarTa gulTbili dialogi eqspediciis ganvlili dReebis Sesaxeb, gvian RamiT davbrundiT TbilisSi. mogzaurobisas didi siTboTi da siyvaruliT migviRes da dagvloces baRdadisa da vanis mTavarepiskoposma antonma (buluxia), axalcixisa da tao-klajeTis mitropolitma Teodorem da borjomisa da bakurianis mTavarepiskoposma serafimem.

II eqspedicia

2002 wlis 15­19 seqtembers saqarTvelos marTmadidebel samociqulo eklesiasTan arsebuli fondis "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris" da bunebis dacvis msoflio fondis (WWF) saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobis organizebiT gaimarTa meore eqspedicia wm. andria pirvelwodebulis nakvalevze, romlic aseve daafinansa WWF-ma. eqspediciaSi monawileobdnen: samecniero xelmZRvaneli, istorikosi devi berZeniSvili, dekanozi basili (JorJikaSvili), koordinatori mixeil fxaWiaSvili, arqeologi givi bolqvaZe, WWF-is warmomadgenlebi ­ mwerali kote jandieri, istorikosi eldar bubulaSvili (romelic SemdgomSi ukve eqspediciis wevri gaxda), operatori levan pataraia, avTandil lursmanaSvili, alpinisti giorgi berZeniSvili, mZRoli malxaz caciaSvili, borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis TanamSromlebi.

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eqspediciis marSruti aseTi iyo: Tbilisidan gavemgzavreT xaragaulSi, xaragaulSi borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis warmomadgenlobaSi misi xelmRvanelis tariel xijagaZis TaosnobiT Sedga mcire TaTbiri, romelzec davazusteT marSrutTan dakavSrebuli sakiTxebi, aqve gadavsxediT orxidian manqanebSi, avyeviT md. Cxerimelas xeobas, gadavuxvieT, samxreTiT, sofel marelisTan avuyeviT md. bJolis wylis xeobas, Semdeg md. saxvlaris xeobiT avediT da davisveneT erovnuli parkis saxvlaris kotejSi; davaTvaliereT didi saxvlaris Semogareni da avediT "rkinis jvarze" (xaragaulis "rkinis jvari"). saRamos mivediT erovnuli parkis samecxvarios kotejSi; samecxvariodan daveSviT samcxisaken da saTanjos (satanjo) gzis gavliT fexiT CavediT amaratSi, erovnuli parkis kotejSi; amaratidan jer bagebis Reles da Semdeg abanos Reles gayolebiT, wvimaSi, fexiT, 5 saaTiani damqancveli mogzaurobis Semdeg CavediT awyurSi, ganaTlebis saministros banakSi; awyuridan WWF-is manqaniT borjomis gavliT davbrundiT TbilisSi. II eqspediciiT mogzaurobisas davaTvaliereT, avzomeT da gadaviReT aRniSnul marSrutze manamade Seuswavleli eklesia-monastrebi da safortifikacio nagebobebi, romelTaganac yuradRebas ipyrobs sofel SerTulTan mdebare "wiflaris salocavi" (eklesiis nangrevi), romelic, savaraudod, XIV-XV ss-iT SeiZleba daTariRdes; Cveni yuradReba miipyro saxvlaris zurgiani koSkis nangrevebma da gviani Suasaukuneebis miwaSi Camjdarma eklesiis narCenebma, aqve davaTvalireT adgili _ naqalaqari; gansakuTrebuli STabeWdileba datova samecxvarios mTidan samxreT-aRmosavleT, mTis ZirSi, uRran tyeSi, adgil tbebis maxlob12

lad "leRvanis" didi zomis darbazulma eklesiam, samonastro kompleqsis Senoba-nagebobebma da calke mdgomma akldamebma. devi berZeniSvilis azriT, am mozrdil monasters borjomis xeobis samonastro centrebTan bevri ram aqvs saerTo da albaT IX-X ssiT unda daTariRdes; mTa "rkinis jvarze" aRmarTul did jvarTan mama basilma gadaixada wm. andriapirvelwodebulis mcire paraklisi; espediciis wevrebi avidnen samecxvarios mTaze, aqedanve gadaviReT cnobili "lomisis mTa" da mesxeTisa da zemo imereTis lamazi xedebi; awyuridan gaviareT borjomSi, sadac iseve, rogorc wina eqspediciaSi, didi yuradRebiTa da pativiscemiT migviRo borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis direqciam. eqspedicia, miuxedavad imisa, rom xanmokle iyo, sakmaod mZime da damRleli gamodga, rasac ganapirobebda cudi, wvimiani amindebi, gansakuTrebiT ki is faTerakebi, romlebic gadagvxda mogzaurobis pirvelive dRes, rodesac "vilisebiT" mivemgzavrebodiT sofel SerTulis eklesiis sanaxavad, TeTra Reles xeobis damrec, viwro da talaxian monakveTze Cveni "vilisi", romelSic visxediT devi berZeniSvili, givi bolqvaZe, nika vaCeiSvili da mixeil fxaWiaSvili, ver avida, dagorda, amotrialda, gaakeTa ori yira da gadaekida xeobis damrec napirze, sabednierod, xevis Tavze SegvaCera da dagviWira momcro xem da gadavrCiT; "rkinis jvris" midamoebSi gafuWda meore manqana da msvleloba gavagrZeleT fexiT; eqspediciis bolos amaratSi, amogvakiTxa samxidianma didma manqanam, romelsac unda CaveyvaneT awyurSi. gasvlis win mZRols daugorda manqana da rom ara didi fiWvis xeebi, gadaiCexeboda kanionSi; mogviwia 30-35 kilometris gavla, viwro bagebisa da abanos Releebis xeobaSi, Weqa13

quxilSi, qariSxalSi da setyvaSi, axlos mexic ki Camovarda, 4-5 saaTis siarulis Semdeg, sruliad svelebma mivaRwieT awyurSi. am faqtebis Semdeg devi xumrobda: wm. andriapirvelwodebulma gviTxra, am gzaze ar gamivliao! sasuliero pirebis azriT, aseTi mZime, dabrkolebebiTa da faTerakebiT aRsavse iyo TviT wm. mociqulis mier ganvlili samociqulo gza da Cveni gansacdelebi am gzis mistikuri mxarea.

III eqspedicia

mTeli 2004 weli saqarTvelo aRniSnavda saqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebis 20 saukunis iubiles. saqarTvelos marTmadidebel samociqulo eklesiasTan arsebuli fondis "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris" wm. andria pirvelwodebulis mesame mogzaurobac Sedioda im sazeimo RoniZiebebis nusxaSi, romlebic mieZRvna am didebul TariRs. Cvenma saeqspedicio jgufma miiRo saxelmwifo granti III eqspediciis Casatareblad, romelic Sedga 2004 wlis 22 ­ 28 oqtobers da romlis mimarTulebad aviCieT aWara, saidanac Semovida saqarTveloSi wm. andria pirvelwodebuli da sadac daarsa man pirveli eklesia. eqspediciaSi monawileobdnen misi wevrebi: samecniero xelmZRvaneli, istorikosi devi berZeniSvili, dekanozi basili (JorJikaSvili), koordinatori da teqnikuri direqtori mixeil fxaWiaSvili, arqeologi givi bolqvaZe, istorikosi eldar bubulaSvili, alpinisti Tamaz SaraSeniZe, foto-Jurnalisti giorgi fxaWiaSvili da operatori paata kereseliZe, mZRoli elizbar gogolaZe (Tavisi kuTvnili mikroavtobusiT), jgufs baTumSi SemouerTda da pirveli ori dRe megzuroba gauwia baTumis universitetis profesorma istorikosma biWiko diasamiZem, xuloSi Tbi14

lad migviRo, gvimaspinZla da megzuroba gagviwia dekanozma mirian (samxaraZem). eqspediciis marSruti aseTi iyo: Tbilisidan gavemgzavreT baTumSi, movewyveT sastumro "sputnikSi" da davisveneT; baTumidan wavediT gonioSi, sadac davaTvaliereT da gadaviReT afsarosis (gonios) cixe da davbrundiT ukan; dilidan baTumSi davaTvaliereT aWaris mxareTmcodneobis muzeumi da baTumis universiteti; baTumidan avuyeviT aWaris wylis xeobis, gaviareT qeda, Suaxevi moviloceT sxalTis monasteri da gvian RamiT CavediT xuloSi; xulos daTvalierebisa da taZris molocvis Semdeg avuyeviT isev aWaris wyals sof. didaWaramde; didaWarisa da misi Semogarenis daTvalirebisa da gadaRebis Semdeg davbrundiT xuloSi; amindis gauresebis gamo aWaraSi eqspediciis garZeleba SeuZlebeli gaxda da xulodan sofel dioknisis gavliT gavemgzavreT gaderZis gadasavlelisaken; uReltexilidan daveSviviT samcxeSi da RamiT CavediT axalcixeSi; axalcixidan avediT "rkinis jvris", zekaris uReltexilze, davaTvaliereT zadengora, sofeli andriawminda da davbrundiT TbilisSi. III eqspediciiT mogzaurobisas gonioSi davaTvaliereT, SeviswavleT da gadaviReT uZvelesi _ gonios (afsarosis) cixe Tavisi uZvelesi safortifikacio da sakulto nagebobebiT, sadac Cveni welTaRricxvis dasawyisSi ganTavsebuli iyo romauli samxedro garnizoni da, rac mTavaria, romelic dakavSirebulia wm. mociquli andrias saqarTveloSi SemosvlasTan, vnaxeT da moviloceT andria pirvelwodebulis Tanamgzavris, wm. mociquli mataTas saflavi. qarTuli eklesiis tradiciiT, swored gonios cixis teritoria15

zea dakrZaluli wm. mociquli. cixis mTel perimetrze mimdinare CvenTvis metad saintereso arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sesaxeb gvesaubrnen baTumis universitetisa da arqeologiuri muzeumis mecnier TanaSrolebi, davaTvalireT aWaris saxelmwifo muzeumi da iq gamofenili CvenTvis metad saintereso eqsponatebi; baTumidan xulos gzaze md. aWaris wylis marcxena sanapiroze gadaviReT Wyvintas cixe, furnas TaRovani xidi md. aWaris wyalze; gadavediT mdinaris marcxena napirze da avuyeviT md. sxalTis wyals sxalTmde, sadac davaTvalireT selim ximSiaSvilis saxl-muzeumi, Semdeg sxalTis monastris taZarSi mama basilma gadaixada mcire paraklisi da gavemgzareT xuloSi, sadac gvian CavediT; xuloSi mama mirianis megzurobiT moviloceT xulos wm. andria pirvelwodebulis eklesia da davaTvalireT adgilobrivi RirsSesanisnaobebi; Cveni yuradReba gansakuTrebiT mipyrobili iyo sofeli didaWarisaken, sadac, gadmocemiT, mdebareobda wm. mociqulis mier daarsebuli pirveli taZari da sadac axla aris misi saxelobis niSi. pirvel rigSi, avediT swore im borcvze, e.w. "nakafis serze", romelic soflis centridan Crdilo-dasavleTiT mdebareobs da romelsac adgilobrivi mosaxleoba "Tarangels" (mTavarangelozi) uwodebs, sadac werilobiTi wyaroebisa da zepirsityvieri gadmocemebis mixedviT navarudevi iyo andria pirvelwodebulis aSenebuli eklesiis arseboba. gadaviReT zemoT aRniSnuli mociqulis salocavi-niSi, mamebma mirianma da basilma gadaixades wm. andria pirvelwodebulisadmi miZRvnili paraklisi; didaWarSi SevxvdiT da gavesaubreT moxucebul ezi melaZes da rostom wulaZes, romlebmac gviambes, rom soflis da mdinaris saxeli, savaraudod, "dedoaWaridan" modis, rom ub16

nebs dRemde SemorCa qristianuli msaxurebisaTvis damaxasieTebeli saxelwodebebi da gadmocemebi ("Tarangilis" borcvi, "nakafis serze" qalebis mier sanTlebis danTeba, galoba, kvrcxis SeRebva, wminda wyaro, romelzec mikareba ar SeiZleba, kvirikobas rom musulmanebic aRniSnaven da a. S.), dafiqsirda toponomebi (xucuri, ekliyana, eliawminda). maT axsovT sofelSi materialuri kulturis Zeglebis nakvalevi (eklesiis nangrevebis fragmentebi _ gaTlili qvebis kvadrebisa da naeklesiaris qvitkiris naSTis saxiT, qvis jvari). maTgan gavigeT, rom adgil "xucursa" da "ekliyanis" (eklesiis yana) midamoebSi, gzispiras yofila eklesia (qilisa), iqve Zveli qristianuli saflavebi. CaviwereT sofelSi gavrcelebuli gvarebi (SavaZe, wulukiZe, bolqvaZe, xozrevaniZe, dimitraZe, obaZe); CaviniSneT didaWaris ubnebisa da Semogarenis _ mTebis (serebis), saxnav-saTibi miwebis, wyaroebis toponimika. soflidan kargad Cans is gzebi, romlebiTac SeiZleba samcxeSi gadasvla, erTia goderZis uReltexilis mimarTuleba, xolo meore iremaZeebi-sacixuri-agaraRorjomo-qvabisjvari-kikibo-derceli da zekar-"rkinis jvari"; Cven es meore savaraudo marSruti CaviniSneT, momavali wlisaTvis, radganac, rogorc adgilobrivebma gviTxres, mTaSi Tovlis gamo gzebi gafuWda da maT gavlas III eqspediciaSi ver SevZlebdiT; gvian RamiT daRlilebi davbrundiT xuloSi. meore diliT daviZariT goderZis uReltexilisaken, gzad gaviareT dioknisi, sadac cota xniT SavisveneT; uReltexilze Tovli dagvxvda, Rame axalcixis sastumroSi davrCiT; meore dRes, axla ukve samcxedan avediT "rkinis jvarze". mSvenieri dRe dadga da yvelaferi Canda kavkasionidan TurqeTamde, jvari yvela17

ze maRal mTazea aRmarTuli, Zveli jvari ufro samxreT-aRmosavleTiT "gormaRalze" mdgara, iq adreve yofila misi safuZveli, masTan fexiT misvla ver SevZeliT, gadavdeT momavali wlisaTvis; mwvervalze didxans gavCerdiT, gadaviReT cixisjvris cixe, masTan mimavali gzebiT; jvarTan mama basilma gadaixada paraklisi; saRamos, Sebindebisas, avediT zadengoraze, veraferi ver gadaviReT da davbrundiT axalcixeSi; diliT isev avediT zadengoraze. aq axla teleanZa daudgamT, misi dadgmisas unaxavT samarxebi areuli ZvlebiT. es mniSvnelovani punqtia brinjaos xanidan da, rac CvenTvis yvelaze metad sayuradReboa, ukavSirdeba wm. andria mociqulis mier aq moxdenil saswauls, kerpebis damxobas. vnaxeT nasaxlarebi, Zveli gvirabi, albaT daranSi mimavali. gadaviReT qvis lodSi amoWrili karis anjama, damSrali wyaro; zadengoradan md. uravelis marcxena sanapiroze mdebare sofel andriawmindaSi gavemgzavreT. vnaxeT da gadaviReT X s-is darbazuli eklesia, romelic wm. mocuqulis saxelzea nakurTxi. sofelSi SevxvdiT da vesaubreT 81 wlis metad sasiamovno moxucebuls ­ giorgi inasariZes. misi monaTxrobiT, zadengoridan andria pirvelwodebulma gamotopa md. focxovi da am sofelSi movida, Semdeg kvalTaxevisa da orfolas gavliT, awyurSi misula. batonma giorgim mogviyva zepirstyvieri gadmocemebi im saswaulebis Sesaxeb, romlebic wm. mociqulma moaxdina: 1. dabadebiT usinaTlo qalisSvils Tvali auxila, 2. mociquli dauWeriaT, uwamebiaT, Semdeg ormoSi CaugdiaT da ormosTvis saqonlis tyavi gadaufarebiaT, saidanac naTeli amosula, ramac aiZula aqauri beladi gaeTavisuflebina mociquli, 3. pitalo kldes kverTxi dahkra da wyaro gamoadina, romelsac dResac andrias wyaros

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uwodeben, sofeli andriobis dResaswauls ixdis didi marxvis me-5 xuTSabaTs, rac, albaT, dakavSirebulia saqarTveloSi misi Semosvlis dResTan. amis Semdeg gavemgzavreT TbilisSi, sadac gvian RamiT CavediT. III mogzaurobaSi ver moxerxda eqspediciiT gaTvaliswinebuli marSrutis srulyofilad gavla, ver gaviareT didaWara-zekaris zemoT aRniSnuli monakveTi, xeli SegviSala zamTris moaxloebam da mTaSi Tovlis mosvlam, amitom ukve maSin davgegmeT Semdegi eqspediciis savaraudo svla gezi _ aWara-samcxe-imereTi. mogzaurobis pirvel dRes SevxvdiT baTumisa da sxalTis (amJamad baTumis da qobuleTis) mitropolits dimitris, romelmac didi siTboTi da siyvaruliT migviRo da dagvloca. eqspedicias aWaris umaRles sabWoSi Sexvedra mogviwyo aWaris umaRlesi sabWos Tavmjdomarem batonma mixeil maxaraZem, Sexvedras eswrebodnen batonebi maTe takiZe (amJamad aWaris ganaTlebis, kulturisa da sportis ministri) da profesori biWiko diasamiZe. aRsaniSnavia batoni maTes didi yuradReba Cveni eqspediciisadmi. is gvian RamiT dagvxda, mogvawyo sastumroSi da mTeli eqspediciis ganmavlobaSi gvexmareboda sxvadasxva saorganizacio sakiTxis gadawyveta-mogvarebaSi. 2004 wlis 24-25 noembers saqarTvelos sapatriarqos, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis da klasikuri filologiis, bizantinistikis da neogrecistikis institutis TaosnobiT ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi Catarda saerTaSoriso samecniero simpoziumi "qris19

tianobis 20 saukune saqarTveloSi", sadac devi berZeniSvilma waikiTxa moxseneba _ "wminda andria mociqulis nakvalevi saqarTveloSi", romelSic Seajama pirveli sami eqpediciis Sualeduri Sedegebi. winamdebare wignSi ganmeorebiT vaqveynebT am samecniero naSroms. 2005 wlis 29 ianvars batoni vaxtang liCelis (arqeologiuri kvlevis centris samecniero eqspediciis xelmZRvaneli, profesori) TaosnobiT daba awyurSi moewyo samecniero Sexvedra, romelic mieZRvna problemas: `arqeologia da religia Savi zRvis regionSi". Sexvedraze miwveulebi viyaviT batoni n. vaCeiSvili (kulturis ministris moadgile), batoni g. grigolia (saxelmwifo universitetis profesori), qalbatoni n. RambaSiZe (istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis ufr. mecnier TanaSromeli) da wm. andria pirvelwodebulis gzis mkvlevi samecniero eqspediciis wevrebi ­ batoni d. berZeniSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT. Sexvedras ver daeswro batoni n. vaCeiSvili. batonma v. liCelma dagvaTvalierebina awyuris naqalaqaris arqeologiuri gaTxrebi. vnaxeT Zveli eklesiis nakvalevi da SesaniSnavi, axali taZris nangrevebi. jgufis wevrebi avediT da gadaviReT awyuris cixe. dRis meore naxevarSi gaimarTa samecniero Sexvedra. moxsenebebi waikiTxes: v. liCelma ­ wm. andria samcxeSi, d. berZeniSvilma ­ wm. andria pirvelwodebulis gzebi saqarTveloSi, n. RambaSiZem ­ wm. andria mociquli ­ eTnologiuri xedva, g. grigoliam ­ wm. andria pirvelwodebuli da xalxuri tradicia. moxsenebebis Semdeg gaimaTa diskusia, rasac mohyva gulTbili vaxSami. gvian RamiT davbrundiT TbilisSi.

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IV eqspedicia

rogorc mogaxseneT, III mogzaurobaSi ver moxerxda eqspediciiT gaTvaliswinebuli marSrutis srulyofilad gavla. amis gamo IV eqspediciis marSruti daaxloebiT imeorebda wina mogzaurobis svlagezs mcire damatebebiT. imave mizezis gamo wina eqspediciis CatarebisaTvis miRebuli saxelmwifo grantidan dagvrCa auTvisebeli Tanxa, romelsac daemata kerZo Semowirulobebi, riTac dafinansda ukve IV mogzauroba. Cveni eqspediciis sponsorebi iyvnen: daTo Sengelia, zurab odilavaZe, Temur beriSvili, besarion beriZe, avTandil mWedliani, kaxa CiqviniZe, daviT oZelaSvili, daviT kakabaZe, Temur kapanaZe, malxaz niqabaZe. eqspedicia Sedga 2005 wlis 20 ­ 27 seqtembers da monawileobdnen: samecniero xelmZRvaneli, istorikosi devi berZeniSvili, jixeTis dedaTa monastris winamZRvari arqimandriti andria (kbilaSvili), koordinatori da teqnikuri direqtori mixeil fxaWiaSvili, arqeologi givi bolqvaZe, istorikosi eldar bubulaSvili, alpinisti Tamaz SaraSeniZe, fotoJurnalisti giorgi fxaWiaSvili da operatori jaba kldiaSvili, mZRoli elizbar gogolaZe (Tavisi kuTvnili mikroavtobusiT). mogzaurobaSi monawileoba ver SeZlo eqspediciis moZRvarma dekanozma basil (JorJikaSvilma). Cven vTxoveT mama andrias (kbilaSvils), romelic siamovnebiT dagveTanxma da Zalin didi daxmareba gagviwia, rogorc moZRvarma da organizatorma mTeli rigi problemebis (sakiTxebis) mogvareba-gadawyvetaSi. xuloSi isev, rogorc adre, Tbilad migviRo, gvimaspinZla da megzuroba gagviwia dekanozma mirian (samxaraZem), sofel sacixurSi Cveuli qarTuli stumarmaspinZlobiT dagvxvda da Tavis saxlSi dagvabinava batonma SoTa SavaZem. is ori dRis ganmavlobaSi gviwevda

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kvalificirebul megzurobas, gvawvdida Cveni eqspediciisaTvis metad saWiro informacias adgilobr toponimikaze da tradiciebze, gvexmareboda mTeli rigi saorganizacio sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi. eqspediciis marSruti aseTi iyo: Tbilisidan gavemgzavreT guriaSi, jixeTis dedaTa monasterSi, sadac Tbilad mogviRo mama andriam; monastridan gavemgzavreT martvilSi, saidanac movbrundiT isev guriaSi, xrianeTSi, sofel oxojurSi, iqidan kurort boboyvaTis gavliT RamiT CavediT baTumSi; baTumidan kidev erTxel movinaxuleT gonios (afsarosis) cixeSi wm. mociquli mataTas saflavi da gvian RamiT CavediT xuloSi; xulodan avediT didaWaraSi; didaWariden avuyeviT jer md. Rorjomis wyals da Semdeg md. naflatis wyals da mivediT sofel sacixurSi; sacixuris, Rorjomis, vanaZeebis da agaris regionebis daTvalierebis Semdeg, sacixuri-agara-naTelaTi-kunWuleTi-wiTeltba-qvabijvariT amovediT arsianis qedis unagirze da daveSviT md. qvablianis xeobaSi, sofel moxes gavliT CavediT adigenSi; adigeniden manqaniT CavediT kurort abasTumanSi, saidanac isev zekaris uReltexilis gadalaxviT CavediT kurort sairmeSi, sadac sanatoriumSi davisveneT; meore dRes davaTvalireT sairmis Semogareni, Semdeg varcixe (rodopolisi) cixis gavliT moviloceT gelaTisa da mowameTas monastrebi, SuaRamiT davbrundiT TbilisSi. IV eqspedicia daviwyeT jixeTis dedaTa monasterSi yovladwminda RvTismSoblis Sobis dResaswaulisadmi miZvnili RamisTevis sazeimo wirvaze daswrebiT. jgufis zogierTi wevri eziara. simboluri iyo, rom msaxureba Seasrula mama andriam, romlis mfarveli angelozi wm. andria pirvelwodebulia. diliT sazei22

mo trapezis Semdeg davaTvaliereT monastris mezeumi; wm. mociqulis Sesaxeb wyaroebSi da gadmocemebSi naxsenebia martvili, amitomac gavemgzavreT samegrelosken _ martvilSi, iq davaTvaliereT martvilis sakaTedro taZari, Cveni yuradReba gansakuTrebiT miipyro martvilis mcire Zvelma taZarma (VII s.), romelic dakavSrebulia wm. andria mocuqulze arsebul gadmocemasTan, Semdeg davaTvaliereT martvilis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumi, sadac mogviyvnen zepiri gadmocema imis Sesaxeb, rom wm. mociquls mouWria didi muxa (Wyoni), masTan mdgomo bomoni "kapunia" ki gaunadgurebia da mis adgilze aRumarTavs jvari. martvildan gamovbrundiT guriaSi ­ xrianeTSi, sofel oxojuris wm. andria pirvelwodebulis eklesiis sanaxavad; sasaflaos SuaSi mdebare sanaxevrod dangreuli erTnaviani darbazuli eklesia devis winaswari mosazrebiT daaxloebiT X-XII ss-ebs unda ganekuTnebodes; mama andriam gadaixada mcire paraklisi da gavemgzavreT baTumisaken. gzad gaviareT korort boboyvaTSi, sadac isvenebda sruliad saqarTvelos patriarqi il ia II. man didi siyvaruliT migviRo, moismina Cvengan informacia eqspediciis mimdinareobis Sesaxeb da gzaze dagvloca. baTumSi batoni maTe takiZis daxmarebiT movewyveT sastumro "bakurSi"; saRamoTi vaxSamze migviwvies Cveni jgufis wevris, eldar bubulaSvilis, naTesavebma; diliT batonma maTem takiZem dagvaTvalierebina baTumis Tamaris cixe da mis teritoriaze agebuli eklesia, gavecaniT religiis muzeums; Semdeg b-ma maTem migviwvia axal kinoTeatrSi g. doloZis mier aRdgenili filmis prezentaciaze; kidev erTxel movinaxuleT gonios cixe, iq SevxvdiT TurqeTSi gadamReb

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jgufTan (reJisori karlo Rlonti da operatori irakli onofriSvili) erTad mimaval "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris" gamgeobis Tavmjdomares akademikos daviT musxeliSvils; or saaTSi CavediT xuloSi, sadac ise, rogorc wina wels, migviRo da dagvabinava mama mirianma (samxaraZem); dilidan moyolebuli mTeli dRe gavatareT transportis (cxenebis an orxidianis manqanis) ZebnaSi, raTa didaWaridan mTa-mTa, arsianis qedis gadalaxviT gadavsuliyaviT jer adigenSi, xolo Semdeg iqidan avsulyaviT fersaTis qedze "rkinis jvarze", bolos mama andriam, rogorc iqna, monaxa xulos gamgebeli batoni tariel abulaZe, man migviRo, didi yuradRebiT mogvismina da gadagviWra es problema. gamoviyves saavadmyofos "uazi", riTac gavemgzavreT sacixuris sakrebulos TavmjdomaresTan ­ baton SoTa SavaZesTan; rogorc zemoT mogaxseneT, batoni SoTam didi daxmareba gagviwia, yvela Tavis saxlSi dagvabinava, Cagvawerina sacixuris, agaris da Rorjomis TemebSi arsebuli gvarebi, am soflebis Semogarenis _ naeklesiarebis (qilisebis), rogorc aq eZaxian, nacixarebis, mTebis, mdinareebis da wyaroebis toponimika, CagvaniSnina yvela is marSruti, romlebiTac SeiZleba fersaTis qedze, zekaris uReltexize moxvedra. meore dRes misi megzurobiT davaTvaliereT da gadaviReT jvarTanas da vanaZeebis nasaydralebi, perangSemoZarculi, eklesiebis nangrevebi (devis misazrebiT orive ganviTarebuli Sua saukuneebis); namonastrevSi gvaCvenes adgili da Senobis nangrevebi, sadac gadmocemiT iyo monasteri da iqve napovni uxeSad damuSavebuli sqelkedla qoTnebi Tu kaTxebi; manqana gagvifuWda da amitom ver vnaxeT pantnarSi jorjikeTTan jvarTanisa da nasaydris msgavsi qilisa; fe24

xiT davbrundiT sacixurSi; cxenebi aqac ver viSoveT. SoTas Zmam didi gaWirvebiT manqana SeakeTa da SevudegiT mzadebas; sami marSrutidan: 1. vanaZeebi ­ Rorjomi ­ sayvelaferdi _ nasoflari _ yvirali _ kikibos mimarTuleba, 2. sacixuri ­ agara ­ naTelaTi ­ mosavleTi ­ nailavi ­ kunWuleTi ­ wiTeltba ­ qvabijvari ­ moxe _ dercelis mimarTuleba, 3. sacixuri ­ gelauri ­ velaTi _ xanumis gziT _ kexovani an sacixuri ­ pantnari ­ jorjikeTi ­ riyeTi _ goderZis mimarTuleba, Cven avirCieT me-2 mimarTuleba; diliT SevuyeviT arsianis qedisaken aRmarTs, garkveul adgilebSi manqanas uWirda da Cven fixiT miuyvebodiT gzas, sacixurisa da agaris garda, yvela dasaxleba sazafxulo iailebia, wiTeltbidan kargad davaTvalireT da gadaviReT qvabijvari; dRis meore naxevarSi avediT arsianis qedze, naomris velze, romelic zRvis donidan 2000 metrzea; marcxniv Cans kikibo, pirdapir derceli da moxe, samreT-aRmosavleTiT _ zarzma, ude, Sors _ TurqeTis saqarTvelo, md. focxovis xeoba, ufro Sors ki _ eruSeTis qedis fragmeti nislSi; Cvenze momagrebuli manqana da SoTa SavaZe aqedan ukan unda dabrundnen, moxemde minimum 30 kilometria, aseTi tvirTiT, fexiT moxemde, umegzurod Casvla Zalian gagviWirdeboda; gadavwyviTeT baton tariel abulaZesTan darekva. bedad maleve davukavSirdiT. man operatiulad dagvakavSira adigenis gamgebels baton aleqsandre suxiaSvils; gamgebelma Caiwera Cveni telefonis nomeri da ukve cota xanSi dagvikavSirda moxes gamgebeli, romelic Segvpirda manqanis gamogzavnas; sanam manqana amogvakiTxavda, gavSaleT sufra, daviloceT, davemSvidobeT SoTas da mZRols; 2-3 saaTis lodinis Semdeg didma samxidianma manqanam amogvakiTxa da sakmaod rTuli relie25

fis gziT CavediT moxeSi; iq gairkva, rom mTaSi acivebula da mejogeebi barSi Camosulan. Segvpirden, rom momaval wels ivnisis bolos Tu CavalT moxeSi, dagvaxvedreben cxenebs da TviT moxes gamgebeli gvimegzurebs; gvian RamiT CavediT adigenSi, movewyveT sastumroSi; diliT ori "vilisiT" Cagviyvanes abasTumanSi, sadac gadavsxediT saswrafo daxmarebis "uazSi" da zekari-"rkinis jvris" uReltexilis gadavliT CavediT kurort sairmeSi. rogorc SeTanxmebulebi viyaviT Cveni mZRoli elizbari sairmis Tavze dagvxvda; mama andrias axloblebis daxmarebiT Rame sanatoriumSi gavaTeneT; dilidan davaTvalireT sairme da misi Semogareni; CavuyeviT md. wablaris wyals sofel wablarisxevSi, romelTanac axlos adgil mamaneTSi vnaxeT namonastralis kvali, Semdeg davaTvalireT adgili udabno, sadac naeklesiars uCveneben, vnaxeT qva, namdvilad stelis nawili, CaviwereT toponimi "diakvnis xidi"; devim gamoTqva azri, rom aq SeiZleba marTlac iyo eklesia da es adgili namonastrevs hgavs; mama andrias jixeTis monastridan manqaniT moakiTxes, didi siyvaruliT davemSvidobeT erTmaneTs; Cveni manqaniT gavemgzavreT quTaisSi, moviloceT gelaTi da mowameTa da gamTeniisas davbrudiT TbilisSi. IV mogzaurobaSic ver moxerxda dagegmili marSrutis bolomde gavla. amitom momavali wlisaTvis gadavwyviteT, samkaciani jgufiT (devi berZeniSvili, mixeil fxaWiaSvili da operatori) moxeSi Casvla da darCenili moxe-derceli-mamlismTa-fersaTis qedi da "rkinis jvari" monakveTis gavla.

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mogzaurobidan dabrunebis ori Tvis Tavze devi berZeniSvilma waikiTxa moxseneba II saerTaSoriso simpoziumze _ "qristianoba Cvens cxovrebaSi: warsuli, awmyo, momavali", romelic Catarda 24-26 noembers saqarTvelos sapatriarqos, saqarTvelos marlmadidebel eklesiasTan arsebuli "qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris" da iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriis da eTnologiis institutis TaosnobiT. avtoris analiziT wm. andria pirvelwodebulTan dakavSirebuli qarTuli tradiciuli gadmocemebi, materialuri kulturis Zeglebi da toponimebis monacemebi nasazrdoebia (dafuZnebulia, momdinareobs) Zveli istoriuli werilobiTi wyaroebiT, xolo werilobiTi tradicia bevrs iRebda xalxuri gadmocemebisagan. winamdebare wignSi ganmeorebiT vaqveynebT am samecniero naSroms. ganvlili am oTxi eqspadiciis Semdeg SevajereT wm. andria pirvelwodebulis saqarTveloSi Semosvlisa da mogzaurobis Sesaxeb arsebuli istoriuli wyaroebi da gadmocemebi Cveni mogzaurobebis SedegebTan, ramac migviyvana im daskvnamde, rom aucilebeli iyo samecniero kvlevis TurqeTSi gagrZeleba. kerZod, TurqeTis saqarTveloSi, raTa gvenaxa, Segveswavla da gagvevlo is istoriul saqaravne gzebi, romlebic I saukunisaTvis Semodioda imJamindel saqarTveloSi da romliTac SeiZleba esargebla wm. andria mociquls. saWiro iyo agreTve am gzebis gavlisas gamogvekvlia yvela is punqti, romlebzec saubaria wyaroebSi, mogvexdina am adgilebis Zveli da amJamindeli saxelebis identificireba, adgilze Segveswavla da dagvedgina, Tu ra kavSiri aqvs wm. andria mociqulis moRvaweobas tao-klajeTis unikalur memkvidroebasTan, rogorc saeklesio ZeglebTan, aseve istoriul

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safortifikacio da saero nagebobebTan. es yvelaferi gamomdinareobda iqidan, rom andria pirvelwodebuli saqarTveloSi Semovida romis imperiis sazRvrebSi myofi aRmosavleT anatoliis, istoriuli pontosa da lazikis regionebidan, romlebic amJamindeli TurqeTis respublikis teritorias warmoadgenen. amitomac Semdegi eqspediacia daigegma TurqeTSi. devi berZeniSvilTan SeTanxmebiT gavakeTe savaraudo marSrutis maketi, romelic devim moiwona. me, rogorc eqspediciis koordinators da teqnikur direqtors, damevala eqspediciis xarjTaRricxvis Sedgena da saWiro aRWurvilobis SeZena-momarageba. 2006 wlis zafxulidan TurqeTis anu mexuTe eqspediis proeqti mzad iyo da daviwyeT saWiro Tanxis moZieba. xarjaRricxvam sakmaod soliduri Tanxa Seadgina, amitom sponsoris moZebna Zalian gaWirda. Tavdapirvelad eqspediciis xangrZlivoba davyaviT orTvenaxevrian etapad: pirveli ­ trapizonis regioni da istoriuli lazika, arTvini, SavSeTi, klajeTi, tao, artaani, kola, yarsisa da erzrumis regionebi, kabadokia, ankaris regioni, Savi zRvis sanapiro, sinopidan trapizonamde; meore ­ samxreTi da dasavleTi TurqeTis regionebi stambulis CaTvliT; saeqspedicio jgufi iTvaliswinebda 10 wevrs, satransporto saSualeba ki ori manqanis (jipis) daqiravebas.

V eqspedicia

2007 wlis dekebridan 2008 wlis bolomde saqarTvelo aRniSnavda sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqis, uwmidesisa da unetaresis il ia II-is aRsaydrebidan 30 wlisTavs. am saiubileo TariRis aRniSvnasTan dakavSirebiT daigegma mTeli rigi RoniZi28

ebebi, romelTa nusxaSic moxvda Cveni proeqti. magram dafinansebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gamo xarjTaRricxvaSi SetaneT cvlilebi: monawileTa ricxvi SevamcireT 7 kacamde, satransporto saSualebebTan dakavSirebiT gadawyda erTi manqanis (jipis) SeZena da ara daqiraveba. cvlilebebi movaxdineT eqspediciis marSrutSi da xangrZlivobaSi. gadawyda eqspedicias emogzaura TurqeTis qarTul regionSi da Savi zRvis sanapiroze Tvenaxevari ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi. am cvlilebebis Semdeg 2008 wlis gazafxulze dadebiTad gadawyda Cveni proeqtis dafinanseba, miviReT isev saxelmwifo granti. eqspediciaSi gamgzavrebamde devi berZeniSvilma, eldar bubulaSvilma, mixeil fxaWiaSvilma da Tamaz SaraSeniZem miviReT monawileoba samecniero konferenciaSi ­ "wmida andria pirvelwodebulis gziT", romelic gaimarTa 2008 wlis 2-4 maiss xulo-didaWaraSi, sxalTis episkoposis spiridonis (abulaZe) locva-kurTxaviT. devi berZeniSvilma waikiTxa moxseneba ­ "qarTuli tradicia wminda andria pirvelwodebulis Sesaxeb", eldar bubulaSvilma ki "wm. mociqulTa saxelTan dakavSirebuli siwmindeebi saqarTveloSi". devi berZeniSvilis statias ganmeorebiT gTavazobT winamdebare wignSi. 2008 wlis maisSi SeviZineT eqspediciisaTvis saWiro manqana (jipi "toiota-lend kruizeri"), romelic dakompleqtebuli iyo 7 sajdomi savarZeliT da saeqspedicio aRWurviloba. sakmaod didi xani velodeT TurqeTis kulturis saministrosagan TurqeTis teritoriaze profesionaluri videokameriT gadaRebis uflebas, romelic bolos da bolos, TiTqmis erTi Tvis lodinis Semdeg miviReT, raSic didi daxmareba

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gagviwies TurqeTSi saqarTvelos elCma batonma gega mgalobliSvilma da misma TanamSromelma batonma zurab batiaSvilma. 3 ivlisis saRamos 2230 saaTze eqspedicia mTeli SemadgenlobiT daiZra Tbilisidan saCxerisken, sadac gvian RamiT meufe danielma dagvloca gzaze. gamTeniisas 0600 saaTze Cven gadavkveTeT TurqeTis sazRvari da daaxloebiT 1000 saaTze CavediT trapizonSi, movewyveT sastumroSi "iukanSi", davisveneT da saRamos vestumreT trapizonSi saqarTvelos saelCos generalur konsuls baton avTo miqacaZes. sakonsuloSi Sexvedram megobrul atmosferoSi Caiara, Cven baton avTo miqacaZes da mis TanamSromlebs movuyeviT eqspediciis Sinaarsi, maT aRgviTqves yovelgvari daxmareba. saRamo dasrulda vaxSamiTa da Ramis trapizonSi gaseirnebiT. V mogzaurobis marSrutis Sesaxeb informacias mogawvdiT mokled, sqematurad, radgan batoni devis dRiurSi es yovelive didi profesionalizmiTa da sizutiT aqvs gadmocemuli. Cvenma manqanam, romelsac devi berZeniSvilma "TareSa" daarqva, gaiara aseTi svlagezi: trapizoni ­ maCka (sumela, bazeloni) _ ziganas uReltexili _ gumiSxane (yofili argiropolosi) ­ aidinTefe _ baiburTi _ ispiri (yofili speri) ­ daRbaSis uReltexili _ rize ­ xofa ­ arTvini ­ borCxa _ muratlu _ arTvini _ artanuji _ arTvini ­ parxali ­ iusufeli ­ md. TorTomis xeoba _ iusufeli _ erzrumi ­ pasinlari (yofili basiani) _ erzrumi _ "giurji baRazis" ("qarTlis gza") uReltexili _ SavSaTi (yofili saTle) ­ arTvini ­ klarjeTi _ arTvini _ olTisi ­ narmani _ oluri ­ Cataksu (yofili taoskari) _ oluri _ fanaskerti _ agundiris uReltexili _ kola ­ artaani ­ focxovi ­ artaani _ Cildiris tba _ yarsi ­ erzrumi ­ kopis uReltexili (qaldiis karibWe, md. Woroxis saTaveebi)

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_ baiburTi ­ Sebiryarahisari (yofili kolonia) _ niqsari (yofili neokesaria) ­ giumeneki (yofili komani) ­ ToxaTi (yofili kukuso) ­ amasia ­ samsuni ­ sinopi ­ samsuni ­ trapizoni _ baTumi _ axalcixe _ axalqalaqi _ Tbilisi. erzrumSi droebiT dagvtova megzurma da Tarjimanma daudma, romelic aTi dRiT, piradi saqmeebis gamo, wavida stambulSi. is Secvala, TurqeTSi, q. arTviniSi gazrdilma, amJamad, Tbiliselma vaxtang saRinaZem. radganac daudi mZRolis movaleobasac asrulebda, saWesTan is SevcvaleT me da Tamaz SaraSeniZem. erzrumidan gzad SavSeTisaken gaviareT, davaTvaliereT da gadaviReT saqarTveloSi Semosasvleli Zveli saqaravne gzis nawili uReltexili "giurji boRazi" ("qarTlis gza"), gvian RamiT CavediT q. SavSaTSi (yofili saTle). 8 agvistos artaanis sastumroSi CemTan nomerSi Semovarda kaxa imnaiSvili da miTxra, rom omi daiwyo ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris. yvelam sasawrafod gadavrekeT TbilisSi. 8 agvistodan, omis dawyebasTan dakavSirebiT Cveni jgufis yvela wevrs warmoeSva piradi problemebi, yvelasTvis Zalian gaWirda TurqeTSi darCena, magram pasuxisgeblobis grZnobam migvaRebina erTaderTi swori gadavwyvitileba, rom aseTi warmatebuli eqspediciis Sewyveta ar SeiZleboda. 16 agvistos saRamos 1800 saaTisaTvis CavediT trapizonSi, movewyveT sastumro "nazarSi", davisveneT. Semdeg davrekeT saqarTvelos generalur konsulTan, baton avTo miqacaZesTan, romelmac gviTxra, rom 1900 saaTze ruseTis sakonsulosTan, trapizonis qarTveloba awyobda saprotesto manifestacia-mitings. Cvenc saswrafod movemzadeT da wavediT ruseTis sakonsu31

losTan. devi berZeniSvili Zalian gaxarebuli iyo, rom mitings mivusawariT. manifestaciis Semdeg batonma avTom migviwvia sakonsuloSi, sadac pirvelad vuyureT televizia "imeds", vnaxeT is Semzaravi kadrebi, qarTulad movismineT, rac gvWirda, rac xdeboda saqarTveloSi. ukana gzaze vivaxSmeT da Zalian dazafrulebi davbrundiT sastumroSi, davgegmeT meore dRe, 17 agvisto. gadawyda, rom erT dRes davisvenebdiT trapizonSi da 18-Si davbrundebodiT samSobloSi baTumi-goderZis uReltexili-axalcixe-axalqalaqi-walka-Tbilisis gziT, radganac gori-Tbilisis monakveTi rusi okupantebis xelSi iyo. yvela gavnawildiT Cven-Cvens nomrebSi. 1200 saaTi xdeboda, rom SeSfoTebuli eldar bubulaSvili Semovarda CemTan nomerSi da SeSinebulma miTxra, rom devi iatakze daeca da cudad aris. saswrafod me da Tamaz SaraSeniZe gavcvivdiT devis nomerSi, iq dagvxvdnen kaxa imnaiSvili da daTo asaTiani, romlebsac devi wamoeyenebinaT da sawolze daesvaT, mas goneba hqonda dakarguli, kaxam wneva gauzoma, romelic sakmaod maRali iyo, rogorc Cans, devis TavSi sisxli hqonda Caqceuli. gamoCnda daudic. me telefoniT velaparake sakonsulos TanamSromels baton giorgi yuSitaSvils, man gamomkiTxa, romel sastumroSi viyaviT. Zalian male batoni giorgi saswrafo daxmarebis eqimTan erTad devis nomerSi iyo. eqimma devis gasinjvis Semdeg moiTxova misi hospitalizacia, razec Cveni Tanxmoba miiRo. qalaqis saavadmyofoSi is moaTavses mimRebi ganyofilebis intensiur palataSi da daiwyo misi mkurnalobisaTvis saWiro procedurebis Catareba; Tavidan TiTqos saqme kargad midioda, baton devisac ukeTesoba daetyo, kontaqtSi Semosvla undoda, magram Semdeg daiwyo gauareseba, ganviTarda infarqti.

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morige eqimma devis mdgomareoba uimedod CaTvala. Cven moveTaTbireT giorgi yuSitaSvils da eqimTan SeTanxmebiT saavamyofos reanimobiliT devi gadaviyvaneT sauniversiteto klinikaSi. devi klinikaSi miyvanisTanave pirdapir reanimaciaSi moaTavses, eldari da Tamazi, romlebic reanimomobilSi ijdnen, raRacnairad klinikis SenobaSi moxvdnen. danarCenebi, giorgi yuSitaSvilis garda, saavadmyofos SenobaSi ar SegviSves, davrCiT yvelani klinikis ezoSi. Cven SemogvierTnen batono avTo miqacaZe da sakonsulos TanamSromlebi, romelTa siyvaruli da didi pativiscema maTTan nacnobobis am mokle periodis ganmavlobaSi moepovebina baton devis. daaxloebiT 20-30 wuTis Semdeg klinikis Senobidan gamovida acremlebuli Tamazi, Semdeg eldari da batoni devis mkurnali eqimi, romelmac damwuxrebulma gviTxra, rom ganmeorebuli infarqtis Sedegad 17 agvistos 0145 saaTze, adgilobrivi droiT, gulmxurvale mamuliSvilisa da saqarTvelos istoriis gamoCenili mkvlevaris devi berZeniSvilis guli, istoriuli lazeTis miwaze, saidanac wm. andria pirvelwodebulma daiwyo qarTveli eris moqceva, gaCerda. man ver aitana misi sayvareli samSoblos mZime gansacdeli da, rogorc yvela Rirseuli samSoblos moyvaruli meomari, brZolis velze daeca. RvTis SewevniT da wm. andria mociqulis meoxebiT, Rrma mwuxarebis miuxedavad, eqspediciis wevrebi sasowarkveTilebaSi ar CavcvenilvarT, Tumca iyo amisi saSiSroeba. keTili da gulisxmieri adamianebis avTo miqacaZis, giorgi yuSitaSvilisa da TurqeTSi, trapizonis generaluri sakonsulos TanamSromlebis mxarSi dgomiT SevZeliT, drois daukargavad, devi berZeniSvilis cxedaris gadmosveneba sarfSi.

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klinikis ezodanve, 0300 saaTze, saswrafod telefoniT davukavSirdi baton maTe takiZes baTumSi, romelmac, rogorc WeSmaritma qristianma, gulTan miitana Cveni gasaWiri da yovelgvari daxmareba aRmiTqva. daaxloebiT dilis eqvs saaTze sarfis sasazRvro terminalis neitralur zonaSi dagvxvda batoni maTe saswrafo daxmarebis manqaniT. Cven erTad gadavasveneT devis cxedari manqanaSi. baTumSi garkveuli procedurebis Catarebis Semdeg devi berZeniSvilis cxedari davasveneT saswrafo daxmarebis manqanaSi da SevudegiT Tbilisisaken metad momqancvel gzas. win migviZRoda batoni devis cxedari, ukan "TareSaSi" msxdomni, mivyvebodiT, Cven, misi kolegebi, moswavleebi, Segirdebi im gziT, romelic daaxloebiT 20 saukunis win gaiara wm. andria pirvelwodebulma. sainteresoa, RmerTma ise ineba, rom devi Tavis saTayvanebel TbilisSi brundeboda Tavisi usayvarlesi javaxeTiT, romelic misi kvlevebis erT-erTi mTavari sagani iyo, is xom am mxaris specialistad da did mcodned iyo aRiarebuli. ukve 18 agvisto dgeboda, roca batoni devi mSobliur qalaqSi, barnovis N# 150-Si (amJamad i. abaSiZis 48) saxlSi dabrunda... winamdebare wignis winasityvaobis Sedgenisas visargeble Cemi CanawerebiT, romelsac vawarmoebdi oTxive eqspediciis dros, saqarTvelos regionebis rukebze, mogzaurobisas ganvlili punqtebis Sesaxeb, Cems mier gakeTebuli aRniSvnebiTa da komentarebiT, batonebis nika vaCeiSvilis me-2, devi berZeniSvilisa da eldar bubulaSvilis me-3 da me-4 eqspediciis CanawerebiT da Cveni mogzaurobebis dros gadaRebuli video da foto masalebiT. rac Seexeba V mogzaurobas visargeble dRiuriT, romelsac Tavad vawarmoebdi.

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devi berZeniSvil is dRiuri 3.07.08 rogorc iqna, gamovetieT Tbilisidan. varT Svidni. Cveni gamyoli gurji daudia1 (mamis dediT futkaraZe), icis qarTuli, 26 wlisaa, arTvinidan, TbilisSi hyavs megobrebi da apirebs qarTul moqalaqeobas. bagrationebs2 dayveboda, misi misamarTic ninom Camiwera. Tbilisi davtoveT Ramis 10-ze. saCxereSi meufe danielTan viyaviT 1-ze, gamoviareT baTumi, sarfi, SeuCerebliv viareT, trapizons CamovaRwieT dilis 7-ze. baTumidan samsunamde plaJebi araa. mTebi axloa mosuli zRvasTan. xSiria xelovnuri yureebi, Seqmnili kldis didi lodebiT. es Relvisaganac icavs napirs da patara gemebis gasaCerebelicaa. ratom ar ageben aseTebs CvenTan? trapizonSi movewyeT centrSi sastumro iuvanSi. es qalaqi, SarSan gavliT nanaxi, sakmaod kargi mdebareobisaa, viwro, mokirwyluli quCebiT, portiTa da aeroportiT. saRamos Cvens konsuls vewvieT. avTo3 samsarTulian saxls aremontebs. patara ezoSi bambukis fanCaturi aqvs da fotostendi. bevrs laparakobs da didi gegmebi aqvs... gvimaspinZla da RamiT gaviseirneT. vnaxeT qalaqis kedeli da burjebi das. mxares. aq, xevSi Zveli saxlebi daungrevia qalaqis mers da parks aSenebs. saxvaliod SevipireT avTo, rom erTad davaTvalierebT aia sofias taZars, muzeums. Segvpirda naviT zRvaSi gasvlas, rom iqidan gadaviRoT qalaqi. 4.07.08 dRes qalaqis cixis kedlebiT daviwyeT das-dan.

35

aq es kedlebi mTel sigrZeze mouyveba CrdiloeTidan zRvamde. simaRliT 25-30-mdea. wyoba sxvadasxvaa, gvian ganaxlebuli. koSk-burjebi kuTxovania, akropolisis maRali koSkebi S-Taa. yvelaze maRal adgilzea. xevSi myof saxlebs iReben da parks akeTeben. ufro das-iT ukve qalaqis galavania, imave simaRlisa da wyobisa. aq, CrdiloeTisaken (zRvisaken) Semosasvleli ganieri TaRia, aq axla gzaa. qalaqi galavniT iyofa zeda, Sua da qvemo nawilad. eklesiebi an afeTqebuli, an jameebad qceuli, quCebi viwroa erTi manqanis siganisa, zogan ufro viwro. axali qalaqi aRm-iT Sendeba. aqvea axla aeroportic. parkSi viRac faSis cxenosani figuraa. aqvea jamed qceuli berZn. eklesia. aia sofiis taZari jvargumbaTovania. O-iT 3 afsidaa, Sua xuTkuTxovani. eklesias N, W, da S Sesasvlelebi aqvs TaRovani. S Sesasvlelis Tavze reliefebia adamisa da evas gamosaxulebebiT scenebia (samoTxidan gamoZeveba...). SigniT freskebi nawilobriv gadarCenilia da yvela kedelze CamoTvlilia maTi Sinaarsebi. ratom ar SeiZleba es CvenTanac gakeTon? SuaSi mozaikuri iatakis fragmentia SemorCenili. sakurTxevelTan saflavis qvebia. erTi maTgani unda iyos mamia gurielisa, romelsac colad hyavda did paleologosTa bolo qaliSvili. mTavari taZari 1250-70 wlebSia agebuli. N-iT imave gegmis mcire eklesia _ XIV s-Si, W-iT 5 sarTuliani samreklo koSki _ XV s-saa. ezoSi gamofenilia arq. detalebi, saflavis qvebi, adgilobrivi da sxvani, motanili; aqvea warweriani (berZn. somx.) qvebic. braiers4 naxsenebi aqvs guriel is saflavis qvis warwerac... axla aRar Cans. gamofenil qvebSia 3

36

gviani kapitelic _ esaa sol omon II-is obeliskis qvebi. es obeliski O-iTaaa, qvemo qalaqSi. aq eklesia mdgara, is auRiaT, mis gverdiT myofi saflavebi cacxvTan dausvenebiaT da iqve aRumarTavT obeliski, r-c Zvel fotoebze 7 arSini simaRlisa yofila, 4 svetze dayrdnobili gumbaTi. amave eklesiis siaxloves unda yofiliyo andrias saxel obis gamoqvabul is ekl esia, romelic braieris mixedviT, bulvaris gayvanas Seewira. andriasTan dakavSirebuli meore eklesiac qvemo qalaqSia; is mol a siian james saxels atarebs. samnaviani bazilika Signidan Selesili, garedanac Selesilia. Zveli datovebulia mxolod sami, gareT gamotanili naxevarwriuli afsida. es jamec moqmedia da mcveli hyavs. saRamos navi daviqiraveT da zRvidan gadaviReT Ramis trapizoni. xval ori eklesia unda movinaxuloT qalaqSi, mere wavalT monasterSi da iqidan gadavalT baiburTSi. sakonsulom trapizonis Zveli fotoalbomi gvaTxova. iqvea fotoebi 1890 w-dan. Cemi aparatiT gadaviRe 10 suraTi CvenTvis saintereso adgilebisa. 5.07.08 tradiciiT qalaqSi kidev erTi Zveli eklesiaa, romelic axla jamedaa qceuli. esaa ieni juma jamii _ `pirveli paraskevis locvis Rame~. es eklesia sami naxevarwriuli afsidiT, gumbaTiani eklesiaa. is SekeTebulia SesaniSnavad. aRm. da samxr. mxares mogrZo kovziseburRarebiani lavgardanebia. O mxares maT SerCenili aqvT wreSi Casmuli da

37

Tavisufali jvrebi. Crd. kedlebSi wnuli ornamentiani qvebi restavrirebisas uadgilod CausvamT Signidan. IV s-Si yofila evgeniosi, romelsac daumxia kerpi (herakle). amisaTvis is uwamebiaT da SemdgomSi wmindanad SeuracxavT. did komnenosebs 1204-22 wlebSi misi saxelobis eklesia auSenebiaT, romelic 1461 wlidan jamed gadauqceviaT. mTavar afsidaSi gauWriaT Sesasvleli kari, S-kedelSi amouSenebiaT sarkmlebi da Sesavleli. iqve gaukeTebiaT mihrabi, molas asasvleli kibeebi. iataki daufaravT xaliCiT. amis Semdgom qalaqis centrSi, bazris quCis SuaSi vnaxeT xeliT nakeTebi nawarmis gamofena, iqve XIX s-is didi meCeTiT. qalaqis aRm. nawilSi mTaze movinaxuleT `qal wul Ta monasteri~, romelic restavraciisa da gaTxrebis gamo daketili dagvixvda. davtoveT trapizoni, lamazi da saintereso qalaqi. dilas sastumroSive gadavaTvaliere Zv. fotoebiTa da axali suraTebiT Seqmnili ori albomi. iqidan SevarCieT CvenTvis saintereso Zv. fotoebi da Cemi aparatiT gadaviRe. wamovediT sumel aSi * . es berZnuli monasteri trapizonis O-iT Camomavali xeobis saTaveebSia, mis marcxena sanapiroze maRal mTaSi. granitis kldeSi

*

SeniSvna d. berZeniSvilisa: IV s-Si ori wmindanis RvawliT iwyeba, mere VI s-Si arsdeba aq raRac, r-sac komnenosebi 13 s-Si monastrad aqceven. sumel a _ Savi mTaa. sumelas mTavari monastris misasvlelSi erTnaviani darbazuli eklesiaa, Sverili, naxevarwriuli afsidiT. Sesavleli S-idanaa TaRiT gadaxuruli. TiTo sarkmeli O da S mxares oTxkuTxaa. eklesia Zalian waagavs bazelonis monastris mc. eklesias da SesaZloa masaviT ufro Zv. Iyos, vidre mTavari.) 38

bunebrivi, mSrali Rrmulia, sadac auSenebiaT monasteri. garedan 3-4 sarTuliani kedlebi moCans, sadac senakebia daaxl. 50-mde berisa. Rrmulis SigniTa, dacul mxares, mTavari eklesiaa mariamwmidis saxelobisa. sainteresoa, rom is garedanac da SigniTac moxatulia. yoveli calke scena moCarCoebulia. SigniT, Werze Cviledi RvTismSobelia da mis das-iT macxovari. es ori xati yvelaze didia. Sesasvlels garedan javari aqvs reliefuri (dazianebulia) da saRebaviT berZnuli warwera. saerTod am teritoriaze 5-mde mcire eklesiaa da berebis saTavsebi. gadaxurvebi banuria. wyali garedan hqoniaT Semoyvanili. mosasvleli biliki xevis marcxena napirs miuyveba. misi nawili filaqniT daufaravT. Cven am gziT CamovediT, manqana _ Tavisi gziT. xevsac mariamwmidis saxel i aqvs `marimana~. gviani iyo da baiburTSi wasvla gadavifiqreT. xeobaSi vivaxSmeT da iqve, sasiamovno sastumroSi davrCiT. aqaurebSi bevria qera, cisferTvaleba axalgazrdebi, egebis lazebi. Cveni daudic wablisferTmiani, cisferTvala axalgazrdaa, maWaxlis xeobidan. CxutuneTi mezobladaao. amas Seyvarebuli hyolia, r-ic yoveldRe urekavs _ xelsa mTxoveno. es sasayovelTaod miRebuli fandia gasaTxovar qalebSi. 6.07.08. dRes mogvianebiT gamovediT marimanis xeobidan da davadeqiT gzas baiburTisken. isev xeobebs mivyvebiT, romlebic waagavan Woroxis auzs. gzad kidev erTi berZnuli monastris nangrevebi movinaxuleT. esaa bazel onis. sanam masTan mividodiT, gzispirze kuTxovani cixe-koSkis nangrevi gadaviReT.

39

bazel onis namonastral i mTavar xevis marcxena Semdinaris marjvena napirzea. manqana davayeneT da fexiT SevuyeviT biliks. gzidan iseTive 3-4 sarTuliani kedlebi Canda, rogorc sumelaSi. aqac senakebi aRmoCnda, zogan buxrianebi. aqac iseTive bunebrivi exia bazaltis kldeSi, rogorc sumelaSi. aqaa samnaviani eklesiis nangrevi 3 Sverili afsidiT. SuaSi ufro didia da yvela naxevarwriuli, TiTo sarkmliT. saxuravi Caqceulia, albaT banuri. Signidan gvian SeTeTrebulia, Tumca freskuli moxatvis kvali dablaa SerCenili. CrdiloeTis kedelze, garedan aqac moxatulobaa. iqve saTavsoa, sadac mrgvali viwro svetis natexi gdia _ albaT amiT iyofoda navebi. N-iT mogrZo satrapezoa, romlis qveviT sakuWnao unda yofiliyo. erTgan TiTqos saZvalecaa. sakuWnaodan dabla ezoSi gavediT, sadac mc. erTnaviani darbazuli eklesiaa, TaRuri gadaxurviT. Sesasvleli N-idan, afsida Sverili naxevarwriuli, erTi sarkmliT. aq TiTqmis mTliani darbazi Signidan moxatulia ufro muq ferebSi. das. kedelze kargad irCeva RvTismSobl is miZineba. es eklesia ufro Zv. SeiZleba iyos vidre zeda, samnaviani. saerTod misi msgavseba sumelasTan mafiqrebinebs Tanadroulobas. gza isev iwevs, is erTgan iyofa _ midis kerasuntisa da samsunisaken. gzis marcxniv Torulis cixe gadaviReT. kerasunt-samsuni qal diis TemSia. gumiSxane-argiropol is-vercxl is qalaqi swored am madnebze miuTiTebs. mas 3-4 cixe icavs, sxvadasxva mxridan, mTebze. gza maRla iwevs. marcxniv kldeze Wanixis lamazi cixe moCans, is bagrationebis veb-gverdzedac aris. sof. geCidTan (kaCikaia) iwyeba

40

gadasasvleli _ avdivarT gaSlil zeganze, r-c waagavs TrialeT-javaxeTs. aq moyavT puri, kartofili, xexili ar Cans. saZovrebze moTibuli Tiva oTxkuTxa Znebad awyvia. gzis marcxniv warwera miwisqveSa qalaqze migviTiTebs. gadavuxvieT sof. aidinTefesaken. aq aRmoCnda romauli xanis katakombebi, miwisqveSa gvirabi, romlis gverdebSic patara sadgomebia. erTgan SesaZloa eklesiac yofiliyo brtyeli afsidiT. gvirabi viwroa, kacis simaRle. is organ mrgvali, brtyeli qvisgadmogorebiT kedelSi amoRarulSi jdeba da gasasvleli daketilia. es pirvelsave gaTxriT aRmoCenili gvirabi-darani, kilometrebze grZeldeba da gamosasvleli axali amoSenebulia. aqedan axloa baiburTi. qalaqSi Sesvlamde moCans veeba cixe-simagre goraze, romelic ketavs gzajvaredins. aq Camodis Woroxi, r-sac miuyveba ispirisaken. cixeze manqana adis. mas axla remonti utardeba uniWod. xaraCoebiT apirkeTeben axali qvis kvadrebiT Zvel kedlebs... warweraSi naTqvamia, rom es adgili jer kidev vespasiane imperatoris dros SeirCa (albaT eklesiisaTvis). 1000 w. cixe aSendao, romelmac iarseba XIX s-mde. bizantielebi, selCukebi, Turqosmalebi, somxebi... uZvelesi wyoba tufis kvadrebiT unda iyos, romelic W-S kuTxeSi, SemosasvlelTanaa. aseve uZvelesi meCvena samnaviani eklesiis nangrevi cixis S0 nawilSi. centraluri Sverili afsida gaTlili qvebis wyobiTaa ganaxlebuli, r-ic mkveTrad sxvaobs S-kedlis mc. zomis gamoqaruli qvebis regularul wyobas. S Sesasvlels zevidan naxevarwriuli TaRi gadasdis. N-kedeli da misi afsida aRaraa, arc saxuravia....W

41

mxares Zveli akropolisis wyoba Cans _ saSualo zomis gamoqaruli sworkuTxa, mogrZo qvebis regularuli rigebi. amaTi ugemovno ganaxleba esaa axali kedlebis Seneba, uazro auzebiTa da kedelze asasvleli kibeebiT. es uzarmazari citadeli bizantiuri simagrea, r-is badali mxolod gonio da anakofia meguleba. movTavsdiT sastumroSi, qalaqis centrSi. vaxSami qalaqgareT qalebian restoranSi, sadac avlabreli somexi qarTulad gvCanglavda... 7.07.08 baiburTis CrdiloeTiT, sperisken mimaval gzaze braiers eklesia hqonda aRniSnuli sof. haikinTan. gaviareT, gviTxres nangrevi iyo da zed skola daaSeneso. mivediT, skolis Senoba gadaviRe, Zveli qvebidan aRaraferia. axla am sofels qiofrul baSi (xidisTavi)*. gza Woroxs miuyveba. es xeoba Zalian waagavs mtkvris xeobis nawils musxidan varZiamde: motitvlebuli qedebi, xexiliani Walebi, sadac lamazad moCanan alvis xeebi. gza TandaTan maRla iwevs, daRbaSis uReltexilisaken. aq 2650 m-ze nisli gvxdeba da sazafxulo sadgomebi mesaqonleebisa. Turqebi miwaTmoqmedebad gadaiqcnen. yurZenic aqvT, magram TaTaras iqiT aRar midian. uReltexilamde Woroxisave da misi marcxena Senakadis xerTvisSi mivediT, ispirSi. esaa qarT. provincia speris centri. Aaqaa SesaniSnavi cixe da eklesia. cixe baiburTisaze pataraa, eklesia _ ufro didi. sami mxridan _ S, W, N ­ mdinareebiT mozRuduli

*

SeneSvna d. berZeniSvilisa: soflis gamosasvlelSi, gzis marcxniv oTxkuTxa koSkis nangrevia galavniT. gzis marjvniv naeklesiari mewyers wauRia. 42

kldovani borcvi mxolod O-dan moisvleba, iqiTvea qalaqic. Sesasvleli S-danaa. aqac baiburTiviT, Sesasvlels 4-kuTxa koSki icavda, tufis kvadrebis regularuli wyobiT nagebi. galavnis maRali kedlebis wyoba mcire zomis qvaTa Tevzifxuri wyobisaa. zogan narevi, gadakeTebis kvalic mravladaa. eklesiis nangrevi cixis SO nawilSi, SemosasvlelTan iseTsave kavSirSi, rogorc baiburTis cixeSi. aqac sami Sverili afsida unda yofiliyo. gadarCenilia O da W kedlebi. centralur Sveril afsidas 3 maRali sarkmeli hqonia, N afsidas _ 1, S afsidas mxolod qveda nawilia. nagebi yofila tufisa da adgilobrivi qvis saSualo zomis kvadrebiT. es eklesia ufro didia, vidre baiburTisa. dasavleTidan minaSeni hqonia, romelic eklesias S kariT uerTdeboda. iqidanve unda yofiliyo eklesiaSi Sesasvlelic. eklesiis N da W mxares moCans cixis kedlebi, kuTxovani da mrgvali burjebi. eklesiis SW mxares meCeTia da maRali minareTi, yvelaferi tufis qvisaa da mere Selesilic. eklesiis W-iT wylis 3 onkania. sainteresoa wyali Semoyvanilia, Tu adgilobrivi wyarosi. wyaroebSi cnobebi naklebadaa. XII-XIII s-ebSi selCuk ilxanTa cixea, XVI s-Si suleiman faSa meCeTs agebs. minareTs iyenebdnen gzajvaredinis saTvalTvalod. sper-hber-iber... `speris zRva~, e.i. es olqi zRvaze gadioda, am saxelma Secvala evqsinis ponto da pontos zRva... bagrationebic aqedan movidnen qarTlsa da somxeTSi. maT drosve iqneboda aq ekl esia mainc. mniSvnelovani punqtia gzebis Camketi. rodis ikargeba saqarTvelos es ukiduresi mxare?...

43

uReltexilis Semdeg gza xeobaSi eSveba, romelic savsea naZvnariTa da Sereuli tyiT, abasTumaniviT. mTaSi soflebi moCans da TeTri minareTebi. rizemde braiers erTi eklesia da cixe aqvs aRniSnuli _ ver vnaxeT. Rame rizes sastumroSi gavaTieT. aqedan borCxamde rukis mixedviT unda veZeboT. aqamde kidev erTi uReltexilia. 8.07.08 rizes cixe qalaqis centrSia goraze. misi zedacixis kedlebi da naxevarwriuli burjebi saSualo zomis Tanabari kvadrebiTaa nagebi da waagavs ujarmuls. aqac ugemovnod, yvelaferi Tavidan auSenebiaT da Txemze sul magidebia gaSlili turistebisaTvis. aqvea ormo wylis (?) maragisaTvis. aq vnaxeT lamazi axalgazrda, qarTulad molaparake. universitetis satyeo fakulteti davamTavre da axla aspiranturaSi varo, 25 wlis ymawvili. qarTuli mSoblebisgan viswavle, wera-kiTxva ar vicio. Eeldarma5 qarTul-Turquli anbani aCuqa. zedacixis aSeneba iustinianes xanas miewereba (VI s.). XIV s-Si genuelebi daeuflnen da Semates qvedacixe, aseve qalaqis galavani. XVI ss-Si osmalebi ikaveben. zedacixidan moCans mTeli qalaqi da porti. is bolo 20 welSi gaSenebuli qalaqia da quCebi ufro farToa, vidre trapizonSi. yvela Tavis qveyanaze zrunavs, metad vidre CvenTan. es marto am xalxis ukeTesoba araa. esaa kerZo sakuTrebis Cvenze xangrZl ivi gancda... qalaqSi Camodis aSiklardere (SeyvarebulTa xevi). aq mdinareze erTmaliani Zv. xidi gadaviReT.

44

zRvaSi, napiris siaxlove kldis kunZulze, oTxkuTxa koSkia. mas kizkal e (qaliscixe) hqvia. es koSki sof. fazaris siaxlovesaa. es TurqebSi zogadi saxelia garkveuli cixeebisa. Sdr.: `brolis cixe~ CvenTan... bagrationebis vebgverdze mas aTinas * cixe hqvia. saidan iReben am Zvel saxelebs (?). am koSks Relvisa ar eSinia, radgan win kidevaa dabali kldeebi. koSkis daniSnuleba iqneboda Semomavali navebisa da zRvispira gzis (?) kontroli. kidev erTi xevi uerTdeba zRvas, esaa xoja qiofru qoi (didi xidis soflis xevi). aq mdinareze, marTlac, xidis nangrevia; SerCenilia marcxena napiris mali. Sua da marjvena napiris TaRovani malebi dangreulia. es xidebi waagavan Cvens aWarul xidebs. erTi cixis nangrevi migvaswavles: jixakal e. is arc braiers, arc bagrationebs ar uCanT. xeobis Suawelze, erT ganmxoloebul mTazea is aSenebuli. irgvliv ferdobebi Cais buCqebs daufaravs. cixeze misvlas aZnelebs ekal-bardebi da gansakuTrebiT irgvliv movlebuli Txrili. cixe Sedgeba centraluri mrgvali koSkisa da galavnisagan, romelsac naxevarwriuli burjebi aqvs 3-3 saTofuriT: saSualo zomis nagleji qvebi regularul mwkrivebad. galavnis wyoba narevia, kedlis sisqec meti siganis: xSiri gadakeTebis kvali... or adgilas Sesasvlelebs mozrdili oTxkuTxa koSkebi axlavs. kedlebi sul dafarulia mcenareebiT, amitom kinogadaReba ar Sedga. es xevebi Sereuli tyeebiTaa dafaruli da soflebic mTaSia SeyuJuli. aq mosaxleoba lazuria, cis*

SeniSvna d. berZeniSvilisa: fazaris Zveli saxelwodeba aTinaa! 45

feri TvalebiT. erTma Turqul saubarSi SemTxveviT ixmara `va miCqu~.. am lazur garemoSi iqneb es jixakalec lazur `jixas~ Seicavdes. miT ufro, rom Turquli axsna mas ar eZebneba!.. kidev erTi lamazi cixea aseTsave Semdeg xeobaSi _ firtina dereSi. mas zil -kal es uwodeben. esaa oTxsarTuliani oTxkuTxa koSki, romelsac irgvliv galavani da saTavsoebi axlavs. amasac axali kedlebiT aSeneben turistebisaTvis. Zv. wyobaSi nagleji qvebis Tevzifxuri mwkrivebi (?) meniSna... esaa XIII s-Si komninosebis agebuli cixe, romelsac XVI s-Si osmalebi euflebian. maTivea es koSkic. aq 40 askeri akontrolebda "abreSumis gzaso", asea abraze. mis dros ki 450-mde mebrZols itevdao. am gzis kontrols es cixe meore cixesTan SeTanxmebiT axorcielebdao. es cixe, sadRac zeviT unda yofiliyo, xeobaSi. e.i. gza iqiT gadioda, saiT?* cixidan xeobis bolos erT lazs mivadeqiT. Ciqovani vyofilvar da colic Ciqovaniao. 4 Svilis mama qarTuls amtvrevda. amasac davutoveT anbani. sakuTari saxli, mdinareSi `gemi~ restorani, sakalmaxe, motelsac vaSenebo... am xeobaSi 3 calmaliani xidia, erTze manqanac gadadis. 10 s-ze arTvinSi sastumroSi davbinavdiT. 9.07.08 dRes wavediT maWaxl is saTaveebSi. daudi iqauria. iq 6 sofeli TurqeTs darCa 1921 w. moskovis zaviT, danarCeni soflebi _ Cven. akria, efrati, mindieTi, zedvake, qvabisTavi, xerTvisi. aq cecxlaZis Cana*

es gza pontos qeds gadaivlis da Woroxis xeobaSi Cadis ­ SeniSvna m. fxaWiaSvilisa. 46

wer mikrotoponimiaSi moniSnuli mqonda saintereso saxelebi. mindoda adgilze Semowmeba. mivediT maWaxlis erT saTavesTan, saidanac moCanda sof. efrati. iq gurjebi dagvixvdnen, metyeveebi. imaTTan saubris mere daudma Cveni iq Cayvana gadaifiqra. arada iqaa nadarbazevi, nanino, naWiSkrevi (akria); navanevi, naqal aqevi, naqil isavi, ziareTi sirTi, saxati Rel e, qvakacivake (efrati), nacixari, naarxvevi, cixiani (mindieTi), inawminda, naqil isvari, naWiSkrevi, yuruxidi (qvabisTavi)... iqneb Cven maWaxelSi mainc moxerxdes sxva adgilebis moxilva... mere Savi tba vnaxeT (es SavSeTia?), yaragiol da naviT gaviseirneT. Aaqauri kalmaxi meukeTesa... am tbidan iRebs saTaves ql askuris xevi. Woroxi daugubebiaT eleqtrosadgurisaTvis. mas Cauylapavs qlaskuris xevis nawili, Cais fabrika, meCeTi; mxolod minareTis zeda nawili Cans wyalSi. Woroxze ori aseTi sadguri ukve mzad aqvT, apireben _ 16-s. ra eSveleba Woroxis zRvasTan SesarTavs?... qlaskuris xevisa da Woroxis SesarTavTan, orive mdinaris marcxena napirze, kldovan borcvze, qvevidan koSki SevniSneT. avediT. aRmoCnda mc. erTnaviani, darbazuli eklesia (daxl. 3X4 m). saxuravi kldis daumuSavebeli lodebiT duRabze. Sesasvleli W-danaa, romelsac zeviT TaRi axlavs. arqitravis gareTa nawili Camovardnilia. Cans O mogrZo sarkmeli, S-iT _ kvadratuli. sakurTxeveli brtyelia. 2-3 adgilas sarezonanso Wuria. qveda sarTulSi saZvalea, romelsac N Sesasvleli aqvs, aqac TaRia. saflavebi najijgnia, dasulan kldemde. eklesiis dabla kidev raRac nagebobebia, aseTivea wyobac. iq erTgan TaRuri gadaxurvis mogrZo Senobis naSTia S-N mimar47

Tulebisa. (satrapezo?)... aq senakebi da sameurneo saTavsebi iqneboda albaT monastrisa. es unda iyos XIV_XV s-is nagebobebi, sof. xebas naqil isvaria. aq beriZe cxovrobs borCxidan gadmosuli. gurjebma qarTul i ician. es namonastrali ar icis arcerTma rukam. samagierod, arTvinis turistul rukaze aRniSnulia eklesia, borCxis siaxloves, arkaqoi. aq sibneleSi gumbaTiani eklesia davlandeT. aRmoCnda oTxive mxriT brtyelafsidiani, maRali, mTeli gumbaTiT gadarCenili nageboba das. karibWiT. mas farTo, TaRovani Sesavleli aqvs. oTxsave kedelSi TiTo sarkmelia da TiTo momaRlo niSa. gumbaTi trompebis gareSe azis kedlebs. O sakurTxevlis kedelic brtyelia. eklesia moxatuli yofila. freskebi dazianebulia. SerCenilia qarTuli asomTavruli warwerebi da berZnuli. paleografiulad XIII s-is Semdgomi xanaa: `a~-is zeda xazi mucels moSorebulia; `d~-is mucelSi `a~-ia SewiaRebuli... 10.07.08 mamawmindis O sakurTxevlis marjvena svetis ZirSi, oTxkuTxa CarCoSi 11 striqoniani asomTavruliT Sesrulebuli warweraa: 1------------------------------- isaoieso 2------------------------------- ?yadv 3------------------------------- zpnmin 4------------------------------- gpvin 5------------------------------- ??????? 6------------------------------- ??????? 7??????????????????????????????? 8?????????????????????????????? 9?????????????????????????????

48

9??????????????????????????????? 10?????????????????????????????? 11????????????????????????????? samxr. kedelze CarCoSi 8-s gagrZel. 1 d?mys?m????? 2 ?????????????? 3 ?????????????? 4 ?????????????? freskebis figurebs ganmartebiTi warwerebi axlavs: mark_z, i_ne, m_q_l, g_br_l, naTlismcemeli... gragnilebsa da Saravandebs berZnuli warwerebi axlavT. qarTuli zemomoyvanili warwera ganaxlebasa Tu sxva samuSaoze mogviTxrobs viRacis mier, romlis Zeni SendobiT ixseniebian. gumbaTi agurisaa. garedan tufis kvadrebiT. irgvliv galavania. saxel i ekl esiisa adgil obrivma gurjma icis. bagrationebi mxolod fotoebs iZlevian uteqstod, ugegmod. mxatvrobaSi scenebia: aRdgoma, naTlisReba, jvarTamaRleba, nikolozi, marjvniv macxovari, marcxniv _ RvTismSobeli. mTavarangelozebi m_q_l da g_b_l. W minaSeni gviania, nakeri ar aqvs. N kedlis W TaRSi scena: SuaSi wm. nikolozi warweriT (asomTavruliT) wm. n_kl_z. gverdiT imave kedelze sakurTxevlisaken i_s q_e Zl_vai da deda RvTisa. S kedlis W TaRSi centrSi CviliT RvTismSobeli, aqeT-iqiT angelozebi (albaT miqel da gabrieli). O kedlis N niSis TaRSi _ macxovari asoebi da...? SeiZleba wm. nikolozis saxelobisa iyo es eklesia. borCxidan amosulma gurjma gviTxra am eklesiis Zveli saxeli mamawminda. meore warweraSi TiTqos mxatvari ixsenieba abasa---Ze.

49

mamawmindidan ukana gzaze cixe davinaxeT, Woroxis marjvniv. aq ori xevi uerTdeba mTavar mdinares, romelTa SemaerTebel gzaze, maRal mTaSia, es cixe. sofels hqvia esenl er qoi, xevs _ sankoTi, cixec sankoTisaa. SemorCenili kedlebisa da koSkebis wyoba `ujarmulia~, saSualo zomis kldis lodebi, regularuli mwkrivebiT. koSkebi zogi mrgvalia, zogi _ kuTxovani, qveda cixeSi eklesiis nangrevia: das. nawilis TaRovani gadaxurva, zevidan orferda gadaxurvis nakvaleviT. Sesasvleli eqneboda misasvlel, N mxridan. S kedelSi pilastris nawilia. sakurTxevlis moxazuloba TiTqmis gegmaSi ikiTxeba. aqvea amolesili wylis auzi, kldeSi amokveTili. is mogrZoa, kldeSi Znelad sakveTi. qveda cixidan zedaSi amavali gza swor kedlebs Soris gadis, N-iT mrgvali koSki yofila. zedacixes mcire farTobi uWiravs da ramdenime saTavsia. aqedan SesaniSnavi xedia: Woroxis Segubebuli, daklaknili dineba, gaRma soflebi. marjvena sanapiroze ori mezobeli, paraleluri xevi, Tavisi soflebiT, maTi SemaerTebeli, cixis N-iT gamavali gza, romelsac cixe akontrolebs. eklesia cixeSi, misi patronis aq xangrZliv yofnas mowmobs. zedacixeSi saTofurebicaa. cixis qveviTac raRac nagebobaTa kvalia _ cixisZiri. es cixe SesaZloa IX-X s-sa iyos, aSot kurapalatis droisa,... is turistul rukaze Cans, xuTversianze iqneba _ baqir qoi kal e. gzad arTvinis cixe gadaviReT Woroxis marcxena, maRal, kldovan sanapiroze. iq ZiriTadi koSki moCans, erTi samzeriT Woroxisaken. cixeSi jari dgas, ar migviSveben. cixis ukan arTvinia,

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terasebad Sefenili ferdze. cixes X s-dan varaudoben. visadileT kerZo restoranSi. mis das-iT sacxovrebel ubans mamawminda hqvia. eklesiis kvali aRaraao. daudi aqauaria, mSoblebTan sZinavs. 11.07.08 enirabaTi _ axal rabaTs niSnavs. Zveli sad iyo? es mSvenieri taZari xoStariam6 sadoqtorod gamoitana... mSvenieri garemo, kaklis xeebi, xili, saxnavi... taZars galavani aqvs, mis SigniT, taZris SO kuTxeSi, mogrZo Senobis nangrevia _ albaT satrapezo. NO-iT erTi gaTlili lodia, zed ucnauri asoa amoWrili, Tavze sworxazovani qaragmiT. berZnul W-s gavs. Senobis SW kuTxeSi, miwidan daaxl. 3 m-ze erTi gaTlili lodia Casmuli. ori kopiani jvaria zed amofxaWnili, mis qveviT CarCoSi Casmuli erTstriqoniani, reliefuri somxuri warweraa, mgonia ` surb iovannes~. es qva gvian unda iyos Casmuli, misi Casmisas gamoyenebuli xsnari sxva ferisa da masalisaa, vidre saerTod gamoyenebuli... etyoba `Satberdis~ gasamarTleblad Casves... vidre xuciSvilis7 mier aRmoCenili meore nangrevi ar minaxavs, d. xoStarias azri ufro sarwmuno Cans... artanuji meored vnaxe. mas artanujis wyali sami mxriT ertymis, meoTxe mxares mSrali xevia. misi qalaqi N-iTaa cixisZirSi. cixeze SerCenili ori asasvleli aSkarad SeimCneva. kedlebis wyoba Zvelicaa, meoradic... eklesia da aSotis saflavi dangreulia. eklesias Tavisi mrgvali auzi aqvs. cixes _ Tavisi mogrZo. orive amolesilia. axla kibis Semosasvlels

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qvevidan TaRi iWers _ zed kibeebi amoWrili da dalagebuli qvis safexurebad iqneboda. qalaqs Tavisi galavani, eklesiis nangrevi (IX s.) da sasaxlis kedlebi SerCenia. daudma eseni aRar icoda da Cven SevniSneT anCidan dabrunebulebma. eklesia da sasaxle bagrationebs aqvT veb-gverdze. anCisaken misasvlelad gzas gavyeviT NW-iT zeganze, artanujs zevidan davxedeT: gzajvaredinis centrSia yvelafris makontrolebeli. `arzena~ mis irgvliv zegnebzea Sefenili. artaanisken aqidan mimavali gza umoklesia. yovelmxiv gamoyofili klde miuvalia. uReltexili gadaviareT da sxva xevSi daveSviT. ulamazesi soflis SO ferdobze nangrevebad qceul taZars mivadeqiT. is ar unaxavT bagrationebs, ar auzomiaT. kldis gadaRma NO-iT xeobis soflebia da aqeT momavali gza. eklesiis S-iT didi nagebobis saTavsebia _ iqneb satrapezo, an episkoposis sadgomi. mefis darbazobis gangebaSi (XIII s.) ??? mgonia naTqvamia: `pirvelad Semovides didisa anCisa episkopozi da dajdes mefis marjvniv...~ klarjeTis episkoposis es upirvelesoba iqneb tradicias emyareboda: anCis xatis sagalobelSi (arsen bulmaisimis Ze) xom naTqvamia, rom andriam aq moitana macxovris xelTuqmneli xati... mSvenieri xiliani sofelia, utkbilesi bali... ukana gzaze gamovuareT axizis cixes. artanujiswylis marcxnivaa, kldeze. mrgvali burjebisa Tu koSkebis masivebi saSualo zomis Tanabari qvebiT, regularuli mwkrivebia. `ujarmuli~ wyoba kargad erwymis qc-is cnobas: vaxtangma aq aaSena cixe da Sig pirveli eklesia, romelic

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saepiskopod iqcao. klarjeTSi es ori saepiskoposo iyo. cixeze mcire farTobia kldis xerxemalsa da ferdze. O-iT mrgvali burjis SigniT, raRac nagebobis ZirSi, oTxkuTxa amoSenebuli amosasvlelia. xom araa wylis gvirabi? xerxemalze erTi bunebrivi gamoqvabulia. yvelaze maRal adgilas nangrevis kvalia (koSkis?) cota O-iT meore aseTive nangrevis nakvalevia eklesiis? cixis qveviT gamoqvabulebia, erTi amoSenebuli TaRia. 12.07.08 dol isyanaSi avediT. es mSvenieri taZari mTelia, gadaarCina meCeTad gadaqcevam. axlac restavracias utareben. garedan da Signidan. orsarTulad gadaqceuls, axla asufTaveben. aqauri samxr. sarkmlis warwera da bareliefebi metyveleben eklesiis mTavrangelozebis, miqaelisa da gabrielis saxelobaze. ucnobi unda iyos S minaSenis warwera sakurTxevelSi: macxovris reliefur gamosaxulebas samkuTxa qvaze warwerebi aqvs amoWrili: `ieso qriste~. qveviT: `wmidai ese eklesiÁ akurTxe dResa~. mis qveviT ori kvadratuli qvidan erTi dakargulia. iq dawyebuli warwera albaT meore qvaze grZeldeboda: `mefes... ram... qriste Seiwyale~. S minaSenidan mTavari taZris Sesasvlelis arqitravi mogvianebiT SeulesiaT da mouxatavT. aq marcxniv 3 figura moCans, mavedrebel pozaSi. Semdeg, ori mozrdili figuris qveda tani koWebamde kabebSi. ar vici remontis gamo Tu adreve, Selesiloba zogan acvenilia da moCans ori striqoni nusxuri warweris

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nawili. qveviTac warweraa asomTavruli. aqac nawilia. gairCeva sityvebi `davwere~... `locvebad~ (?) sakurTxevelSi moxatulobisa da warweraTa (ganmartebiTi) naSTebia. S kedelze Sesasvlelis marcxniv freskul gamosaxulebebze qarTuli nakawri minawerebia: `qriste Seiwyale moZRvari petre gabrielis Ze dResa petrepavlobasa 22~. saocaria, rom dRes, petre-pavloba dRes, vkiTxulob amas!!.. qveviT nusxuriT amokawrulia: `saSinelo mTavarangelozno miqel da Ggabriel Raribs maxareb (els SeewieT)"... qveviT mxedruliT: ,,maxarebels". zeviT, Savi fanqriT rusuli samxedroebis minawerebi 1889. qveviT rusuladve: farsadan miqelaZe, 1903 w. maisi. samxreTis kedelze mihrabia meCeTobis periodisa. aqvea arabuli freskuli warweris naSTi. dolisyana Zv. qarTvelTa aqaur meurneobaze migviTiTebs. axla xexilia. xuciSvilis Satberdis ZebnaSi mivadeqiT sof. gurjanis dangreul saydars. maRali O kedlisa da das. kedlis naSTebi. irgvliv sxvadasxva nagebobaTa naSTebia. bagrationebs es `ucnauri~ eklesia VIII-IX s-ebiT aqvT daTariRebuli. aq es saxeli albaT osmalobis droindelia... rogorc iqna, mivadeqiT sof. bosel Tas. sainteresoa, rom adgilobrivi Turqebi uwodeben am sofels Satberds. Aaseve aqvT aRniSnuli turistul rukazedac. es xuciSvili-bagrationebis Semdgom ar momxdara. maS qarTvelebma rodis daiviwyes es saxeli da rodindelia bosel Ta?.. aq marTlac uzarmazari, gafcqvnili taZris ConCxia. aris mcire salocavic da sxva SenobaTa naS54

Tebi. yvelaferi buCqebs daufaravs. yvelaze STambeWdavia veeba lodebiT, regularul mwkrivebad nagebi mogrZo didi Senobis naSTi. is an skriptoriumi, an satrapezoa. xuciSvils mxolod misi foto moaqvs. Zalian STambeWdavi nangrevebia...* kidev ufro mniSvnelovania kldis xerxemlis daboloebaze mdgari cixe, romelic eklesiis NO-Taa. Zvelma nagzaurma kldes migvayena, mere bilikiT viareT daaxl. 500 m. kldeze. meore mxare frialoa. veeba cixe merTlac Sat-berdia. misasvlel mxares 25 m-mde momrgvalebuli samsarTuliani koSki da `talRuri~ kedlebia, Zveli mozrdili lodebiT horizontalurad nagebi. Sesasvlels (O mxares) TaRuri gadaxurva aqvs. iqve, marjvniv mcire eklesiis nangrevia S minaSeniT. mc. navi daaxl. 2,5 m. X 4 m. Cans afsidis qveda rigi. mis Tavze, damcvel kedelze, raRac farTo da maRali niSaa gaurkveveli daniSnulebisa. Sida cixis oTxkuTxa koSki orsarTuliania. aqvs ori sarkmeli momrgvalebuli TavsarTebiT. Ddas. gaWrili oTxkuTxa gasasvleli miuval kldeze gadis... albaT SemovliTi biliki iyo samxr. ferdze. Sida cixesTan Wuria. eklesiis das. kedelTan ki lodze amoWrili 4-5 safexuri midis oTxkuTxa amoRarul CaRrmavebasTan. mere aqedan N-iT gayvanili RariT Cadis amolesil wylis ormoSi. albaT, wvimis wyals agrovebdnen. aseTi STambeWdavi cixe me aq jer ar minaxavs... Satberdis cixe, saxelwodebis mixedviT, TiTqos win unda uswrebdes taZarsa da sofelsac. es

*

d.berZeniSvilis SeniSvna: aq amboben _ Tamaris cixeao e.i. _ Zvelia. xuciSvilis rukaze is ,,klajaTis cixea" (bereqeTi?). 55

cixe meti sabuTia taZris (Satberdis) aq dasagulveblad, rac enirabaTSi ara Cans. sofelSi veRar SevediT. iusufelSi vivaxSmeT da Rame parxalSi amovediT. Woroxis xeobis sofelTa qarT. saxelebi: agara, boselTa, gurjani... xancTelis cxovrebis monacemebi enirabaTis, an boselTas sasargeblod jer verafers meubneba... 13.07.08 guSin ficrulSi gavaTeneT. cxeli wyali iyo. dRes parxal is didebul taZars movakiTxeT. is aRwerili aqvs eqvTimes8. saRebaviT Sesrulebuli warwera Sua navis S TaRebSi dResac garkveviT ikiTxeba. saocari sididis taZari dResac mTelia, Tumca meCeTobis droidan etyoba remontis kvalic. SigniT meCeTi gavaRebineT. uzarmazari sivrce N kedelze qoraliT ikveTeba. ori maRali niSaa sakurTxevlis wina or svetSi. samxreTis svetze reliefuri CuqurTma da sam-sami figuraa gamokveTili svetisTavze. aq dgeboda episkoposi, N-iT albaT monastris mamasaxlisi. SigniT moxatvis kvalia. Crdilo kedelze reliefia ostatis figuriTa da warweriT (N-sken). S-isken reliefuri warweraa `q_e S_e T_dr_t~ (Teodorite). turistebi iyvnen israelidan, istoria momkiTxes, mokled movuyevi inglisurad. es taZari oTxTa eklesiis aslia imave daviT kurapalatis agebuli. ufro didi unda iyos, saintresoa es wyvilebi: jvari-ateni, oTxTa-parxali, arjevansarvani-bWiTi... ratom mesameebi ar Sendeba maTi kopio?

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parxalis wylis gadaRma mTaze, ori calnaviani darbazuli eklesia eqvTimes aqvs. gamyoli patara biWis mamam 50 lira mogvTxova _ aRar avediT. wavediT Tamaris arxis sanaxavad. avyeviT xevekis xevs, mivaRwieT sof. qobakis erT ubans: guneis (esaa Tbili, samxreTiT). aq Zveli qvebiT aSenebuli saxlis nangrevi vnaxeT: TaRiani, gaTlili Sesasvleli raRac Zv. nagebobisa, aseve gaTlili, saSualo zomis qvebi. aq arxi ver migvaswavles, Tumca daTunaca9 da eqvTimec mas asaxeleben _ albaT aq iwyeba. Mmeore ubani wyalgaRmaa, mas yuzei (civi) hqvia. aq gurjebi cxovroben, amboben baTumis mxridano. qobaks isini iazreben: qvad da buqad (zamTari aseTiao). aq isini axla zafxulobiT amodian, zamTars qveviT, WilaTSi. qarTuli saxelebia: ieTi, xeva, wyals uwodeben xevs. soflebia sajvareTi, wifl akari (an wiTlakari), qveda soflebSia: kakali, vaSli, vazi, leRvi, bali da alubali, asevea parxalSic. Tamaris arxi migvaswavles zavrieTSi, bal xibarSi... daudma daigula da wvimac wamovida. iZulebuli gavxdiT wamovsuliyaviT iusufelSi. gzad ori cixe davinaxeT. aqeT wamosvlisas (mzian dReSi) vnaxavT iusufelidan (20 km-ia, naxevari saaTis gzaze). 14.07.08 dRes oTxTasaken wasulebma kavkasiZeebis cixes gavuareT. Tamazma10 Semouara asasvlelis ZebnaSi. avalT oRond TokiTo. me unda vcado. oTxTa eklesia RamiT vnaxe SarSan... es ufro momwons: aq ufro igrZnoba siZvele, amkobs sxva Senobebic. moxatuloba odnav moCans. esec parxaliviT mTelia, oRond ufro mcire. is, jamed qceuli, movlil-SekeTebulia...

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ufro mcire, darbazuli, erTnaviani, eklesia iqve SO-iT. iq ufro Warbad Cans aguri. saxuravi Caqceulia magram lamazia sakurTxevlis TaRi. sainteresoa samkveTlosa da sadiakvnos adgilze Seqmnili mcire niSebi sakurTxevlis orsave mxares. am eklesiis qveS daxSuli, Rarovani sivrcea SesavleliT Odan (gamongreulia). esaa saZvale, areuli maZieblebis mier. mTavar taZarSi samkveTlo da sadiakvno orsarTulianebia sakuTari asasvlelebiT (misadgmeli kibe?). das. minaSeni gviani unda iyos. mas ebjineba grZeli Senoba N-S-iT damxrobili, sakuTari SesasvleliT SO kuTxeSi. esaa satrapezo, romlidanac N gasasvleliT gadiodnen skriptoriumSi. esaa Rrma TaRebiT, orad gayofili, ufro farTo, naTeli Senoba, sadac iwerdnen, Targmnidnen berebi... oTxTa eklesia oTxi maxaroblis saxelobazea agebuli daviT kurapalatis mefobisas, is aTeuli wlebiT unda uswrebdes parxals. wyalgaRma kldeze erTnaviani darbazuli eklesia Cans. aRwerilia eqvTimesTan... aqedan speridan momaval gzas davadeqiT, Woroxis marcxena napirze feTereqis cixe vnaxeT. esaa 4-5 mrgvali koSki galavniT gaerTianebuli. wyoba narevia, baTqaSze. mTavari koSki 3 sarTuliania, saTofurebiT mosasvleli mxrisaken. cixeSi wylis mrgvali ormos nangrevi Cans. mosasvleli mxriskenve erTi brtyeli kedeli, uZiro napralis TaRiT dahyurebs. es araa amosasvleli. me vTvli, esaa zarbaznis safari, romelic aq mosasvlel mxares icavs. kidev erTi mrgvali koSkia mosasvlelis klde-karSi. is marto kldekars ki ara, iq Camomdinare wylis damcavicaa.

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albaT gviani, osmaluri cixea gzis damcavi speridan iusufelisaken. iusufelis SesasvlelSi, Woroxis marjvniv, mcire erTnaviani, gafcqvnili eklesiis nangrevia. e.i. iusufelis adgilas Zv. sofeli yofila, saxeli?.. isev Tamaris arxis sanaxavad avediT da guSindeliviT, 4 saaTidan wvima daiwyo. diliTaa mosvla saWiro. gurjma devaZem, xeobaSi pansionatis patronma, kalmaxi mogvarTva da ludi... mas anbani aCuqa eldarma. wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebaa TurqeTSi... biWebi manqanis saxuravs gauSianurdnen, iqidan iReben yvelafers. Cveni sastumro `barselona~ 40-dolariani nomrebiT, yvelaze Zviria, rac aqamde gvqonia. aq orjeradi kveba fasSi igulisxmeba. aq SarSan yofnis dros, sanaZe11 Tavisi meuRliT cxovrobda. Rame vewvieT; axlaRa gamaxsnda, aq 50 miani auzia Ria cis qveS. ratomRac aravin banaobs. sastumros patroni qarTvelia, misi coli espaneli. aqedanaa sastumros saxeli `barselona~. 15.07.08 dRes gadavwyviteT orjer CaSlili (wvimebis gamo) Tamaris arxis monaxuleba. dagvabnia eqvTimesa da qobakeli gurjis monacemebma. eqvTimes etyoba arxi ar unaxavs da zepirnaTqvami Caiwera: arxi iwyebao sof. uTavSi, qobakis maxloblad dasruldebao zavrieTSi. gurji sul sxvagan migviTiTebda. daTuna, sxvebTan erTad, zavrieTs migviTiTebda. Aamitom mivakiTxeT am gurjul sofels da adgilobriv ahmeds mivakiTxeT ojaxSi. davsxediT, velaparakeT Turqul-qarTulad. coli ufro enawyliani gamodga. soflis monacemebi ukan Caviwere. mere ahmadi gamogvyva da miuxedavad siZneleebisa, sa59

Tavemde migviyvana. is ki gamodga uTavidan qediT gamoyofili xevis saTave, romelic (xeviswyali) veeba lodiT orad iyofa. erTi didi nawili xevad miedineba, meore ki kldes mouyveba soflisken. mTeli arxis gavlas soflamde 40 wuTi movandomeT, daaxl. 3 km. es arxi adgilebSi kldeSia gaWrili, meore mxaresac yoriTaa gamoyvanili, zogan meore mxaresac kldea. axla am arxs uvlian da betoniT amagreben, zogan ki miwayrilSi modis. arxs iyeneben sarwyavad, adre kidevac svamdnen. sasmeli wylis milic aqve iRebda saTaves, romelic axla gawyvetilia. wyali sxvagniT mohyavT milebiT. Cemi ZiriTadi daskvnaa: parxlis xeoba arxebis ganviTarebuli qseliT xasiaTdeba. TiTqmis yvela, parxlis wylidan zeviT myof soflebs, aseTi arxebi parxliswylis Senakadi xevebidan aqvs gamoyvanili. amitom qobaki da uTavi zavrieTTan am arxiT ver iqneboda dakavSirebuli. e.i. imaT, rogorc yvela sofels, Tavisi arxebi hqondaT, rac xalxma erTmaneTs daukavSira da Tamars miawera maTi siZvelis gamo. samanqano gza wvimisgan wamxdari aseTi arxebidan gadmosuli wylis CanCqerebiTaa gadavsebuli. madlierebma col-qmari Cveni manqaniT aviyvaneT wiTl akarSi. bal xi da bal xibari aseve qarTuli (gurjuli) soflebis saxelebia. gzaze gadaviReT da ar avsulvarT sarigiol is cixeze, parxliswylis marcxniv. durbindiT momeCvena Txeli kedlebi, nagleji qvebis gviani wyobiT. osmalur nagebobad CavTvale... meore ufro dabla myofi cixe mdinaris marjvnivaa kldeze. mas kaspirukis cixes uZaxian. miuvaliao. durbindSi gviani wyoba momeCvena, Tumca narevic ZvelTan da ufro mniSvnelovani, vidre

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sarigiolis cixe (iq `yviTeli tba~ arsad Cans). am kaspirukis qveS sofels hqvia derekafu...e.i. xeviskari da cixec misi Camketia... am or cixes Soris, mdinaris marcxniv erTi saxli davinaxe terasebze, mxolod venaxi hqonad gaSenebuli. aq Rvinos ar ayeneben, yurZens yidian, sakmaod Zviriao, gviTxres... 16.07.08 dRes kavkasiZeebis cixeze gvindoda asvla _ ar agviSves, saSiSiao. Bb. kudava12 auyvaniaT alpinistebs... eqvTimes mieri iqauri eklesiis warwera murvan kavkasiZisa XV s-saa da eklesiis ganaxlebas gvauwyebs. is unda yofiliyo am sagvareulos rezidencia. maTive yofila parxal i da oTxTa; eqvTime ar ganmartavs es samefo monastrebi rodis iqca sakavkasiZod... afsidaSi qtitori unda iyos gamoxatuli oTxTa eklesiis maketiT. zeviT eqvTimes TqmiT, mose yofila, romelic RmerTisgan iRebso qvis filebs 10 mcnebiT... aseT uCveulo freska mis siZveleze metyvelebso. gasarkvevia sakavkasiZos moculoba da TariRi... ispiridan arTvins momavali (iusufeli 1950ian wlebSi daarsda) gza Woroxs mouyveboda. rukebze 3 cixe unaxavi gvqonda. zevidan daviwyeT. Woroxis zemo weli ufro ganierdeba da aq soflebi ufro mis WalebSia ganlagebuli. waagavs buneba mtkvrispirebs samcxeSi. aq mTebi ufro titvelia, vidre parxliswylis xeobaSi. sof. qiofru gorenTan xevi uerTdeba Woroxs marjvnidan. xerTvisSi mcire kldovani borcvia, romelzedac oTxkuTxa koSkia nagleji kldis qviT Sereuli wyobiT naSeni. mxolod kuTxis qvebia mozrdi61

li, gaTlili lodebi. ori samzeri Woroxs gahyurebs: an gza iyo marcxena maxres, an navebiT dauyvebodnen. qveviT galavnis nangrevebia. oSnaxis cixe osmaluri unda iyos, gzis Camketi Woroxsa da mis Senakad xevze. ufro dabla Woroxs uerTdeba ersisis xevi. aq gza gadis Woroxis marjvena mxridan am xeviT oSkis taZarze gardamavali. iq maRali kldis xerxemalia, romlis qimzea ersisis cixe (mdebareobiT waagavs boselTis cixes). yoveli mxridan miuvals, samanqano gziT davadeqiT qedidan. aqedan advilad mosasvlelia da 30 m-mde simaRlis koSki da kedlebia, aqedanve aqvs Sesasvleli, am samsarTulian, oTxkuTxa koSks. eklesiis kvali araa. aris mrgvali wlis ormo, yru kedelebiani oTxkuTxa mcire, izolirebuli koSkis nangrevi, 4-5 saTavsi. yvelaferi nagleji qviT baTqaSzea nagebi. esec osmaluri cixe unda iyos, TorTomis xeobidan aqeT momavali gzis Camketi: swored miskenaa miSverili samzerebi. cixis qveS sof. ersisia. am xevis WoroxTan SesarTavSi, auval kldeze kidev erTi nacixaris nangrevia sof. sel uqbaRl arTan. isic osmaluri unda iyos Woroxis gzis modaraje. olTisis wylis marjvena Senakadze xuciSvils iSxnis cixe aqvs aRniSnuli, Tumca is iSxnisxevisagan qediTaa gamoyofili. iq pamukCul aris cixe dahyurebs maRali kldidan mis qveS gaSlil sofels. aq erTi zurgiani koSkia 3-4 sarTuliT. samzerebi da saTofuri misasvlel mxaresaa, ovalur galavnis SigniT saTavsTa naSTebia. Sesavleli S-dan hqoniaT. kari qvisa yofila qusliani. kedlebi Txeli, narevi, gviani osmaluria.

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imave xevis marjvniv nawilad. 3-4 sarTuli iSxanic vnaxeT...

amoSenebuli cixeqvabia 3 moCans. wyoba aqac gviania.

17.07.08 iusufelis bukletSi raRac eklesia iyo galavniT. bevri veZebeT, migvaswavles: olTisiswyals marjvnidan xevi uerTdeba iSxnisxevis zemoT. iq zeganze avediT qveviT sof. darijia, zeganze misi ubani ­ saritosum. Sua sofelSi Zveli erTnaviani darbazuli Senobaa. eklesias Seasvleli N-idan aqvs, aqve meore karia sanaxevrod amovsebuli. afsidaSic erTi oTxkuTxa niSa N mxaresaa da sarkmelic. naSenia saSualo zomis gaTlili qvebiT regularulad. soflis NO-iT kidev 2 eklesiaa. aqedan erTi mozrdili gaTlili qvebis rigebiT naSenia, romelsac enacvleba brtyeli swori qvebi. mozrdili darbazi samnaviania. rogorRac viwro N da S navebiT. N Cangreulia, S ukeT gadarCenili. S SemosasvlelTan es navi kedliTaa gadaketili. mas Tavisi afsida, sarkmeli da 2 oTxkuTxa niSa aqvs. lamazia misi TaRi. W SesasvleliT farTo Sua navSi Sesuls afsidaSi moxatulobis kvali gvxdeba. eklesiis S-iT oTxkuTxa Senoba zeviT samreklo, qveviT saZvale unda iyos. meore, aguris erTnaviani darbazuli eklesiaa. mas W Sesasvleli aqvs. daxurva _ mTeli. afsidaSi ori momaRlo niSaa, S-iT ufro maRali. N da S kedlebSi, 2 farTo TaRiT gamoyofili farTia, win SemaRlebuli, oTxkuTxa iatakiT. qveS TaRovani saZvalea (?). am eklesias agurisave galavani da oTxkuTxa karibWe aqvs, romlis O-kedelSi kibea, albaT samrekloze aRmavali, romelic axla mongreulia. es gan63

sxvavebebi am bolo eklesias somxurad mafiqrebinebs. is ufro gviani meCveneba, vidre 2 sxva. soflis O-iT maRal kldeze cixea. maRali 3-4 sarTuliani, mrgvali da oTxkuTxa koSkebi nagleji qvis narevi wyobisa, aris Tevzifxuric. gadakeTeba-remonti cxadia. qveda cixeSi Sesasvleli TaRovania, kuTxiani arqitraviT. aqvea raRac TaRovani, yrukedlebiani dafluli Senoba, iqneb sanovagis sawyobi. mis O-iT SemaRlebaze oTxkuTxa mogrZo usaxuravo darbazi SeiZleba eklesia iyos N SesasvleliTa da erTi sarkmliT Osken. sakurTxeveli brtyelia. zedacixes garedan 4kuTxa Sesasvleli uCans, iq ver mivediT. es miuvali cixe SesaZloa, Zvelze daSenebuli osmaluri simagre iyos. S-iT qedze bilikebia, iqneb iSxnisken mimavalic... soflis Zvel eklesias sasaflao akravs. Camosvlisas soflis saxeli gviTxres _ xnZor... mere wavediT xaxul Si... es me SarSan vnaxe. molam kari gagviRo meCeTSi, romelmac Seinaxa Zegli mTlianad. gadaviRe Zvel xidze daSenebuli axali. gamovuareT azortis cixes, gadaviReT, asvla xval aSmaSenTan erTad. gadaviReT TorTumiswylis CanCqeri, romelic turistebisTvis mouwyviaT. tbaSi naxevarkunZulze sasauzmea turistebisa. oSkSi sibneliT movediT: ase undodaT gadaReba "kinoSnikebs"... xval iusufel idan TorTumiswyal s gavyvebiT arzrumisken. vnaxavT aSmaSenisa da azortis cixeebs, TorTumsac _ Tu movaswariT. iusufels 5 weliwadSi kaSxalis wyalsacavi dafaravs, 1250-an w-Si agebuls. 18.07.08 dRes davtoveT iusufeli. pirvelad vnaxeT aSmaSenis cixe. me da Tazo wavediT. sxvebma Tqves _ miu64

valiao. Toki Camaba, Tumca ar damWirvebia... droSa aitanes Turqebma da Cvenc avediT. cixe ori nawilisaa _ qveda cixeSi mrgvali koSkiT Semodixar. is orsarTuliani unda yofiliyo. iqvea xaro ovaluri, amoSenebuli kedlebiT. galavnis samzerebi yvela mosasvlelsa da wylispira gzas gadahyureben. qveda cixidan zedaze asasvlelSi baTqaSis ori nakvalevia (naxevarwriuli) iqneb Wurebze migviTiTebdes. zeda cixis mrgval koSkSi sapirfareSo dabali niSaa da xvreli kedlis sisqeSi. aq Cacucqulma suraTi gadaviRe. magondeba mindacixe, Zamiscixe... esaa namdvili gzis Camketi cixe, r-c batonobs oSkis cixe-qveyanaze. wyobiT is araa ise Zveli, rogorc boselTa iyo, Tumca XIII_XV ss-Si iqneb Zvel nacixarze aSenda... oSkis saintereso detalebi isev gadaviReT, sanTeli davanTeT. me aq sakurTxevelSi freskul warweraSi jojiki maxsovda, damxvda `Sevamkve da ganvaSene~. saocaria CordvanelTa es veeba taZari. albaT basilis gadaburvis mere iReben (?). ratomaa mxolod aq ase dawvrilebiT moTxrobili mSeneblobis angariSi? sxvagan ratom araa? romeli mkiTxvelisTvisaa es saintereso? mTavari sakurTxeveli RvTismSoblisaa, S_wm. nikolozis, N-ioane naTlismcemlisa. da mainc am ukanasknelis saxelobisaa es kolosi. reliefebSic RvTismSobeli, ioane naTlismcemeli, qtitori mefeebia, wm. nikolozis freska sadRaa? arzrumis muzeumSi silogavas13 napovni reliefebia gadasaRebi. azortis cixe Soridanve itacebs Tvals. Mmis ZirSi xidiT gayolil gzas gavyeviT. iq axla am kldis qvebisgan quCis mosakirwylav kvadratul qvebs Wrian.

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asasvleli biliki sakmaod dakidulia. Tazo da me SevudeqiT. pirveli rac Segvxvda N ferdze, amoSenebuli gvirabi iyo, romelic, Cans, TorTomis wyalze Camodioda. O-iT aq mcire xevi uerTdeba mas _ marjvnidan. Ggvirabi Suaze Cangrulia, misi qveda nawili _ amoqolili. qveda cixeSi Sesasvleli mrgval koSkSi O-danaa. albaT gvirabs amoyolili bilikiT. SesasvlelTanve iwyeba gvrabSi Casasvleli. amis mere koSksave mTel simaRleze mihyveba kibed gaSlili dakiduli kedeli. avcocdeT Tokis gareSe. merec es asasvleli gvirabs mihyveba, adis O-iT myof 2 oTxkuTxa saTavsSi. mere isev kibeebiT asuli xvdebi usaxuravo koridorSi, romelic O-dan S-iT uvlis zeda cixis kompleqss da miadgeba mTavar, umaRles oTxkuTxa koSks. dakidul kldeebze erTgan S-iT, gasasvleli Caqceulia da derefnis bolomde ver mivediT. zedacixis Sesavleli O-iTaa, is axla isea Camozvavebuli miwiT, rom forTxviT Seisvleba. aq marcxniv veeba oTxkuTxa darbazia orsarTuliani. qveda Selesilia. misi farTia 10x12 kvm. gadaxurva (Tu iyo) albaT banuri iqneboda. ar mesmis am saTavsis daniSnuleba. mis mezoblad kariT Sedixar yru gamoqvabulSi _ albaT sanovagis Sesanaxi Tu iyo. marjvniv wylis didi ormoa amolesili, iqvea xaro da rac mTavaria, N ganapirze dgas mcire eklesia (3m.x4m.). is, rogorc yvela sxva kedlebi nagleji qviT baTqaSzea naSenebi. sakurTxevelSi erTi sarkmeli da 2 kvadratuli niSaa. N sarkmeli da S Sesavlelic SerCenilia, gadaxurva aRaraa. Signidan Selesils moxatva aRar uCans... eklesiis SW-iT mcire naxevarwriuli kedelia, romlis TaRi N-iT gadis da zed gzas dahyurebs. aqedan daSvebuli lodebi bilikTan mosasvlels icavda.

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mTavari oTxkuTxa koSkisken kedels miuyveba Ria kibe. is 3-4 sarTuliani iqneboda. N kedelSi Riobia, albaT aivanze gasasvlelad. iq ver SevediT. mTavari koSkis qveviT, N mxares, zedvea ori oTxkuTxa koSki miSenebuli. maT calke Sesasvlelebi aqvT O-dan. mesame koSkic oTxkuTxaa da mTavars ekvris O-dan. kidev raRac nangrevia galavnis SigniT zedacixis teritoriaze. zedacixis Sesavlels Signidan maRali TaRovani SeRrmaveba aqvs. misi daniSnuleba gaugebaria. es cixe Tavisi wyobiT araa adreuli. Tumca somxuri geografis azordacfori, egebis, aq adreul cixesac varaudobdes. qarTuli mflobelobis gviani saukuneebi ki aq aSkaraa. aq unda msxdariyvnen is Zmebi, xaxularebi, navyvaryvares sabuTSi rom ixseniebian aTabagis metoqeebad (`mravalTavi~). igive cixea Turqul wyaroebSi moxseniebuli (Cemi werili TorTomisxevze aRar daibeWda?)... arzrumisaken gza TorTomiswyal s mouyveba. unaxavi gvrCeba isi, eqeqi... arzrumamde 70 km-ze gvxvdeba `derekafu~ _ e.i. xeviskari. aq marTlac viwrobia. Aaq iqneboda xani, an xidi. gza SeumCnevlad amodis zeganze. raime mniSvnelovani uReltexili ar Cans. axali gzis gayvana yvelafers angrevs. gzis marcxniv, kldeze raRac nangrevi, SesaZloa, rukaze aRniSnuli cixe iyos. TorTomis cixeze etyoba sxva gziT unda mivideT arzrumidan. mosaZebnia gurji boRizic. q. TorToms amovuareT da arzrumis farTo velze amovediT. movTavsdiT sastumroSi...

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19.07.08 dRes arzrums moundiT. yvelaze Zveli aq cixea, romlis kedlebSi V s-is fenas eZeben romis bizantiuri xanidan. mas mere aq qalaqia. cixeSi selCukebis aSenebuli meCeTi da minareTia, r-is arabuli minaweri 1124-32 wlisaa. minareTze avediT da gadviReT suraTi. cixeSi gaTxrebi swarmoebs da nagebobani Cans. qalaqis muzeumSi oSkSi silogavas mier napovni warweriani reliefebi gadaviReT. arqeologiur masalaSi Cans TrialeTuris da martyofis nivTebTan msgavseba. isic gadaiRes. gareT saflavis qvebad gamoyenebuli cxvrebia. e.i. sxvaganac yofila es tradiacia. saRamos basianis velze gavediT. aq axla patara dabaa. kldeze cixea, romelic Cven wyaroebSi ar ixsenieba. osmaluri unda iyos. zedacixes ori galavani evleba, yvelafers gaTlili qvebiT anaxleben... es uzarmazari Senoba mTel armias daitevda. erTgan damxrobiT O-W Senobis O kedeli Cans sarkmliT. is oTxkuTxa burjze dgas. aseTebia danarCeni koSkebic. eklesiad CaTvlas xels uSlis afsidis rkalis uqonloba. cixes S-iT Caudis arezis-araqsis wyali. mesaqonle, memarcvle zegani. SesaZloa, esaa hasan-kale. arzrums ramdenime kari hqonia, erTs gurjikafu _ e.i. qarTl is kari rqmevia. axla am ubansac ase uwodeben, xolo 1608 w. iq aSenebul meCeTs `gurjikafus meCeTi~ hqvia. `gurji boRazi~, TorTumi da azordi xval gzad unda vnaxoT, mere olTisi. Ddaudis magieri movida. 20.07.08. dRes gamovediT arzrumidan. daTom (daudi) dagvtova, Cveni Tarjimani vaxtang saRinaZea14 _ TbilisSi macxovrebeli, romelsac arTvinSi aqvs skola dam68

Tavrebuli. arzrumidan gamosulebis pirveli mizani gurji boRazi iyo. sof. SifeqSi 80 wlis moxucma migvaswavla es adgili. misi Svili CavisviT da wavediT. axla es adgili Zvel nagzaurze Cveni manqaniT movixileT. gaSlili zegnidan gza mTian xeobaSi Semodis. es saxeli das-dan SemosulisTvis aris `saqarTvel os yel i~. axali gza mas sruliad Sordeba. axla am mcire gadasasvlels `TaSl i boRaz~-s uwodeben. mogonilic aqvT Tqmuleba: viRac uRirsi kaci CauqolavT (qalis gaupatiurebisTvis) da mis mere yvela aq gamomvleli qvas agdebso... mTebSi gamavali es gza manZils amoklebs da Camodis osxanSi _ e.i. dasasveneblad sadgurSi mZime gzis mere... gurji boRazi TiTqmis perpendikularulia axali gzisa. miT axla mxolod saqoneli daiareba, gadaviReT... mere TorTumyal aze mivediT. aq asfaltiani gza modis sofelSi, cixis qveS TorTumiswyalze romaa gaSenebuli. es kldeze nagebi lamazi cixe ori nawilisagan Sedgeba. qveda cixis SigniT gzidanve iqcevs yuradRebas eklesiis nangrevi. aq mxolod W kedlis nawili, N kedeli da afsidis N nawilia SerCenili, TaRovani gadaxurviT. Sesasvleli S-dan iqneboda. afsidaSi N mxares, sarkmlis marcxniv, ori maRali niSis TaRebi moCans. aseTive iqneboda sarkmlis marjvniv. romeliRac aqaur cnobil eklesiaSi oTx-oTxi aseTi niSa iyo sarkmlis orsave mxares. N kedelSi 2 naxevarsvetia, romlebic kedlis naxevramde Camodian. zeviT profiliseburi svetTavebia. eklesiis wyoba, iseve rogorc cixis Zveli fenebi, saSualo zomis kldis gaTlili qvebiT regularuladaa nagebi. gadakveTebis kvalic xSiria. zeda cixis koSkebi mrgvalicaa da oTxkuTxac. aris

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saTavsebis naSTebi, ormoebi. erTi TaRovani aguris Senobaa, Signidan amolesili "wylis auzi?" zeda cixis mTavari koSki orsarTuliania. qveda cixis galavani kldis reliefs mihyveba. iq erTi mozrdili koSkia oTxkuTxa, 2-ic Zvel kedlebzea daSenebuli. aq kedlebs gaswvriv xis Zelebi aqvs Cayolebuli. ingliselis gegmaze (Cem statiaSi maqvs) es rusuli jaris nakvalevadaa miCneuli. cixis qveS gaSlili sofeli (saxelad TorTumkal e) qalaqis nawilzea gaSenebuli: mSvenier baRbostnebia TorTomiswylis napirebze. Taya fanaskertelis brZola movigone TemurlengTan, es epizodi Caiweres biWebma. azatmose ar vaxsene... fanaskerteli (amiertaodan) TorTumsac flobs imiertaoSi, e.i. orive tao erTi saerisTavoa. aseve orives aerTianebs iSxnisa da banas saepiskoposoebi. e.i. "amier da imier" cnebebi geografiulia, rac ar asaxula saero da saeklesio dayofaSi. miSam15 da biWebma, me da Tamazi gagvistumres kldeze nagebi kal adibis asaRebad. Tamazi ver aZvra da unaxavi dagvrCa Signidan es `cixisZiri~. gamongreuli Sesasvleli da gviani osmaluri kedlebi garedan gadaviReT. Turquli wyaroebi am cixesac unda ixseniebdnen. 21.07.08 SavSaTis provinciul sastumroSi movewyeT. sakidebic ki araa... SavSaTi 1916 w. 5-versian rukaze jer araa aRniSnuli. iqaa saTl el is rabaTi. Woroxis xeobis veeba SiSveli kldeebidan uceb naZvnarian xeobaSi gadmovinacvleT. Bborjomi-bakuriani, an Sovi... es nacnobi qarTuli garemoa. aqaur mTian soflebSic, pirvel yovlisa, gzebia movlili, zo70

gan betonisacaa. amiT akaveben aqaur soflelebs. CvenTan ugzooba soflidan qalaqSi moerekeba xalxs, mere _ sofeli daclilia da gza viRas undao da ase gavxdiT Tavkombala... dabawvril i Zveli saxelia, axali Turquli _ ar maxsovs. is SavSeTiswylis marjvena Senakadis saTaveebSia (masureTi). aq soflis SuagulSi, patara TxemTan, gorakze moCans koSkis nangrevi. is mcire zomis Tanabari qvebiT regularulad kirzea nawyobi. Crd-iT mcire nangrevia TaRovani gadaxurvis nawiliT. is eklesiis W da N kedlebis nawili SeiZleba iyos. mis das-iT kidev erTi nagebobis budea. wyobiT SesaZloa ganviTarebuli Sua sauk-eebi iyos. me mgonia, aqedan bilikebiT SeiZleba artanSi gadasvla, SesaZloa maTi Caketvac evaleboda am simagres. am xevis paraleluri xevi das-iT usaxeloa, zed punqtebia: cixia, sxl o bani, meria. xuTversianis Cveni planSeti araviTar nangrevebs ar aCvenebs. iZulebuli var xuciSvilisa da bagrationebis rukiT visargeblo. dabawvrili amarTlebs Tavis saxels. sxva xevze aris dabakeTili. xeobis dabaZveliviT, esec Zveli qarTuli formaa. mere wavediT oqrobageTSi. iqauri cixe da eklesiis nangrevi ukve mars16 aqvs dRiurSi. soflis SuaSi mozrdili oTxkuTxa Senobaa 2-3 sarTuliani. mis kedlebSi Signidan gaswvriv xis morebia datanebuli da Sigve Camocvenili. aq erTgan buxaria dayolebuli. adgilobrivTa TqmiT, aq bolos ucxovria zorabeis, romelsac aqve abanoc hqonia. maxloblad misi saflavicaa. amboben, aq eklesia iyo, romlis adgilas axla skolaao.

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oqrobageTis eklesia mgoni, eqvTimesTanaa. aq samnaviani taZari unda yofiliyo: afsidaSi daculia gaTlili qvebis horizontaluri rigebi. afsidaSi mrgvali sarkmelia. samkveTlo da sadiakvne Tanabar, sakurTxevlis donezea SemorCenili. orives sworkuTxa afsidi aqvs, erTi kvadratuli niSiT. TiTo sarkmeli S da N kedlebSi. W kedeli SerCenilia, oRond gafcqvnilia mosapirkeTebeli qvebisagan. am eklesiis qvebi saTlelis cixeSi gadaitaneso... bal vanaSi araferiao da arc wavediT. meore dRes CixorSi ki metyevem gviTxra mSvenieri eklesiaao... maris dRiurSi velisa (veliqoi) da baris cixeebia aRniSnuli. 22.07.08 Cveni sastumros administratori qarTveli gamodga da Tavis sofelSi enikaia (Zveli cixeao) cixesimagre dagvisaxela. wavediT. SavSeTiswyals marjvnidan uerTdeba am soflis xevi. is me-12 kilometrzea saTlelidan. avediT saocrad maRal mTaSi, sadac soflebia gaSlili. kldeze cixe moCans. mis ZirSi sof. wefTia, e.i. esaa wefTiscixe. manqana sakmaod axlo mivida. gamyolad ori qarTveli wamogvyva, erTi derviSaSvil i iyo, metyeve. ar daijeres, rom oqros ar veZebdiT... es xalxi SeSlilia am Temaze! cixe sakmaod STambeWdavia. didi mrgvali koSkis wyoba saSualo zomis qvebisaa, regularulad. Sesasvleli Camongreulia. meore, O koSkis S-iT mcire eklesiis naSTia daaxl. 3X2 m. wyoba aqac cixisaa. mis samxreTiT, eklesiis iatakis doneze TaRovani saTavsis nangrevia, r-sac kedlebi Signidan Selesili aqvs.

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wylis rezervuarad CavTvale. SW-iT aris mesame koSkis ormoc. aqedan SesaniSnavad Cans orive xeobis soflebi, iq gamavali gzebi da rac mTavaria cixe akontrolebs ori mezobeli xevis SemaerTebel gzas. wefTis cixe unda ixseniebodes XI s-dan. cixis NO-iT gza amodis `bawara~. is miadgeba TaRovan maRal kars. aq SerCenilia TaRovani gadaxurvis mogrZo Senoba usarkmelod, oRond N kedelSi Cans saTofeebi. pirveli darbazidan Sedixar meoreSi sworkuTxa gasasvleliT. is ufro vrceli meCvena. esec TaRovani saTavsia, romlis N yru, miwaSi Camjdari kedeli oqrosmaZieblebis mieraa Camongreuli. orsave darbazSi Wurebis natexebi salteiania. e.i. proviantisa da siTxis sawyobi unda yofiliyo mecixovneTaTvis, romelic gvian Sua saukuneebSic moqmedebda. qveviT wefTibaria. es soflebi ubnebad ganawilebulia mTis ferdobze da qarTvelebiTaa dasaxlebuli, zogs axsovs Zveli gvari, sxvebs _ ara. laparakiT gvagebineben, Svilebi veRar. AmTis soflebSi wyali karCxalis mTidan gamoyavT, sakmaod Soridan. moyavT yvelaferi: marcvleuli, bostani, xili ("adesa"), futkari, saqoneli, frinveli. mezobel xevSia soflebi zemo da qv. Cixori (saqarTveloSi CixoriSi). maris dRiurSi CamoTvlilia maTi ubnebi: andriawminda, wiTel oRl i, l ibani, dasamoba, gogoeTi, bril i, agara, niol eTi (niol isZe), mervezi, Wedriul i. axla daamates: TeTraveTi, vardisyana (?), berieTi, wurieTi, mafrieTi, Wedruli. daasaxeles sxva soflebic: SerTuli, marabuli, axaldaba (iq qarTvelebi aRar arian). "eTi" daboloeba egebis gvarebis erTad cxovrebas aRniSnavs. marTan miqel eTia garyl ofTan.

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avediT ardiawmidaSi (andriawminda) (sic), esaa mTis sazafxulo sofeli mesaqonleTaTvis sezonurad (aprilidan oqtombris bolomde). dasaxlebis Tavze kldeebia, sadac bunebrivi "maRara" (gamoqvabuli) yofila. soflis SemosasvlelTan gziT yelgadaWrili gorakia, sadac Zv. da axali saflavebia. amboben, aqve iyo `ziaraTi~, romelic oqrosmaZieblebma gadaTxareso. am xeobaSic qarTulad metyveleben: zogs axsovs gvari: ColoyaSvili, veliSvili, TamazaSvili. axalgazrdebs, ufro bavSvebs uWirT. eldarma maT qarTul-Turquli anbani dauriga. meurneoba aq iseTivea, rogorc wefTisxevSi. yvelgan axseneben Tamaras da arxebis Taobaze yvebian... 23.07.08 dRes saTliswyals avyeviT. pirveli rac iyo, esaa xidi marisgan SeniSnuli. is erTmaliania, mTeli. is zevidan gadaxurulia axali xidiT, gaganierebulia da axlac moqmedebs. xuciSvilis rukaze aRniSnuli iyo garyl ofis cixe. mivediT, sofelSi araviTari aseTi ar aRmoCnda. wyaroSi XI s-Si moxseniebuli wefTis cixesTan erTad, ase ukvalod rogor gaqra? samagierod vnaxeT cixisZiri (kal adibi), igive sveti, rac jer kidev giorgi yazbegma17 SeniSna. esaa tbeTis zeviTa soflis ganmxoloebuli wvetiani goraki, romlis gverdiT axali sacxovrebeli Senobebia. gorakze mrgvali koSkis nangrevia, nagleji mcire zomis qvebiT nagebi kirze. es koSki marTlac, svetad iqneboda aRqmuli mcire diametris gamo. iqvea wylis rezervuari, amolesili Signidan. aris meore koSkis (?) budec, sxva 3-4 saTavsis budec, romelTac gala74

vani unda hqonoda Semovlebuli. is arc ise miuvali simagrea, rom mTavar episkopozs, aq gamagrebuls, bizantielebisaTvis gaeZlo. unda vendoT wyaros. mtbevari episkoposisaTvis SavSeTis erisTavobis mindobac raRac gamorCeuli damsaxurebaa...(axsna unda!). meCveneba, rom es gaigiveba ufro sarwmunoa, vidre samuSias18 napovni kedlis nafleTi tbeTSi... iq aseTi ver migvaswavles, Tumca toponimiaSi Cans nayal evi tyeSi (cecxlaZe19). tbeTis taZari mec da biWebsac gadaRebuli gvaqvs. amitom S kedlis gadaReba vikmare. garylofis cixis ZebnaSi sof. SavmTis naeklesiari vipoveT. iq mozrdilis eklesiis mxolod gafcqvnili sakurTxevelia, N-iT sarezonanso WuriT. ganviTarebuli feod. xanisa unda iyos. wavediT imerxevSi, ris imieri xevia? pirveli, rac aq Segvxvda, Zveli ormaliani xidi iyo. marcxena mali lamazad SemorCenila Sua burjamde, mdinaris marjvena ki, _ aRaraa. mere jvarisxevis cixe vnaxeT (jvari sadRaa?). etyoba mniSvnelovani `jvari~ iyo, rom xevs misca saxeli... cixe kldezea, moCans 2 mrgvali koSki. nagleji qviT baTqaSze narevi wyobiT naSeni. gadarCenilis mixedviT, orsarTuliani unda yofiliyo orive. erT koSks meore sarTulSi Sesasvleli aqvs, gareT ki gamoSverili qva misadgmeli kibisTvis. aqvea saTofe Rrmulebi. koSkSi yria lomi, weraqvi da uro oqrosmaZiebelTa Sromis iaraRebi... am xalxs viRaca unda STaagonebdes, rom qristianul ZeglebSia maincdamainc oqro Camarxuli... meore koSki sanaxevrod dangreulia, iq ori kvadratuli samzeria. or mTavar koSks galavani aerTianebs. aq ori patara koSkis nangrevia, Semosasvlelis sacavad. aris qvevris didi na75

xevaric... es cixe osmaluria da, cxadia, jvarisxevze gviani. gzaze, mdinaris marcxena napirze sof. yofila _ demirkafu, e.i. rkinis kari. iq araferiao... avediT maidanCikSi. aq qarTvelebi arian. gvarebi eldarTanaa. cixe kldezea. ar agviSves Jandarmis gareSe. durbindiT _ osmaluria... soflebis saxelebia: iveTi, ifxrevi, diobani, soflieTi, wyalsimeri, sesileTi, survani, CiqvelTa (cixea iq), raxaTi, dasamoba, Sarabuli. ifxrevis cixes parexi hqvia, Tamaras aSenebuliao... 24.07.08 berTas dRes orTaqioi hqvia. aq Jandarmis ufrosma migviwvia. pasportebi mogvTxova, romlebic sastumroSi gvqonda datovebuli. dareka, Seamowma da dakmayofilda... mere yaviT gagvimaspinZlda, dediT CeCeni axalgazrda. mogviyva: SarSan aq iyvnen xelovnebis istorikosebi v. gremeliSvilis20 meTaurobiTo (mec mTavazobdnen wamosvlas...) Cvenc iq viyaviT xancTaSi, da daTvebisgan vicavdiTo. vanos, gremelaSvils, aryis sma mouwona... raa es xancTa aseTi mniSvnelovanio. movuyevi mokled... Semdeg gza migvaswavla da pativiT dagvemSvidoba. soflis ganapiras meCeTia minareTiT. iqve Zveli berTis satrapezosi Tu skriptoriumis erTi vrceli kedeliRaa darCenili qarafis pirze. mas xuTi farTe sarkmeli aqvs S mxares. am didrovan Senobas TaRuri gadaxurva hqonia, romlis TaRebi kapitelebs eyrdnoba sarkmlebs Soris. das-iT galavania da raRac saTavsTa naSTebi. nageboba mozrdili gaTlili qvebiTaa. 0-iT aris saZvalis nangrevic, aqac TaRuri gada-

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xurvaa. taZari iqneboda dRevandeli meCeTis adgilas: iq Zveli qvaTa wyoba aSkarad SeimCneva. meCeTis NNW-iT Camomaval mcire xevze mSvenieri Zveli erTmaliani xidia, romelsac Zveli nagzauri mouyveba. mniSvnelovani monastrebis siaxloves xidebi damaxasiaTebelia: rkoni, bieTi, darejanis monasteri (samcxeSi). mere parexTasaken (parexel Ta) gavwieT. viwro xeobis saTaveSia sofeli Sefenili. iqidan biliki miuyveba S-sken eqsponirebul kldis masivs. parexi qarTulSi kldis qarafs niSnavs. asea aqac. biliki jer mozrdili qvebiT nageb kvadratul Senobas miadgeba: saostigne, an skriptoriumia. cota 0-iT ori gverdigverd mdgari eklesiaa. S-iT ufro Zveli samnaviani bazilikaa. wyoba: mozrdil, Tlil qvaTa rigs enacvleba brtyeli qvebi, lamazia 0 fasadi. centralur navs naxevarwriuli sakurTxeveli hqonia Tavisi sarkmliT. N da S navebi centraluri navis afsidis doneze gamoyofili samkveTloTi da sadiakvniT bolovdebian. maT brtyeli sakurTxeveli da sarkmeli aqvT. N samkveTlos W da S Sesasvleli, S sadiakvnes ki, mxolod W Sesasvleli aqvs. ram gamoiwvia N-iT myofi erTnaviani darbazuli eklesiis ageba _ ucnobia. iqneb Zveli daingra? yovel SemTxvevaSi N-iT myofi es Senoba wyobiT ufro gviania. aRmosavleTiT biliki miadgeba mcire CanCqers: berebi aq pirs ibandnen... mec aq davlie miqael parexel is 21 nasvami wyali. Semdeg isev mcire eklesiaa ufro mogviano wyobis. is TiTqos gadmoxuruli kldiTaa daculi. (kalandias22 aq xucuri warwera upovia)... O-iT kidev ori Senobis kvalia, albaT berebis sacxovrebeli...

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mere opizas * mivakiTxeT. guli momikla am veeba Senobis dangrevam: SuaSi gza gautarebiaT. veraferi gavuge nangrevebs. kidev kargi, eqvTimes, mars da sxvebs dangrevamde aqvT nanaxi. gasaocaria mSeneblobaSi gamoyenebuli gaTlili qvebis sidide. aqac ramdenime damxmare Senobis naSTia. opizarebis sadgom-samuSao Senobebis nangrevebiRaa. aqve aSenebul james da minareTs laTinuri asoebiT aweria qarTuli sityvebi: ar aris RmerTi garda alahisa, modiT vilocoT erTad... (lahilah, il allah...). igive sityvebi inglisurad gadmouciaT. es gaamarTlebs taZris dangrevas da iq gzis gayvanas...? wavediT xancTaSi. aq axali gza gauyvaniaT, rasac serpantiniT movyavarT maRal kldovan mTebSi. mdinare 300 m-iT qveviTaa. miwisZvras gumbaTi Caungrevia nawilobriv. kargia, rom mTeli gumbaTi gadaRebuli da Seswavlilia. xancTelis agebuli Zveli samnaviani bazilikis nangrevi, Tavisi saZvaliTa da, savaraudod, grigolis saflaviT, STambeWdavia... Cans skriptoriumis, satrapezos, sxva eklesiaTa da senakebis naSTebi. erTi eklesia wyarozea daSenebuli. cecxlaZis mier moZiebul toponimiaSi Cans: al kdamaZiri, depanwminda?, maramwminda, gal avani... aq axla daclili soflis xilis baRebia. es iwvevs eWvs: cxovrebaSi xacTa, kldovani, mousavliani adgilia... magram grigolis mosvlisas, marTlac, ase iqneboda. xilis baRebi mere mosulma mosaxleobam gaaSena X s-is manZilze. yvelafers gadawyvetda maxlobeli gamoqvabulis moZebna, sadac grigolma martomyofeli mama ipova da masTan

*

d.berZeniSvilis SeniSvna: n. mari opizas ganmartavs, rogorc lazur o-pijas, e.i. sanapiros. Sdr. oSki-o-Sqi, e.i. SuaSi myofi. 78

dasaxlda. v. gremelaSvils unda vuTxra... yvela es monastrebi erTmaneTis siaxloves grigolis mowafeTa agebulia. mxolod Satberdi iyo mcired moSorebiTo... 25.07.08 wyarosTavamde SemTxveviT Semxvedrma axalgazrda topografebma migviyvanes. 40 wuTi dakidul aRmarTze bilikiT viareT. mere erTi mosaxlis ezodan davinaxeT mozrdili eklesiis S kedeli da mis maxlobel kldeTa mwvervalebze patara eklesiebi _ 4 darbazi. mTavar eklesiaze Tazo da eldari avidnen. maTi monayoliT iq didroni SenobaTa naSTebic yofila (satrapezo-skriptoriumi, senakebi...). xilis baRebiT savsea es, marTlac, wyaroebis saTave. mijnaZors ver mivakvlieT... Camosvlisas `movSpi~ da kldes mkerdi davkari... gzidan wyalgaRma davinaxeT nukas saydari. is qaraf kldeebSia da mxolod bilikiT miisvleba. saTl es cixes mivakiTxeT. ZiriTadi koSki oTxsarTuliania. Sesasvleli misadgmeli kibiT 3 sarTulzea. I-ze sapirfareSoa, Rari amovsebulia... Zveli wyoba yvelgan saSualo, erTi zomis mcired naTali qvebia kirze. IX-X s-sa unda iyos. mas garda aris 3 oTxkuTxa koSki. erTi samsarTuliania SesasvleliT W-sken. Zvel koSkebs mxolod samzerebi aqvT, ganaxlebul kedlebSi saTofeebicaa. aris darbazuli eklesia nangreviT. NW-iT didi wylis ormoa. aris didi orsarTuliani sasaxle, romelsac Cans TaRuri gadaxurva hqonia. esaa SavSeTis erisTavis rezidencia (iqneb mtbevari episkoposisac), romelic gvianobamde moqmedi Cans (saTofeebi). saTavsTa naSTebSi iqneboda maranic, sursaTis

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sawyobiT. am lamaz cixeze Turquli naxevarmTvare da varskvlavia mikruli. aqve frialebs maTi droSac... kidev kargi sanaxavad mainc gviSveben... 26.07.08 SavSeTis wylis marcxnivac gadavinacvleT. aq xuciSvilis rukaze orma cixem mimizida. erTi xevis Suaze, qvaTeTris sofel Si gamodga. esaa xiliansaTibiani, gaSlili sofeli, gziT traqtorebiT moTibuli zvinis gverdze, mouTibav balaxSi adgilobrivi glexis VOLVO-a... soflis SuaSi, SemaRlebaze, mrgvali koSki Cans. mivedi, namdvili moti da beil i 24. SesaniSnavia mrgvali koSkis mozrdili, Tanabari lodebis regularuli wyoba kirze _ pirveli niSani siZvelisa. koSki samsarTuliani unda yofiliyo. Sesasvleli meore sarTulze misadgmeli kibiT... ori samzeri mogrZoa da mosasvlel gzebs gahyurebs. saTofurebi araa, e.i. Tofis mogonebamde moqmedebda. Mesame, zeda sarTuli, SekeTebis droindelia da cota mogviano: wyoba nagleji qvisaa, areuli baTqaSze. galavanic Txemis zedapirs mihyveba da wyobiT isic Zveli Cans. galavanSi sxva saTavsTa naSTebicaa. esaa adgilobrivi feodalis cixe. eklesia ar Cans (iqneb daingra)... qareSl ia Turqulad. meore cixe ufro maRlaa, amave xeobaSi. is maRal kldezea sof. verxvnal Si (kara aRaCi). xuciSvilis rukaze mas xanTuSeTis cixe * hqvia. is

*

SeniSvna d.berZeniSvilisa: xanTuSeT-Si xani sayuredReboa. aqve yofila `xanTuSeT qiofrulu~ xidi, romelic dasasvenebel adgilTan erTad gzaze miuTiTebs. `TuSeTi~ asaxsneli rCeba... 80

sofeli meore xevSia, magram ufro Sorsaa cixisgan. amitom verxvnal is cixe ufro Seefereba. es maRali, gviani, osmaluri mrgvali koSki maRal kldezea, ori xeobis damakavSirebeli mokle gzisa da qedze gardamavali, artaanis gzaTa Camketad. Cans artaani marto gorgaslis mogonili araa da ufro Zvelia _ artaaniS è?uji (SaniZe25), magram SemdgomSiac mniSvnelovania misken mimavali gza mtkvris xeobisken (kolis gavliT). amitomaa, rom osmalebi am gzis sakontrolo cixeebs ageben. verxvnal is cixe samsarTuliani nagleji qviT, narevi wyobiT baTqaSzea nagebi. mas ar indoben oqros maZieblebi da uSedegod xsnian da xsnian... verxvnal is cixe samsarTuliania, nagleji qviT, narevi wyobiT baTqaSzea nagebi. mas ar indoben oqros maZieblebi da uSedegod Txrian da Txrian... aq wylis ormoa amolesili da galavnis naSTi burjebiT kldis gayolebaze... soflis moxucebma mezobel xevSi eklesia migvaswavles. bevri viareT gruntis gzebze (Zlivs ar vnaxe saqarTvelos soflis gza!...). maRal mTaSi viRacam yala daasaxela. Gorakze, marTlac, Zveli cixis nangrevi gamodga. misi kedlis gare da Sida piri Tanabari da mcire zomis odnav Tlili qvebia, magram pirwmindad mourRveviaT, dautovebiaT kirze naSeni ConCxi. Zveli wyobis regularuli mwkrivebi Zlivs SeimCneva SigniT da gareT. mTis Txemze isevaa sxvadasxva saTavsoTa budeebi. yvelaferi specialurad gadaTxrilia. mosaxleobaSi Tqmulebaa gavrcelebuli _ aq miwisqveSa qalaqi iyo... amas xels uwyobs isic, rom maxloblad nelTbili mineraluri wyaro Cqefs, romelsac abanod xmarobdnen. iqve gaTlili qvebiT nagebi kedeli gamouCeniaT: albaT abano iyo, romel81

sac Tixis keramikuli milebic axlavs... daveSviT sofel qafu qoiSi. aq meCeTis kedelSi (1981 w.) qarTuli wnuli ornamentia, ezoSi ki trapezis qva erT mxares varduliT. kvadratuli zedapiri mrgval svets eyrdnoba, e. i. aq Zveli qarTuli eklesia iyo... 27.07.08 n. cecxlaZis "toponimiidan" zogierTi saintereso cnoba aseTia: cixia _ aq iyo cixis SigniT, romelic akontrolebda artaanisken mimaval gzas. amJamad iq SeimCneva cixis mxolod nangrevebi. soflis saxelwodebac aqedan momdinareobs: cixea _ cixia. sofel tbeTSi dResac aris qvis didi sawnaxelebi, rogorc Cans, Turqebis mosvlamde aq saukeTeso Rvinos ayenebdnen... tbeTs specialuri adgili hqonia Rvinis Sesanaxad. soflis ganapira adgils, sadac Wurebisa da qvevrebis kvali dResac kargad Cans, WuraTi hqvia. `garyl obi // garyil obi" gzebis gasayarze mdebare punqts hqvia. cnobilia sof. garyilobis da garylobis cixe, romelic imerxevisa da SavSeTis gzebis gasayarze mdebareobs. sofeli uZveles wyaroSi moixsenieba, `garyilobis" formiT. garyl obis cixe moixsenieba XI s_dan. Cven iq veRaraferi gviCvenes. (n. cecxlaZe. Ziebani Woroxis auzis toponimiidan. ss `gamomcemloba aWara" baT. 2004 w. 243_244). dRes wamovediT SavSeTidan, mindoda menaxa eklesiebi xuciSvilis rukaze aRniSnuli. arcerTi dRes araa... etyoba unaxavad, sxvaTa cnobebze dayrnobiT daitana. amas hqvia mogzauris motyueba... saTlis rabaTTan moaxloebisas SevniSneT axal korpusebTan Zveli nagebobebi. amovediT, vnaxeT cixe82

simagred nagebi sacxovreblebi 1850 wlisa. Sesasvlels arabuli warwera hqonda... uceb gamovidnen am saxlis mkvidrni. erTi simpaTiuri mandilosani kulturuli garegnobiT gamoirCeoda. man aiRo iniciativa da mogviyva, rom aq selim ximSiaSvilis26 STamomavloba cxovrobs!! Gagvixarda, movexvieT, CaviwereT. aRmoCnda zafxulobiT naTesaoba aq ikribeboda erT ZmasTan. bevrni iyvnen, sami Taoba, gamaxara gansxvavebulma jiSma. pawawuna hyavdaT mSvenieri... saxls irgvliv didi ezo ertya, sul amaTi. wagviyvanes da sasaflaosTan eklesia gvaCvenes, romelsac yvela gvimalavda... ratom xdeboda es, ver vxvdebi... zeinabma27 gviTxra, rom Cven axla menolis gvars vatarebT, magram aravis vuyvarvarTo (selims Turqebma Tavi mohkveTis). TviTon ankaraSi cxovroben da kargad ician Tavisi gurjoba. gvaCvenes ximSiaSvilTa genealogiuri xe, romelic baTumel xalvaSs gamoucia wignSi _ selim ximSiaSvili. amaT naTesaoba hyoliaT aWaraSi. TviTonac namyofni arian. eklesia sasaflaoze dgas. Zveli eklesia mcire zomis Tanabari qvebiT naSeni, erTnaviani Senoba unda iyos, saTlelis cixis Tanadrouli. S ­ dan moSenebuli ornaviani gaTlili qviT nagebi, SesaZloa, somxuri eklesia iyos, jvrebiT Semkuli... eklesiis irgvliv sasaflaoa, gamahmadianebuli gurjebisa. amaTi naTesavebis gambane _ gampatiosneblebic aqve marxia, pativiT ixseneben. 28.07.08 CamovediT arTvinSi, movewyeT imave sastumroSi. me gadavwyvite Cveni drois meore naxevari movandomo ufro sakvanZo, gadamwyveti punqtebis monaxulebas, radgan Cven yvelafers ver movaswrebT. arTvinis siaxloves aseTi ramdenimea. Tuxarisi klarjeTisa da ta83

os sazRvarze, Woroxis xevSi aqvs wyaros miTiTebuli, amitom savaraudo cixeebs mivaSureT. pirveli aRmoCnda arTvin _ iusufelis gzaze, Woroxis marcxena Senakads SevuyeviT. viwro xeobaSi kldeze gadmomdgari mel oscixe gamoCnda. aqac Turquli droSa frialebs e.i. miisvleba... soflidan axlos mivediT, Tumca, uTokod Tamazma ar mimiSva... es zurgovani samsarTuliani da galavniani koSki, udaod, gzis viwroebs akontrolebs. misi gare wyoba (mcire Tanabari zomis qvebi) mTlianad moclilia. SerCenilia baTqaSis wyobaTSoris ConCxze daSenebuli gviani sabrZolo, mrgvali kedeli. mas sami salode aqvs, romlebic mosasvlel mxares urtyamen. koSks aqvs maRali, farTo TaRovani Sesasvleli pirvelsave sarTulze, romelic gvian amouvsiaT kirxsnariTa da qvebiT, e. i. koSkis pirveli sarTuli dauyruebiaT. amdroindeli unda iyos saTofeebic, romelic aseve mosasvlel mxares icavdnen. meore sarTulze Sesasvlelia mowyobili, albaT, misadgmeli kibiT. mesame sarTulis Riobi, albaT, aivnisTvis iyo, romelic galavniT mozRudul ezosa da qvevidan momaval gzas gahyurebda. ezoSi aris wylis mrgvali ormo, amolesili. galavnis kedlebi gviandelis STabeWdilebas tovebs. mcirea farTobi mecixovneebisaTvis. ueWvelia, gzis sayaraulo koSkia, iqneb qarTulic, gvianic. meore cixe Woroxis marjvena Senakadis saTaveSia. xuciSvilis rukaze mas xodi hqvia. iailebis garemocvaSi sruliad miuval kldeze, xevebis saTaveSia es mozrdili, oTkuTxa, ganieri koSki. mas kuTxeebi momrgvalebuli aqvs. Soridan binokliT danaxuli: wyoba gviania, narevi. or-sam sarTulidan Senobas saxuravi Cauqceveli uCans, radgans moCans zeda sarTulis qvebi, romlebic raRacas (gadaxurvas?)

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eyrdnoba. momaRlo (gangreuli?) kari O-iT moCans. kldis zedapirs O-iT da N kideze galavani Semouyveba. mis SigniT sakmaod did farTobze saTavsTa nangrevebi Cans. galavnis gareTac, N-iT Cans raRac Senoba (koSki). mesaqonle mTibavebi gvarwmuneben, cixe miuvaliao... marTlac, maTi droSa aq ar frialebs, eWvs iwvevs maTi metismeti wadili, ar agviSvan cixeze: ebraelebi modian da ver adiano, daTvma daglijao... aq amsvlels iaraRi unda hqondeso... es daTvebi da vefxvebi mogonili gvgonia, magram binokliT damTvarielebeli Tamazic miuvalobas `awveba"... saintereso iqneboda misi axlodan naxva. 29.07.08 artanujiswyalze moqmedi Zveli xidi gadaviRe. mere axizis cixes gavuareT da misi amoSenebuli gamoqvabuli, sadac freskebia _ gadaviReT. tanZoTi (sxl obania, tanZ-msxal i). artanujis wyals marcxnidan erTvis, am xevis saTaveSi mTis sofelia, xiliani. mis misasvlelSi, kldeze cixea gamokiduli. misi wyoba narevi qvisaa, baTqaSze. osmaluri unda iyos wyobis mixedviT. aqaa wylis sacavi, saTofurebi, meore sarTulze - sapirfareSos maRali TaRi. misi Rari garedan daxuruli yofila, oqros ZiebaSi isic moungreviaT, sawyenia rom araferi daxvdaT... tanZotis jameSi mars qarTuli warweriani qva unaxavs, albaT eklesiisa. ixseneboda samadavl ekal maxel i da Tamari, maTi Svil ebi-giorgi, ioane da sumbati. meore warweraSi: `missa tanuterobasa Sina aRSena... warwera 1312 wlisa yofila. tanuteroba albaT monastris winamZRvars (mamasaxl iss) gulisxmobs (Sdr: mijnaZorelTa davis wignSi ­ XI s. `samamasaxliso samsaxurebeli").

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es somxuri wodeba ar unda iyos gasakviri (mijnaZori, tanZoti, Satberdi)... sofelSi ori jame dagvxvda. orive Signidan da garedan galesili. warwera maSin daifareboda. iqve gviCvenes somxuri eklesia warweriT _ 1843 wl isa. sof. kl arjeTs axl a bereqeTi, e.i. baraqiani hqvia. maris TqmiT: `gorebiT garSemortymuli, did SesaniSnav moedanze gaSenebuli, sadac misi ubnebia gafantuli, am farTo zeganze batonobs cixe." marTlac, klarjeTSi aseTi farTo zegani jer ar Segvxvedria. artanujTan ufro mcire zegnebia, anCasTanac. taoSi banaa, aq ki es zegani, Turqebi rom bereqeTs uwodeben, e.i. mosavliania yovelmxriv, xilicaa. sarwyavi arxic cixis ZirSi iwyeba. ubnebs saxelebi ar aqvT, arc marTanaa. cixe, xevis saTaveSia kldeze. es ufro Zveli meCvena, vidre tanZotisa: brtyeli qvebi regularuli wyobiTaa kirze nagebi. koSki orsarTuliania. kiri pirvelsarTulzea. samzerebi zustad sofels da mosasvlels gahyurebs. saTofeebi araa. galavani mcire farTobs mosazRvravs Txemze. aris wylis rezervuari amolesili. Cans 2-3 saTavsis kvali, gadakeTebac etyoba narevi wyobiT. es punqti imiTaa saintereso, rom is aZlevs saxels am mxares, iseve rogorc taoskari - taos. e.i. is ufro Zveli unda iyos, vidre artanuji _ klarjeTis bagrationTa centri. aseve iqneboda taoskari da bana. dResve gvindoda amave xevze gvenaxa qobtaxoris cixe da mewagil i eni rabaTamde magram d. asaTians28 Tirkmeli astkivda (qviSis gavla) da 2 saaTze wamovediT arTvinSi. afTiaqSi nayidma wamlebma moasulieres, RmerTma inebos...

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30.07.08 fenirl iqi _ yvelis sofelia, uC-sus (samwylis) napirze. misi ubnebi or dasaxlebadaa ganawilebuli xevze. aqedan sasmeli wyali gahyavs mTavrobas artanujSi. jejil aTi saxnavia, iobati (rac Turqulad auxsnelia), Wal is agara, mol usxevi, Sual Ta. gza miadgeba tyeebsa da saZovrebs, fexiT klarjeTSiac gadava, tanZotSiac... qobTaqorSi gza (biliki) mxolod peinirlis mehledanaa. 1840 wlamde iq rusebsa da somxebs ucxovriaT. sxva amosasvlelic vnaxeT, Camosvlisas... daTvi, taxi, kurdReli, xili, Tafli, yurZeni. cixe kldezea SemZvrali, gzis sakontrolod. misi wyoba, nagleji qviT baTqaSzea naSeni. erTi koSkia da galavani. erTi samzeri, ori saTofuri, erTi wylis ormo, garedanac Sekiruli. saxelwodebaSi Tavidanve qobi _ qvabi vifiqre; vkiTxe, Tu aris gamoqvabulebi... egebis meore nawilSi mTis kiloebSi SerCenili `qori" iyos, e.i. saxlis zeda nawili (Sdr: qor-wili) qobTa-qorSi gamoqvabulebis zeda nawili SeiZleba igulisxmebodes. adgilobrivi, stambulidan zafxulobiT aq amosuli, axalgazrda Segvxvda. cixeze wamogvyva, aq 35 w. rusebi da somxebi cxovrobdnen, 1840-ian wlebSi osmalebma garekeso. Cans, maTi naSTia tanzoti da misi eklesia 1843 wlisa. qarTulia da Turqulad ar ixsneba zeviT Cawerili toponimebi. ojaxSi migviyvana, xiliT gagvimaspinZlda, patara bavSvebi inglisurs amtvrevdnen: specialur skolaSi dagvyavso... telefonebi davutoveT... mars hqonda aRniSnuli: mewagil Si (esec 1840-ian wlebSi garekili somxebis nakvalevia) enirabaTis siaxloves cixe-darbazebiao. xuciSvilis rukaze aR87

moCnda cixe (Cans, marisgan auRia)... mivediT, 80 wlis moxuci vnaxeT. man gviTxra, rom es ar maxsovs, mamaCemisgan gamigia, rom erT SemaRlebul moedanze (gviCvena) eklesia mdgarao... kedlis nasaxic ver vnaxeT... e.i. aqedan gaziduli qvebiT uSenebiaT saxlebi da yoreebi... visac ar vkiTxeT, veravin moigona cixe siaxloveSi. esec codnaa, rom davadgineT: maris droindeli cixe axla aq aRaraa!! ukan dabrunebulebma artanujis qal aqs gavuareT da daudas mier ver monaxuli eklesiis nangrevebi movinaxuleT. is adreve SevniSneT, anCidan wamosulebma da Soridan gadaviReT. bagrationebs is azomili da IX_X saukuneebiT daTariRebuli aqvT. es veeba taZris nangrevi qalaqis galavans ebjineba NO mxares. S kedlis maRali nawili axlac SerCenilia. unda yofiliyo samnaviani bazilika didi, uxeSad damuSavebuli qvebiT nagebi. kargad Cans N navis sakurTxevelSi Sesasvleli da S kedlis gareT saZvalis TaRi (?)... zeviT moCans sasaxlis naSTi (orsarTuliani) isic azomilia bagrationebisagan... daTo fexze dagvxvda. 31.07.08 dRes dauda Camovida, vaxo gavistumreT. wamovediT olTisisken, gzad xersis cixes gamovuareT xuciSvilis rukis mixedviT. iq cixea aRniSnuli da kiTxvis niSniT Tuxarisi aweria. aqac movtyuvdiT. adgilobrivebma veraferi gvaCvenes... samagierod eklesia migvaswavles xersis didi Relis marcxniv (es Rele Woroxis marjvena Senakadia). kedlis fragmenti, mcire zomis Tanabari, uxeSad damuSavebuli qviTaa nawyobi. Signidan da garedan erTnairi wyobaa. erTi SerCenili kedlis naxevari gafcqvnilia da mxolod baT88

qaSsRa etyoba anabeWdebi. daaxloebiT IX-X saukuneebis eklesias gavs. saeWvod meCvena, rom afsidis naxevarwre ver SevniSne: albaT dangreuli mere sworkuTxad amoaSenes. es eklesia arc rukazea aRniSnuli... ol Tiswyal s SemovyeviT amiertaoSi. aq mkacri kldeebi SedarebiT mwvane mTebiT icvleba, xeoba iSxnis mere farTovdeba da metia saxnav-saTesi. gzad oluris gadasaxvevSi cixe gadaviReT, rasac xuciSvilTan norberTi, xuT versianzeqefribaS, xoSavizi aweria. mere gadaviReT banis ori cixe wylis gaRma-gamoRma. eseni advili sanaxavia oluridan... olTisSi provinciul sastumroSi movewyveT. erT sarTulze saerTo sapirfareSoa... 1.08.08 olTiss centrSive aRmarTuli veeba cixe dahyurebs, ra Tqma unda Turquli droSiT... qalaqi dablobSia, garSemortymuli mTebiT. olTisiswyali erTi dabinZurebuli mdinarea, xalxi pirquSia, magram sxva adgilebisgan gansxvavebiT, aq sasadili-kafeebSi aTaTurqisa da misi colis suraTebis nacvlad mepatroneTa mama-papis suraTebia... centrs amSvenebs cxenosani aTaTurqi xmliT... dRes dilidan avuyeviT olTisis xevs. daviwyeT narimaniT, aRmoCnda, rom narimani Zvelidan 14 km-iT zeviT gadautaniaT. es cvlileba arcerT rukaze araa. xuciSvil-silogavas ruka saocrad ityueba... 28 km zedmeti gaviareT... eqvTime TayaiSvilis `mogzaurobidan" amowerili mqonda cixe-punqtebis saxelebi. aq amovikiTxe al abal iksuze didi cixis arsebobis Sesaxeb. avediT xevis bolo sofelSi, iqaurma moxucma `eklesiebis cixe" gaixsena... dav89

qveiTdiT da naxevar saaTSi mivadeqiT SesaniSnav Walas, mdinaris ori totis xerTvisSi. aq Soridanve Tvali mogvtaca eklesiebis kedlebis Zvelma wyobam. ori ufro Zveli eklesia maRlaa qedze. pirveli (qvevidan) ufro momcroa (6 nabiji x 4 nabijze), erTnaviani. nagebia modido, kldis gaTlili qvebiT. Sesasvleli S-dan TaRovani yofila. erTi sarkmeli W-dan. afsidaSi erTi niSa. mis zeviT meore samnaviani bazilika unda yofiliyo. ukeTaa SerCenili N navis sakurTxevelis naxevarwriuli nawili. centraluri afsida gegmaSi ikiTxeba; S-isa saerTod mongreulia. sakmaod STambeWdavi zomebi (16 nabiji x 9 nabijze). Sesasvleli Wdan da S-dan (centralur navSi) Tu aq dangreulic ar emateba. wyoba pirveli mcire darbazisa unda iyos: mozrdili gaTlili kldis lodebi. varaudiT, vambob radgan usvindisodaa gafcqvnili da mxolod baTqaSis anabeWdebze etyoba mosapirkeTebeli qvebis zomamoyvaniloba. CrdiloeTis SerCenil baTqaSze, zeviT, SerCenilia profilirebuli (reliefuri zoliT) kapiteli, romelic aqeT-iqidan gadmosul TaRebs iWerda. saerTo ieriT es ori Senoba IX-X saukuneebis SeiZleba yofiliyo. am samnavian bazilikas N-dan ucnauri, naxevarTaRiani gadaxurviT kidev erTi kedeli aqvs modgmuli. Sesasvleli W-dan, N kedeli sworia. es wyobis mixedviT narevi, gviani Senoba, Signidan amolesilia, S-dan eklesiis N kedels iyenebs. mgoni gvian mosulma mahmadianebma eklesiebis ararsebobisas abanoebi moiwyves. wyali aqvea xevidan RariT mosayvani... odnav dabla, ferdze ori erTmaneTze miSenebuli eklesiaa. isini erTdroulad ar unda iyos nagebi: kedlebs nakeri ar etyoba. isini mcire zomis Tanaba90

ri, uxeSad damuSavebuli qvebis regularuli wyobiTaa nagebi da ganviTarebul Sua saukuneebsac waagavs (iqneb Zvelsac). qvedas Sesasvleli N-dan aqvs da sakurTxevelSi 2 kvadratuli niSi aqvs. meore eklesia TiTqos SemdgomSi unda iyos modgmuli... Tu es eklesiebi aq monastris arsebobaze miuTiTebs, maSin maTi sameurneo savargulebi S-iT gaSlili mSvenieri Wala iqneboda... kldis Tavze erTi gviani, mrgvali koSkis nangrevia. albaT, osmalTa begisa, romelic abanosac moiwyobda. sofeli (Tu iyo) terasebad iqneboda wylebis orsave totze... aqedan gza gadadis soflebSi. mosaxleni amboben gzis gayolebiT cixeebs: yaradaSi, cicankal e, kal adere. amave al abal iksus dayol ebaze, olTisiswyalTan SesarTavamde, kldeebi viwrovdeba. am mdinaris marcxniv didi cixis nangrevebia. aqaa mrgvali koSkebi Zveli, mcire, Tanabari zomis qvebiT, horizontaluri wyobiT nagebi; aris gviani SekeTebis kvalic _ narevi wyobiT. cixis O nawilSi, mozrdili darbazuli eklesiis baTqaSis ConCxia SemorCenili, usvindisod gafcqvnili mozrdili gaTliTi qvis mopirkeTebisagan... ganviTarebuli Sua saukuneebia, cxadia, osmalebis mier meored gamoyenebuli. olTisis cixe gorazea. misi kedlebi, isev uniWod, Tavidanaa agebuli. SerCenilia Tanabari, mcire zomis qvaTa regularuli rigebi, gviani gadakeTebiT. yvel aze saintereso me aq S nawilSi moTavsebuli siqstakonqis gegmaSi SerCenili nangrevi meCvena. mis sakurTxevels, wyobis dabal rigebSi wnuli ornamenti arSiad Semouyveba. es me bizantiur xelobad meCveneba (Tumca qarTuli ram gamoricxa? e. TayaiSvils mohyavs qarTuli warwerebi saidanac Cans, rom

91

eklesia qarTuli iyo, wm. giorgis saxelobis ...). aRar maxsovs eqvTimes ra uweria MAK XII nomerSi... aqvea viRac Seix asanis saflavi XI saukunisa. cixidan moCans qalaqis galavani da osmaluri sasaflaoebi wriuli gadaxurviT. iq axla qalaqis nagavsayrelia... urartelebi, romaelebi, bizantielebi, qarTvelebi, selCukebi, osmalebi _ aseTia olTisis istoria mTel imiertaosTan erTad... qalaqis aRmosavleTiT sofel Sengerl i-Si vnaxeT kldeze Semdgari osmaluri gviani cixe. aq gamavali Zveli gzis makontrolebeli unda yofiliyo. gviani wyobis narevi qva baTqaSze, erTi ovaluri formis galavania, Sig saTavsoTa naSTebiT. olTisisxevi mniSvnelovani gza iyo mtkvris xeobiT aRm. saqarTveloSi Semomavali gurji baRazi ki ufro TorTomisxevis gzas emxroba, Tumca TorTumis gzasac itotebs. TorTumis gza ZiriTadad zRvispiras da dasavleT saqarTvelos emxroba. TorTumis gza osmalebisa da bizantielebis dros saqarTvelos dasapyrobad iyo mniSvnelovani: yvela amaTi gaTvaliswinebaa saWiro aqaur cixeebze saubrisas. da mainc, via est vita wyvets cixisaTvis adgilis SerCevas, gansakuTrebiT xeobebSi. TurqeTi, Cvengan gansxvavebiT, axlac SesaniSnavad axorcielebs am princips: erTi mosaxlisaTvis mTaSi gayavs Zvirad Rirebuli gza... 2.08.08 dRes diliT avibargeT TorTumidan. wamovediT baniswyal ze ori cixis sanaxavad. pirvel i cixe mdinaris marcxena borcvzea. is araa maRali da advilad misasvleli. Txemi mTlianad mozRudulia galavniT. is gviania wyobiT:

92

kldis daumuSavebeli qva baTqaSze. kedeli kuTxeebSi momrgvalebulia. erTaderTi mniSvnelovani aq mozrdili, erTnaviani darbazuli eklesiaa. mas saxuravi waqceuli aqvs da TiTo mozrdili sarkmeli S da N kedlebSic aris. kedlis wyoba narevi qviTaa, zogjer xazgasmulad aferadebuli Wadrakulad. iseTi STabeWdileba mrCeba, rom galavani gauqmebul eklesias Semoavles osmalebma da cixed aqcies gzis siaxloves. eklesiis O kedelis gareT mrgvali amolesili wylis rezervuaria. meore cixe mdinaris marjvena kldovan ferdzea Sefenili. is ufro rTuli nagebobaa _ Sedgeba qveda da zeda cixisagan. kedlebi misi sakmao simaRlisaa SerCenili. misi wyoba, Tumca kldis nagleji qviT kirze nagebi, mainc SeuZlebelia, Tundac gviani, es kedlebi Zvels ar misdevdnen. galavani sakmaod STambeWdavia, romlidanac SesaZloa zeda cixeSi moxvedra, aq ori maRali da Zlieri mrgvali koSkia, romlebic or-sam sarTuliania. qvedaSi Sesasvlels zevidan salode dahyurebs, aris samzerebic gzis saTvalTvalod. zeda cixis erT koSks sul zeviT Ria sabrZolo moedani aqvs. aqa-iq samzeri, SesaZloa, saTofedac gamodges. me ufro SesaZlebeli meCveneba bagrat IV-is droindeli banas cixe es iyos, xolo mefis momlodine laSqari aqve velze iqneboda gaSlili. misma danaxvam daafrTxo parkimanozi da Sin misuli mefe saberZneTs dabrunebas gadaurCa. amas daTuna meore cixeze yveba. cixis qveviT, mindorSi didi vrceli oTxkuTxa Senoba dgas, mozrdili, mrgvali RiobebiT mosasvleli N da W mxrisaken. me meCveneba, rom es osmalTa mxridan sazarbazned dasadgmeli Senobebia, romelic momxdurs RiobebSi zarbaznis lulebs

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gamoayofinebda, Sdr: Telavis batonis cixeSi arsebuli naxevarwriuli burji. am oTkuTxa Senobis win didi, mrgvali, amolesili ormoa amoSenebuli. mgoni rezervuari unda iyos mebrZolTaTvis (abano?). cixis ZirSi, kldeSi xvreli SeniSna Tamazma, SeZvra da gamoqvabul-eklesiaSi aRmoCnda. W Sesasvleli da O sarkmeli, gaganierebuli aRmoCnda, mTelia TaRuri gadaxurva, sakurTxeveli, iq ori kvadratuli niSa. Tamazma andrias xati daasvena da sanTelic aunTo... wyliT cixis momarageba problema iqneboda. axla mis qveS arxi gadis baniswylidan gayvanili. iqneb es Zveli tradiciaa? maSin galavanSi gaivlida, eqvTimes uTxres aq gvirabia wyalze Camavalio. (kola-olTisi, 353). banas taZarma * yvela gaaoca. es me SarSan vnaxe. saocaria mis irgvliv gaSlili savargulebi da gamwvanebuli soflebi. amaSia taos Zalac (aseTivea olTisic). klarjeTis siZliere mis miuval kldeebSia, magram amdeni savarguli iq mxolod klarjeTs aqvs. eklesiebis ZebnaSi xevs avuyeviT da erTgan sof. injeCais qvemoT (orwyal s niSnavs) kldeze SerCenili naeklesiari vnaxeT. W Sesasvleli da iqve erT qvaSi gamoWrili sarkmeli vnaxeT. sakurTxevlis qveS, ormo Tu oqros maZiebelTa gamoTxrili araa, maSin saZvale SeiZleba iyos. qvis wyoba, met-naklebad, regularulia da SesaZloa XIVXV ss-sa iyos. mere qveviT CamovediT da migvaswavles solomonkales siaxloves gamoqvabulebi. Tamazma TokiT yvela agviyvana. aq mTavari eklesia moxatuli da dazianebu*

SeniSvna d. berZeniSvilisa: eqvTime mas `unikums" uwodebs (kola-olTisi, 369). 94

lia. freskebs axlavs qarTuli asomTavruli asoebi. gumbaTSi macxovaria. gverdze, gamoqvabulSi 4 samarxi auqoTebiaT, Cans Zvlebi. mTavari eklesiis gverdiT isev patara eklesiaa gamoWrili kldeSi, Semdeg amoSenebuli senakebia. es gamoqvabulebi aRwerili aqvs eqvTimes da bagrationebs gadaRebuli. mainteresebda cixe solomonisi, magram axla yuradReba eklesiaze gadagvaqvs. me iniciativebs movrCi... movewyeT oluris sastumroSi, nomerSi marto var. madloba ufals, amovisunTqe. 3.08.08 dRes taoskariT daviwyeT. manqana oluridan mivida bolomde. rukaze (5 versiaze) veeba baRebis garemoSi aRniSnulia eklesia. eqvTimes aqauri mrgvali eklesia aRwerili aqvs. marTlac, saocrad waagavs banas: aqac mrgvali garSemosavleli unda iyos, romelTa Soris gvxvdeba samkuTxa niSebi, mis samxreTiT imave wyobis (e.i. saSualo zomis gaTlili qvebis) regularuli rigebia. es eklesia rogorRac grZeli Cans, magram SesaZloa imave periodisa iyos. sofelSi (CaTax), romelsac qarTulad xerTvisi (ori wylis SesayarSia) hqvia, mesame eklesisiis sakurTxevlis N nawilia SemorCenili, imave Tanadrouli wyobisa. ukve saxeli taoskari cxadyofs mis mniSvnelobas, aq ori wyali erTvis, erTs Turquli saxeli aqvs, rac qarTulad wyalwiTelad gadmoicema. mas Turme miyveba biliki, romelic klarjeTSi gadava. taoskari swored iqidan taoSi Semosasvlels unda aRniSnavdes am maRal kldeTa Soris. am punqtis (taoskaris) mniSvnelobaze unda metyvelebdes aseTi taZris aq gaSeneba...

95

amave `wyalwiTelas" uerTdeba meore xevi, salaCurisa romlis marjvena Senakadzea kal maxis cixe da vaCeZoris monasteri. iqiT axla gza gayavT da Cven am monastrisken wavediT. manqana SesarTavSi davayeneT da fexiT SevuyeviT wyl ianBxevs. gzidan moCans `miuvali" (eqvTime), kalmaxi, maRal kldeze. vaCeZoris monasteri cixisken mimavali bilikis cota zeviTaa. aq ramdenime eklesiaa, satrapezo, karibWe samrevloTi. erT gadakeTebul, grZel, brtyelabsidian eklesiaSi sakurTxeveli TiTqmis Suaze mouwyviaT mogvianebiT, damoklebuli eklesia SeulesiaT, mouxatiaT. irCeva wmindanTa saxelebi: g_i, d_e, stefani, prokopi. qveviT aseTive asomTavruliT irCeva: "...grigol Semoswira..." SesasvlelSi aseve asomTavruli nakawri warweraa: "q_e S_e gabriel da eri misi adide". es warwerebi eqvTimes gamocemuli aqvs. monasters mravalgzis gadakeTebis kvali etyoba da mainc SemorCa somxuri "Zori" e.i. xevi. aqve gaRma "kamax" cixea. mis ZirSi var da ver ki avsulvar... rogor avuxsna am axalgazrdebs, rom SesaZloa es Cemi bolo Sansi iyos... an vin moisurvebs iq asvlas?... taoskarSi dabrunebulebs gamyolma regularuli wyobis mrgvali burjis kedlis nawyvetze migviTiTa: aq Zvel i arxi gadmodioda da misTvis amoaSeneso... vin icis rodindelia es arxi taoskarSi? am SesaniSnavi baRebis samyofelSi, sadac brinjic ki mohyavT?... guzam taoskarel i, es didi, Zlieri feodali Tamaris winaaRmdeg gandgomas rom bedavs, cxadia, am taoskars gulisxmobs, maS sadaa misi sajdomi cixe? kalmaxi am raionSia, magram xom adre is kalmaxelTa sabudaria, sul a kal maxe li , mefis erTguli, l ipa96

rits iWers da bagrat IV-s Caabarebs. amis samadlobelad mefem mas samcxeSi iseTi mamuli misca, rom man cixisjvarelTa Stos daudo saTave. kalmaxeliZeebi merec rCebian... sulkalmaxis saxeli Senaxuli TqmulebaSi, sula kalmaxelidan unda modiodes... ase, rom guzam taoskarels raRac sxva cixe unda sWeroda taoSi da misi taoskareloba warmomavlobas SeiZleba aRniSnavdes da ara aqauri cixis mflobelobas. saidanaa warwera mamamisis saflavisa axalgazrdebma rom Camoitanes?*... ukan dabrunebulebma norbeTis cixes gamovuareT. es maRal kldeze mdgaria, oluriswylisa da olTisiswylis SesarTavSi. misi zurgiani koSki Zvelia da Zlieri. nagebia mozrdili damuSavebuli qvebiT. aqvs xuTi samzeri (arasaTofurebi) da samsarTuliania. mis irgvliv Semovlebuli galavani gviania da feric TeTri duRabisaa, aqvs ukve saTofurebic. aqvs aseTive wylis rezervuari, Selesili. swored am axali galavnis gamo Searqves gvian mosulma somxebma axalcixe, ise rom misi koSkis siZvele ar gauTvaliswinebiaT... zurgiani koSki IX-X ss. SeiZleba iyos. 4.08.08 dRes fanaskertidan daviwyeT. am Zveli cixis mxolod nangrevebia. aris Zveli da ganxlebis kvali. es cixe aspaniZeebs unda daxvedrodaT. is namdvili cixe darbazia ori wylis (fanaskert-su, kap-su) xerTvisSi amarTul goraze. aq mxolod wylis ormo Cans, eklesiis Tu sxva saTavsoTa naSTebi waSlilia.

*

SeniSvna d. berZeniSvilisa: taoskars qveviT, salaCurisa da olTisiswylis SesarTavTan, eqvTime uTiTebs did cixes sof. kranSi (xuTversian rukaze ""). egeb aq. 97

galavans mrgvali burjebi aqvs erTgan. oTxkuTxa Senobis kvalia galavanSive. es cixe, or xevs miyolili, ori gzis makontrolebeli qveynis batonis cixea, romelic Tavisi eriT ise Zlieria, rom mefis jaris dauxmareblad akeTebs did saqmeebs, Tan bedic swyalobs ("arca, RmerTo, ubedo" - Tamaris ist.). manve moaxerxa guzan taoskarelis damarcxeba da mere fanaskertelis saxeliT taos erisTaoba oTxi s-is ganmavlobaSi. mere ciciSvilebi qarTlSi... eqvTime am sofelSi sami eklesiis naSTs uTiTebs. iqidan waRebuli warweriani qva maSin mosaxlis SenobaSi yofila CaSenebuli: `...a... /i saxbls/ sa subat /isaTs esad/", e.i. "sumbatisaTvis erisTavisa" (?) IX-X ss. (kola-olTisi, gv. 372). sofeli didia, xilian-mosavliani, Ronieri ekonomikurad da didi; aseT cixes ekonomikuri safuZveli unda hqonoda, rom saerisTaos centri gamxdariyo, Tumca taoSi sxvac iyo didi mniSvnelovani cixeebi. fanaskertidan orTis sofel sBmivaSureT. is oluridan zeviT, orTiswylis xeobaSia gaSenebuli. aq, marTlac, svetiviT SerCenil kldeze, Soridanve oTxkuTxa koSkis nangrevi (eqvTimes dros "lamazi koSki"), misi misasvlelebi alag-alag kedlebiTaa gadaRobili. safiqrebelia gzis makontrolebeli saTvalTvalo koSki iyos. Tamazma asvla akrZala: saxifaToao... ukan mobrunebisas oluramde kidev ori, aseTive kldis Tavebze, isev mrgvali da meore-kuTxovan-galavnis naSTiani koSki gadaviReT. isini gzis meTvalyureebad miviCnieT: erTob mcirea maTi farTi. 5.08.08

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avibargeT oluridan. eqvTimesTan da rukazedac (xuTversiani) taoskars qveviT, salaCurisa da olTisiswylis SesarTavTan naCvenebi iyo cixe da sof. krani. aq maRal kldeze, marTlac, dagvanaxes cixis nangrevi. isev: `au, iq ra ava, ori qva gdia, erTi kedeli, ar Rirs wvalebad"... binokliT - wyoba gviania, magram aqac SesaZloa yofiliyo Zveli fenebi. gadaRebiT davkmayofildiT... eqvTimesmieri kalmaxi, vaCeZori da es kranis cixe, ueWvelad, fanaskertis TemSi igulisxmeba (salaCuris xevi), e.i. guzans orivegan SeeZlo hqoneboda sajdomi da fanaskertelad wodebuliyo (rogor davTme da ar avedi am cixeze!!...). mere gzad banas TemSi gamoviareT. gzispirze myofi eqvskonqiani nangrevis (kiagemis alti) pirdapir gamoqvabulebia. iq amsvlelebs solebi da Toki dautovebiaT. Tamazi, daudi da me avcocdiT. aRmoCnda bunebrivi gamoqvabulebi, romlebic berebs gaufarTovebiaT da gamouTxriaT. TaRuri gadaxurva da kedlebis damxroba TiTqos samlocvelos mowyobilobas gulisxmobs, gverdiTi saTavsoebi, albad, senakebad gamoiyeneboda. moxatvisa da Selesvis kvali ar Cans. araa gamoricxuli mopirdapire eklesiis berebis samyofi yofiliyo. gadavediT sof. sol omonisSi da wyarosTanac, SemaRlebaze eklesiis nangrevi dagvxvda. is SeZerwili yofila mozrdili gaTlili qvebiT. gegmaSi, SesaZloa, samnaviani bazilika yofiliyo. mozrdili eklesiidan mxolod S gverdis nawilia gadarCenili. xom araa es eqvTimes mier Camxusis eklesiis nangrevebad aRwerili punqti? magram iq tetrakonqia (kolaolTisi, gv. 336). solomonis cixeSi manqanam mis ZirSi migviyvana. aq SerCenilia galavnis mrgvali burji da kedlebi

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Zveli, Tanabari, saSualo qvebis zomisa, ase damaxasiaTebeli romaa aqauri mSeneblebisaTvis. es cixe nanaxi da aRwerili aqvs eqvTimes. maSin aq gumbaTiani eklesiac mdgara, Signidan sul moxatuli, warwerebic yofila: `RmerTo da wmindao dimitri, Seiwyale codvili daviT monazoni, amin." freskuli warwera ki ikiTxeboda ase: `SubiZe miqels Seundven RmerTo dido (?), amin." yofila figurebi winaswarmetyvelTa da mociqulTa. eqvTime taZars IX_X saukuneebiT, moxatulobas ki - XVI saukuniT aTariRebs (kola-olTisi, gv. 398). darejan kldiaSvili29 am cixes miiCnevs kalmaxis cixed. me vfiqrob, amas meti dasabuTeba unda. es banas Temia da aq sxva cixeebi pirveloben... wyaroebs unda Sejereba. wamovediT kolaSi, gza baniswyals moyveba da bunebriv-gamoqvabulebiani kldeebis garemoSi midis. amovediT trial zeganze, romelic mTebiTaa garSemortymuli. xe arsadaa, mxolod Semosasvlel mTebzea naZvnari. aq qurTebi cxovroben. miwurebi. wivis grovebi... Cveni javaxuri garemo. movewyeT sastumroSi. saRamos mtkvris saTave gadaviReT. aq eqvTimes mier aRwerili punqtebi gvaqvs sanaxavi: dadaSeni, oTxTa eklesia, okami, kalajuxi... 6.08.08 kolaSi ukve ori samoqalaqo tansacmelSi gadacmuli Jandarmi dagvyveba manqaniT. pirveli rac vnaxeT, es iyo marTlac SesaniSnavi cixe kolis ukidures sofelTan, kldeze. is sami mxriT miuval qarafzea da mtkvars miyolil or gzas udgas yelSi. meore gza N-dan amouyveba mSral xevs da velze (sofelSi amodis). erTaderTi misasvleli mxridan SesaniSnavi, maRali kedelia amoyvanili. er100

Ti oTxkuTxa da sami mrgvali burjiT gamagrebuli. aqvea oTkuTxa, maRali Sesasvleli. mas Tavze ganieri salode dahyurebs. SigniT, orsave mxares, zeviT ori budea qvaSi gaWrili, orfrTiani qvis karis quslebisaTvis, kedlebSi msxvili budeebia urdulisaTvis. wyoba am nagebobisa narevia. gamoirCeva Zveli _ mozrdili gaTlili lodebi qveviT, zemoT maTi zoma mcirdeba da regularul mwkrivebs icavs. kedlebSi zogan isev didi brtyeli lodebicaa datanebuli. NW kuTxes mrgvali orsarTuliani koSki icavs sakuTari SesasvleliT ezos mxridan. O da W mxares kldes isev miuyveba kedlebi, romlebic qarafTan wydebian. Sida ezos vrceli farTobi saTavsoTa budeebs uWiravT. SesaZloa, eklesiac yofiliyo... SekeTeba etyobaT kedlebs. eqvTimes dros es cixe ukeT iyo Senaxuli da aRwerilic aqvs: kal ajuxi, vaxuStiT qumurl uxi, "vgoneb beWis cixedo~. Tu asea, maSin saxeli adgilmdebareobas asaxavs. es iqneboda sasazRvro cixe artanisaken. sainteresoa wyaroebSi... Semdegi naeklesiari iyo sofel budaqlisTan, Zveli jejori. is aRwerili aqvs eqvTimes (kola-olTisi, 310). dorT-qil isa - oTxi ekl esiaa sxvadasxva adgilas, romelTac erTmaneTTan ar unda hqondeT kavSiri (Tavisi nasaxlarebi axlavs). Ubralod, siaxlovis gamo, Turqebma maT oTxi eklesia uwodes. agebis droc maT gansxvavebuli aqvT. isini dRes usaxur nangrevebs warmoadgenen da ukeTes mdgomareobaSi aRwera eqvTimem (iqve, 307-309). dadaSenis ekl esiidan mxolod gafcqvnili ConCxis nawili dagvxvda. aq eklesiis W-TiT vnaxe javaxeTur-TrialeTuri mSrali wyobis kedlebi

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sapire didi qvebiT, SuaSi Cayrili xurda. mas uWiravs mTeli Txemi. eqvTimes mier nanaxi eklesia, galavani da koSkebi axla aRaraa (iqve, 305-307)... samagierod eklesia NO-iT qedis dabla, imave wyobis mogrZo kedelia, romlis ConCxs mozrdili lodebis anabeWdebi etyoba. es grZeli kedeli galavnis araa (mopirkeTeba), is egeb sasaxlis naSTi iyos, dadaSneli episkoposisa. NW-iT kidev erTi naeklesiaria, usoflod, amasac dadaSnis nawilad miiCneven. gafcqvnili, erTnaviani, darbazuli eklesiaa... daudma Tqva, rom sofelSi SarSan upoviaT qvajvris bazisi zed jvriTa da vazis rtoTi. misi suraTi bagrationebs aqvTo... axla is qva Jandarmebma waiRes ardaganis muzeumSi. uCqil isa _ sam ekl esias niSnavs. es erTi ganapira sofelia kolisa, mTis kalTaTa ZirSi. aqauri eklesiebi jer kidev eqvTimes dangreuli daxvedria, sami iyoo. soflis muxtarma JandarmebTan molaparakebebis mere, viRacas ezoSi mozrdili da damuSavebuli qva gviCvena. mas, SedarebiT simaRlesTan viwro, zedapirze ori Rrmuli hqonda. meore brtyel mxares asomTavruli warwera aRmoCnda, qva magari jiSisaa da amitom asoebi Rrmadaa amoWrili. asoebSi naxSiri iyo amoxazuli. warwera Tavisuflad ikiTxeba: `ese jr_ni saf_la z_a~, e.i. `ese juarni saflavsa zeda~. maSasadame, saflavis qva albaT, col-qmris saflavze iqneboda dadgmuli da zed ori qvis jvari iqneboda mrgval fosoebSi Cadgmuli. `a~-s horizontaluri xazi tans moSorebuli araa; `l~ nusxuria. SesaZloa warwera X-XI ss-a iyos. warweris sapirispiro brtyeli mxare ar Cans. qva didia da misi gadmobruneba SeuZlebelia.

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muxtarma Tqva, es qva eklesiis nangrevTan iyoo. iq ki gegmac ar Cans. gadaTxrilia yvelaferi. soflis ganapiras, bunebriv kldis lodze, raRac amoRarulebi gvaCvena. aRmoCnda `q_e~ (xucurad!) e.i. `qriste~. mosaxlem spilenZis dazianebuli larnaki gamogvitana saxlidan. isic molasaTvis iyo Sepirebuli da saidumlod inaxavda. erTi mxare dazianebuli hqonda. Signidan gaSlili piris dasawyisSi, wriulad, arabuli warwera Semouyveba. suraTebis gadaReba Zlivs movaxerxeT... kidev erTi mosaxlis boselSi, kvadratul TaxCaSi Sedgmuli jvriani qva gviCvenes. jvari amoRarulia, tolmklava. sibneleSi bliciT gadaviReT. eklesiis gaTlili qvebi gamoyenebulia mSeneblobaSi... saRamos sastumroSo wyali ar dagvxvda... xval gadasvlas vapirebT ardaganSi... biWebi dReebs iTvlian Tbiliss dasabruneblad. 7.08.08 dRes dilas gamovediT goladan. davadeqiT ardaganis gzas. me-14 km-ze marcxniv ekl esiis nangrevi gamoCnda. gadavediT. SemaRlebaze erTnaviani darbazuli Senoba Canda. misi wyoba saSualo zomis adgilobrivi gaTlili qvebis horizontaluri mwkrivebiT iyo kirze. Sesasvleli Sdan, TiTo sarkmeli O da N kedlebSi unda yofiliyo. saxuravi Caqceuli, Riobebi Cangreuli. N kedels Suaze TaRebis sayrdeni pilastris kvali etyoba. afsidaSi ori kvadratuli niSaa. daaxl. IX-X s-ebis unda iyos. N-iT nasoflaris nangrevebia. eklesiis O-iT Cans naTxari qvayuTebi. ucnobia adgilis saxeli.

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Cveni manqana SeumCnevlad gascda uReltexils. SeumCnevlad imitom, rom daaxloebiT kolaseburi garemoa: maRalmTliani zegani, oRond aq ufro gaSlili da vrceli. mTebi aq marto sazRvrebze rodia. amas garda, meti fiWvnari. meeWveba es bunebrivi iyos, Zalian ki uxdeba garemos... artani usaTuod mniSvnelovani saZovrebis qveyanaa kolasTan erTad (kolaartani). is javaxeTs ar Camouvardeba. mis mniSvnelobas ufro lazuri garemo afasebs: iqidanaa artanisaken momavali gza (artaniS ?uji), Cans TrialeT-javaxeTi ufro O saqarTvelos emxroboda. sainteresoa qveynebi da maTi centrebi: taos, kolas, javaxeTs, TrialeTs, taSirs, kaxeTs, kuxeTs, svaneTs, lazikas, SavSeTs, samcxes... amave saxelwodebis centrebi Tavidan ar hqonia da gvian gauCndaT. aseTebia: SavSaTi, ardagani, walka, an sxva saxelwodebis centrebi (bana, TorTomi, olTisi, okami, axalqalaqi javaxeTisa, TrialeTis axalqalaqi, lore, ujarma, Weremi, Telavi, rusTavi kuxeTisa, mestia, fazisi, axalcixe...). sxvebs qveynebis Tanamosaxele centrebi TiTqos Tavidanve hqondaT: qarTli (mTaqarTli), gardabani, gaCiani, Suafxo, Takveri, argveTi, klarjeTi, gurianTa. albaT, sxvadasxva mizezi aqvs am gansxvavebas... magram aris Tu ara pirvelad centri da misi saxelis gavrceleba mxareze? Tu jer mxarea da mere misi centri? albaT, arc aq iqneba identuroba (klarjeTi qveyana, klarjeTi _ centri, lazika _ fazisi da sxva). movewyveT sastumro ardahanSi, ara uSavs. gavediT 12 saaTisaTvis, amitom ardaganis uaxloesi Zeglebi avirCieT. pirveli iyo sof. al taSi (TeTri qva). amis Zveli saxelia uri. es iyo Zveli artanis erTi

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mniSvnelovani centri. s. janaSia30 am saxels iyenebda qarTvelTa huritebTan monaTesaveobis dasamtkiceblad... soflis ganapiras, maRal kldovan goraze, nangrevi moCans. avediT, aRmoCnda SesaniSnavi Zv. wyobis galavani da aseve nagebi mrgvali sqeli koSki. wyoba mozrdili, tlanqad damuSavebuli lodebisa regularulia. kiri isea gamoqaruli, rom kacs Tavidan mSrali wyoba egoneba, Tumca gulSi kiri TeTrad Cans yvelgan. yvelaze maRal adgilze erTi mrgvali Zlieri godolia. kedlis sisqe 2 m-ia. mas Sesasvleli meore sarTulze aqvs, galavnis Sida ezodan. koSki ise sqeli kedlebisaa, rom SigniT mcire adgili rCeba sacxovreblad, saomrad ki kargia. arc samzerebi, arc saTofe-saisreebi aq ar Cans. galavani sakmaod did farTobs mozRudavs daxril ferdze. mas misadgomi mxridan sami naxevarwriuli burji aqvs. aqeT mxares cixes ufro maRali mTa emezobleba da cixeze Seteva aqedan ufro advilia. amitom mTisagan gamosayofad cixis galavans kidev erTi damxmare saSualeba aqvs: esaa mSrali Txrili, romlidan amoyrili miwa galavnis mxares ufro cicabos da Znelad asasvlels xdis. es Zveli cixeebis gamagrebis gavrcelebuli wesia. am Zveli motisa da beilis gareT, mTis ferdobi nasaxlarTa budeebs uWiravs. es Zveli dasaxleba iqneboda, am cixis mecixovne, mtris Semosevis Jams. cixis moqmedebis xana, SesaZloa, ufro gviani iyos, vidre saxelwodeba uri-a, magram mainc niSnadoblivi meCveneba es Zveli cixe aq (daaxl. VI_VIII ss.). soflidan gamosvlisas saxlze gumbaTi SevniSne _ hamam,

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esaa osmaluri abano, romelSiac axla ojaxi cxovrobs. gumbaTi gadaviRe. sof. ol CekSi, wyarosTan, eklesiis nangrevia. SerCenili sakurTxevlis Sida da gare wyoba mowiTalo, gaTlili, mozrdili qvebiTaa SeZerwili, SesaZloa, XII s-is iyos. Sesasvleli S-idan aqvs, sarkmlis TaRi SesaniSnavia O mxares... soflis N-iT kidev erTi darbazuli eklesiis nangrevia mindorSi. is usvindisodaa gafcqvnili, damuSavebuli mozrdili qvis wyoba mxolod Signidan SW kuTxeSi Cans. isev sof. olCeks gamovuareT. es sofeli ori mdinaris Sesayar samkuTxedSia. sofels Tavs dahyurebs maRal kldovan mTaze, soflisken gamoweul qimze, agebuli `ziaraTi~. es sityva amaTTan Cveulebriv Tayvansacem adgils niSnavs... avediT da dagvxvda sruliad mSrali wyobis oTxkuTxi nageboba. misi veeba lodebi regularuli wyobiTaa erTmaneTze morgebuli. ori samzeri aqvs, erTi qeds gahyurebs, romlisganac TxriliT yeli aqvs gadaWrili da qedis orsave mxares Cadis. meore samzeri ki soflis W-iT Camosuli wylisken iyureba. am farTe SenobaSi N-iT kidev raRac oTxkuTxa saTavsia. damxroba araa qristianuli. esaa winare qristianuli nageboba, albaT Tavdasacavi, romelic iqneb, salocavadac iyo gamiznuli. damaxasiaTebelia, rom am `ziaraTSi~ adgilobrivi mosaxle, Sua xnis qali ijda da qsovda. Camosvlisas ki, meore moxuci qali Semogvxvda, romelic fexsacmlis gareSe, windebiT mococavda bilikze... gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi qarTvelebic fexSiSvlebi midiodnen eklesiamde (Tamari varZiaSi, basianis omis win mlocveli).

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ras niSnavs mahmadianTa es mowiweba winareqristianuli nagebobis winaSe? ratom Searqves mas `ziaraT~-i, am saxeliT xom isini qristianuli eklesiis nangrevsac, saerTod salocavs ixsenieben?.. ardaganis Crd-aRm-iT, SesaniSnavi tyeebis maxloblad mivageniT simaRles - yazanyal es. netav vis miaweren Turqebi am SesaniSnavi oTxkuTxa koSkis mSeneblobas? is mtkvris marjvena maRal napirzea, qedze, romelsac meore mSrali xevi Casdevs N-dan da W-dan. mtkvari am sami mxridan uvlis cixis mopirdapire kldovan koncxs da naxevarkunZuls qmnis mdinaris marcxena napirze. SesaniSnavi, gzebis makontrolebeli pozicia uWiravs am simagres. oTxkuTxa koSki mozrdili lodebiTaa nagebi kldis ganapirze. es oTxsarTuliani nageboba Zvelia, mxolod oTxi samzeri aqvs da 1 Sesasvleli mdinaris momzirali qarafidan. aq mosadgmeli kibiT iqneboda SesaZlebeli aq amosvla. pirveli sarTuli yrua _ saqonlisa Tu produqtis sacavi, meore-mesame sacxovrebeli, meoTxe _ sabrZolo. am koSks galavani axlavs, romelic mTlianad zRudavs qedis zedapirs. umetesad dangreulia. Cans saTavsebi, iqneb koSkis kvalic, simagris meore boloSi, romelic das-iT momaval biliks akontrolebs. nasoflari galavnis gareTaa W-iT. iq axla mefutkreTa sazafxulo sadgomia fiWvis tyeSi. es simagre iqneb javaxeT-artanis monapire erisTavisa iyo XII-XIII s-Si... kidev erTi eklesiis nangrevi vnaxeT ardaganSi, Semosasvl el Tan gzis pirad. es mozrdili darbazuli erTnaviani Senobaa, ori mozrdili TaxCiT afsidaSi. N da S kedlebs Suaze pilastri hqoniaT, romelic mosaxleobas mouxsnia mopirkeTebis

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sxva qvebTan erTad. eklesiis W da N kuTxesTan, ezoSi mozrdili qvaa amobrunebuli. SeiZleba qvis sarkofagis nawili iyos... 8.08.08 dRes saqarTvelos sazRvarze wavediT, focxovis xeobisken. gzad mtkvris marcxniv didi cixe davinaxeT. esaa orezaqis didi cixe, romelic did jars daitevda. is kldovan SemaRlebaze dgas da ketavs mtkvrispirze gamaval gzas. mTeli Txemi did da sqel galavans uWiravs. kedlebSi Cans Zveli Tanabari, saSualo zomis regularuli rigebic da aris gvianic: areuli wyoba gareT gamosuli baTqaSiT. erTgan Sesasvlelia /\ zeda nawiliT. qveviT gamongreulia. burjebi mrgvalia da es Sesasvlelic zurgiani koSkisa unda yofiliyo, ezos mxridan, meore sarTulSi misadgmeli kibiT. saocaria, rom galavnis mTel sigrZeze, kedlebs ori paraleluri, kedlis gaswvrivi, mrgvali xvreli miuyveba. es rom wyvetili iyos, xis nakvalevi megoneboda, kedlis simagrisaTvis. aq ase araa da es mrgvali xvreli rkinis milis nakvalevs ufro hgavs, romelic kedlidan gamouRiaT!.. ver vxvdebi mis daniSnulebas. cxadia, rom Zveli cixe osmalebs SeukeTebiaT da gamouyenebiaT artaanidan focxovisxevisken mimaval gzaze. zogan Cans samzerebi. gadavlaxeT eruSeTis qedi da davadeqiT focxovis xeobas. misi centri TurqeTSi axali dasaxleba unda iyos, saxeliT posxov... Cven iq JandarmeriaSi misvlamde meres cixes CavuareT. JandarmeriaSi Tbilad migviRes, CaiT gagvimaspinZldnen da Tavisi manqaniT oTxi kaci gamogvayoles avtomatebiT.

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pirveli rac gvaCvenes, yvel is cixe iyo. focxovis marcxena sanapiroze gamokidul kldezea es cixe. misi mrgvali burjebi erTaderT misasvlel mxaresaa NW-iT. aq wyoba Zvelicaa da axalic. Ggobronis31 wamebiseuli teqstis (X s.) Sesatyvisi kedlebis kvalic moviZie: mozrdili, gaTlili, mogrZo didi lodebi. galavani kldis mTel zedapirs mozRudavs, zogan radialuri kedlebi eSveba ufskrulisaken. O nawilSi, erTi oTxkuTxa Senobis nawili, eklesiis darbazis W nawilad SeiZleboda CagveTvala (damxrobis mixedviT), magram O nawili Cangreulia. miqel-gobronis wamebis droindeli fena aris da, rac mTavaria, arsebobs SesaniSnavi aRwera abul -kasimis laSqrobisa 914w. da gobronis wamebisa... sof. yveli focxovis marjvnivaa, albaT merZeveoba, yvelis damzadeba iyo mTavari (Sdr.: karaqa TrialeTSi). rom es Zveli saxelia, Cans berZnuli TargmaniTac, romelic am cixes tirokastrons uwodebs. wurwyabi saepiskoposo iyo. isic amave xevSia yvelis siaxloves mas axla aSikjul al e hqvia, Tumca adgilobrivni Zvel saxelsac ixseneben. aq gviCvenes Zveli cixis (?), Tu eklesiis kedlebi. am qvebiTaa aSenebuli adgilobrivTa saxlebi, maTi buxrebi. aris qva ori fosoTi jvrebisaTvis, iseTi guSinwin rom vnaxeT kolas sof. uCqilisaSi. Samwuxarod, Zveli eklesiisa Tu cixis (?) gegmac ki ar Cans, isea irgvliv dasaxleba, erT qvaze mxedruli warweraa `badri~. CavediT jayis cixis sanaxavad, magram mesazRvreebma ar migviSves. me es focxovis marjvena napiridan sof. jayismanidan gadamaRebina laziSvilma32 ciurisTan33 erTad. jayiscixe da albaT sofelic marcxni109

vaa, jayismani _ jayisubani Tavisi cixiTa da eklesiebiT ki _ marjvniv... ar iqna jayis cixis naxva, mevijayeT... meres cixe focxovis marjvnivaa. isic kldezea, magram miuvalobiT ver daikvexnis. aqacaa Zveli kedlebis wyoba. erTi oTxkuTxa mTavari koSki da vrceli galavani, mTeli Txemis momcveli. aris gadakeTebis kvalic _ gviani. mTavari koSkis ezos mxareze, meore sarTulze oTxkuTxa Sesasvlelia. iq marcxena da marjvena, zeda da qveda qvebi erTiania, e.i. oTxi qva qmnis Sesasvlels. is erTi qviT ixureboda: marcxniv, zeviT da qveviT fosoebia quslebisaTvis. aseve xvrelebi horizontaluri urdulisaTvis. am koSks samzerebi aqvs mosasvleli S ferdobisken sami cali. Sesasvlelis marcxena qvaze mxedruli warweraa, ori saxeli unda iyos. XIV s-is warweras hgavs. cixis ZirSi darbazuli eklesiis gafcqvnili ConCxia, romelsac minaSenebi hqonia N da W mxridan. baTqaSze anabeWdebi: mozrdili, gaTlili qvebis regularuli, sworxazovani wyobaa. es ucnobi eklesia ganviTarebuli Sua saukuneebisa unda iyos. mere _ mdinaris sanapiro Walaa: meria, maradidi... cxinvalSi omi daiwyo... sawinaaRmdego informaciebia radiosa da televiziaSi. RmerTo, daifare Cveni xalxi!.. 9.08.08 dilidanve eruSeTs gavudeqiT. es artaanis nawilia. oruSeTs uwodeben adgilze. es mTaTa ZirSi mTavari gzispira dasaxlebaa. aq yvelam icis Zv. eklesiis adgili. misi nangrevebi sakmaod did farTs moicavs da mxolod gafcqvnili baTqaSia darCenili. es

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ar unda yofiliyo mxolod erTnaviani darbazuli eklesia. is raRac ufro metia. naxe eqvTimesTan. mere nanatri kurtkal e-mgel cixea. mtkvris es nawili mniSvnelovania:Laq mtkvars gayolili gza ikveTeba Crdil s mimavali gziT. es gzajvaredini mtkvris marjvniv aRniSnulia oTxi gamoqvabuliT. erT maTganSi, yvelaze mozrdilSi, nagebobis kvalia _ TiTqos gumbaTi da N kedeli... qvebi aqac moxsnilia. ufro saintereso isaa, rom axali xidis zemoT, Zveli naxiduris burjebia, mtkvris marjvniv da mdinareSi... marcxniv ki rusuli xidis burjia. e.i. aq ZvelTaganve iyo xidi gzajvaredinze. sofels, romelsac saxeli cixisgan miuRia (jer cixe, mere sofeli), cixis N-iT ferdzea Sefenili. sasazRvro punqtis qveS iqac gamoqvabulebi Cans, amboben amonaSeniao. iq misvla ver gavbedeT: uari ar eTqvaT cixis gadaRebaze. jayis cixesaviT aqac uars velodiT, magram axalgazrda samxedrom gulubryvilod gagviSva, Tumca bolos inana: ufrosebma datuqses... Cven mivaRwieT qedisgan ganmxoloebul kldes, romlis mTeli zedapiri cixes uWiravs. Soridanve Cans mtkvarze Casasvleli gvirabis ori xvreli, romelic aq morevze Camodis. qveda cixis galavnidan zeda cixeSi xvdebi, sadac erTnaviani darbazuli eklesiaa gaTlili, mozrdili qvebiT mopirkeTebuli sworxazovnad. Sesasvleli S-danaa, TaRuri gadaxurviT. W da O sarkmelebidan O cota farToa da dabali. afsidas warmoadgens brtyeli kedeli. Signidanac eklesia brtyeli, gaTlili qvebiTaa SeZerwili. sakurTxevelsa da Sua nawils, rogorRac, profilirebuli TaRebi gamohyofen. N kedelSi W-sken erTi oTxkuTxa niSaa. mTeli eklesia mogvianebiT

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moulesiaT da freskebiT daufaravT, rac TiTqmis mTlad gafuWebula. eklesiis gareT sada, yvaviliseburi CuqurTmiani qva gdia. saerTo ieriT eklesia IX_X ss. unda iyos, moxatuloba ki XIV-XV s-sa (naxe eqvTime). sxvebs mgonia arc unaxavT... eklesiis N-iT raRac mozrdili oTxkuTxa Senobaa. mozrdili darbazi ori nawilisgan Sedgeba, mgoni sasaxlea. erTi sarkmeli masac O-iT aqvs. cixes aqvs mrgvali koSki da naxevarwriuli burjebi. aq aris Zveli wyobac (saS. zomis Tanabari, uxeSad damuSavebuli qvebis regularuli mwkrivebi) da axalic _ narevi baTqaSze. aTabagebamde mgoni am cixes arsad vxvdebiT. XVI s-Si ki mas gogoriSvili34 icavs. mustafa lalafaSam is jayelebs waarTva da merec moqmedi iyo. saxelwodeba unda gamoxatavdes gautexlobas (Srd.: Seupovari, oCanis cixe...). cixis dabla kidevaa raRac Senobis kvali. gvirabebSi ver CavaRwieT _ amovsebulia...* mere im gzas gavyeviT _ gamoqvabulebs rom gauvlis da Crdilis tbisken midis. amovediT zeganze da mtkvris marjvena Senakadze, yafar kldeebSi gamoCnda ulamazesi SaiTankal e _ qajis cixe. vefxistyaosnis yvela mxatvars, me vfiqrob, nanaxi hqonda eqvTimesTan qajis cixis fotografiuli suraTi, yvela amas imeorebda Taviseburad... klde savsebiT miuvalia sami mxridan. meoTxe misasvleli mxarec NW-dan yelgadaWrilia. aq gadis erTaderTi cxenis biliki, Cans umoklesi da mniSvnelovani, mas advilad akontrolebs es cixe. magram is

*

SeniSvna d.berZeniSvilisa: cixis O-iT kidev Cans erTnaviani darbazuli eklesia, albaT soflisa. eldarma naxa da gadaiRo. misi naxevarwriuli afsidac moxatuli yofila... cixis gaRma, kldeebSi moCans gamoqvabulebi. 112

ufro mniSvnelovani, didi xnis sadgomi, rezidencia unda yofiliyo aTabagebis xelSi. swored maTi patronobis periodi da osmalTa mflobelobis fenebia aq yvelaze Warbad. aris ufro Zveli _ saSualo zomis qvaTa horizontaluri mwkrivebiT. misasvlel mxares icaven daaxl. 30 m (Tu meti ara) simaRlis dauzianebeli kedlebi. gikvirs am simaRle, miuval kedlebs rad undodaT es bastionebi. Tumca zarbaznebis dros, albaT, maxlobeli simaRleebidan iyo saSiSroeba. qveda cixeSi Sedixar STambeWdavi SesasvleliT, or mrgval burjs Soris. amas icaven specialuri moxrili kedliT (rogorc oqros cixeSia) da salodeTi, romelic zed Sesasvlels dahyurebs. salodeebi yvela am mosasvlel mxareebSia, aris SigniTac viwro mrgvali xvreli, romelic ukve qveda cixeSi, mTavari karibWidan Semosuls ecema Tavze... saocaria, am salode, sazarbazne xvrelebis mowyobis teqnika. aris ori didi wylis sacavi, iqvea eklesiac. esaa mozrdili, erTnaviani, darbazuli eklesia, romelsac daaxloebiT Semosasvlelis Tavis simaRleze, orlilviani salte Semosdevs oTxive mxridan. olTisis cixis eklesias aseTi salte moCuqurTmebuli hqonda da me bizantiurad meCvena (Turme sul tyuilad). eklesia Signidan da garedan SeZerwilia gaTlili kvadrebiT, magram gadakeTebis kvali aSkaraa: meored, uadgilodaa Casmuli reliefuri, lilvebiani qva N Sesasvlelis marcxniv da S kedelSi, Signidan sarkmlis sapire. naxevarwriul afsidaSi ori mcire, Seisruli TaRiani niSaa. es gadakeTeba XIV_XV s-sa mgonia*. erTaderTi Sesasvleli eklesia*

SeniSvna d. berZeniSvilisa: erTaderTi Sesasvleli eklesiaSi N-danaa, mere damatebiT garRveuli. eklesias irgvliv calke galavani aqvs. 113

Si N-danaa. mere damatebiT garRveuli. eklesias irgvliv calke galavani aqvs. mTavar koSkSi Sesasvleli meore sarTulzea misadgmeli kibiT Sida cixis ezodan. Sida cixeSivea mrgvali godoli, romlis farTo zedapiri saomari moedani unda iyos mecixovneTaTvis, romlebic aq farTo, 23-safexuriani qvis kibiT Camodiodnen. cixis teritoriaze aris sxva saTavsoTa da kedlebis naSTebic. es marTla qajis cixe, SoTas ar mougonia (n. berZeniSvili35 ...). am cixesac lalafaSa arTmevs aTabagebs da osmalebic warmatebiT iyeneben. miuvaloba icavs cixes mosaxleobisagan: qva ver gaaqvT... Semdeg Crdilis tbaze, sof. urTis eklesiaze daSenebuli jame vnaxeT. es kedlebic mSvenivradaa daculi: wmindad morgebuli gaTlili qvebi. O kedelze garedan ori samkuTxa maRali niSaa, sxivebiT dabolovebuli. S Sesasvleli amoqolilia (azomili iqneba). feqraSenic am tbis napirzea. mis eklesiaSi ar SegviSves (qurTebi cxovroben). S-dan mas sasadilo da maRazia aqvs midgmuli. irgvlivac saxlebia; maT saxuravebze gadavliT mainc gadaviReT eklesiis N kedeli, SesaniSavi CuqurTmiani kapiteliT. afsida Secvlilia betonis kedliT da eklesiaSi boselia usaxuravo... Crdilis (mTebi marTlac Crdilaven) tba veebaa: 50 km-ia sigrZeSio... aRjayala ar Cans sibneleSi, albaT dangreulia. xval yarsSi wasulebi aq gamovivliT. 10.08.08 daviwyeT Crdil is tbaze aRjayal iT. am uzarmazar tbas erTgan SeWrili naxevarkunZuli aqvs.

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is sakmaod farTovdeba, misasvleli ki viwro aqvs, magram orive mxridan kedliT gadaketili. es kedeli gacilebiT gviania, vidre naxevarkunZulze arsebuli yvela Zegli. pirvel yovlisa yuradRebas iqcevs cixis S-iT ferdobze mdgari eklesia. is mozrdili, gafcqvnili Senobaa, saxuravCaqceuli, S SesasvleliT da W sarkmliT. N da S-dan minaSenebis kvalia. S kedlis gareT damaTariRebeli ornamentiani qva gdia. bagrationebs Senoba XI s-iT dauTariRebiaT. kldovani qedis zedapiri mTlianad galavans uWiravs. esaa TrialeT-javaxeTSi gavrcelebuli `urartuli~ mSrali wyobis kedlebi: orive mxridan mozrdili lodebi, romelTa Soris Cayrilia xurda, (Jandarmebma maxloblad aRmoCenili urartuli warwera gviCvenes. e.i. es cixe maTi Senoba iqneboda). zogan am galavans meoradi gamoyeneba kirze etyoba (albaT eklesiisave droidan). rac mTavaria, galavnis kedlebze, Signidan midgmulia swored iseTi saTavsebi, erTmaneTze miwyobili, rogorc faravnis Saorzea. aq organ kargad Cans Sesasvlelis brtyeli balavris qva. yvelaze maRal adgilas momrgvalebuli mSrali wyobis koSki unda yofiliyo. es simagre naxevarkunZulis kldezea, zRvisgan mainc moSorebiT. zed zRvis napirze ki meore, mrgvali koSkia veeba lodebiT, kirze nagebi. es, ueWvelad, eklesiis droisaa. amboben cixidan (eklesiasTan romaa) gvirabi midioda tbamdeo... ra movaleobas asruleben es simagreebi tbebTan? aseTi Zveli simagreebi javaxeTis tbebTanacaa da unda vifiqroT, wylis siaxlove, Tevzi, aseve wyliT mosasvlelis advili dacva, aseT punqtebs mniSvnelovans xdida. Sua saukeneebSi ki am simagreebs advilad

115

SeeZloT yvelaze moxerxebuli gzis _ tbis sanapirosTan moZravi, navebis, gakontroleba. es imitomac, rom Zvelad, Sua tbasa Tu zRvaSi naviT curva Relvis gamo saSiSi iyo da napir-napir dacuravdnen. TviT `zRvaTa mefe~ fridoni da gvian gurielic, Sua zRvaSi vin curavda, ver akontrolebda... amis mere, tbisave pirs myofi sof. Wal a (jal a) movinaxuleT. aq pirvelad vnaxe sruliad mTeli, erTnaviani darbazuli eklesia, romelsac saxuravic (TaRuri) mTliani SerCenia. misi kedlebi kargad gaTlili da morgebuli lodebiTaa SeZerwili da aRmosavleTiT, or-ori, samkuTxa, niSaa mTeli kedlis simaRleze. O-iT maT Tavze iseTive sxivebi aqvT, rogorc urTaSi. N kedels xuTi TaRi gadasdevs. aseve iqneboda S kedelic, romelic ar Cans, radgan masze miudgamT jame. aman gadaarCina eklesiac, romlis perangis SemoZarculi qveda nawili W kedelze gviani narevi wyobiT SeuvsiaT. Sesasvleli S-danaa. mas james Senoba faravs. es eklesia auzomiaT bagrationebs da X s-iT dauTariRebiaT. maTve SeuniSnavT sakurTxevlis naxevarsvetebis Tavze samkuTxediT dasrulebuli saxate niSebi. marjvena samkuTxedSi asomTavruli warweraa. gadaiRes Tamazma da daudma. amaTi gadanaRebi SeiZleba gairCes. es SeuniSnavT bagrationebsac da weren: aqedan Cans, rom eklesia RmrTismSoblis saxelobisaao... X s-saa eklesia, msgavsi oTxTasi. CamovediT yarsSi. es qalaqi (sakmaod didi) usaSvelo tramelebSia gaSenebuli, patara mdinaris pirze (araqsi ???). muzeumSi gareT gamotanili qvebi da arqeologiuri nivTebi gadaviRe, Cvenis msgavsi. ezoSivea vagoni, romelSic gaformda yarsis xelSekruleba ruseTsa

116

da TurqeTs Soris... es marTlac niSandoblivia dRes, roca omi wavageT ruseTTan, oseTSi da maT dagvibombes gori, marneuli, zugdidi, senaki... yarsis cixe ise uazrodaa gaSenebul-SekeTebuli, rom naxvad ar Rirs. inglisur ganmartebaSi mxolod isaa naTqvami, rom selCukebma aages XII s-Si, monRolebma daangries 1383 w. da ganaaxla mustafa lalafaSamo. arc qarTvelebi, arc somxebi arsad naxsenebi araa. somxuri eklesia ki dgas or meCeTs Soris, jvar-gumbaTovani muqi taZari. wamovediT arzrumSi da erTi RamiT sastumroSi movTavsdiT. xval wavalT im qalaqebSi, romlebic andria pirvelwodebulTanaa dakavSirebuli. 11.08.08 dRes wamovediT arzrumidan, veeberTela zegani, erTferovani, magram saxnav-saZovrebiT savse velebi gadmoviareT da zRvisken mimaval xeobebSi daveSviT. ulamazesi soflebi, mTebi... qal aq yarahisarSi SesaniSnavi cixea kldeze. braieris rukaze aq bizantiuri punqtia. mere neokesaria (niqsari) _ ulamazesi Zv. qalaqi ferdobze, Tavisi cixiT, eklesiebiT da elinisturi (?) naSTebiT. aq wm. andria trapizonidan movida, mere samosatelTa? qalaqSi iqadaga... eklesiebi, abanoebi, arabuli, berZnuli warwera jvrian qvaze eklesiaSi... viwro quCebi, bazari. (niksar). gamoviareT komana (giumania), aRaraferia SerCenili. CamovediT amasiaSi. centrSi kldeze cixea: mSvenieri qalaqi... televizorSi sul `gurjistan" ismis...

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12.08.08 dRes davaTvaliereT qalaqi. is or mozrdil kldovan mTebSi momdinare patara wyalzea gaSenebuli, mis orsave napirze. mTavari cixesimagre mdinaris marcxnivaa. mas TiTqmis mTeli kldis zedapiri uWiravs. misi ferdis momzRudavi kedlebi TiTqmis mdinaremde Camodis. ferdzea gamoqvabulebi, sadac damarxulni arian mahmadiani sulTnebi. aris ori terasovani miwis nakveTi, ras axarebdnen zed maSin, axla ucnobia. yvelaferi ganaxlebulia axali Tlili qviT, romelic gegmas unda imeorebdes da Zveli wyobac Cans. sainteresoa, rom qalaqis ori nawilis damakavSirebeli axali xidis burjebi, eyrdnoba Zveli xidis oTx, kargad Senaxul kamarebs. sxva xidis burjebi pirdapir wyalSi dgas... axali da gansakuTrebiT Zveli saxlebi gadmokidebuli aivnebiT waagavan Tbilisurs, oRond ufro dablebi arian, wyalTan axlos. mSvenieri qalaqia. sainteresoa, aqauri erTi jame, gadakeTebuli eklesiaao. wamovediT sinopSi, gzad samsuni gamoviareT. orive mozrdili zRvispira qalaqia. sinopi SesaniSnavi: mozrdili naxevarkunZuli, SedarebiT viwro yeliT, ukavSirdeba materiks. aqaa swored gaSenebuli Zveli cixe-qalaqi. axali qalaqi mis gareTaa, magram mTlianad ar moicavs naxevarkunZuls. kunZuli O-iT moxrilia da moxerxebul yures qmnis. aqaa axla portic. 13.08.08 dRe daviwyeT muzeumiT. qalaqis istoria iwyeba xalkoliTidan (Zv. w. 4500 w.), mere qaSqebi, xeTuri warwerebi, kimerielebi, iranelebi, berZnebi, miTridate pontoelis dedaqalaqi, romaelebi, bizantielebi,

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arabebi, selCukebi, osmalebi... cixe-qalaqs varaudoben Zv. w. 600 w-dan. muzeumi provinciuli qalaqis kvalobaze kargia. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa ezoSi gamofenili elinisturi qvis masala da mozaikebi... wavediT cixe-qalaqis galavanSi SerCenili eklesiis sanaxavad. aRmoCnda bizantiuri, mozrdili, erTnaviani bazilika, Signidan moxatuli. iqve iyo veeba sasaxle (episkoposis?), sruliad sxva masStabebia eklesiis, sasaxlis cixis... cixis kedlebi grandiozulia, mravalgzis gadakeTebuli. kedlebSi CaSenebulia eklesiebis mrgvali qvis svetebi, gaxvretili Sig Casasmeli rkinis samagrebisaTvis. aris warweriani da jvriani qvebic, cxadia, eklesiebisa. saRamos navi daviqiraveT da kunZuls davuareT zRvidan, ramdenadac SegveZlo, or saaTSi. axali qalaqi Sendeba gorakebze. Zveli zRvidan ar Cans. televizorSi (Turqulad) aCveneben saqarTvelos dabombil qalaqebs... gasivda guli. yvela Cven gvereva, an ki rogor SevrCiT?... 14.08.08 guSin saRamos gaTurqebulma qarTvelma, sastumros patronma, migviwvia. zRvis napirze, lamazad mowyobil barSi dagvsxa ludsa da Txilze. qarTvelobis araferi etyoba, garda garegnuli silamazisa (60 wlis iqneba) da, albaT moxerxebulobisa. mSoblebi arian wamosulebuli aWaridan. is aqaa dabadebuli. coli da Svili Turqebi... saqarTveloSi Tu Camova, mxolod Tavisi saqmis gasafarToveblad... coli skulptori Tu mxatvaria (ugemovno), romlis qandakebani _ diogenisa, poseidonisa _ dgas qalaqSi, mis ezosa da zRvaSi. ezosa da saxlSi aqvs muzeumis

119

eqsponatebi: ganaTxari keramika da antikuri qvis svetebi, sinopuri monetebis mcire koleqcia. Cans, moyvarulia da muzeumis xelmZRvaneloba Tavisi koleqciis nawils mas uTmobs mnaxvelTa mosazidad da sastumros popularizaciisaTvis. masTan isvenebda trapizonis universitetis proreqtori, romlis inglisuri ar aRemateboda mis codnas siZveleebis Sesaxeb trapizonis raionSi. didi samsaxuri ki gagviwia maspinZelma _ mogvixerxa sastumro samsunis centrSi. samsuni SesaniSnavi qalaqia, misi Senobebi da r-nebi Tbiliss ar Camouvardeba... qalaqi Zv. w. VI s-dan, cixe XI s-dan yofila, romelic axla aRaraa... 15.08.08 mSvenier samsuns siZveleebi sul gadauylapia, rasac maTi gzamkvlevic (rusulad) mowmobs. erTaderTi arqeologiuri parki darCenila, sadac sabagiro gziT avediT. orad-ori yorRania gaTxrili, xeTuri epoqisa. iqidan qalaqi naklebad Cans, mainc gadaviReT. yvelgan kafeebi - usasmelod da xelovnuri CanCqerebi... Tvenaxevris manZilze pirvelad davisveneT: dRis meore naxevari qviSian plaJze gavatareT, sadac mTeli sacurao teritoriaze kacs yelamde wvdeba wyali. vnaxeT qalebi kabebiT da TavSaliT mobanaveni. erTi gaTurqebuli WilaZec iyo biWunasTan erTad, isic wvivebamde SarvliT mobanave. qarTulad gvesaubreboda, ojaxSi ded-mamac qarTulad saubrobeno. saqarTvelodan rusis jari ar gadis. ar Svelis buSi 36, raisi 37 da evrokavSiri. yvelas sajarod abuCad igdeben. TbiliSi ltolvilebi, gorSi _ kazakebi... kodoric davkargeT... `wyevla yvela maT, vinc maRribis velur yaCaRebs gauRo kari Tergdaleul

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darialisa~...38, " ­ "...39. gori-Tbilisis gza gadaketilia, Sin misvla goderZi-javaxeTi-walkiT mogviwevs. vai Cvens Tavs...

ganmartebebi: 1. 2. daud hakan berki ­ eqspediciis gamyoli, Tarjimani da mZRoli. nino da giorgi bagrationebi ­ arqiteqtorebi, ­ nino ­ sasuliero akademiis pedagogi, giorgi ­ gamomcemloba `nekeris" menejeri. avTandil miqacaZe ­ TurqeTSi, q. trabzonis generaluri konsuli. entoni braieri ­ ingliseli mecnieri, istorikosi. eldar bubulaSvili ­ eqspediciis wevri, istorikosi, profesori. daviT xoStaria ­ xelovnebaTmcodne, profesori. Temur xuciSvili ­ rukis "tao-klarjeTis xuroTmoZRvruli Zeglebis" redaqtori. eqvTime TayaiSvili ­ istorikosi, cnobili mecnieri da sazogado moRvawe (saqarTvelos eklesiam Seracxa wmindanaT ­ eqvTime RvTis kacis saxeliT); daviT musxeliSvili ­ istorikosi, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvili wevri. Tamaz SaraSeniZe ­ eqspediciis wevri, alpinisti. manana sanaZe ­ istorikosi, profesori. buba kudava ­ istorikosi, ist. mecn. Doqtori, xelnawerTa erovnuli centris direqtori. valeri silogava ­ istorikosi, profesori.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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14. vaxtang saRinaZe ­ droebiT Secvala eqspediciis Tarjimani. 15. mixeil fxaWiaSvili ­ eqspadiciis wevri, koordinatori da teqnikuri direqtori. 16. niko mari ­ enaTmecnieri, cnobili mecnieri da sazogado moRvawe. 17. giorgi yazbegi ­ ruseTis armiis general-leitenanti, qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis (1908-1918 ww.) Tavmjdomare. 18. jaba samuSia ­ istorikosi, profesori; 19. nugzar cecxlaZe ­ istorikosi, baTumis universitetis docenti. 20. ivane gremelaSvili ­ arqiteqtor-restavratori; 21. wm. miqael parexeli ­ IX s. cnobili saeklesio moRvawe, wm. grigol xanZTelis moswavle; 22. giorgi kalandia ­ istorikosi, Jurnalisti; 23. wm. grigol xanZTeli ­ VIII-IX ss. cnobili saeklesio moRvawe; 24. moti da beili ­ evropuli terminebi Suasaukuneebis feodalis (raindis) rezidenciis (cixe-koSkis) aRsaniSnavad: moti ­ koSki, beili ­ galavaniT SemozRuduli ezo da samosaxlo; 25. akaki SaniZe ­ enaTmecnieri, cnobili mecnieri da sazogado moRvawe; 26. selim ximSiaSvili ­ aWaris yofili aRa, Semdgom axalcixis faSa, iyo aWaris ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis lideri, antiTurquli saqmianobis gamo Tavi mokveTes. 27. zeinab menoli ­ Turqi qalbatoni (qaliSvilobaSi ximSiaSvili), selim ximSiaSvilis STamomavali. 28. daviT asaTiani ­ eqspediciis wevri, operatori. 29. darejan kldiaSvili ­ istorikosi, profesori.

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30. simon janaSia ­ istorikosi, cnobili mecnieri da sazogado moRvawe. 31. gobroni ­ yvelis cixis cixovanTa meTauri (saqarTvelos eklesiam Seracxa wmindanaT ­ wm. mowame miqael-gobronis saxeliT). 32. grigol (griSa) laziaSvili ­ sabWoTa kavSiris periodSi vales sasazRvro punqtis komendanti. 33. ciuri lafaCi ­ saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis axalcixis filialis, iv. javaxiSvilis sax. samcxe-javaxeTis istoriuli muzeumis administraciuli menejeri. 34. gogoriSvilebi ­ Sua saukuneebis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos cixovani aznaurebi. 35. niko berZeniSvili ­ istorikosi, cnobili mecnieri da sazogado moRvawe. 36. jorj buSi ­ amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis prezidenti. 37. kondoliza raisi ­ amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saxelmwifo mdivani. 38. `wyevla yvela maT, vinc maRribis velur yaCaRebs gauRo kari Tergdaleul darialisa~... _ orginalSi ikTxeba: `da wyevla imas, vinc maRribis velur yaCaRebs gauRo kari Tergdaleul darialisa ..." _ ix. ioseb griSaSvili, t. II, leqsi "avlabari", 1922. 39. " ­ "... ­ leqsi-eqspronti vladimer aleqsandres-Ze giliarovskis (1853-1935), romliTac man mimarTa imperator aleqsandre III-is droindel ruseTs.

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devi berZeniSvil i

wminda andria mo ciqul is nakval evi saqarT vel o Si andria pirvelwodebulis mimosvla-qadagebaTa Sesaxeb uZvelesi gadmocemebi II saukunidan Cndeba. amis Semdgom, sxvadasxva redaqciebSi es gadmocemebi damatebiTi cnobebiT ivsebian, farTovdeba mociqulTa moRvaweobis geografiukli are. adreul berZnul-laTinur teqstebSi daculi, uZvelesi tradiciis mixedviT, andriasa da mis TanaSemwe mociqulTa mier qristianobaze mosaqcev qveynebad dasaxelebulia Savi zRvis samxreTi sanapiro da skviTebi1. andria pirvelwodebuli qadagebda "queyniTi queynad, da qalaqiTi qalaqad, da sofliTi sof124

lad"; Savi zRvis samxreTidan CrdiloeTSi mimavali gzebi, bunebrivad saqarTveloze gadiodnen; amitomac momdevno redaqciebSi, am gzaTa Semcveli mxareebi dakonkretda saqarTvelos dasavleTsa da samxreTSi. zemoTqmuls xels uwyobda isic, rom Zvel ucxour wyaroebs zogjer erevaT erTmaneTSi qarTvelTa da skviTebis teritoria, an qarTvelebi skviTebis mezoblad gamohyavT2. SesaZloa amas erTgvarad mxars ubamda skviTinebis tomis moxsenieba qsenofontTan, md. Woroxis dasavleTiT, romlis saxelwodeba megrul-Wanuri "SkviTiT" (Svidi) ixsneba3. skviTebis miyolebiT Cndeba abazgia da didi sebastopolisi, afsarTa cixesimagre, isos navsadguri da mdinare fazisi, sadac cxovrobdnen, iberebi, susebi, fustebi da alanebi. es cnobebi epifane kviprelisagan (310-403 ww.) auRia da gamouyenebia "wminda andrias cxovrebaSi" epifane monazons (+780)4. manve Seqmna koncefcia andria mociqulis sami mogzauris Sesaxeb, rac safuZvlad daedo yvela momdevno gamocemas5. epifane monazvnis nawarmoebi SemdgomSi gadaamuSava nikita daviT paflagonelma (IX-X ss.), xolo eqvTime mTawmindelma (XI s.) Seqmna "mosaxsenebeli mimosvlaTaTvis da qadagebaTa yovlad qebulisa da didebulisa mociqulisa andriasi". es unda iyos erTerTi berZnuli redaqciis qarTuli Targmani, romelic rogorc irkveva, eqvTime mTawmindels uTargmnia 1011 w.6 SeiZleba vifiqroT, imave berZnuli teqstis paraleluri rusuli Targmania gadmocemuli ukanasknel moskovur gamocemaSi (. . , 2004). eqvTimeseuli Targmanis mixedviT, pirveli mogzaurobis dros petre, andria, mataTa da gaioz Cadian antioqiaSi; amis Semdgom andria "miiwia trapezundad,

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romeli-igi ars sofelsa megrelTasa, sada igi dayo Jami mciredi... ganvida mier da Sevida queyanasa qarTlisasa, vinaÁca ­ igi dayo Jami friadi da mravalni gananaTlna sityÂiTa moZRvrebiTa misisaÁTa". ASemdeg parTiis gavliT, mociquli ierusalimSi misula7. paraleluri berZnuli teqstidan naTlad Cans, rom avtori "lazikes" "megrelTa soflad" Targmnis, xolo "iberias" ki uwodebs "queyanasa qarTlisasa". garda imisa, rom es XI s-is ganaTlebuli qarTvelis Sexedulebas asaxavs Tavis samSobloze, faqtobrivad ase iyo I saukuneSi: iberia am dros Sav zRvaze gadioda8. meore mogzaurobisas andria da iovane, midian qalaq efesos; andrias aq eCvena ieso qriste, romelmac ubrZana wasvla biTviniaSi da guTeTis qveyanaSi. miuxedavad berZnuli teqstisadmi TiTqmis sityvasityviT midevnebisa, eqvTime skviTias Targmnis "queyanad guTeTisa"9. aq unda asaxuliyo codna imisa, rom skviTebs SemdgomSi guTebi Seenacvlnen. nikeis Semdgom andria mociquls mounaxulebia qalkedoni, sinopi, sadac mas TiTi moaWames da qalaqi zaliqoÁ. amis Semdeg andria mociquli "miiwia trapezundad, qalaqsa mas samegreloÁsasa, mier warvida da mivida neokesarias", mere samosatsa da ierusalims10. amjeradac "lazika" Targmnilia rogorc "samegrelo". mesame samociqulo mogzaurobaSi andria pirvelwodebuls axldnen simon kananeli, mataTa da Tadeozi. am mogzaurobis mniSvnelobis gamo, SeiZleba is ufro dawvrilebiT ganvixiloT. mociqulebi Cadian qalaq edesaSi, sadac Tadeozi rCeba iqaur mTavar avgarozTan; andria, simon da mataTa "moiwines queyanad qarTlisa da vidre mdina126

redmed Woroxisa". berZnul teqstSi gvaqvs "iberia" da "fazisi"11, magram isic cnobilia, rom berZnuli wyaroebi rionis garda faziss uwodebdnen Woroxsac12. eqvTimeseuli Targmanis mixedviT, "merme STavides sosanelTa sofelsa (ase ewodeboda qveyanas) xolo didi andria, sÂimoniTurT Sevides queyanasa ovseTisasa da miiwies qalaqad, romelsa ewodebis fostafor"13. epifane konstantinepoleli monazvnis monaTxrobi am adgilas odnav vrcelia, Tan arsebiTi; andria simoni da maTe Cadian iberiasa da fazisSi (aq saxels "mdinare" ar axlavs), "xolo ramdenime dRis Semdeg susaniaSi. am tomis mamakacebs mbrZaneblobdnen qalebi. advilad damyolia qalis buneba da isinic male damorCildnen (mociqulTa moZRvrebas). maTe mowafeebiTurT darCa im qveynebSi... xolo simoni da andria wavidnen alaniaSi da qalaq fustaSi"14. amasve imeorebs berZnul-rusuli bolo gamo15 cema . sabininiseuli redaqciis mixedviT ki, sosangelTa mTavari vinme dedakacia, romelmac irwmuna mociqulTa qadageba. mataTa darCa iq, andria da simoni ki, osTa qveyanaSi, qalaq fostafors movidnen16. susania-sosangelTa da susebs svaneTSi varaudobda s. yauxCiSvili17. p. ingoroyva ki, mas sania-sanigebis mxared miiCnevda, Woroxisa da afsaris raionSi. mataTas am mxareSi darCenis Sesaxeb zemomotanil cnobebs, avtori amatebda sofronis (IV s.) versias: "mataTam... iqadaga saxareba meore eTiopiaSi, sadac aris afsaris cixesimagre da hÂsis navsadguri... iqve gardaicvala da damarxulia dRemde"18. afsari goniodaa miCneuli19.

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qarTul redaqciebSi berZnuli teqstis alania da qalaqi fusta Targmnilia oseTad da qalaq fostafor-ad. SesaZloa aq berZnuli "fustan polin"-is damaxinjebasTan gvqondes saqme, ras zog qarTul redaqciaSi "bosfor"-adac ki aisaxa. am punqts s. yauxCiSvili misimielTa mxareSi, Tu mis mezoblad varaudobda20. sarwmuno unda iyos mosazreba d. musxeliSvilisa, rom amtyelis xeobaSi dadasturebuli saxeli afusta, Zveli fustaa21. eqvTimeseuli Targmanis mixedviT, fostaforidan mociqulebi "Sevidnen queyanasa afxazeTisasa da sevastiad qalaqad mivides... mun dauteva netarma andria sÂmon kananeli... da Tavad jiqeTisa queyanasa warvida". paralelur berZnul teqstSia "abasgia" da "didi sebastopoli"22, asevea es epifane konstantinopolelTan, sadav damatebiT Cans, rom andriam damoZRvra "gorsinebi didi sebastopolisSi"23. eqvTimes teqstidan vityobT, rom andria Semdgom misula "bosfor qalaqad", romelic eqvsinis zRvis kidesaa, meotiis tbasTan. iqve yofila "luskumaÁ, romelsa-zeda sweria saxeli sÂmon moSurnisaÁ. xolo sÂmon kananelisa saflavi ars nikofse qalaqsa Soris afxazeTisa da jiqeTisa"24. berZnul teqstSi simon kananelis saflavi moxseniebulia "zikxebis nikofse"Si. aseTia "andrias mimosvlis" eqTimeseuli Targmanis saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebuli momentebi. amas garda, aris kidev erTi redaqcia am nawarmoebisa, romelic mecnier kacTa komisias (XVIII s.) CanarTis saxiT Seutania "qarTlis cxovrebaSi". is ufro vrceli da detaluria, vidre eqvTimeseuli teqsti da sayuradRebo gansxvavebebsac Seicavs25.

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qarTlis cxovrebiseuli teqstis mixedviT, RmrTismSobelma Tavis wilxvdomil saqarTveloSi, andria pirvelwodebuli gamoagzavna, RmrTismSoblis xelTuqmneli xatiT. Zveli "qarTlis cxovrebis" teqsti, aderkis mefobis Jams, ixseniebs wminda mociqulebs. iq ikiTxeba: "movides... andria da sÂmon kananeli afxazeTs da egriss. da mun aResrula wminda sÂmon kananeli qalaqsa nikofsisasa, sazRvarsa berZenTasa. xolo andria moaqcivna megrelni da warvida gzasa klarjeTisasa"27. amas mosdevs CanarTi, saidanac Cans, rom andria mosula trapizonSi, megrelTa qalaqSi, iqidan Sesula qarTlis qveyanaSi, "romelsa did-aWara ewodebis". misi qadagebiT xalxi moqceula qristes sarwmunoebaze. iq, sadac man RmrTismSoblis xati daasvena, aRmoecena wyaro, romelic "vidre dResaca dauwyuedelad aRmosdis". aqve mociquls daudgenia mRvdlebi, augiaT eklesia RmrTismSoblis saxelobisa. adgilobriv mosaxleobas aRar undoda mociqulis gaSveba, magram raki sxva gamosavali ar iyo, misTvis uTxoviaT RmrTismSoblis xatis datoveba. andrias am xatze ficris dadebiT, Seuqmnia meore xati, romelic eklesiaSi dausvenebiaT; isic "vidre dRes-aqamomde hgies". am CanarTis mixedviT, did-aWaridan andria "warmoemarTa da gardamovlo mTa, romelsa ewodebis rkinis-juari, da Tqmul ars, viTarmed juari igi TÂT netarisa andrias mier aRmarTebul ars". aqedan mociquls Cauvlia oZraxis xevi, mosula samcxis sazRvrebSi da SeCerebula sofel zaden-gorasTan. aq mas unaxavs, Tu rogor swiravdnen msxverpls iqaurebi yru kerpebs. RmrTismSoblis xatTan locvis meSveobiT, es kerpebi daemxvnen da Seimusrnen.

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amis Semdgom andria "warmoemarTa da moiwia awyvers, romelsa pirvelad ewodeboda sosangeTi, da pirispir saqrisi". aq igi gaCerebula sakerpo taZris siaxloves, "romelsa aw Zveleklesia ewodebis". maSin Turme iq kerpebs emsaxurebodnen. CanarTis teqstis mixedviT, im adgilebSi maSin mTavrobda qvirivi qali, vinme samZivari, romelsac erTaderTi Ze mohkvdomoda. Rame adgilobriv mosaxleebs daunaxavT didi naTeli, cixeSi dasvenebuli RmrTismSoblis xatidan rom aSuqebda. gakvirvebulebs moukiTxavT iq myofTa vinaoba da qvrivi mTavrisaTvis mouxvenebiaT: ucnobni arian, ucxo RmerTs qadageben sicocxlis momniWeblad, mkvdarTa aRmdgenelad da pativs scemen mSvenier xatso. qvrivi qalis TxovniT andria mociqulma misi Ze mkvdreTiT aRadgina, ris Semdegac deda-Svilma, maTi saxleuliT naTeliRes. qvrivma dedakacma ixmo samcxis mTavrebi da saqrisis veli gaivso xalxiT. qalaqis sakerpo bomonSi, artemisa da apolonis kerpebs eTayvanebodnen. yovladwmindis xatis meSveobiT mociqulma es kerpebi Semusra da mTelma iqaurma mosaxleobam irwmuna qriste RmerTi. amis Semdgom andriam daudgina maT episkoposi, mRvdlebi, diakonni, xolo xalxis Txovnaze daetovebina maTTvis xati man upasuxa: "viTar-igi yovlad wmindasa RvTismSobelsa wil-xuda qveyana ese samcxisa, da mis mier warmogzavnil ars aqa xati igi sasod da mcvelad wilxvdomilTaTvis da jereTca egred ars, raTa daesvenos aqa mkÂdrad ukunisamde JamTa". ase miuRiaT es xati awyverlebs "da daasvenes yovlad didebuli xati yovlad wmidisa awyveris RvTismSoblisa, mciresa mas ekudersa, romelsa aw

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Zvel-ekoesiad saxel-sdeben". awyveridan andria mociquli sxva adgilebSi wasula saqadageblad. aq Tavdeba ZiriTadi CanarTi, ris Semdegac Zveli "qarTlis cxovreba" agrZelebs CanarTis win dawyebul ambavs andrias mier megrelTa moqcevasa da klarjeTs wasvlaze. mefe aderkis megrelebi ukanve mouqcevia, xolo klarjeTis erisTavs ­ gaswyromia mociqulis mSvidobiT gaSvebisaTvis. Semdeg "qarTlis cxovrebis" teqstSi meore CanarTia, saidanac Cans, rom ierusalimSi martÂlis dResaswaulis aRsrulebis mere, andria da sxva mociqulebi mosulan "queyanasa qarTlisasa". Semdeg gauvliaT "taos kerZi queyana, vidre mdinared Woroxamde". ase qadagebiT mosulan "svaneTisa qveyanasa". maSin iqac vinme dedakaci mTavrobda, romelsac Seusmenia mociqulTa qadageba. mataTa iq darCenila, xolo andria da simoni Sevidnen "qveyanasa ovseTisasa", mividnen qalaq fostaforSi. maTi moqcevis Semdgom, mociqulebi wasulan "queyanasa afxazeTisasa da sevaste qalaqad mivides, romelsa ewodeba cxumi". aq andrias dautovebia simon kananeli, Tavad ki jiqeTis qveyanaSi wasula... "xol simon kananelisa saflavi ars nikofs qalaqsa, Soris afxazeTisa da jiqeTisa, rameTu mun aResrula wminda sÂmon kananeli. xolo kualad ganamtkicna wmindaman andria megrelni da afxazni da warvida skÂTed"28. esaa "andrias mimosvlis" vrceli moTxroba daculi "qarTlis cxovrebaSi", magram esec unda iTqvas: andrias mimosvlis teqstebi, sxvadasxva nusxebSi, xSirad gansxvavdebian eqvTimeseuli Targmanisagan. "qarTlis cxovrebis" vrcel CanarTSi, yvelaze metad, konkretuli punqtebia TavCenili. aq pirvela131

daa dasaxelebuli did-aWara, rkinis jvari, oZraxis xevi, zaden-gora, awyveri, saqrisi da, rac mTavaria, awyveris Zveli saxeli sosangeTi. berZnuli teqstebis susebi da susania sosangeTis formiT pirvelad eqvTimeseul qarTul TargmanSi Cndeba, magram is awyverTan araa kavSirSi. susaniaSi qalebis mbrZanebloba mamakacebze pirvelad epifane monazvnis teqstSi Cans, rac saxes icvlis sabininiseul redaqciaSi: iq sosangelebis mTavari vinme dedakacia; "qarTlis cxovrebis" CanarTSi es mTavari qvrivi qalia gvarad samZivari. redaqciebis umravlesobis mixedviT, mataTa susaniaSi rCeba rodesac susania svaneTad gaiazres, qali am xalxis mTavari da mataTac svaneTSi aRmoCndnen. magram mesame da uZvelesi cnoba mataTas qadagebasa da dakrZalvas afsar-gonioSi varaudobs. sainteresoa, rom samcxis Zvelsa da did sofel udeSi erTi Zveli eklesiis nangrevs da ubans "SuSanqalas" uwodeben. SesaZloa es faqti kavSirSi iyos susania-sosangeTTan da mxars uWerdes awyveris Zvel saxelwodebas. "qarTlis cxovrebis" vrceli CanarTis mixedviT, trapizonidan andria "Sevida queyanasa qarTlisasa, romelsa did-aWara ewodebis da iwyo qadageba saxarebisa"29. marTlac leonti mrovelis cnobiT jer kidev farnavazma (Zv. w. III s.) aWara da samcxe oZrxis saerisTavod Camoayaliba30. sof. didaWara Woroxis marjvena Senakadis ­ aWariswylis zemo welze mdebareobs. es mozrdili sofeli, Cans, ZvelTaganve mniSvnelovani punqti yofila; mis saxelwodebaSi asaxula mTeli kuTxis saxeli. sainteresoa, rom iqaurebi zogjer cdiloben

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soflis saxelwodeba "ded(a)aWara"-d gaiazron. amave punqtTanaa kavSirSi hidronimi aWariswyali. zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, gasagebi unda iyos andria mociqulis arCevani. didaWaris dRevandeli mosaxleoba gadmocemiT imeorebs sayuradRebo faqtebs: nakafiserze miuTiTeben eklesiis naSTebs (gaTlili qvebi iyoo), romelsac mTavarangelo(zi) erqvao. soflis das-iT myof am maRal borcvze axla wm. andrias niSia; gadmocemiT ZvelaTve iq qalebi adiodnen, sanTlebs anTebdnen da loculobdnen. niSis maxlobel ferdze, gadmocemiT yofila wyaro, axla damSrali. mosaxleoba sxvaganac miuTiTebs wminda wyaroze, romlis mikareba ar SeiZleba31. sofelSi sxvaganac yofila eklesia. adgil "xucurSi", gzis piras axsovT naeklesiaris qviTkiris naSTi. aqvea Zveli qristianuli saflavebi. maxlobladve upoviaT qva jvris gamosaxulebiT. niSandoblivia maTi erTad arsebobis faqti "xucurSi", rac, naTelia, xucess ukavSirdeba. asaxeleben "ekliyanasac" da Tvlian, rom es iyo eklesiis yana. soflis Semogarenis toponimiaSi sainteresoa: sacixuri (cixis naSTiao), qvabisjvari (sacixuris mTaSi), eliawminda, namonastrevi (nasoflari sacixuris Tavze), jvarTnisa. soflidan kargad Cans goderZis uReltexiliT samcxes mimavali gza. yovila meore gzac, romelic rkinisjvris mTaze adis, iqidan ki samcxisa da imereTisaken daeSveba. CanarTis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, did-aWaridan wamosul andrias unda gaevlo iremaZeebi. sacixuri, agara, Rorjomi, civwyaros mTa, qvabisjvari, mamlis mTa. am gzaze eklesiaTa nangrevebia Zvel rukebze aRniSnuli.

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rkinisjvris aRmarTvas zekaris uReltexilze gadmocema andria mociquls miawers. marTlac andrias saswaulebSi xSirad Cans rkinis kverTxi, Tavze jvargamosaxuli. mociquli mas aramarto sayrdenad, aramed uwmindurTa gasanadgurebladac xmarobda. saqarTveloSi uReltexilebze qvajvarTa dadgma gavrcelebuli movlena iyo, ras asaxuli toponimiaSic (jvris uReltexili ­ jvarTayeli, jvariantoni ialnos qedze, jvarildi svaneTSi, qvajvaras mTa da uReltexili gujareTSi), magram rkinis jvrebi andria mociqulze arsebuli gadmocemebidan SeiZleba modiodes. rkinis palos mTas WaneTisa da trapizonis sazRvrad asaxelebs vaxuSti batoniSvili32; Turqebze gamarjvebis niSnad, rkinis jvari daudgams paskeviCsac imereT-samcxis qedze, albaT zekaris rkinisjvris mibaZviT; tradiciis mixedviT, andria mociquls jvari aRumarTavs iq, sadac axla gergetis samebis taZari dgas33. SesaZloa amis safuZveli iyos gadmocema andrias gadasvlis Sesaxeb saqarTvelodan alaniaoseTSi (darialan-osTa kari). "gza rkinis-juarisa" ZvenTaganve iyo cnobili da qarTul wyaroebSiac ixsenieba. XI s-Si, mesxi aznaurebis mowveviT bagrat IV "warmoemarTa laSqriTa, gardamovlo gza rkinis-juarisa da Sekrbes aryis cixes"34; Tamar mefis winaaRmdeg ajanyebul giorgi russ mimxrobilma dadianma da misma laSqarma "gardamoiares rkinis-juari da Cavides cixis-juars da dawues qalaqi oZrÃe"35; es cixisjvari rkinisjvris maxloblad myofi cixea. aqac uReltexilze gamaval gzasTan, Cans, jvari mdgara; XIII s-Si, mongolTa winaaRmdeg ajanyebis dros, cotne dadiani Tavisi laSqriT mosula "adgilsa, romel ars rkinis-juari"36.

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"qarTlis cxovrebis" vrceli CanarTis mixedviT, rkinisjvridan andria mociquls oZraxis xevi Cauvlia da sof. zaden-gorasTan misula. aq mas kerpebi daumxia. soflis saxelidanac naTlad Cans, rom es adgili warmarTuli RvTaebis Tayvaniscemis punqtia. zadenis kerpi xom mcxeTaSic idga (zedazeni-zeda zadeni). mniSvnelovani isaa, rom tradicia aq materialur dadasturebas poulobs: arqeologiuri ZiebiT aRmoCenilia sakulto daniSnulebis, brinjaosniRbiani xaris patara qandakeba. is antikuri xanis qarTul, warmarTul saritualo ceremoniaSi ixmareboda37. es punqti mniSvnelovani darCenila Semdgom xanebSiac ­ Cans, nasoflari da samarxebi, gvirabi, darani, wyaro. aq idga qvajvaric, romelic axla aRar Cans. Sua saukuneebSi sofeli gazrdila da XVI s-is bolos zaden da gora soflebad gayofila38. zaden-goridan andria awyvers mosula, sadac samcxis eri qristianobaze mouqcevia (ix. zeviT). awyveri-samcxis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi administraciuli da religiuri centri, Semdgomac xSirad Cans qarTul wyaroebSi, rogorc awyveris RmrTismSoblis xatis samyofeli. saqarTveloSi erakle keisris (VII s.) SemosvlasTan dakavSirebiT, juanSeris teqstis 4 nusxaSi (Bb) gvxvdeba CanarTi: "movida pirvelad qarTls, samcxes, da esma saswaulmoqmedeba xatisa mis, romeli wmidasa RmrTismSobelsa gamoesaxa da mieca pirvelwodebulisa andriasaTÂs, da mas moesvena da daesvenebina mciresa ekudersa Sina awyuers. movida keisari erakle xilvad da Tayvaniscemad xatisa mis. maSin iwyo erakle awyuers didisa saydrisa saZirkuelisa Cagdebad

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da Senebad, vidremdis mieriTgan gansrulda morwmuneTa kacTa mier, da mier Seqmnes saepiskoposod"39. "qarTlis cxovrebis" CanarTebi, dakavSirebuli andria pirvelwodebulis samcxesa da awyverSi moRvaweobasTan, aseve zemoxsenebuli CanarTi, gvafiqrebinebs ­ SesaZloa maT erTi avtori hyavdeT. esaa samcxe-aWaris istoriuli geografiis detalebSi kargad garkveuli pirovneba, egebis mawyvereli episkoposic ki (andria "warmoemarTa", "moiwia awyvers"). werilobiT tradicias erTgvarad gaumyara safuZveli awyveris arqeologiurma kvlevam. dadasturda Zveli qalaquri dasaxleba mis teritoriaze. Zveli welTaRricxvis VI-V saukuneTa ganaTxar masalaSi, sayuradReboa berZnuli mxatvruli keramikis nimuSebi, III s-is samarxSi aRmoCenili sabeWdavi beWdebi, miTrasa da anahitis kultebis simboloebiT. eseni miCneulia maRali wris warmomavdgenelTa insigniebad. es masala aSkarad metyvelebs ucxo qveynebTan damakavSirebel gzebze da egebis awyveris Zvel xelisufalzedac. awyverSi aRmoCenili berZnuli mxatvruli keramika, mxars ubams CanarTSi naxseneb apolonisa da artemides kerpebis arsebobas Zvel awyverSi. aseve mniSvnelovania iqaur cixeSi Zveli fenebis dadasturebac, rac exmianeba CanarTSi xatis pirvelad iq dasvenebas40. wmida mociqulis samcxeSi moRvaweobis kidev erTi anareklia sofeli andriawminda da misi eklesia md. uravliswylis marcxena sanapiroze. es eklesia X s-is darbazuli Senobaa da wmida andrias saxels atarebs. aq dReobas ixdian didi marxvis mexuTe xuTSabaTs (Tebervali-marti-aprili), misi Semosvlis dRes.

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sofelSi gadmocemaa, romlis mixedviTac zadengoradan andriam focxovi gamotopa da am sofelSi movida. aq saswaulebi moaxdina: dabadebiT usinaTlo qals Tvali auxila; pitalo kldes kverTxi dahkra da wyaro gamoedina, romelsac dResac andrias wyaros uwodeben. aqedan andria kvalTaxevisa da orfolas gavliT, awyvers mosula. andriawmindaSi meore eklesia wm. giorgis saxelobisaa; maxlobladaa Tevdores eklesiac. XVI s-Si Turqebis batonobis dros, sof. andriawmida 40-komliani dasaxleba iyo, qarTuli mosaxleobiT, romelTa Soris ori mRvdeli Cans41. es sofeli 1705-6 wlebSi vinme hasan abubeqris Zes ekuTvnoda da misi gamosaRebi 31000 axCas Seadgenda42. samcxidan andria mociquli das. saqarTvelos mTianeTSi isev zekaris gziT unda wasuliyo. I saukunis romaeli geografosis ­ kastoriusis rukaze aRniSnuli artaSat-sebastopolisis gza swored ase miemarTeboda vardcixis gavliT43. am gzis I saukuneSi arsebobis damadasturebeli faqtia arqeologiuri TxriT aRmoCenili polemon II (pontosa da kilikiis mefe 38-64 ww.) moneta44. amave gzis meore totze arsebuli xani aseve sagzao punqti unda yofiliyo, radgan xani, xanaga sparsulidaa Semosuli da gzaze mosasveneb saxls aRniSnavs45. Sua saukuneebSiac moqmed am gzas wyaroebSi xSirad vxvdebiT (ix. win). vaxuSti batoniSvili ki wers: "gardavals aqedam gza kakas Ãidzed baRdads. am gzas, ewodeboda mTiT rkinis-juari"46. amave gzasTanaa dakavSirebuli mTa saxelwodebiT funduki, salaSqro xevi, kakasxidi ­ Zveli qvis xidis naSTiT.

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zemoT ganxiluli CanarTebis garda, gansxvavebebi moipoveba "qarTlis cxovrebis" sxvadasxva redaqciebSi. "qarTlis qveyanaSi" dasaxelebulia nigali, klarjeTi, artahan-kola47. urbnuli redaqcia ki gvauwyebs, rom andriam da simon kananelma pirvelad gananaTles qarTli. "merme ukun iqces da ganvles Worebi da Sevida svaneTs... gardavlo mTa da STavida ovseTad qalaqsa mas ovseTisasa bosforas"48. zemoTxsenebuli gansxvavebebi, cxadia moiTxovs xelnawerTa am adgilebis kritikul seswavlas. manamde ki cxadia, rom andria mociqulis Sesaxeb gadmocemebi saqarTvelos bevr mxareSia gavrcelebuli. sof. andriawmida aris imerxevSic, arTvinis vilaieTSi. soflis saxeli iqac andrias saxelobis eklesiidan unda modiodes49. andrias Sesaxeb gadmocemebi SemorCenilia samegreloSic, romlis mixedviT, wm. andriam gaanadgura muxasTan mdgomi kerpi kapunia da mis nacvlad jvari aRmarTa. muxis ficrebisagan ki man xalxs eklesia aagebina50. wmida mociqulis Sesaxeb arsebuli werilobiTi berZnuli teqstebidan Cans, rom andria daqceuli kerpebisa, Tu sinagogebis adgilas eklesiebs aSenebda sxvaganac. J. Sardenisa da kr. kastelis mixedviT, wmida andria mociqulis saxelobis Zveli eklesia yofila biWvinTaSic. iq yofila jvriani sveti, romlis winaSec xalxi muxlmodrekili loculobda51. xalxSi SemorCenilia rwmena, rom Zvel anakofiaSi yofila eklesiis nangrevi wmida simon kananelis saxelobisa. 1840 w. mas gumbaTi Caqceuli hqonia, magram SemorCenili yofila freskuli mxatvrobis naSTi. a. n. muraviovis azriT, es unda yofiliyo nikofsia52.

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andria pirvelwodebulis moRvaweobas saqarTveloSi xazgasmiT aRniSnaven giorgi mTawmindeli, giorgi mcire, efrem mcire. gadmocemam kanonizacia miiRo ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebaze da aRbeWdilia am krebis ZeglisweraSi: "...pirvelwodebuli andria, ZmaÁ Tavisa mociqulTaÁsa petresi, vidre Cuenadmdeca moiwia da qadaga sacxovrebeli qadagebaÁ saxarebisaÁ yovelsa queyanasa saqarTveloÁsasa"53.

l iteratura: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. . . . , . "", , 2004, 55, 179. mix. TamaraSvili. qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRemde, gamomc. kandeli, Tb., 1995, 166. T. miqelaZe. qsenofontis anabazisi, "mecniereba", Tb., 1967, 131. mix. TamaraSvili... 167. . . ... 238. m. kobiaSvili. andria pirvelwodebulis "mimosvlaTa" efTvime aToneliseuli Targmani. "literaturuli Ziebani" XIX, Tb., 1998, 112. m. kobiaSvili... "literaturuli Ziebani" XXI, Tb., 2000, 111-115. saqarTvelos istoriis atlasi, Tb., 2003, 73. m. kobiaSvili, iqve, 116. m. kobiaSvili... "literaturuli Ziebani" XXII, Tb., 2001, 47. m. kobiaSvili, iqve, 48. s. janaSia, SavizRvispireTis saistorio geografia, Sromebi VI, Tb., 1988, 263. m. kobiaSvili, iqve, 48.

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. s. yauxCiSvili. georgika, t. IV, nakv. 1, Tb., 1941, 58. 15. . . , iqve, 195. 16. "mimosvla da qadageba... mociqulisa andriasi", mix. sabinini. "saqarTvelos samoTxe". 1882. 17. s. yauxCiSvili. georgika t. IV, nakv. 2, Tb., 1952, 393. 18. p. ingoroyva. giorgi merCule. "sabWoTa mwerali", Tb., 1954, 224-226. 19. s. janaSia. iqve, 260. 20. s. yauxCiSvili. georgika IV, nakv. I, Tb., 1941, 54, Sen. 4. 21. d. musxeliSvili. saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, I, "mecniereba", Tb., 1977, 118. 22. m. kobiaSvili, iqve, 48. 23. s. yauxCiSvili, iqve, 57-59. 24. m. kobiaSvili, iqve, 51. 25. qarTlis cxovreba I, yauxCiSvilis gamoc. saxelgami, Tb., 1955, 39-43. 27. iqve, 38. 28. qarTlis cxovreba, I, 48-43. 29. qarTlis cxovreba I, 39. 30. iqve, 24. 31. SesaZloa andria mociqulze gadmocemasTan iyos kavSirSi sofelSi gavrcelebuli Tqmuleba, rom gelaurSi kaciWamiebi iyvnen. qarT. variantSi: "kacis mWamelad wodebulTa queyana". 32. "qarTlis cxovreba", IV, "sabW. saqarTvelo", Tb., 1973, 639. 33. T. sanikiZe. gergetis samebis ansambli, "mecniereba", Tb., 1975. 34. "qarTlis cxovreba", I, 301. 35. "qarTlis cxovreba", II, "sabW. saqarTvelo", Tb., 1979, 51.

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36. iqve, 216. 37. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, "sabWoTa saqarTvelo", Tb., 1970, 373. 38. s. jiqia. gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari III, Tb., 1958, 173. 39. "qarTlis cxovreba", I, 224. 40. v. liCeli. andria mociquli samcxeSi-arqeologiuri realoba mesxeTi. istoria da Tanamedroveoba, axalcixe, 2000, 108-109. andrias "cxovrebis" berZnuli teqstebis mixedviT, mociquli nikeaSic amxobs apolonisa da artemides kerpebs, maT adgilze ki jvrebs aRmarTavs. 41. s. jiqia. gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari III, Tb., 1958, 221. 42. Cildiris eialeTis jaba davTari, "mecniereba", Tb., 1979, 121. 43. n. lomouri. Zveli saqarTvelos savaWro gzebis sakiTxisaTvis, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriis institutis "Sromebi", IV, nakv. I, Tb., 1958, 108. 44. v. jafariZe. vardcixis naqalaqari, "mecniereba", Tb., 1989, 141. 45. mz. andronikaSvili. narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan, Tb., 1966, 410. 46. "qarTlis cxovreba", IV, "sabW. saqarTvelo", Tb., 1973, 664. 47. "qarTlis cxovreba" I, 38. 48. k. grigolia. axali qarTlis cxovreba, Tb., 1954, 122-123. 49. i. sixaruliZe. SavSeT-imerxevi, "sabW. aWara", baT. 1988, 56. 50. n. RambaSiZe, wmida andria pirvelwodebulis "eTnografiuli gzebis" kvaldakval. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo.

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51. Sardenis mogzauroba. mz. mgalobliSvilis gamoc. "mecniereba", Tb., 1975, 132-3. 52. "mwyemsi", 1893, #10. wm. mociqulis simon kananelis taZari afxazeTSi. 1876 w. anakofiis nangrevebze dafuZnda axali aTonis simon kananelis monasteri. 1882 w. ganaaxles simon kananelis Zveli taZari. 53. didi sjulis kanoni. gamosacemad moamzades e. gabiZaSvilma, e. giunaSvilma, m. dolaqiZem, g. ninuam, "mecniereba", Tb., 1975, 545.

krebuli: "qristianobis 20 saukune saqarTveloSi", Tb. 2004, gv. 73-85.

devi berZeniSvil i

qarTul i tradicia wm. andria pirvel wo debul is Sesaxeb saqarTvelos uaxloes teritoriebze mociqulTa qadagebis amsaxveli pirveli cnobas origenes (185-254 ww.) ekuTvnis, sadac skviTebis moqcevazea saubari. imave cnobaSi petre mociqulis wilxvdomil qveynebSi dasaxelebulia ponto da kapadokia. momdevno xanebis, IV-X ss. berZnul-laTinur wyaroebSi aRniSnul mxareebs TandaTan emateba afsarosi da md. fazisi, sebastopolisi, hisos navsadguri da abazgia. am adgilebSi cxovrobdnen iberebi, susebi, fustebi, alanebi:

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barTlome mociqulis samoRvaweo adgili ki yofila "CrdiloeTi". andria pirvelwodebuli qadagebda "queyniTi queynad, da qalaqiTi qalaqad, da sofliTi soflad". Savi zRvis samxreTidan CrdiloeTSi mimavali gzebi bunebrivad saqarTveloze gadioda, amitom Semdgomi xanis redaqciebSi am gzaTa mimdebare mxareebi dakonkretda saqarTvelos dasavleTsa da samxreTSi. zemoTqmuls xels uwyobda isic, rom Zvel ucxour wyaroebs zogjer erTmaneTSi ereodaT qarTvelTa da skviTebis teritoria, an qarTvelebi skviTebis mezoblad gamohyavdaT1. ucxoenovan am wyaroebs qarTvelebi adridanve gascnobian, rac bunebrivia, airekla kidec Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi. VIII s-Si misi kvali SeniSnulia ioane sabanis Zis TxzulebaSi "martvilobaÁ habo tfilelisaÁ". iq naTqvamia aboze, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi ("afxazeTi") "ixila man queyanaÁ igi savsÀ qristÀs sarwmunoebiTa... trapezuntiaÁ mun ars, sayofeli igi afsareaÁsaÁ da nafsaÁs navTsadguri"2. samive aq dasaxelebuli punqti mWidrod ukavSirdeba mociqulTa moRvaweobas: trapizonSi iqadaga andria pirvelwodebulma da aqedan Semovida saqarTveloSi; afsarSi (gonio), gadmocemiT, dakrZalulia andrias TanamoRvawe mociquli mataTa; nafsais navsadguri nikofsiaa, sadac, aseve gadmocemiT, dausaflavebiaT andrias TanamoRvawe, mociquli simon kananeli. gonios cixis aRsaniSnavad naxmaria specifikuri gamoTqma, romelic ioane sabanis Zes mociqulTa mimosvlis mosaxseneblebidan gadmoaqvs: esaa "sayofeli igi afsareaÁsaÁ", e. i. jaris adgilsamyofeli banaki ("parembole afsaros")3.

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nikita paflagonielis (+890) Txzulebis qarTul TargmanSi romelic petre maiumeli episkoposis cxovrebaSia Semonaxuli, naTqvamia: "iqadaga qadageba igi wmidisa saxarebisa didebulisa qristes mociqulisa andreas mier queyanasa mas qarTlisasa, viTarca daswers nikita saRuTo da filosofosi mimosvlaTa Sina da qadagebaTa wmidisa mis mociqulisaTa"4. imave nikitas ekuTvnis wm. andrias qeba, sadac ikiTxeba: "Sen ki wmindao andria... CrdiloeTi gxvdeba wilad, iberebi da savromatebi da skviTebi da yoveli sofeli da qalaqi, romelni evqsinis pontos CrdiloeTiT imyofebian da samxreTiTac arian ganlagebulni"5. IX-X saukuneebis mijnaze unda iyos Targmnili "miqel sabawmidelis wameba", sadac mociqulTa wilxvdomil qveyanaTa Soris afxazeTia dasaxelebuli: "aTormetni nawilni aTormetTa mociqulTani, romel arian eseni: sindeTi da hindoeTi, guTeTi da saberZneTi... xersoneTi, afxazeTi, xazareTi"6 da sxv. X s-is qarTul xelnawerebSi aris dosiTeos tvirelis (IV s.) Txzulebis qarTuli Targmani 12 mociqulTa da 70 mowafeTa Sesaxeb ( -95, -144); iq naTqvamia, rom "andria... warvida sebastielTa qalaqsa mas didsa, sada banaki igi iyo afsarelTaÁ da fasisi mdinarÀ"7. XI s-Si eqvTime mTawmindelma erT-erTi berZnuli xelnaweris safuZvelze Seqmna "mosaxsenebeli mimosvlaTaTvis da qadagebaTa yovlad qebulisa da didebulisa mociqulisa andriasi". am naSromis mixedviT, pirveli mogzaurobis dros "andria miiwia trapezuntad, romeli-igi ars sofelsa megrelTasa... ganvida mier da Sevida queyanasa qarTlisasa, vinaÁca-igi dayo Jami friadi da mravalni gananaTlna sityÂTa moZ144

RvrebiTa misisaÁTa"8. paraleluri berZnuli teqstidan naTlad Cans, rom avtori "lazikes" "megrelTa soflad" Targmnis, "iberias" ki uwodebs "queyanasa qarTlisasa". garda imisa, rom esaa XI s-is ganaTlebuli qarTvelis Sexeduleba Tavis samSobloze, faqtobrivadac iberia I s-Si Sav zRvaze gadioda. meore mogzaurobisas, q. efesoSi andrias gamoecxada ieso qriste, romelmac ubrZana wasvla biTviniasa da guTeTis qveyanaSi. eqvTime mTawmindels "skviTia" gadmoaqvs "queyanad guTeTisa". aq unda asaxuliyo codna imisa, rom skviTebs SemdgomSi guTebi Seenacvlnen. amjeradac mociquli mosula "trapezuntad, qalaqsa mas samegreloÁsasa" ("lazika")9. mesame samociqulo mogzaurobisas andria, simon kananeli da mataTa "moiwines queyanad qarTlisa ("iberia") da vidre mdinaredmde Woroxisa" ("fasidos potamu")10. cnobilia, rom berZnuli wyaroebi rionis garda, faziss uwodebdnen Woroxsac11. eqvTimeseuli Targmanis mixedviT, "STavides sosangelTa sofelsa (ase ewodeboda qveyanas), xolo didi andria, sÂmoniTurT Sevides queyanasa afxazeTisasa ("abasgia") da sevastiad qalaqad ("didi sebastopoli") mivides... mun dauteva netarman andria sÂmon kananeli... da Tavad jiqeTisa quÀyanasa warvida"12. berZnuli teqstis "susania" qarTulSi "sosangeTadaa" gadmocemuli, romelsac s. yauxCiSvili svaneTSi, p. ingoroyva ki sania-sanigeTSi varaudobda, Woroxisa da afsaris raionSi, sadac sofronis (IV s.) mixedviT, mataTa yofila damarxuli13. eqvTimes teqsti gvauwyebs, rom andria Semdgom misula "bosfor qalaqad", romelic evqsinis zRvis kidesaa; "xolo sÂmon kananelisa saflavi ars nikofse qalaqsa Soris afxazeTisa da jiqeTisa"14. berZnu145

li teqstiT, simon kananelis saflavi "zikxebis nikofseSia". swored am berZnul teqstze unda mieTiTebina giorgi mTawmindels antioqiis patriarqTan kamaTisas: "Cven pirvelwodebulisa... nawilni varT da samwysoni da mis mier moqceulni da ganaTlebulni da erTi wmidaTa aTormetTa mociqulTagani, simons vity kananelsa, queyanasa Cuensa damarxul ars afxazeTs, romelsa nikofsi ewodebis"15. aq afxazeTi mTeli dasavleT saqarTveloa da is "queyanasa Cuensa" aris. giorgi mcire ambobda giorgi mTawmindelze, rom man "yoveli aRmosavleTi gananaTlna, da nawili igi andria mociqulisaÁ da simon kananelisaÁ kualad ganamtkica. rameTu andrea mociqulman movlo queyanaÁ Cueni, xolo simon kananelman srulad daimkÂdra, rameTu nikofss arian nawilni misni wmidani"16. avtori "yovel aRmosavleTSi" qarTlis kulturul erTeuls gulisxmobs, romelSic eguleba klarjeTi, samcxe da sxv. qarTlis cxovrebaSi Sesuli "mefeTa cxovrebis" teqsti aderkis mefobis Jams ixseniebs wm. mociqulebs: "movides... andria da sÂmon kananeli afxazeTs da egriss da mun aResrula wmida sÂmon kananeli qalaqsa nikofsisasa... xolo andria moaqcivna megrelni da warvida gzasa klarjeTisasa"17. aderki mefes megrelebi Zvelsave rjulze mouqcevia, Tumca maT jvarxatebi daumalavT. aderki klarjeTis erisTavsac gaswyromia mociqulis mSvidobiT gaSvebisaTvis18. XI s-is II naxevarSi efrem mcirem Seqmna nawarmoebi, sadac Sekriba Zvel wyaroebSi gadmocemuli cnobebi qarTvelTa gaqristianebis Sesaxeb. misi sityviT, "iTqumis CvenTÂsca mimoslvasa Sina wmidaTa mociqulisaTa andria pirvelwodebulisa mier qadagebaÁ

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Soris avazgiaÁsa, romel ars afxazeTi da mier warvlaÁ oseTad da kualad barTlomes mier mimovlaÁ CrdiloeTisaÁ, romel ars qarTli"19. iqve naTqvamia, rom mefe iustinianem (527-565 ww.) wm. RmrTismSoblis taZari aaSena afxazeTSi da mRvdlebi daadgina20. XI s-is erT sabuTSi, mijnaZoroelTa da opizarTa samamulo davas rom exeba, naTqvamia, rom mijnaZoroel mamebs bagrat mefis sasamarTloSi (1054-1072 ww.) moutaniaT "xatni wmidaTa mociqulTa petresi da pavlesi da nawilni wmidisa barTlome mociqulisani"21. cxadia, rom wm. barTlome mociqulis nawilebi klarjeTis qarTul monasterSi zemoxsenebuli cnobebis gamoZaxili da dasturia. gadmocemebma andria pirvelwodebulis Sesaxeb kanonizacia miiRo ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebaze ­ 1104 w., sadac andria mociquls miewereba saxarebis qadageba mTel saqarTveloSi. am krebis ZeglisweraSi vkiTxulobT: "...pirvelwodebuli andria... vidre Cuenadmdeca moiwia da qadaga sacxorebeli qadagebaÁ saxarebisaÁ yovelsa queyanasa saqarTveloÁsasa"22. Semdgom xanebSi werilobiTma da xalxurma gadmocemebma saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi imata. andria mociqulis mimosvla-qadagebaTa amsaxvel wyaroebSi Cndeba axali mxareebi da punqtebi. es gansakuTrebiT SeiniSneba metafrasul teqstebSi, romlebic eqvTime mTawmindelis Targmanis ueWvel gavlenas ganicdian. daviTisa da konstantines wamebaSi (XII s. I nax.), sadac murvan yrus droindel (VIII s.) ambebzea Txroba, naTqvamia: "viTarca gÂswavies ese ZuelTa uwyebaTagan, iyvnes... daviT da konstantine qarTvelni sanaxebisagan argveTisa... da iyvnes ganaTlebul embaziTa qadagebulisa andria da simon kananelisaÁTa, rameTu

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maT uqadages qriste qarTvelTa Soris pirvelad ninoÁs moslvisa"23. XII-XIII s-Ta mijnaze ioane anCeli Tavis TxzulebaSi "galobani anCis xatisani" werda: "andria... pirvelwodebuli idideboden yovelTagan uRaRTa RadoTa klarjeTisaTa... movida da xati ese saSineli Cuen... moguaniWa"24. maSasadame, ioane Tvlida, rom anCisxati ­ macxovris e. w. xelTuqmneli xatis tipisa ­ klarjeTSi andrias moutania. axali qarTlis cxovrebis sxvadasxva redaqciebSi andria mociqulis moRvaweobis adgilebad dasaxelebulia tao, svaneTi, nigali, kola-artani... unda vifiqroT, esenic Zveli gadmocemebis anareklia. XVIII s-is yvelaze vrceli CanarTi leonti mrovelis teqstSi aderkis mefobas emTxveva. is sayuradReboa Tavisi detalurobiTa da cnobebis siaxliT, sadac yvelaze metad konkretuli punqtebia TavCenili. trapizoni iq megrelTa qalaqia, romlis Semdgom andria Sesula qarTlis qveyanaSi "romelsa did-aWara ewodebis". marTlac, qarTlis cxovrebis uZvelesi cnobiT, qarTlis samefoSi jer kidev farnavazma (Zv. w. III s.) aWara da samcxe oZrxis saerisTavod Camoayaliba25. didaWara ZvelTaganve mniSvnelovani punqti yofila. am toponimSi asaxulia mTeli mxaris saxeli. saqarTveloSi kuTxeebi xSirad atareben maTi centrebis saxelebs: mTaqarTli, gurianTa, odiSi, Takveri, kola, gaCiani... didaWarasve ukavSirdeba hidronimi aWariswyali. sainteresoa, rom iqauri moxucebi cdiloben soflis saxelwodeba "ded(a)aWarad" gaiazron (Sdr: "bude-xevsureTi"). CanarTis cnobiT, andrias iqaurebi qristes rjulze mouqcevia da eklesiac augiaT, sadac axla

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wm. andrias niSia. aqedan wasul mociquls gadauvlia mTa rkinis-jvari, romelic, Txzulebis mixedviT, "TÂT netarisa andrias mier aRmarTebul ars"-o26. andrias saswaulebSi xSirad Cans rkinis kverTxi, Tavze jvargamosaxuli. mociquli mas uwmindurTa gasanadgureblad xmarobda. saqarTveloSi uReltexilebze qvajvarTa dadgma gavrcelebuli iyo, magram "rkinis jvrebi" andria mociqulze arsebuli gadmocemebidan SeiZleba modiodes. rkinis palos mTas WaneTisa da trapizonis sazRvrad asaxelebs vaxuSti batoniSvili27. gadmocemiT, andrias jvari aRumarTavs iqac, sadac axla gergetis samebis taZaria28. "gza rkinis-juarisa" ZvelTaganve cnobili iyo da ixsenieba kidec qarTlis cxovrebaSi XI, XII da XIII s-Ta ambebTan dakavSirebiT29. zemoxsenebuli CanarTis mixedviT, rkinijvridan andria mociquls oZraxis xevi Cauvlia da sof. zaden-gorasTan kerpebi daumxvia. soflis saxelic warmarTuli RvTaebis Tayvaniscemis punqtze migvaniSnebs; zadenis kerpi xom mcxeTaSic idga ­ zeda zadeni ­ zedazeni. mniSvnelovania, rom samcxis zadenSi tradicia materialur dadasturebas poulobs: arqeologiuri ZiebiT aRmoCenilia sakulto daniSnulebis, brinjaosniRbiani xaris patara qandakeba, romelic antikuri xanis qarTul warmarTul saritualo ceremoniaSi ixmareboda30. andria Semdeg awyvers misula, romelsac maSin sosangeTi hrqmevia. berZnuli teqtebis susebi da susania sosangeTis formiT pirvelad eqvTimeseul qarTul TargmanSi gvxvdeba, Tumca iq is awyverTan araa dakavSirebuli. sainteresoa, rom samcxis Zvel sofel udeSi erT naeklesiarsa da ubans "SuSan-qalas" etyvian, rac SesaZloa kavSirSi iyos susania-sosangeTTan.

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awyverSi andrias RmrTismSoblis xelTuqmneli xatis meSveobiT saswaulebi mouxdenia, daumxvia artemidesa da apolonis kerpebi. andrias cxovrebis berZnuli teqstebis mixedviT, artemidesa da apolonis kerpebi andrias nikeaSic daumxvia da maT adgilze jvrebi aRumarTavs. amasTan dakavSirebiT niSandoblivia strabonis cnoba, rom "mosxebis qveyanaSi mdebareobs levkoTeas samlocvelo, friqses mier agebuli da misi samisno"31. arqeologiuri kvleviT awyverSi aRmoCenili berZnuli mxatvruli keramika aseve exmaureba wyaroTa Cvenebebs zemoxsenebuli kerpebis iq arsebobaze. samcxeSi andria mociqulis qadagebis sakiTxisaTvis sayuradReboa sof. andriawminda X s-is darbazuli eklesiiT. awyveris siaxloves myof am sofels saxeli wm. andrias saxelobis eklesiam misca, sadac dReobas ixdian misi Semosvlis dRes (didi marxvis mexuTe xuTSabaTs). saqrisis velze, samcxis eris gaqristianebam da awyverSi andrias mier Camotanili RmrTismSoblis xelTuqmneli xatis datovebam am punqts, rogorc religiursa da administraciul centrs, saxeli gauTqva mTel qveyanaSi. saqarTveloSi erakle keisris (VII s.) SemosvlasTan dakavSirebiT, juanSeris teqstis oTx nusxaSi (Bb) gvxvdeba CanarTi, romlis mixedviT, herakle qarTlsa da samcxes mosula. mas Tayvani ucia saswaulmoqmedi xatisaTvis da saZirkveli Cauyria awyveris didi saepiskoposo saydrisaTvis32. samcxidan andria mociquli dasavleT saqarTveloSi rkinisjvris gziT unda wasuliyo. IV s-is romaeli geografosis ­ kastoriusis rukaze aRniSnuli artaSat-sevastopolisis gza swored ase miemarTebo150

da vardcixis gavliT33. am gzis I s-Si arsebobis damadasturebeli faqtia arqeologiuri TxriT aRmoCenili polemon II-is (pontosa da kilikiis mefe 38-64 ww.) moneta34. amave gzis meore totze arsebuli sof. xani aseve sagzao punqti unda yofiliyo (sparsulidan Semosuli xanaga)35. imave gzas ukavSirdeba mTa saxelwodebiT funduki da sof. kakasxidi ­ Zveli qvis xidis naSTiT. qarTlis cxovrebis mogviano CanarTebi imeoreben Zvel gadmocemebs andrias qadagebaze svaneTSi, oseTsa da afxazeTSi, simon kananelis saflavs ki nikofsiaSi adastureben. wm. andria mociqulis Sesaxeb gadmocemebi xalxSia SemorCenili didaWaraSi, samegreloSi (martvili), samcxeSi (andriawminda), kaxeTSi (martyofi), xevSi (gergeti). didaWarasa da andriawmindaSi mociquli saswaulebs axdens, kldidan wyaros adens, martvilSi andrias daumxvia kerpi kapunia, muxasTan mdgomi, mis nacvlad jvari aRumarTavs, muxis ficrebisagan ki xalxs eklesia auSenebia36. xalxur gadmocemebs imeoreben Jan Sardeni da qristefore kasteli (XVII s.), romelTa mixedviT, wm. andria mociqulis saxelobis Zveli eklesia biWvintaSi yofila (amaze metyveleben qarTuli sabuTebic); iq mdgara jvriani sveti, romlis winaSec xalxi muxlmodrekiT loculobda37. xalxSi SerCenilia rwmena, rom Zvel anakofiaSi (axali aToni) iyo simon kananelis saxelobis eklesia38, arqanjelo lamberti (XVII s.) ki darwmunebuli iyo, rom saqarTvelo wm. mociqulebma andriam da barTlomem moaqcies. misi sityviT, samcxeSi yofila wm. barTlomes saxelobis eklesia, romlis episkoposs iSxnels uwodebdnen...39

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samcxis garda, sof. andriawminda aris imerxevSic (TurqeTis arTvinis vilaieTSi). iqac soflis saxeli wm. andria mociqulis saxelobis eklesiidan unda modiodes. andrias saxelobis eklesiebi aris guriaSi (xrianeTi) da TbilisSi. andria mociqulTan dakavSirebuli qarTuli tradiciuli gadmocemebi, materialuri kulturis Zeglebi da toponimiis monacemebi nasazrdoebia Zveli werilobiTi wyaroebiT. TavisTavad werilobiTi tradiciac bevrs iRebda xalxuri gadmocemebisagan. isini zogjer orazrovani an winaaRmdegobrivic iyo: mag. simon kananelis, wm. SuSanikis, Tu abibos nekreselis damarxvis adgilebi; yvela maT Tavisi axsna da dasabuTeba moeZebneba.

l iteratura: 1. mix. TamaraSvili. qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRemde, gamomc. "kandeli", Tb., 1995, 166. 2. ioane sabanis Ze. martÂlobaÁ habo tfilelisaÁ, Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, I, gamomc. "mecniereba", Tb., 1964, 59-60. 3. p. ingoroyva. giorgi merCule, gamomc. "sabWoTa mwerali", Tb., 1954, 211. 4. iv. javaxiSvili. Txzulebani XII, Tsu gamomc. Tb., 1998, 46. 5. mix. TamaraSvili. qarTuli eklesia... 167. 6. kimeni I, k. kekeliZis redaqciiT, tf., 1918, 170.

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7. m. fiCxaZe. andria pirvewodebulis saqarTveloSi moRvaweobis sakiTxisaTvis, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, 328, Tb., 1999, 228. 8. m. kobiaSvili. andria pirvelwodebulis mimosvlaTa eqvTime aToneliseuli Targmani, "literaturuli Ziebani", XXI, Tb., 2000, 114. 9. m. kobiaSvili. andria pirvelwodebulis... "literaturuli Ziebani", XXII, Tb., 2001, 47. 10. iqve, 48. 11. s. janaSia. Savi zRvispireTis saistorio geografia, Sromebi VI, Tb., 1988, 263. 12. m. kobiaSvili. iqve, 48. 13. s. yauxCiSvili. georgika t. IV, nakv. 2. Tb., 1952, 393; p. ingoroyva. giorgi merCule, Tb., 1954, 224-226. 14. m. kobiaSvili. andria pirvelwodebulis... "literaturuli Ziebani", XXII, 2001, 51. 15. Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi II, "mecniereba", Tb., 1967, 154. 16. iqve, 173-174. 17. qarTlis crovreba I, s. yauxCiSvilis gamoc. saxelgami, Tb., 1955, 38. 18. iqve, 42. 19. efrem mcire. uwyebaÁ mizezsa qarTvelsa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moiÃseniebis, gamoc. T. bregaZisa, saq. ssr. mecn. akad. gamomc. Tb., 1959, 4. 20. iqve, 11. 21. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis korpusi I, "mecniereba", Tb., 1984, 32. 22. didi sjuliskanoni, gamosacemad moamzades e. gabiZaSvilma, e. giunaSvilma, m. dolaqiZem, g. ninuam, "mecniereba", Tb., 1975, 545.

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23. wamebaÁ daviT da konstantinesi, Zv. qarTuli agiografiuli. literaturis Zeglebi III, "mecniereba", Tb., 1971, 249. 24. Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia I, Seadg. s. yubaneiSvilma, Tsu gamomc. Tb., 1946, 383. 25. qarTlis cxovreba, I, 24. 26. iqve, 39. 27. qarTlis cxovreba IV, "sabWoTa saqarTvelo", Tb., 1973, 659. 28. T. sanikiZe. gergetis samebis ansambli, "mecniereba", Tb., 1975. 29. qarTlis cxovreba, I, 301; qarTlis cxovreba II, s. yauxCiSvilis gamoc. "sabWoTa saqarTvelo", 51, 216. 30. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi I, "sabWoTa saqarTvelo", Tb., 1970, 373. 31. T. yauxCiSvili. strabonis geografia, Tb., 1957, 124. 32. qarTlis cxovreba I, 224. 33. n. lomouri. saqarTvelos savaWro gzebis sakiTxisaTvis, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriis institutis "Sromebi" IV, nakv. I, Tb., 1958, 108. 34. v. jafariZe. vardcixis naqalaqari, "mecniereba", Tb., 1984, 141. 35. mz. andronikaSvili. narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli enobrivi urTierTobidan. Tb., 1966, 410. 36. n. RambaSiZe. wm. andria pirvelwodebulis "eTnografiuli gzebis" kvaldakval, saqarTvelos sapatriarqo, 93, 99. 37. Sardenis mogzauroba, mz. mgalobliSvilis gamoc. "mecniereba", Tb., 1975, 132-133. 38. "mwyemsi", 1893, #10, wm. mociqulis simon kananelis taZari afxazeTSi 1876 w. anakofiis nangrevebze dafuZnda axali aTonis simon kananelis monasteri; 1882 w. ganaaxles simon kananelis Zveli taZari.

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39. il. tabaRua. saqarTvelo wignsacavebSi I; Tb., 1956.

evropis arqivebsa da

Jurnali. `logosi", 2007, N 4, 356-362.

devi berZeniSvil i qarTul i t radicia wminda andria pirvel wo debul is Sesaxeb saqarTvelos mezobel teritoriebze mociqulTa mier qristianobis qadagebis Sesaxeb pirveli cnoba origenesTan (185-254) gvxvdeba: petres wilxvdomil qveynebSi dasaxelebulia ponto da kapadokia, andrias skviTebSi uqadagia. momdevno xanis (IV-X ss.) berZnullaTinur wyaroebSi aRniSnul mxareebs emateba afsarosi, md. fazisi, sabastopolisi, hisos navsadguri da abazgia; ixsenieben, agreTve, im adgilebSi mcxov155

rebi iberebi, susebi, fustebi, alanebi; barTlome mociqulis samoRvaweo adgili yofila "CrdiloeTi". am ucxoenovan wyaroebs qarTvelebi adridanve gascnobian, rac airekla kidec qarTul mwerlobaSi. misi kvali SeniSnulia ioane sabanisZis (VIII s.) TxzulebaSi, sadac gaqristianebul afxazeTSi (dasavleT saqarTvelo) ixsenieba trapezunti, nafsaÁs navsadguri (nikofsia) da jaris sadgomi banaki afsarosi (gonio) ­ punqtebi dakavSirebuli andrias "mimosvlebTan". IX-X saukuneTa qarTuli originaluri da Targmnili Zeglebis mixedviT, andrias uqadagia qarTlis qveynebSi: afxazeTSi, "sebastielTa qalaqSi", "afsarelTa banaksa" da md. fasisTan. XI s-Si eqvTime mTawmindelma erT-erTi berZnuli xelnaweridan qarTulad Targmna andria mociqulis "mimosvlani da qadagebani", rac safuZvlad daedo Semdgomi xanis "mimosvlaTa" sxva redaqciebs. eqvTimes Targmanis mixedviT, andria qadagebda trapezuntSi "sofelsa megrelTasa", qarTlis qveyanaSi ­ md. Woroxamde, sosanigelTa qveyanaSi, oseTSi, qalaq fostaforSi, afxazeTis qveyanasa da sevastia qalaqSi, jiqeTSi, gorsinebTan, did sebastopolisSi. amave wyaros cnobiT, svimon kananelis saflavi aris qalaq nikofsiaSi, afxazeTsa da jiqeTs Soris. am bolo cnobebs imeoreben giorgi mTawmindeli da giorgi mcire XI s-Si. barTlome mociqulis CvenSi moRvaweobis gamoZaxilia 1054-73 ww. sigelSi naxsenebi wm. barTlomes nawilebi, romlebic miZnaZorelebs warudgeniaT sasamarTloze opizrebTan samamulo davis gamo. "qarTlis cxovrebis" leonti mroveliseuli teqsti (XI s.) andria pirvel-wodebulisa da simon kananelis samo156

Rvaweo mxareebad miiCnevs afxazeTsa da egriss; wm. andrias mouqcevia megrelebi da wasula klarjeTis gziT. XI s-is II naxevarSi efrem mcirem Seqmna nawarmoebi, romelSic Sekriba Zveli wyaroebis cnobebi qarTvelTa gaqristianebaze. iq andrias qadagebis adgilad dasaxelebulia afxazeTi. aRniSnulia iqidan misi gadasvla oseTSi. iqve barTlome mociqulis mier moqceuli "CrdiloeTi" ganmartebulia, rogorc qarTli; iustinianes mefobaSi afxazeTSi qristianobis gavcelebazea saubari, aq mas augia RmrTismSoblis taZari da daudgenia mRvdlebi. gadmocemebi andria mociqulis Sesaxeb kanonizirda ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebaze (1104 w.). mas saxarebis qadageba miewereba mTel saqarTveloSi. Semdgom xanebSi werilobiTma da xalxurma gadmocemebma am Temaze saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi imata. wyaroebSi Cndeba axali mxareebi da punqtebi: tao, svaneTi, nigali, kola-artaani, didaWara, rkinisjvari, oZrxisxevi, zaden-gora, saqrisi da awyveri, romlis saxeli sosangeTi yofila Zvelad. wm. andrias Sesaxeb xalxuri gadmocemebi SemorCenilia samegreloSi (martvili), samcxeSi (andriawmindaSi), kaxeTSi (martyofi), xevSi (gergeti); sofeli andriawminda aris samcxesa da imerxevSi, rac iq arsebuli eklesiebis saxelebidan unda modiodes. missave saxelzea agebuli eklesiebi guriasa da TbilisSi. Jan Sardenisa da qristefore kastelis (XVII s.) mixedviT, wm. andrias saxelobis Zveli eklesia yofila biWvinTaSi. xalxuri rwmeniT, anakofiaSi yofila simon kananelis saxelobis eklesia. arqanjelo lamberti (XVII s.) darwmunebuli iyo, rom saqarTvelo andriasa da barTlomes moqceulia. misi sityviT,

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samcxeSi yofila wm. barTlomes saxelobis eklesia, romlis episkoposs iSxnels uwodebdnen. andria mociqulTan dakavSirebuli qarTuli tradiciuli gadmocemebi, materialuri kulturis Zeglebi da toponimiis monacemebi Zveli werilobiTi wyaroebiTaa nasazrdoebi. Tavis mxriv, werilobiTi wyaroebic bevrs iTvisebdnen tradiciuli gadmocemebidan, amitom xalxuri rwmena-warmodgenebis gaTvaliswinebac aucilebeli Cans.

samecniero konferencia: `wmida andria pirvelwodebulis gziT" (masalebi), xulo 2008, gv. 11-12.

s a r C e v i: mixeil fxaWiaSvil i eqspediciebis qronikebi......................................................................... 3 devi berZeniSvilis dRiuri.............................................................35 devi berZeniSvil i wminda andria mociqulis nakvalevi saqarTveloSi............................................................................................... 123 devi berZeniSvil i

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qarTuli tradicia wm. andria pirvelwodebulis Sesaxeb...............................................................141 devi berZeniSvil i qarTuli tradicia wminda andria pirvelwodebulis Sesaxeb.............................................................. 154

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