Read DieselFacts%202008-1.pdf text version

DIESELFACTS

· SERVICE · ENGINES · TURBOCHARGERS · PROPULSION SYSTEMS · MARINE · STATIONARY ·

· 2008 · 1 ·

Versatile ME/ME-C Engines Facilitate Low Container-Ship Speeds page 4 Timmermann on Spares Policy page 5 51/60DF Achieves Type Approval page 6 Renewable In, Renewable Out CO2-neutral fuels create CO2 -neutral fuels page 7 Significant Diesel LNG Milestone First carriers with twostroke MAN B&W engines page 8 MAN Diesel to Power Emerging African Markets V28/32S gensets at heart of new power concept page 9 MAN Diesel Announces First 51/60DF Order page 9 Mitsui Partnership Delivers the Goods page 10 PrimeServ Makes it Four out of Four EMC contract covers entire ATC shuttle-tanker fleet page 11 Two-Stroke Propulsion Trends in LNG Carriers New technical paper page 12 MAN Diesel and Burckhardt Compression in Strategic Partnership page 13 The First Steps on a 1,000 Mile Chinese Journey Growing Oriental market page 14 TORM Group First to Order S50ME-B page 15 Lightning Strikes Twice in the Far-East M A N Diesel Pr i meSer v answers unusual call page 16

MAN Diesel

First ME-B sees Light of Day

STX kickstarts new, two-stroke generation

MAN Diesel has heralded a new era in two-stroke diesel engines with the production of the first MAN B&W S40ME-B engine. The new engine has been built by stx Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. at its Changwon works to the south of the Korean peninsula, and successfully passed its Type Approval Test on the 11th of December last. The 6S40ME-B is the first in a series of 25,000-dwt multipurpose vessels being built in China by Shandong Huanghai Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., and ordered by InterShip Navigation of Cyprus. The engine delivers 6,810 kW at 146 rpm with an MEP of 21 bar. The ME-B design is based on the experience gathered from MAN Diesel's existing MC-C and ME-C engine ranges, among the most popular engines available on today's market. To suit the smallbore segment, the economical ME-B design utilises a camshaft-

The MAN B&W 6S40ME-B engine pictured at stx in Changwon

operated exhaust valve and an electronically controlled fuelinjection system as seen with the ME-C range.

The market requirement for the lowest possible propeller speed in relation to bore size has led to the new ME-B engine having a stroke/

bore ratio of 4.4. In turn, the new engine has an increased maximum cylinder pressure, giving rise to an

Continued on page 2 »

Turbocharged Development

Advanced technology central to turbocharger future

The next phase of diesel engine development is set to be dominated by advanced digital electronics as the enabling technology of the highly flexible setting of engine operating parameters. On the fuel management (injection) side, the advent of microprocessor-controlled common rail fuel injection technology has given the designer the scope to optimise injection pressure and timing at any point on the operating profile of a large, four-stroke diesel engine. Paralleling this development, the Business Unit Turbocharger at MAN Diesel in Augsburg, Germany, is pursuing projects aimed at achieving a similar level of parameter control on the air management side. At the "Turbocharger Technical Update" event held in Augsburg in mid December 2007, the Business Unit Turbocharger gave an exposé of its current development activities in the area of advanced turbocharging for large two- and Emissions and fuel consumption Planned legislation lies at the centre of present development activity to further limit emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from large diesel engines, as exemplified by the second Tier of emissions regulations from the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and similar limits for stationary engines. This includes efforts to reduce specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC), both for economic reasons and as a route to reduced emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Indeed, the link between fuel efficiency and emissions has gained new importance as emissions of CO2 have come to share equal focus with noxious emissions like NOx and oxides of sulphur. While, essentially, exhaust emissions are in direct proportion to fuel consumption, a special challenge in reciprocating engines is the so-called "trade-off" between specific fuel consumption and NOx

Continued on page 2 »

In contrast to other sequential turbocharging systems, the MAN Diesel STC system is intentionally simple, consisting of two identical, standard MAN Diesel high efficiency turbochargers

four-stroke diesel engines. A traditional turbocharging pioneer, MAN Diesel has never relinquished technological leadership since it began turbocharger manufacturing in 1934. For example, only a few years later, in 1940, MAN Diesel devised the basic rotating group concept that would come to predominate in

all sizes of turbocharger ­ i.e. a core group consisting of the turbine and compressor mounted either end of a shaft supported in a central "inboard" plain bearing, lubricated from the engine lubricating system. This concept was ­ sooner or later ­ adopted by all major manufacturers.

DIESELFACTS

» Continued from front page

First ME-B sees Light of Day

improved fuel consumption that is 2 g/kWh lower than existing, small-bore engines. Thanks to the electronic control of the engine's parameters, the ME-B is also well equipped to meet the new IMO Tier2 emission requirements. Market reception for the new series has been very positive to date with a significant 65 orders already received, spread among the 35M E-B, 40M E-B and 50M E-B types. The 6S40ME-B engine has undergone a successful, comprehensive, test programme at Changwon to optimise its performance and verify the correlation between calculated and measured results. M A N D i e s e l i nt r o duc e d t h e ME-B concept in mid-2006 with t he sma l l- b or e S35 M E-B a nd S 4 0 M E - B M A N B &W e n g i n e designs. It subsequently expanded the series in early 2007 with the launch of the S50ME-B MAN B&W engine design, with the result that the entire ME-B programme now boasts a total output range from 2,975 kW to 16,020 kW. In summary, the ME-B series offers optimal engine performance in powerful, economic, weight-saving and future-oriented diesel engines, ensuring that they will remain market leaders for decades to come. Based on well-proven diesel technology, the ME-B series provides engines geared to market requirements for: · electronic fuel-injection control · fuel economy · higher power reliability · longer time between overhauls · lower propeller speed · better vessel manoeuvrability · very low life-cycle costs More details on the ME-B engine can be found in the "MAN B&W Low-Speed, Small Bore Engines ­ Now with Electronic Control" paper, which is freely available from MAN Diesel upon request, or can be downloaded from the MAN Diesel website at: http://www. mandiesel.com/category_000390. html n

The MAN B&W 6S40ME-B engine during construction

» Continued from front page

Turbocharged Development

­ i.e. the fact that reducing NO x formation in diesel or gas engines is normally bought at the expense of fuel efficiency. This trade-off was, hence, a recurring theme in the presentations of the MAN Diesel Turbocharger event and is illustrated by the embedded graph. As shown in the example, the aim of the latest MAN Diesel turbocharger developments is to move this curve towards the "origin" of the graph. The optimisation of the SFOC/NOx trade-off is achieved by advanced turbocharging as a method of simultaneously reducing specific fuel consumption and NO x formation via reduced combustion temperature combined with increased thermal efficiency. Advanced air management In the recent past, MAN Diesel announced its "VTA" (Variable Turbine Area) technology on its axial turbochargers in a two-stroke marine engine application and on radial turbochargers employed on its four-stroke type 32/40 PGI gas engine with Otto combustion process. The company is also currently developing STC Sequential Turbocharging for its high power density 28/33D marine engine, initially for application in naval vessels. The STC system The STC system offers optimum engine-turbocharger matching for special requirements and gives the type 28/33D engines an extended torque envelope, resulting in economical operating modes and improved engine acceleration characteristics. These modes are especially useful in

View of the VTA system showing the positional motor arrangement for adjustment of nozzle ring vane pitch

naval applications and include cruising with a controllable pitch propeller set at optimum pitch for noise while still retaining high acceleration capability; operating a single engine at twice the propeller law in multi-engine systems (e.g. twin-input/single-output gears, CODOG etc). MAN Diesel's STC system is derived from well-proven equipment used on the Pielstick PA6 engine and in contrast to other sequential turbocharging systems, the MAN Diesel STC system is essentially ­ and intentionally ­ simple, consisting of two identical, standard turbochargers, one providing copious charge-air at low and medium speeds with the second cutting in at higher speeds.

The VTA system The VTA system consists of a nozzle ring, equipped with adjustable vanes which replaces the fixed-vane rings used in MAN Diesel's standard TCA and TCR turbochargers. Adjusting the vane pitch regulates the pressure of the exhaust gases impinging on the turbine to vary compressor output. The quantity of charge air can be more precisely matched to the quantity of injected fuel, resulting in reduced specific fuel consumption and emissions, in combination with improved dynamic behaviour of the engineturbocharger system. In detail, the VTA system consists of a nozzle ring equipped with adjustable vanes, which replaces the fixed vane nozzle rings fitted in MAN Diesel's standard TCA tur-

bochargers. In this way, VTA technology can be readily retrofitting to turbochargers already in the field. By adjusting the pitch of the vanes,

the pressure of the exhaust gases can be regulated and the output of the compressor optimised at all points on the engine's performance

SFOC

NOx

Specific Fuel Oil Consumption versus mono-nitrogen oxide emissions

DIESELFACTS

ring, the actuator and the associated control system. First VTA applications The first application for an axial turbocharger with VTA technology is a two-stroke, low-speed marine engine, while a radial turbocharger with V TA technology is being tested on MAN Diesel's revolutionary 32/40 PGI gas engine. In the stationary 32/40 PGI application with radial turbocharger, MAN Diesel's VTA technology has been verified as an effective alternative to a charge-air by-pass system for the precise control of air: fuel ratio. With the VTA system, turbocharger output can be precisely matched to engine air demand instead of blowing off excess compressor output into the atmosphere, resulting in improved engine efficiency. The VTA system on an axial turbocharger is under test on a six cylinder, 46 cm bore 6S46MC-C engine built by MAN Diesel's Croatian licensee, Brodosplit. The HFO-burning 6S46MC-C features mechanically controlled fuel injection and exhaust valve actuation and is one of two engines installed in a twin engine propulsion system aboard a 70,000 ton, shallow draught tanker. The vessel, the Stena President, was built at the Brodosplit shipyard for the Stena Concordia Maritime shipping line. Inclusion of VTA technology on the axial TCA55 turbocharger allows up to 0.5 bar variation in compressor output pressure at part load. Overall results show the expected improvements at part load in terms of fuel consumption, as well as considerable reductions in emissions of soot and unburnt hydrocarbons, as well as improved engine response under load changes. It was also demonstrated that VTA technology gave a useful new dimension to the mechanically controlled engine. The effects are comparable to the use of variable valve timing and electronic engine control. To attain the best possible comparison the engine with VTA turbocharger runs alongside a second 6S46MC-C engine with conventional turbocharging.

Specifically the benefits of the higher scavenging pressures in part-load operation provided by the VTA turbocharger include lower SFOC at part load, improved torque and engine acceleration, lower combustion chamber temperatures and the exacted savings in electrical energy to drive the auxiliary blowers, depending on the engine load-profile. High-pressure turbocharging On a slightly longer time frame, MAN Diesel is also pursuing single and two-stage high-pressure turbocharging. In its single stage, highpressure turbocharging concept, MAN Diesel employs optimised series compressor wheels to achieve pressure ratios up to 6 bar at 80% turbocharger efficiency. The MAN Diesel two-stage concept consists of two turbochargers in tandem with an intermediate charge air cooler and is presently capable of producing scavengingpressure ratios of 6.5 to 7. The second, smaller turbocharger is fitted with the VTA control system to increase control of charge air output. The system has already been tested in prototype form on a four stroke 32/44CR engine with common rail fuel injection and

the MAN Diesel VVT variable valve timing system. By employing the inter-stage cooler between the two turbocharging stages, the energy required to compress the intake air to high pressure is considerably reduced compared to a system without this feature. These high-end turbocharging techniques offer decisive improvements to engine performance data, especially by enabling strong Miller valve timing to improve the trade-off between SFOC and low NOx emissions. As the comparative table shows, mean cylinder pressures over 30 bar are possible while the strong Miller process allows NOx reductions in excess of 30% savings with no SFOC penalty. At the same time an increase of up to 8% is possible in thermal engine efficiency combined with a 2% improvement in fuel efficiency, while future potential for SFOC and NO x savings is also considered substantial. These improved efficiencies are expected to be of special value in the stationary applications of engines from MAN Diesel, i.e. electrical power generation and cogeneration. n

Prototype of the MAN Diesel high-pressure two-stage turbocharging system. It consists of a radial TCR22 turbocharger in tandem with a radial -TCR20 model equipped with the VTA variable turbine area control system for control of charge-air output. An intermediate heat exchanger cools the charge air to reduce the amount of work required to achieve the high overall pressure ratio

The variable nozzle ring arrangement for the radial TCR turbocharger. The technology has been verified on MAN Diesel's 32/40PGI gas engine as an effective alternative to a charge-air by-pass system for the precise control of air: fuel ratio. With the VTA system, turbocharger output can be precisely matched to engine air demand instead of blowing off excess compressor output into the atmosphere

6L32/44CR

Charge-air Cooler

Engine By-pass

TCR 20 VTA Interstage Cooler

Optional Wastegate

HP-T/C Bypass

TCR22 Ambient air Exhaust Gas

The MAN Diesel VTA system is under test on a six-cylinder, 46-cm bore 6S46MC-C engine built by MAN Diesel's Croatian licensee, Brodosplit, powering the shallow-draught tanker Stena President. Here the engine is seen during shop testing

Prototype arrangement of a turbocharged MAN Diesel four-stroke engine type 32/44CR

map. In order to minimise thermal hysteresis and improve adjustment accuracy, each vane has a lever, which is directly connected to a control ring. The control ring is actuated by an electric positional motor with integrated reduction gear whose development was an integral part of MAN Diesel's VTA solution. The adjustable vanes are manufactured in heat and erosion resistant steel alloy, and careful selection of fits and materials ensures operation under all conditions without sticking, especially in applications on engines burning heavy fuel oil (HFO).

Control of the vane position is fully electronic with feedback or open-loop control with mapped vane adjustment. A comprehensive range of control signals can be used, including charge air pressure after the compressor and exhaust gas temperature before and after the turbocharger. In this way, MAN Diesel states, it can offer control packages precisely tailored to a specific application, including both mechanically controlled engines and engines with electronic management. For retrofit applications, MAN Diesel will offer complete packages including the VTA nozzle

Comparative operating data, 1- and 2-stage high-press. turbocharging

6L32/44CR with: Cylinder output (kW) Nominal engine speed (rpm) Mean effective pressure (bar) Max. firing pressure (bar) Charge air pressure (bar) Savings in fuel consumption (%) Savings in NOx (%) 1-stage TC-system 560 720 25.3 230 4.0 0 0 2-stage TC-system 640 720 30.1 245 6.4 Max. 8 Max. 35

DIESELFACTS

Versatile ME/ME-C Engines

Facilitate the need for lower container-ship speeds

The recent rise in fuel-oil prices to unprecedented levels has brought the fuel-oil consumption of diesel engines into focus for the first time in many years. At the same time, exhaust-gas emissions in general, and CO2-emissions in particular, have become top priorities. One way of reducing fuel consumption and CO2-emissions is to reduce ship speed. Fig. 1 shows the relationship between power and speed for a typical, modern, large post-panamax container vessel. leaving more time and a reduced ship-speed demand. Two very important issues must be considered: 1) Main-engine ability to operate at low loads for long periods of time. 2) Fuel-oil consumption at such low loads. For newbuilding projects, operators must decide whether the vessel should be laid out for high ship-speeds, as has been the case for a number of years, or whether they should choose an alternative design for lower ship-speed, that is, choose a smaller main-engine. A further, third option is to keep the full-size engine in the specification, but to optimise it for lower loads. So far, shipowners have chosen to maintain service flexibility by retaining the existing, high shipspeed. to conventional engines at such low loads. In terms of fuel-oil consumption, it is important to note that with the emission legislation (Tier 2) coming into force for vessels with keels laid after 1/1/2011, ME/ME-C engines comply with the legislation with a minimal fuel-oil consumption penalty. Conclusion Electronically controlled ME/ME-C engines offer better possibilities for long-term operation at low loads while, at the same time, giving an improved fuel-oil consumption. This is due to their better, part-load fuel consumption and the ability of ME-engines to run at low load with less frequent high-load periods to clean the gas ways. ME/ME-C engines also comply with IMO Tier 2 legislation with a lower SFOC, that is, a lower CO2-emission than their mechanical counterparts. Operators are welcome to contact MAN Diesel regarding low-load operation to obtain recommendations tailor-made to their specific mode of operation ­ both Manager of Large-bore Design for vessels already in service and at MAN Diesel A/S, Copenhagen, newbuilding projects. which is available upon request Relative propulsion power needed for a large container vessel or can be downloaded from www. and shown as function of ship mandiesel.com n This article is a summary of a paper speed written by Mikael C. Jensen, Senior

Relative propulsion power needed % 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 knot Ship speed

From th is, it is obv ious that reducing ship speed reduces the power requirement substantially. Reducing ship speed by, for example, 4 knots, reduces the power requirement by some 50%. This means that in situations where the main engine has been chosen with sufficient power to handle high ship-speeds, it must also be Electronically controlled ME/ME-C able to operate at low loads for long engines have an inherent, major periods. This is the scenario that advantage with respect to operatvessels in service are exposed to ing at even very low loads for and must comply with. Typically, indefinite periods of time. They a round trip that normally would also offer a substantial reduction Reduced Fuel Consumption Low Load Operation for last eight weeks is allocated nine, withatMC/MC-C and ME/ME-C Engines in fuel-oil consumption compared Large Container Vessels

Fig. 1: Relative propulsion power needed for a large container vessel as a function of ship speed

Relative fuel consumption/costs per n mile % 100 90 80 70 60 50 40

3-4g/kWh

MC/MC-C 100% SMCR optimised ME/ME-C 100% SMCR optimised ME/ME-C Low load mode 100% SMCR optimised ME/ME-C Part load optimised ME/ME-C Low load mode part load optimised

1-2g/kWh

3-4g/kWh

MC/MC-C ME/ME-C

1-2g/kWh

1-2g/kWh

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 knot Ship speed

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110 % SMCR

Engine shaft power

Fig. 2: Red. consumption at low load for container vessels with MC/MC-C & ME/ME-C engines

Fig. 3: Reduced SFOC for part-load optimisation with low-load mode, and 100% SMCR optimised with low-load mode for ME/ME-C engines

Reduced fuel consumption at low-load operation for large container vessels with 12K98ME/C-C6, SMCR = 68,520 kW at 104 r/min

Parameters: Engine power % SMCR SFOC g/kWh Fuel consumpt. t/24h Operating time h/week Fuel consumpt. t/week Ship speed knot Sailed distance n mile/week Fuel consumpt. per n mile kg/n mile Fuel costs per n mile USD/n mile Relative fuel cost per n mile %

Basic

90

167.5

263.3

168

1843.3

25.0

4200

439

219

100.0

12K98MC-C6

Low Load runn. 75.0 30.0

1

165.1 174.0

216.2 91.2

14 +154 168

126.1 +585.0 711.1

23.8 18.5 18.52

Is

included in

low-load operation

assuming no

speed increase

3108

229

114

52.1

12K98ME-C6

Low Load runn. 75.0 30.0

1

163.6 172.8

214.4 90.6

2 +166 168

17.9 +626.4 644.3

23.8 18.5 18.52

Is

included in

low-load operation

assuming no

speed increase

3108

207

103.6

47.3

1. Including temporary load increase of up to 75% SMCR at low-load operation. Ref. service letter SL07-480/SBE, June 2007 2. During 75% running load, the ship will often sail a longer path. Therefore, no ship speed increase is assumed when calculating sailed distance. SFOC refers to LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg; Fuel consumption refers to LCV = 40,200 kJ/kg; Fuel price used is 500 USD/t

DIESELFACTS

Timmermann on Spares Policy

MAN Diesel PrimeServ addresses availability in a booming market

In early 2006, MAN Diesel reorganised its after-sales activities, creating MAN Diesel PrimeServ, a new integrated, company-wide organisation combining the aftersales activities of all the products of the whole MAN Diesel group. Headed by Dr. Stephan Timmermann, executive board member with PrimeServ responsibility at MAN Diesel in Augsburg, Germany, the new after-sales organisation has rapidly taken steps to develop all aspects of its activities. In the area of spare parts supply, measures have been taken to respond to a continuing boom in engine sales which is already noticeably i ncreasi ng spa res demand, Timmermann notes. "One of the most far reaching steps we have taken is a programme to sever the link between the production of original equipment and aftermarket components to reflect the differing quantities involved, and that original equipment and aftersales activity are on completely different business cycles." Inventories and Logistics At the same time, MAN Diesel PrimeServ has increased and optimised its spares inventories on the basis of delivery statistics. "Our spares stocks now more precisely reflect actual ordering patterns, especially of major customers," Timmermann continues. "Simultaneously, stocks have been substantially increased and globalised - as our network of local PrimeServ hubs and service centres expands we are building spares inventories at strategic locations around the world. As we Reconditioning A further new emphasis at PrimeServ is spare part refurbishment. "This is both a method of easing the pressure on component suppliers in a situation where demand is rising sharply for both components for new products on the one hand, and for spares and service for an increasing global population of MAN Diesel engines, turbochargers and propulsion systems on the other," Timmermann says. "Hence, where previously remanufacturing and reconditioning was the preserve of the Hamburg service centre in Germany, these activities will be carried out at a number of locations around the world, including Dubai, Singapore, and Houston and New Jersey in the USA." E-commerce PrimeServ is also taking major steps in information technology with wide implications for spares availabilit y. The E- commerce solution used at MAN Diesel in Copenhagen is to be implemented group-wide, while the spread of electronically controlled engines is having a noticeable effect on spares procurement. An increase in online engine monitoring allows more components to be replaced on an "on-condition" basis while the procurement of spares for an approaching service event can be better timed and coordinated to get parts to the right location at the right time. Single point of contact On the global communications side, PrimeServ has started the process of installing a single, global service telephone number which will be manned around the clock by staff with full access to all the engine, turbocharger and propulsion system customer data required for prompt order input and fulfilment.

Above, Dr. Stephan Timmermann. Below left: the MAN Diesel PrimeServ Academy at Augsburg; MAN Diesel PrimeServ has recently concluded its fourth EMC contract with Alaska Tanker Company (see story, page 11). Below right: a PrimeServ spare-parts kit; parts reconditioning will be carried out at strategic locations around the world; a PrimeServ seals kit

MAN Diesel's works in Augsburg. This measure has also included handing over warehousing to the new partner. Spares kits MAN Diesel PrimeServ also reports an excellent market response to the spare parts kits it has recently introduced. The kits are rationally and attractively packaged and comprise all the parts specific to a given service or repair job. They aim to both simplify the customer's ordering tasks and ensure that components essential to a job are not omitted from an order.

know, global after-sales activities are a business where distance means expense and PrimeServ aims to offer its customers the great advantage of maximum possible spare parts proximity." With the same aim of improving the accessibility of spare parts and service to the customer, the PrimeServ organisation has rapidly increased its number of hubs ­ 11 were established in 2006 alone and as many as 20 further locations are foreseen. On the logistics side, this is complemented by the appointment of a new partner to handle spare parts forwarding for fourstroke engines and axial and radial turbochargers manufactured at

Finally, MAN Diesel notes that rationally assessing engine and turbocharger spares needs will be an important theme in the tuition and qualification it provides at its network of "PrimerServ Academies". The latest academy at the Augsburg works was officially opened in May 2007 and offers courses aimed at qualifying both personnel from MAN Diesel's customers and MAN Diesel PrimeServ technicians. n

DIESELFACTS

51/60DF Achieves Type Approval

Major classification societies put engine to the test

The 51/60DF diesel fuel engine is based on the well-proven 48/60B heavy fuel engine and was launched in 2006

The development and test programme of MAN Diesel's new 51/60 DF, four-stroke, medium-speed dual-fuel engine has reached a further, major milestone. At the end of September 2007, the new engine received Type Approval from the Classification Societies American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Bureau Veritas (BV), Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Germanischer Lloyd (GL), Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LR), Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, Registro Italiano Navale and the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping. The approval process begins early in the overall test programme of an engine with the submission of drawings and other data, including a thermal imaging camera scan to ensure surface temperatures are in compliance with the appropriate SOLAS regulations. In the case of the 51/60 DF dual fuel engine, Type Approval testing in the presence of all the relevant

Classification Societies was preceded by special testing specified by individual Societies. These were the extreme condition test specified by DNV and emergency operation testing without the turbocharger witnessed by ABS, BV, DNV, GL and LR. In the extreme condition test, the engine is run for

one hour at both 100% MCR and idling condition with its lube oil temperature and pressure close to their respective high and low alarm trigger limits. The Type Approval procedure itself involved two days of engine test runs in both gaseous and

liquid fuels modes according to a comprehensive set of pre-defined load profiles and including the extreme conditions 106% of rated speed and 110% of maximum continuous rating (MCR). In this regard, MAN Diesel emphasises that with the 51/60DF it was possible to demonstrate operation in the 110% MCR condition in both the gaseous fuel and liquid fuel modes. The engine test programme on the first day was especially chosen to demonstrate the comprehensiveness of the MAN Diesel dual fuel safety concept, including operation at over 25 alarm conditions in the gas mode, emergency engine shut downs and rapid gas to diesel switchovers under conditions such as heavy combustion knocking. The third and final day of the Type Approval process was dedicated to the inspection of one complete cylinder unit (cylinder head, liner, connecting rod and big-end bearing shell) and a crankshaft main bearing shell, both chosen by the

Classification Societies on the basis of relevant operating data. Likewise, injection tests were carried out on simulation rigs to ensure that both the micro-pilot and main fuel injectors from the cylinder unit were still injecting cleanly. I n tot a l , t he s even c yl i nder 7L51/60DF test engine has now achieved over 1500 operating hours at MAN Diesel's Augsburg test facilities. With Type Approval achieved on schedule, the engine's development and test programme is on target to provide propulsion and onboard electrical power for those LNG carriers presently at the project stage. Announced in 2006, the 51/60DF diesel fuel engine is based on the well-proven 48/60B heavy fuel engine and offers a market leading 1000 kW/cylinder output in both gaseous and liquid fuel operating modes. It will be offered in inline versions with 6, 7, 8 and 9 cylinders and vee configuration versions with 12, 14, 16, and 18 cylinders. n

See also: First 51/60DF Order story on page 9 »

The test programme was carried out at the MAN Diesel facility in Augsburg, Germany

DIESELFACTS

Renewable In ­ Renewable Out

MAN Diesel Engines Use CO2-neutral fuels to create CO2-neutral fuels

Section of the woodchip drying process at the Van Roje industrial cogeneration plant. Heat recovered from the engine's surface radiations, charge air coolers, cylinder coolant and exhaust gases is used to heat air which is blown over the woodchips and pellets and used in the drying chamber of the adjacent sawmill

start up and shut down phases. Fuel conditioning involves heating and filtering of the palm oil. Using steam or electrical elements, the palm oil is conditioned to a booster pump entry viscosity matched to the 1800 bar injection pressure of the 32/40 engine. The palm oil is filtered in two fine-filter stages with elements changed at 2 week intervals. Lube oil conditioning comprises a standard full-flow filter augmented by a fine mesh by-pass filter. A special feature of the plant is the exploitation of heat radiations from the engine's external surfaces. An extraction fan draws air from the powerhouse which is ducted to the works to support woodchip drying processes. With this feature and an advanced regenerative, multi-stage air and water heating system, the plant achieves overall energy utilisation levels of over 90%, MAN Diesel reports. A low temperature water heating stage employs heat from the oil cooler and one charge air cooler. In the high temperature stage the water

temperature is raised further by heat from the second charge air cooler, the engine coolant and the engine exhaust gases. Air heated from these heat recovery sources is used in both the woodchip drying process, in which heated air is blown over the woodchips on a conveyor belt, and the drying chamber of the sawmill. In a further exhaust gas heat recovery stage, dry steam is generated and used to soften the dried woodchips prior to pelletisation and for fuel conditioning. In the regenerative stage, the steam condensate from the softening process is used to suppor t the low temperature energy recovery process. Exhaust aftertreatment at the Van Roje cogeneration plant consists of an SCR system using urea as the reducing agent and an oxidation catalyst for the removal of ammonia slip. The majority of the project's plant engineering work was carried out by MANN Engineering, the German cogeneration specialist, MAN Diesel reports. n

MAN Diesel type 12V 32/40 engine adapted for operation on palm oil at the cogeneration plant in the van Roje wood processing works

Based on their favourable emissions, lean burn gas engines dominated the European market for municipal and industrial cogeneration plants for many years. However, efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have led to an increasing number of projects usi ng me d iu m-sp e e d d ie s e l engines burning plant oils, animal fats or blends of the two. Designed for heavy fuel oils, medium and low speed engines from MAN Diesel can be readily adapted to run on treated and untreated organic fuels which would cause considerable problems in high speed diesels with more sensitive fuel injection equipment. Within this diesel co-gen renaissance, MAN Diesel has been involved in a series of contracts where recovered heat from the

engine of a generator-set operating on liquid renewable fuels is used to produce further sources of CO2 neutral energy. A prominent example is the generator-set that operates on waste cooking oil at the Fritzens sewage plant near Innsbruck, Austria. There, since 2004, heat recovered from the inline six cylinder MAN Diesel 6L21/31 engine of an 1130 kWe gen-set has been used to accelerate sewage and waste digestion to product gas for gas engine gensets and dried sludge for use as fuel in cement works furnaces. Van Roje In 2006 MAN Diesel supplied a genset based on its type 32/40 diesel engine adapted to run on plant oil for a comparable application at a wood processing works in Germany.

The cogeneration plant at the Van Roje sawmill and woodchip factory in Oberhonnefeld, Germany is based on a twelve cylinder, vee configuration 12V 32/40 engine (bore 320 x stroke 400) and entered commercial service in the Spring of 2007. It supplies 5.5 MWe of electrical energy to the local grid (grid parallel) and a roughly similar amount of recovered heat for the production of wood pellets formed from sawdust and small wood waste accruing in sawing and woodchip production processes. The pellets are then sold as a fuel for domestic stoves and boilers. Hence, as at Fritzens, a high efficiency, CO2-neutral cogeneration system is instrumental in the production of a further CO2-neutral, renewable fuel. The fuel employed in the 32/40 engine is palm oil with soya oil used for the engine's

General view of the van Roje wood processing site from the top of a palm oil storage tank

DIESEL

Significant Diesel LNG Milestone

First carriers produced with two-stroke MAN B&W engines

The new ships are part of a Qatargas package of 45 LNG carriers with MAN B&W two-stroke prime movers

Three of the world's largest LNG carriers successfully tested their propulsion packages at the end of September. Each vessel is powered by two 6S70ME-C electronically controlled, two-stroke, low-speed diesel engines, and this event marks a first for MAN Diesel in the LNG sector. The engines will operate on HFO. The vessels are part of a Qatargas project that comprises an impressive 45 vessels, each fitted with two MAN B&W low-speed prime movers, making for a grand total of 90 electronically controlled two-stroke engines. Of these, 31 Q-Flex carriers will receive two MAN B&W 6S70ME-C engines, each developing 18,660 kW, while the 14 larger Q-Max carriers will employ two MAN B&W 7S70ME-C engines, each rated at 21,770 kW at 91 rpm. The three ships in question have been delivered from three different shipyards. The Al Ruwais comes from Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering and is owned by German PRONAV. The Tembek is from Samsung Heavy Industries and is owned by the U.S. Overseas Shipholding Group. The third, the Al Gattara, is also owned by the Overseas Shipholding Group and built by Hyundai Heavy Industries. Doosan Engine Co. Ltd built the engines for the Daewoo and Samsung-built vessels, while HHI-EMD built the engines for the Hyundai-built vessel. The vessels have also been fitted with four MAN Diesel 9L32/40 gensets each. The stx Corporation built those for the DSME and Samsung vessels, while those on the Hyundai vessel were built by Hyundai itself.

The HFO-fuelled, ME-C engines chosen to propel the 45 ships comprise a part of the MAN B&W two-stroke engine programme that also includes a range of dual-fuel ME-GI engines. The GI-system, comprising a high-pressure injection system of natural gas, has proved commercially viable since 1994 when a 12K80MC-GI-S engine was employed by a Japanese power

plant. Conversion to dual-fuel operation, in the form of ME-GI, is an option currently being discussed for both the Qatargas and other LNG carrier projects. The ME-GI system is offered in a package based on Burckhardt compressors with a fully integrated tank pressure and gas-flow control system. The ME-GI range

of low-speed, dual-fuel engines complements MAN Diesel's engine programme that also includes the 51/60DF dual-fuel, medium-speed engine, which is targeted at LNG carriers with electric-propulsion configurations. The three ships will carry LNG produced by the new Qatargas II Train 4 plant at Ras Laffan in Qatar

to European customers, including Milford Haven in the UK where the new South Hook LNG-receiving terminal is now nearing completion. The size of the ships will enable both the gas buyers and sellers to realise unprecedented economy of scale benefits in the transport of LNG. n

The engine room aboard one of the Q-Flex LNG carriers

LFACTS

MAN Diesel to Power Emerging African Markets

V28/32S gensets at heart of new power concept

MAN Diesel has signed a contract with Empower Ltd. for the supply of 15 × 18V28/32S MAN Diesel fourstroke generating sets (gensets). Empower is a new compa ny, established to develop a fleet of generating equipment for leasing to utility and industrial customers in emerging markets (initially Africa) on a short-term, flexible basis. Empower will operate the units on behalf of its customers, who will then purchase power under a standardised PPA (Power Purchase Agreement). The company is wholly owned by Actis Infrastructure 2 LP, a fund established and managed by Actis, a leading private-equity investor in emerging markets. The 18V28/32S engine is a turbocharged, single-acting, four-stroke diesel engine of the trunk piston type with a cylinder bore of 280 mm, a stroke of 320 mm, and a crankshaft speed of 720/750 rpm. Each genset has an output of 4,230 kW with delivery due on a staggered basis over the summer of 2008. The 15 gensets will be deployed at one or more locations in sub-Saharan Africa, most likely in batches of three. The gensets will be packaged for Empower Ltd. by East African Industrial Development Ltd. (EAID), the MAN Diesel representative for East Africa. EAID was closely involved in the original design of the generation concept. V28/32S engines are well-known for their ability to run on HFO, their high reliability, the long time between overhauls, and their lifetime of over 20 years if properly maintained. Units are used worldwide by power plants, and as auxilary engines aboard ships. A total of over 5,000 such engines are currently in service. n

Archive photo of the V28/32S genset

MAN Diesel Announces First 51/60DF Order

Sales success for new, dual-fuel engine

Augsburg-based MAN Diesel SE has announced the first order for its new, 1,000-kW-per-cylinder, 51/60DF dual-fuel, four-stroke engine for liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The order covers five engines for the largest LNG carrier ever to be commisioned with electric propulsion based on dual-fuel engines. The 174,000 cubic-metre carrier is being built by stx Shipbuilding of Korea for a Spanish owner, and features an innovative propulsion arrangement, employing five inline, eight-cylinder, type 8L51/60DF engines, each rated 8,000 kW at 514 rpm. MAN Diesel states that the new propulsion system is designed to give the vessel a higher degree of redundancy in terms of maintenance while sailing, and takes advantage of the 51/60DF engine's multiple fuelling options. These comprise its gaseous fuel mode, in which LNG boil-off gas is ignited by pilot injection of marine diesel-oil (MDO), plus two liquid-fuel modes in which the 51/60DF engine can operate on either 100% MDO or 100% heavy fuel oil (HFO) main injection. The engines will be built in Augsburg and are scheduled for delivery in early 2009. Vessel delivery is subsequently planned for mid 2010. n

MAN Diesel's 51/60DF dual-fuel engine for LNG carriers under test at the company's Augsburg works

See also: 51/60DF Achieves Type Approval story on page 6 »

10

DIESELFACTS

Mitsui Partnership Delivers the Goods

MAN Diesel looks back on its long, successful, Japanese partnership

Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) is a Japanese company, initially established in 1917, and which originally was a division of the Mitsui industrial conglomerate before reforming as an independent company in 1937. The company focuses upon a variety of areas including: · Energy Systems · Logistic Systems · Plant Construction · IT and Software Service · Advanced Machinery Systems · Construction of Social Infrastructure · Environment-Related Recycling and, of course, · Ships and Oceans With 90 years' experience in shipbuilding, MES covers all requirements from design to production to meet the modern market's multifaceted demands. MES also builds for niche markets including such vessels as naval destroyers, transport ships, patrol vessels, oceanographic research vessels and other survey vessels, world shipbuilding field through its excellent delivery records and sophisticated technology. Bulk carriers MES-built cargo ships carry essential resources such as grain, ore, coal, lumber, etc. and the company enjoys a good reputation amongst domestic and overseas customers in bulk-carrier construction from 30,000 to 230,000 deadweight tons. Oil tankers MES constructs various classes of oil tanker including the double-hull VLCC (Very Large Crude Oil Carrier). FPSOs (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading units) FPSOs are floating facilities for the production, storage and offloading of oil. The oil is drawn from reservoirs and transported between the seafloor and FPSO through riser pipes. It is then stored in tanks located in its hull after primary processing in oil-treatment facilities on deck. This crude oil is periodically offloaded onto shuttle tankers. n

Aerial view of the Chiba Works

many of which demand outfitting to high technological specification. Globally, MES is recognised as one of the most experienced shipyards in the world at building LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) carri-

ers, double-hull tankers and other classes of cargo ship. LNG carriers While LNG is currently being highlighted as a clean energy source,

MES already has a long history of building LNG carriers with one of the main technical requirements being to keep the cargo at a steady temperature of ­ 163°C. MES maintains a firm position in the

Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Company ­ selected highlights

1917 1926 1937 1942 1961 1962 1968 1973 1975 1981 1984 1992 1993 1994 1999 Established as the Shipbuilding Division of Mitsui & Co., Ltd. and first ship launched Entered a technical license agreement with Burmeister & Wain of Denmark for marine diesel-engine production Started trading independently Company name changed to Mitsui Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ltd. Launched the world's first large-size, automated vessel, Kinkasan Maru, with an engine room operated entirely from the bridge Chiba Works commenced operation Completed the 500,000 dwt building dock at Chiba Works The Yura Dockyard commenced operation Built the Berge Emperor, a 400,000 dwt class oil tanker, the largest of its kind ever built by the company Oita Works commenced operation Completed the LNG carrier Senshu Maru A state-of-the-art diesel engine assembly shop completed at the Tamano Works Completed an advanced steel-structure plant, one of the largest in the industry, at Oita Works Completed a stationery gas-injection diesel plant at Chiba Works, technology jointly developed with MAN Diesel and aimed at the LNG carrier market Became the world's first engine manufacturer to produce an aggregate total of 35 million bhp in the (continuous) production of MAN B&W diesel engines Became the first in the world to attain an aggregated production total of 40 million bhp with a single brand (MAN B&W); Completed MES's first membrane-type LNG carrier (capacity 147,100m3) The first electronically controlled engine completed (an MAN B&W ME-engine) Achieved a world record of 50 million bhp accumulated production of diesel engines with the MAN B&W brand; New diesel-engine assembly and testing shop completed at Tamano Works 110,000 DWT, 128,073 m3, double-hull tanker MV Mare Italicum finished at Chiba Works with an MAN B&W 7S60MC main engine

2002 2004 2005

The MAN B&W 12K98ME engine is the largest produced by Mitsui to date (top), and a MAN B&W 6S70MC-C engine being prepared for delivery within one of the assembly halls

2007

DIESELFACTS

11

PrimeServ Makes it Four out of Four

EMC contract covers entire ATC shuttle-tanker fleet

MAN Diesel PrimeServ, the aftersales arm of the MAN Diesel Group, has recently announced a new contract under its "EMC" Engine Management Concept for marine engines aboard a shuttle tanker operated by the Alaska Tanker Company (ATC). The contract with the ship management and marine transportation specialist based in Beaverton, Oregon, USA, covers the vessel Alaskan Legend and gives PrimeServ delegated engine maintenance responsibility for all four shuttle tankers in the ATC fleet. The tankers have a payload of 1.3 million barrels of oil and feature a double-hull construction. They are registered under the U.S. flag, classified by ABS and were all built by the National Steel & Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO) of San Diego, USA, between 2004 and 2006. They operate a shuttle service between the seaward end of the Trans Alaska Pipeline at Port Valdez, Alaska and Puget Sound, Washington, San Francisco and Long Beach, California, and occasionally Barber's Point, Hawaii, ATC states. The contracts centre on the vessels' diesel-electric propulsion systems which are each based on four generator sets powered by inline six-cylinder type 6L48/60 engines from the MAN Diesel works in Augsburg. The gen-sets power two electric motors driving controllable pitch propellers, as well as covering the vessels' other onboard electrical consumers. They are equipped to run on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and low sulphur marine diesel oil when in coastal or inland waters. The Engine Management Concept, MAN Diesel PrimeServ's EMC agreements, encompasses a series of delegated service and maintenance arrangements with various scopes of supply. Reflecting a worldwide trend toward corporate specialisation and concentration on core competences, the EMC represents a new departure in maintenance programmes, which have traditionally been conducted by ship owners/operators themselves. As the specifics of ships' maintenance programmes vary, each EMC agreement is tailor-made in close collaboration with the customer and can cover all needs. In the case of the ATC vessels, the contracts encompass delivery of all spare parts for scheduled maintenance and supervision by PrimeServ technicians during major overhauls at 6,000-hour intervals, including turbocharger overhauls. In addition, the contract specifies that PrimeServ provides assistance on technical and operational matters, and contains the provision that online service via remote

With the conclusion of an EMC (Engine Management Concept) contract for engine maintenance aboard the Alaskan Legend, MAN Diesel PrimeServ now has maintenance responsibility for all four shuttle tankers in the Alaska Tanker Company fleet

data transfer will be implemented when an economical, high capacity telecommunications link becomes available. Supervision of work is provided by the MAN Diesel PrimeServ hub in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, while

the PrimeServ headquarters in Augsburg is responsible for logistical planning, including timely delivery of spare parts and technical support of the supervisor. "The first maintenance contract signed in 2005 for the tanker

Alaskan Frontier was seen as a trial to verify whether PrimeServ was capable of meeting ATC's high expectations," notes Rudolf Zeltner, Vice President Service Agreements at MAN Diesel PrimeServ in Augsburg. "We were able to demonstrate the added-value of OEM-standard

service and, having proved our worth, the first contract served as the model for identical subsequent agreements." The contracts represent an innovation in terms of how they are being conducted, Zeltner continues. "They reflect a clear desire by ATC to have an engineer constantly accessible for consultations. The PrimeServ hub in Fort Lauderdale is acting as an `extended arm' of the PrimeServ home base in Augsburg, with one of its highly qualified superintendents covering daily business and overseeing the overhauls." In fact, the scope of supply of an EMC agreement can address issues as diverse as environmental compliance, class compliance, safety, reliability, operating efficiency, maintenance planning/control/cost, resource allocation and spare-parts management. These elements can even include the administration of, and compliance with, the IMO NOx Technical Code and the IMO Safety Management (ISM) Code to facilitate Port State Controls. Accordingly, building on the maintenance contracts, MAN Diesel PrimeServ is also assisting ATC in an intensive study of emissions-reduction methods for the shuttle tanker engines, including aftertreatment. n

PrimeServ's maintenance contracts with the Alaska Tanker Company centre on the diesel-electric propulsion systems of four shuttle tankers. Each is powered by four gensets based on MAN Diesel inline six-cylinder type 6L48/60 engines feeding two electric motors connected to controllable pitch propellers

1

DIESELFACTS

Two-Stroke Propulsion Trends in LNG Carriers

New technical paper by Birger Jacobsen, Sr. Research Engineer, MAN Diesel, Copenhagen

Natural gas is a "clean" fuel compared to diesel and heavy fuel oil and is experiencing a rising demand worldwide. Where it is not possible to transport natural gas by pipeline, LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) carriers are used based on the principle that LNG occupies just 1/600th of the volume of natural gas. LNG is transported in liquid form at atmospheric pressure and at about -163°C. In the LNG segment, the steam turbine has almost exclusively been used for main propulsion due to the simplicity of utilising the boil-off gas to power steam turbines. This is despite a low efficiency of c. 28% compared to the 50% of a conventional, two-stroke, diesel propulsion system. A s n at u r a l ga s i s r e l at i ve l y expensive, it may be cheaper to utilise boil-off gas in a dual-fuel diesel engine for main propulsion, thereby negating the need for forced boil-off. Another possibility is to re-liquefy the boil-off gas and to use an ordinary HFO-driven diesel engine. High-efficiency prime movers cut fuel costs and preserve 100% of the LNG cargo. Market Development LNG carrier types LNG tankers are double-hulled with a cargo containment system that makes their tanks independent of the ship's structure. Today's LNG carriers normally use spherical (Moss) or membrane tanks. Spherical tanks are self-supporting and connected to the main hull structure, while membrane tanks are rectangular and fully integrated into the hull. Membrane tanks are most popular because of their relatively higher utilisation of hull volume for cargo capacity. About 55% of LNG carriers in service and 80% of those on order are membrane-based. LNG carrier size The size of an LNG carrier is normally based on its obtainable volumetric capacity in m3. Depending on LNG density and ship size, volumetric LNG capacity corresponds to a certain deadweight tonnage (ref. design draught), normally 0.47-0.52 times the corresponding size in m3. Ship classes LNG carriers have no classes as such since they are normally designed for specific purposes/routes and terminals in large series of the same size. The most common size is 120 ­180,000 m3, often referred to as conventional. Lower transportation costs are most effectively met by increasing carrier capacity. LNG carrier market Since the mid-70s, the maximum and commonly used LNG carrier size has been approx. 125 ­ 140,000 m3 . As of July 31st 2007, 136 LNG carriers were on order, corresponding to about 57% of the existing fleet in service. The current fleet is dominated by relatively small ships of the "small" and "small conventional" classes with only 2% of carriers larger than 150,000 m3 (large conventional). Howe ve r, c a r r ie r si z e h a s recently increased dramatically to 266,000 m3 (Qatargas class Q-max), while carriers as large as 300,000 m3 are now planned. LNG plants and terminals will accordingly need modification as the maximum, loaded draught in service today is approx. 12 m due to the limitations of existing harbour facilities. 33% of LNG carriers on order per July 31st 2007, employ two-stroke diesel engines and reliquefaction, 26% employ diesel-electric propulsion, and 40% use steam-turbine propulsion. The curent trend is moving from steam turbine to diesel. The larger the LNG capacity of a ship, the higher the ship speed, and today the average design ship speed is about 20 knots for ships larger than 150,000 m3. Propulsion Power Demand as a Function of Ship Size - Average LNG Carriers A power prediction calculation for membrane-type LNG carriers in various sizes from 19,000 m3 to 265,000 m3 was made. Furthermore, propeller-diameter size is assumed to be as high as up to approx. 76% of the design draught as ships normally sail with a big draught. If the maximum design draught for large LNG carriers is limited to c. 12 m, this results in beam/designdraught ratios being relatively high. Therefore, a twin-screw solution is an attractive alternative to the standard single-screw solution, as a potential reduction of propulsion power up to 9% is possible. A twin-screw LNG carrier would also meet future safety demands to install at least double propulsion drives to enhance prime-mover redundancy. In fact, the Qatargas Q-flex and Q-max ships have exclusively been ordered in twin-screw versions. Propulsion Power Demand of Average LNG Carriers as a Function of Ship Speed When the required ship speed is changed, the required SMCR power changes too and other main engine options can be selected. This trend ­ with the average ship particulars and average ship speed as the basis ­ is shown in detail in Figures 1 and 2 for single-screw vessels, and in Figure 3 for large twin-skeg/twinscrew vessels. It is possible to derate the engine if the nominal MCR power needed for a given main engine is too high for a required ship speed. This would also result in lower engine SFOC. Whatever the choice, MAN Diesel is able to meet the engine power needs of any size carrier in the modern LNG fleet. Thiss article is a summary of a paper written by Birger Jacobsen, Senior Research Engineer, MAN Diesel, Copenhagen, which is available upon request, or can be downloaded from http://www. mandiesel.com/article_008074. html n

Propulsion SMCR Power Demand of an Average LNG Carrier (Membrane type) Small and Small Conventional - Single Screw

SMCR power kW

40,000

Including: 15% sea margin 10% engine margin

Small Conventional

7K90ME9/ME-C9

21.0 kn 20.5 kn 20.0 kn 19.5 kn

8K80ME-C9 6K90ME9/ME-C9 7K80ME-C9

30,000

Small

20,000

7S60ME-C8 5L70ME-C7 6S60ME-C8 5S60ME-C7 7S40ME-B9 6S40ME-B9 5S40ME-B9 5S35ME-B9 6L70ME-C8

8L70ME-C8 7L70ME-C8

19.0 kn

6K80ME-C9 8S70ME-C8

si de ge era peed Av s ip sh

16.5 kn

gn

18.0 kn 17.5 kn

6S65ME-C8

18.5 kn 7S70ME-C8

6K80ME-C6

17.0 kn 16.0 kn

5S65ME-C8

10,000

14.5 kn 14.0 kn

15.0 kn

15.5 kn

0

0

50,000

100,000

150,000 m3 Size of ship, LNG capacity

Figure 1: Propulsion SMCR Power Demand of an Average LNG Carrier (Membrane type): Small and Small Conventional - Single Screw

Propulsion SMCR Power Demand of an Average LNG Carrier (Membrane Type) Large Conventional, Q-flex and Q-max - Single Screw

SMCR power kW 70,000

Including: 15% sea margin 10% engine margin

Q-max Large Conventional Q-flex

10K98ME7

60,000

21.0 kn 9K98ME7 20.5 kn 20.0 kn

8K98ME7

50,000

9K90ME9 8K90ME9

40,000

7K90ME9

ge Avera

design

ship s

peed

19.5 kn 19.0 kn

7K98ME7 7K98ME6

6K90ME9

6K98ME6

30,000

7K80ME-C9 5K90ME9 8S70ME-C8 7S70ME-C8

20,000

10,000

All above engines can also be delivered in ME-GI version (gas injected)

0

100,000

150,000

200,000

250,000

300,000 m3 Size of ship, LNG capacity

Figure 2: Propulsion SMCR Power Demand of an Average LNG Carrier (Membrane type): Large Conventional, Q-flex and Q-max - Single Screw

Total SMCR power kW 60,000

Propulsion SMCR Power Demand of an Average LNG Carrier (Membrane Type) Large Conventional, Q-flex and Q-max - Twin Screw

Including: 15% sea margin 10% engine margin

Q-max Large Conventional Q-flex

21.0 kn 2 x 8S70ME-C8 20.5 kn

2 x 8S70ME-C7 2 x 8S65ME-C8 2 x 7S70ME-C8

50,000

20.0 kn 2 x 7S70ME-C7

40,000

2 x 6S70ME-C8 2 x 6S70ME-C7 2 x 6S65ME-C8 2 x 5S70ME-C8 2 x 5S70ME-C7 2 x 5S65ME-C8

ge Avera

design

ship s

peed

19.5 kn 19.0 kn

2 x 7S65ME-C8

30,000

20,000

10,000

All above engines can also be delivered in ME-GI version (gas injected)

0

100,000

150,000

200,000

250,000

300,000 m3 Size of ship, LNG capacity

Figure 3: Propulsion SMCR Power Demand of an Average LNG Carrier (Membrane type): Large Conventional, Q-flex and Q-max - Twin Screw

DIESELFACTS

1

MAN Diesel and Burckhardt Compression in Strategic Partnership

M A N Diesel and Burc k hardt Compression have concluded an agreement on a strategic partnership. The agreement was signed by the Senior Vice President of MAN Diesel, Ole Grøne, and the CEO of Burckhardt Compression, Valentin Vogt. The aim of the cooperation is to achieve a significant market share for the ME-GI propulsion system for LNG vessels. The philosophy behind the ME-GI system is that it can alternatively be operated with ecological natural gas or heavy fuel oil. The ME-GI propulsion system is the most flexible propulsion solution in the LNG vessel market operating with low emissions. Increasing fuel oil prices and environmental constraints demand such new propulsion solutions. The fuel gas compressor system, developed by Burckhardt Compression, will deliver boil-off gas (BOG) to the MAN Diesel ME-GI engines for injection. MAN Diesel has built up a strong relationship with the Swiss reciprocating compressor manufacturer Burckhardt Compression over the past four years to fine-tune the engine and fuel gas compressor system. Burckhardt Compression's fuel gas compressor therefore ideally meets the requirements for the ME-GI propulsion system. Operators will benefit from the proven and well-known M A N Diesel two stroke engines that are strong prime movers in the LNG market and the broad experience of Burckhardt Compression in the LNG and LPG applications. Burckhardt Compression provides an outstanding and unique technical solution with proven benefits. Ole Grøne states: "To maintain high efficiency, safety and reliability when operating the ME as an ME-GI engine, it is vital that the LNG system for providing gas to the engine is based on top-quality products and state-of-the-art technology. MAN Diesel values Burckhardt's long experience, its ability to tailor its designs, and its high quality end-products as recognised within the industry. "The market for LNG ship propulsion systems represents a significant market opportunity for Burckhardt Compression. With MAN Diesel, we have found the ideal partner to commonly explore this new application," adds Valentin Vogt. The latest developments in the LNG transportation sector show good prospects for further substantial growth. n

Mr. Ole Grøne, Senior Vice President of MAN Diesel (left) pictured sealing the agreement with Burckhardt Compression CEO, Mr. Valentin Vogt

Evolving LNG Market Poses Prime-Mover Questions

Summary of a new paper from MAN Diesel, Copenhagen

The LNG market is currently developing rapidly, and the demand for LNG carriers has never been greater. As ship sizes continue to grow, the biggest carriers currently on order can accommodate up to 265,000 m3 of LNG, and it seems that only depth restrictions at the receiving terminals limit potential sizes. The change in LNG-ship design, combined with state-of-the-art diesel engine know-how and, especially, the high efficiency of diesel and dual-fuel engines have made them the preferred prime movers for new projects. MAN Diesel currently has 90 S70ME-C two-stroke MAN B&W engines on order for a total of 45 LNG ships bound for various parties involved in the giant Qatar gas project. The ordered engines are configured for operation on HFO, DO and GO, that is, on liquid fuels, as are more than 13,000 MC/ME-engines worldwide for different applications in the marine market. An alternative for LNG ships is to burn boil-off gas instead of reliquefying the gas. Any such decision is of course the prerogative of the operator and/or charterer, on the basis of knowledge and expectations of future prices of gas and fuel oil, as well as consideration to the future emission control regulations. Kjeld Aabo, Director of Customer Support, and Rene S. Laursen, Senior Research Engineer, of MAN Diesel, Copenhagen, have combined with John Linwood and Rainer Dübi of Burckhardt Compression to write a topical paper. The paper was recently presented at the 6th Doha Conference on Natural Gas in Qatar and is entitled "The Use of Boil-off Gas on Low-speed, Two-stroke MAN B&W Main Engines for Newbuildings and Retrofit of Existing LNG Carriers." In the paper, different comparisons of relevant MAN B&W two-stroke, prime-mover configurations and comparisons of fuel-oil and dualfuel engine solutions are described from these perspectives. While the future is difficult to predict, the purpose of the paper is to give customers knowledge so they can make their own calculations. The paper, which is available on request from MAN Diesel, also explains the scope of the installation of an ME-GI engine on a newbuilding and as a retrofit. MAN Diesel and Burckhardt Compression AG have made a strategic partnership agreement (see story above), knowing the importance of close cooperation between compressor manufacturers and prime-mover designers to ensure maximum safety, reliability and availability of the entire ME-GI propulsion system. The paper therefore is also concerned with the installation of compressors in both new and retrofit ME-GI engine plants. n

Rapid growth in the market is driving demand for LNG carriers

1

DIESELFACTS

The First Steps on a 1,000 Mile Chinese Journey

MAN Diesel enjoys growing market in the Orient

Citing the famous wisdom of Taoist philosopher Lau Tzu, HansJürgen Brenner, head of MAN Diesel's representative office in Shanghai likens the company's involvement in China since the early 1980s to the first steps on a 1,000 mile journey. This parallel is undoubtedly influenced by the fact that MAN Diesel already does considerable business in China, but with that country's aim to lead world shipbuilding by 2020 and its potential for power generation using diesel and gas engines, there is still a long way to go. At the 1979-80 merger of Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg and Burmeister & Wain, the two parts of the newly formed MAN B&W had both recently taken their first steps in establishing themselves as suppliers of engines, engine technology and propulsion equipment to the Chinese market. For its part, MAN had begun building its relationship with ship building, ship owning conglomerate COSCO in 1978, while B&W signed its first licence agreements for two-stroke and small four-stroke engines with the state-owned CSSC and CSTC engine factories in 1980. Subsequent business development milestones include production of the first large bore MC engine 5L80MC at Dalian Marine Diesel in 1984 and the capture of a major share of electrical power generation capacity installed during the 1980's. At that time China invested heavily in diesel power stations to cover growing demand for electrical power as its economic development began to accelerate. The boom in sales of engines for power generation in South China Guangdong Province lead, in part, to the establishment of MAN B&W (Hong Kong) Limited in 1981. With the support of MAN Diesel in Augsburg and until the founding of MAN Diesel PrimeServ in early 2006, MAN B&W (HK) Ltd. acted as engine and spare parts sales agent, providing technical service to 25 Power Stations with 120 Diesel-Generators. In 1993, MAN Diesel established a representative office in Shanghai China, resulting in increased promotion of four-stroke engines for marine propulsion and in 1999 established a service centre on a WFOE ("Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise") basis in Shanghai. This is now the major location of the MAN Diesel PrimeServ after-sales organisation in China. As a result of this recent expansion, MAN Diesel currently has a staff of over 120 employees in China. Responding to China's rapid economic growth at the start of the 21st eries in 2006 were 25 engines (292 MW), 72 engines (1020 MW) and 25 engines (166 MW) respectively. Furthermore, CSSC Mitsui Diesel Co., Ltd. (a cooperation between CSSC of China and Mitsui of Japan that commenced engine building in late-2007), Wuxi Antai, ZJCME and stx Dalian have also become MAN Diesel licensees. With 69 MW of engine power on order, CSSC Mitsui Diesel has thus attained a high position in the engine power league table of licences for MAN B&W brand two-stroke engines at the very start of its operations. On the four-stroke medium speed engine side, MAN Diesel calculates that enlargements of production capacity at the licence partners Zhenjiang CME, Shaanxi Diesel Engine Heavy Industry and Shanghai Xinzhong Power Machine Plant will allow licence-built MAN Diesel four-stroke engines to continue to achieve a major market share in spite of rapid growth in demand for gensets. MAN Diesel is also involved in local production at the MAN Diesel Turbocharger Plant Shanghai Co. Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary located at the Wai Gao Qiao Free Trade Zone in Shanghai. Here turbocharger components are produced and complete turbochargers assembled. With exports and local production, the Turbocharger Business Unit at MAN Diesel in Augsburg estimates that it takes well over 50% of the available market in China. In 2006, deliveries included axial TCA turbochargers for two-stroke engines with a combined output of 800 MW, as well as around 300 radial turbochargers for licence-built four-stroke engines. After-Sales The MAN Diesel PrimeServ aftersales hubs and service centres around China are also whollyowned. The Wai Gao Qiao Free Trade Zone site is also home to the major MAN Diesel PrimeServ hub in China. PrimeServ also maintains a further service centre in Hong Kong and a permanent presence in Dalian. PrimeServ partners resulting increase in demand for after-sales products and services (spare parts, repair, maintenance, overhaul), since February 2006, MAN Diesel PrimeServ Hong Kong and PrimeServ Guangzhou have also started to provide technical service for two- and four-stroke engines and turbochargers to marine customers in the region. Application Highlight Among a number of highlights in the vital large medium speed marine sector was the recent delivery of the 100th example of the 9800 kW-rated, inline sevencylinder 7L58/64 type engine to a Chinese shipyard - itself one of over 150 inline seven and eight cylinder 58/64 heavy fuel engines delivered to China over the past six years. Together with type 48/60B engines, the large number of 58/64 engines are used in a range of standard container feeder ship types having payloads of 900, 1100, 1200, and 1500 TEU and built at a number of shipyards in China, mainly for German shipowners. Future Development MAN Diesel is planning the necessar y investments in products and facilities to keep pace with demand from China for engines, turbochargers, gears, propellers and complete propulsion trains. This policy takes special account of the predicted expansion of shipbuilding in that country and the expected shortfall in local four-stroke engines. As mentioned, one result already taking effect is the new licence relationship with CSSC Mitsui Diesel Co. Ltd. MAN Diesel PrimeServ is also set to rapidly expand in China to cope with increased after-sales demand from this ongoing boom, especially since a high percentage of the newbuildings concerned are scheduled to operate in the Far East and South East Asia regions. Accordingly, PrimeServ Hong Kong and Guangzhou are already recruiting further engineers to meet growing demand for technical services. In line with the overall MAN Diesel PrimeServ philosophy of internal and external qualification - i.e. transferring know-how to both MAN Diesel and customer personnel in the operation, maintenance and repair of MAN Diesel engines, turbochargers, gears, propellers and complete propulsion systems - a PrimeServ Academy opened in Shanghai in 2006. This paves the way for PrimeServ Hong Kong and Guangzhou to meet increasing demand by recruiting marine engineers locally and educating them as competent and reliable MAN Diesel engineers able to deal with mechanical as well as electronics-related engine issues. n

In 2006, MAN Diesel delivered its 100th type 7L58/64 engine for 1100 TEU container feeder ships built at Chinese shipyards. Overall, since 1995, MAN Diesel's Augsburg works has produced engines with a total output of 2,600 MW for Chinese customers, or the equivalent of 3.5 years of full production capacity.

Century, 2003 saw the founding of a WFOE on the turbocharger side, 2004 the conclusion of an additional licence for four-stroke engines with SXD and the renewal of the existing two-stroke licence agreement with CSIC/CSOC and 2006 the conclusion of a licence agreement with WMMP for the production of controllable pitch propellers. "It is one of our major goals in China to become a top-class licensor for two-stroke engines, gensets and controllable pitch CP Propellers, providing factories located in China

of MAN Diesel are the mainstay. This reflects the fact that production of larger four-stroke medium speed diesels has not kept, and is not expected to keep, pace with the expansion of shipbuilding capacity in China, MAN Diesel reports. As a result, the medium speed marine sales department at MAN Diesel can point to significant successes. In 2006 four-stroke exports to China totalled over 800 MW while four-strokes produced under licence or subcontracted - i.e. engines produced by a licensee for sale via MAN Diesel - totalled

The MAN Diesel Turbocharger Plant Shanghai Co. Ltd, and the major PrimeServ hub in China share a site in the Wai Gao Qiao Free Trade Zone in Shanghai. Altogether, MAN Diesel employs over 120 staff in China and the trend is upwards

with state-of-the-art technology," Brenner notes. "In this way we allow these China-based factories to pursue profitable business in the engine and propeller markets." Routes to Market In fact, MAN Diesel can point to a full range of business modes in China starting with direct exports of four-stroke engines from Augsburg, Germany, Frederikshavn, Denmark and St. Nazaire, France, gears, propellers and complete propulsion systems from Frederikshavn and axial and radial turbochargers from Augsburg. Within these pure exports, larger bore four-stroke main propulsion engines from the Augsburg works

almost 460 MW. To put this success into perspective, since 1995, MAN Diesel 's Augsburg works has produced engines with a total output of 2,600 MW for Chinese customers, or the equivalent of 3.5 years of full production capacity at Augsburg. On the two-stroke, low speed engine side, MAN Diesel in Copenhagen calculates that, with a volume of almost 6100 MW, its two-stroke MAN B&W brand engines produced by Chinese licensees take over 85% of the available market. The company has long standing licence agreements with Dalian Marine Diesel Works, Hudong Heav y Machinery Co., Ltd. and Yichang Marine Diesel Works, whose deliv-

China's rapidly growing economy and the predicted expansion of shipbuilding activity point to a busy time ahead for MAN Diesel

in China are Brigantine Services which operates engine repair shops in Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen and a turbocharger repair shop operated by Kemklen Technical Services in Wanchai, Hong Kong. Taking account of the

DIESELFACTS

1

TORM Group First to Order S50ME-B

New MAN B&W engines to power tankers in extended fleet

MAN Diesel has received an order for the MAN B&W 6S50ME-B8 engine, the very first from the new 50ME-B series. TORM, the Copenhagen-based shipping company, and Guangzhou Shipyard Intl. Co. Ltd. (GSI) have signed a deal for seven 50,500 DWT chemical/product tankers to be built at GSI's facilities in China. The 6S50ME-B engines for these vessels will be delivered by DMD Dalian Marine Diesel. MAN Diesel will supervise construction, shoptests, on-site installation and commissioning of the engines, as well as participate in subsequent sea-trials. The MAN B&W S50ME-B8 engines are the first two-stroke engines to be delivered with TCA 66 turbochargers with variable nozzle rings technology (VTA), which facilitate the control of the scavenging-air pressure and thereby compression and cylinder maximum pressure as illustrated in figure 1 below. This gives a large degree of freedom to secure the optimal balance between NOx-emission and fuel-oil consumption. The new order follows on from earlier this year when MAN Diesel enhanced its 50 cm-bore, low-speed engine programme with the launch of its MAN B&W S50ME-B type All S50ME-B engines are available in five- to nine-cylinder variants. The ME-B design is based on that of the existing, mechanical MC-C range ­ the most popular two-stroke engines available on today's market ­ and represents an upgrade with electronic controls that provide improved, operational economy and flexibility, and manoeuvrability. The S50ME-B7/8 will have the same output and installation data as the cor responding S50MCC/ME-C versions. Additionally, a lower-rpm version with a higher power concentration aimed at new ship designs has been added to the series under the S50ME-B9 designation. The exhaust valve of the S50ME-B types is operated by a smaller camshaft than normal when compared with its MC-C counterpart. The advanced, fuel-injection control is an efficient way of managing current and future environmentalemission requirements, with a fuel economy that is second to none in its class. As with the larger MAN B&W ME-engines, the Alpha Lubricator comes as standard, ensuring a very low, cylinder lubricating-oil consumption as the advanced, electronic, user-friendly interface allows precise adjustment.

The 6S50ME-C engine is a member of MAN Diesel's popular 50-bore range that has seen over 3,000 engines in service

bar abs

bar abs

180 160 140 120 100

6.5 6 5.5

Pmax

Constant nozzle area

Pcomp

Variable nozzle area

4

80 60

TORM is the world's premier carrier of refined products such as gasoline, jet fuel, naphtha and diesel oil, and a leading carrier of other clean products. The TORM Gotland is one such TORM tanker, built by Mitsui in 1995, and powered by a MAN B&W 6S50MC engine

Pscav

3.5 3 2.5 2

40 20 0

engine series. This added to the existing, small-bore MAN B&W S35ME-B and S40ME-B engines that were introduced in mid-2006. The new S50ME-B engine strengthens the proven and popular 50-bore range that also includes the S50 ME-C/MC-C/MC engine series, and which have a combined total of over 3,000 engines in service. MAN Diesel is using the ME-B series to broaden the application of the ME-concept in its small-bore and medium-sized, two-stroke engines using the electronic, fuel-injection control already introduced in its large-bore engines.

In summary, based on well-proven diesel technology, the ME-B series provides engines geared to market requirements for: · · · · · · · · · electronic fuel-injection control fuel economy higher power reliability longer time between overhauls lower propeller speed better vessel manoeuvrability very low life-cycle costs n

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Engine Load %

Figure 1: VTA technology facilitates the control of the scavenging-air pressure, and thereby compression and cylinder maximum pressure

Principal engine data - MAN B&W S50ME-B

Data at L1 point (Units) Bore (mm) Stroke (mm) MEP (Bar) Speed (r/min) Mean Piston Speed (m/s) Power (kW/cyl.) SFOC (g/kWh) Mark 7 500 2000 19 127 8.47 1580 170 Mark 8 500 2000 20 127 8.47 1660 170 Mark 9 500 2214 21 117 8.63 1780 169

DIESELFACTS

Lightning Strikes Twice in the Far-East

MAN Diesel PrimeServ answers unusual call in Hong Kong

As the saying goes, sometimes you spend a long time waiting for a bus, and then two come along at the same time. MAN Diesel PrimeServ Hamburg had a similar experience in Hong Kong recently where two major, identical repairs of an unusual nature kept their team busy for six months. The story involves two engines of the same type ­ 5S50MC- C ­ installed respectively on the MV Mol Accuracy (ex Cape Cook) and the MV Cape Charles. Both ships are operated by the same German company, and both engines suffered main-bearing damage through overheating. This happened after the 10,700-bhp engines had operated successfully on the sister container-ships for over 40,000 hours. MAN Diesel has designed a total of 3,000 type 50MC engines that have been in service for the past 25 years without such damage ever being recorded previously. The Hamburg office dispatched Service Engineer, Dietmar Weidler, a crankshaft specialist, to the Mol Accuracy who reported severe damage to crankshaft journal #3, and associated distortion to main-bearing saddle #3. A battle plan was quickly drawn up that

involved seven service engineers and the aid of the local shipyard, Hong Kong United Dockyards, as the crankshaft had to be taken ashore for repairs and the bed plate line-bored. Another PrimeServ engineer, Philipp Heine, then travelled to Hong Kong to supervise the complete job. In an unusual twist, just four weeks before successful engine repairs of the Mol Accuracy, were completed, main-bearing #1 of its sister ship's engine suffered similar damage whilst leaving Hong Kong harbour. The MAN Diesel PrimeServ repair crew already present in Hong Kong were therefore swiftly reorganised and reinforcements sent to join them from Hamburg. Damage to main-bearing saddle #1 necessitated the removal of the engine's bedplate so a new main-bearing saddle could be welded into place at Hudong Heav y Machiner y, Shanghai. With the conclusion of all repairs, successful sea-trials were subsequently carried out. Since the repairs, the main engines on both ships have performed well and MAN PrimeServ Hamburg has demonstrated once again its ability to resolve complicated crankshaft repairs. n

Busy scenes from Hong Kong including a portrait of MAN Diesel PrimeServ engineer, Philipp Heine

MAN Diesel A/S Teglholmsgade 41 DK-2450 Copenhagen SV Denmark

MAN Diesel SE Stadtbachstrasse 1 D-86224 Augsburg Germany

MAN Diesel Ltd. Bramhall Moor Lane Stockport SK7 5AQ United Kingdom Tel.: (+44) 161 483 1000 Fax: (+44) 161 487 1465

MAN Diesel SAS Le Ronsard Paris Nord 2 22 Avenue des Nations BP 84013 Villepinte 95931 Roissy Ch de Gaulle Cedex France

For further information Group Marketing Communication MAN Diesel A/S DK-2450 Copenhagen Denmark Tel.: (+45) 33 85 11 00 E-mail: [email protected] www.mandiesel.com

Phone: +33 1 48 17 63 00 Telefax: + 33 1 48 17 63 49 Publisher: Peter Dan Petersen, MAN Diesel A/S ­ Copyright owned by MAN Diesel except where mentioned.

Tel.: (+45) 33 85 11 00 Fax: (+45) 33 85 10 30

Tel.: (+49) 821 32 20 Fax: (+49) 821 3 22 33 82

Information

16 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

956938