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xelnawerTa erovnuli centri

I saerTaSoriso simpoziumi

qarTuli xelnaweri

moxsenebaTa Tezisebi

Tbilisi 2009

I saerTaSoriso simpoziumi `qarTuli xelnaweri~ tardeba saqarTvelos parlamentis patronaJiTa da qarTvelologiis, humanitaruli da socialuri mecnierebebis fondis (rusTAavelis fondis) finansuri mxardaWeriT

NatioNal CeNtre of MaNusCripts

redaqtori buba kudava saredaqcio kolegia zaza aleqsiZe, liana axobaZe, Tamar gegia, Salva gloveli, Tamar oTxmezuri, Mmaia rafava, goCa saiTiZe, mzia surgulaZe, mixeil qavTaria, lamara qajaia, mzeqala SaniZe, dali CitunaSvili, nestan CxikvaZe, ariane Wanturia, lili xevsuriani, Temo jojua

1st international symposium

Georgian Manuscripts

abstracts of papers

ISBN 978-9941-9091-4-6 © xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, 2009.

tbilisi 2009

1st International symposium GEorGIaN MaNUSCrIPtS will be held UNdEr thE PatroNaGE of the georgian parliament aNd thE fINaNCIal SUPPort of thE fUNd for KartvEloloGy, hUMaNItarIaN aNd SoCIal SCIENCES (rustaveli Foundation)

sarCevi

kodikologia-teqstologia

Tamar abulaZe

samecniero Sinaarsis qarTuli xelnawerebi da aRmosavluri kulturuli tradicia

cisana abulaZe

23

aRmosavleTmcodneTa kvlevis ZiriTadi mimarTulebani xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi

EdItor Buba Kudava EdItorIal Board liana akhobadze, Zaza alexidze, dali Chitunashvili, Nestan Chkhikvadze, tamar Gegia, Shalva Gloveli, temo Jojua, lamara Kajaia, Mikheil Kavtaria, lili Khevsuriani, tamar otkhmezuri, Maia rapava, Gocha Saitidze, Mzekala Shanidze, Mzia Surguladze

25

xaTuna bainduraSvili

xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi erTi muslimuri katexizmos Sesaxeb [P-387]

naira bepievi

27

osuri xelnawerebi da qarTuli anbanis safuZvelze Seqmnili osuri damwerloba

rusudan gvaramia, nana yanCaveli

28

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris Sua aziis arabul xelnawerTa koleqcia (zogadi mimoxilva)

darejan gogaSvili

30

xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi papirusebi (kodikologiuri analizi)

timoTi gruvi

32

sarke, romelic ar ireklavs (XVII saukunis qarTuli astronomiuli xelnaweri `saetlo xiromantia~ da otavio beltranos Almanacco Perpetuo, 1639)

nino doborjginiZe

34

,,winabWe~ (prooivmion) da teqstis istoriis kvlevis sakiTxebi Zvel qarTul filologiaSi

eka duRaSvili

35 36 38

iadgari ­ adrebizantiuri himnografiis amsaxveli Zegli

Tamaz (eqvTime) koWlamazaSvili

mravalTavis tipologiisaTvis

5

pol krego

bernar utie

wminda ninos xeldasxma da deda-diakonTa kurTxevis locvebi a-86 xelnaweris arqieretikonis mixedviT

irma makaraZe

39

liturgikuli xasiaTis miTiTebebi ramdenime qarTul bibliur Zvel xelnawerSi

giorgi qavTaraZe

55 57 58

arsen bulmaisimisZis iambikuri svinaqsari (struqtura, versifikacia, stili)

damana meliqiSvili

tore del grekos qarTuli xelnawerebi 40

lamara qajaia

xanmeti palimfsestebis Seswavlis istoria 42

Aalbert Ten-qeiTi

gelaTis skolis xelnawerebi da gelaTel mwignobarTa muSaobis stili

nino meliqiSvili

ioanes saxarebis teqstualuri mimarTeba qarTul leqcionarTan

nino qimeriZe, Tamar WumburiZe

60

ioane oqropiris TxzulebaTa Semcveli krebuli `margaliti~

nana mrevliSvili

43

germanuli xelnawerebi saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi

ciala qurcikiZe

65

eklesiastes mitrofane smirnelisa da olimpiodore aleqsandrielis ganmartebaTa wyaroebi da avtorobis versia

avTandil nikoleiSvili

44

Zveli aRTqmis wignTa qarTuli Targmanebis gamocemisa da Seswavlis istoriisTvis

irma yaraulaSvili

66

galaktion tabiZis Semoqmedebis teqstologiuri variantebi, rogorc masala avtoris msoflmxedvelobrivi mrwamsisa da poeturi stilis Sesaswavlad

Tamar oTxmezuri, qeTevan bezaraSvili

45 47

ratom Cndeba N/Sin-50-is siriel mamaTa cxovrebis uZveles redaqciaSi Taviseburi cnobebi edesis mandilionisa da hierapolisis keramidionis Sesaxeb?

lela SaTiriSvili, Tea qarTveliSvili

68

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris berZnuli koleqcia

maia rafava

legenduri gadmocemebi grigol nazianzelis Sesaxeb (,,vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebisa~ da ioane oqropiris ,,maTes Tavis saxarebis Targmanebis~ mixedviT)

liana samyuraSvili

polemikuri Txzuleba `£seneba¡ sity¢sgebisa¡ da sasjelisa¡ SjulisaT¢s qristianeTa¡sa da sarkinozTa~ (istoriul-filologiuri analizi)

ramaz Sengelia, nani xelaia

70 72

49

medicinis istoriisa da bioeTikis departamenti

gaga SurRaia

X-XIII ss. qarTuli samedicino wignebi da maTi arabuli wyaroebi

sofio sarjvelaZe

50

tore del grekos bernarde neapoleliseuli xelnawerebi

dali CitunaSvili

74

axali masalebi xelnawerTa erovnuli centris h koleqciaSi daculi oTxTavis nusxebis Sesaxeb

qeTevan tatiSvili

52 54

venur xelnawerSi daculi `qeba¡Y qebaTa¡Y~ (teqstologiuri kvleva)

elene cagareiSvili

77 78

anton I kaTalikosiseuli sadResaswaulo

qarTuli armenologiis istoriidan

6

7

Tina ceraZe, lela xoferia

ia grigalaSvili

vaxuSti bagrationis galeqsili biblia (sankt-peterburgSi daculi avtografuli nusxis mixedviT) 80

zurab WumburiZe

`qarTlis cxovrebis~ erTi CanarTis teqstologiuri analizi

xaTuna TodaZe

97 100 102

svanuri umlautis kvali Zvel qarTul werilobiT ZeglebSi 81

ana xaranauli

ori monasteri ­ ori samyaro (msgavseba-gansxvavebani)

vladimer kekelia

xelnaweris tipi da gamocemis forma (avtografisa da avtorizebuli xelnaweris gamocemis principebi gelaTis katenebiani bibliis xelnawerebis magaliTze)

lela xaCiZeLELA LA

ioane varZielis anderZis daTariRebisaTvis 83

buba kudava

kidev erTxel daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZis nayalbevobis Sesaxeb

hirotake maeda

103

mcire formis sagaloblebi VIII-X saukuneebis bizantiur, qarTul da slavur himnografiaSi (`marxvanebis~ mixedviT)LA

viqtoria juReli

85

giorgi saakaZis ajanyeba axali sparsuli wyaroebis mixedviT

Tamar mesxi

105

svimeon metafrastis svimeon mesvetis cxovrebis qarTuli teqstis mTargmnelis identifikaciisaTvis (efrem mciris kidev erTi Targmani)

86

`petriwonis wesdebis~ erTi bundovani monakveTis ganmartebisaTvis

paruir muradiani

106

wyaroTmcodneoba-diplomatika/ arqivTmcodneoba

bahram amirahmadiani

daviT aRmaSeneblis istoriis qarTuli redaqciisa da misi somxuri Targmanis CanarTebis gagebisaTvis

irina nacvliSvili

108

iran-saqarTvelos urTierTobebi dokumentebis safuZvelze

lia axalaZe

90

biblia ­ xelnawerTa teqstis gamarTvisa da Sesworebis mniSvnelovani wyaro (`aswlovani matianis~ erTi epizodis gagebisaTvis)

paata nacvliSvili

109 112 114

afxazeTis Weduri warwerebis paleografiuli Taviseburebani

hosein ahmadi

92

argentinis qarTuli emigraciis saarqivo memkvidreoba

nikoloz oTinaSvili

saqarTvelos politikuri mdgomareoba saqarTvelos respublikis periodSi (1917-1922 ww.)

mixeil baxtaZe

94

qsnis saerisTavos eTnoistoriidan

qeTevan pavliaSvili

`istoriani da azmanis~ teqstis erTi adgilis aRdgenis Sesaxeb

Tamar gogolaZe

95 96

cnobebi ierusalimis rusul sasuliero misiaSi qarTveli samRvdeloebis monawileobis Sesaxeb (XIX s-is II naxevari)

goCa saiTiZe, eTer qavTaraZe

116

oqonis jvarcmis istoriis xelnaweri wyaroebi

arqivTmcodneoba xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi (xelnawerTa institutSi)

118

8

9

valeri silogava

nestan sulava

erTianobis xanis saqarTvelos kaTalikospatriarqebis avtografuli xelrTvebi (XI-XV ss.)

mzia surgulaZe

120

`samoseli pirveli~ da `tyavisa samoseli~ saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi

merab RaRaniZe

137

qarTuli wyaroTmcodneoba xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi (1959-2009 ww.)

tariel futkaraZe

121

dava aTonisaTvis: qarTul-berZnuli dapirispireba (XIX-XX ss.) sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis TvalsawierSi

eka WyoiZe

140

bun Turqni: paleografiuli Secdoma, Turqulenovani xalxis aRmniSvneli erT-erTi uZvelesi eTnonimi, kompaqturad dasaxlebuli ltolvili `Turqebi~ Tu `sastik warmarTTa~ aRmniSvneli metafora?

Tamar qoriZe

xelisuflebasa da eklesias Soris brZolis anarekli qarTul da bizantiur hagiografiaSi 123

ramaz xalvaSi

142

wm. andria pirvelwodebulis misioneruli mogzaurobebi saqarTveloSi

144

`mcneba¡ sasjulo¡~ da saqarTvelos sapatriarqos or ­ dasavleT da aRmosavleT nawilebad gayofa (XV s-is 70-iani wlebi)

nodar Sengelia

126

nino abakelia

kulturis kvlevebi

zogierTi vegetaciuri da zoomorfuli gamosaxulebisa da simbolos mniSvnelobisaTvis qarTul uZveles xelnawerebSi

Mmaka elbaqiZe

saciciano 1728 wlis `Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTris~ mixedviT

Mmariam CxartiSvili, qeTevan mania

128

147

wm. ninos cxovrebis teqstis istoriisaTvis (epizodi `saswaulebi wyarosTan~)

marko jiolito

129

Sua saukuneebis rainduli romani, rogorc kulturologiuri fenomeni

malxaz Toria

151

qarTveli politikosis irakli ciciSvilis portreti misi werilebisa da gamouqveynebeli naSromebis mixedviT

Temo jojua

131

qarTl-kaxeTis sakaTalikoso mamulebis siTarxnis gujris Tavdapirveli teqstis dadgenisaTvis (sabuTis gamcemisa da mimRebis vinaoba; dokumentis Sedgenis TariRi)

istoriuli narativis tipebi da Sua saukuneebis qarTuli istoriuli azrovneba (paralelebi bizantiasa da medievalur evropasTan)

qeTevan kakitelaSvili

153

132

kulturis politika Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi: identobis formireba

marine cincabaZe

155

RvTismetyveleba/filosofia

TinaTin bolqvaZe aRmosavlur-qristianuli enobrivi tradiciis asaxva qarTul hagiografiul mwerlobasa da ilia WavWavaZis `sami RvTaebrivi saunjis~ TeoriaSi 136 10

xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi wm. qeTevan dedoflis saxelze Seqmnili miniatiurebi, Teimuraz pirvelis `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~ da qeTevan dedoflis `anbanTqeba~. 157

11

wignis xelovneba

nana beruCaSvili

Nnana Cikvatia

Aanastasi sinelis `winamZRuarSi~ daculi erTi ikonografiuli gamosaxulebis Sesaxeb

nestan CxikvaZe, maia karanaZe

177 179

mefe demetre II-is oqros kodeqsi

nana burWulaZe

158 uZvelesi qarTuli ydebi svanuri koleqciidan 162 164

izolda WiWinaZe

XI-XIII saukuneebis qarTul xelnawerTa dasuraTeba da xatwera bizantiuri xelovnebis konteqstSi

mMark Gguskini

edesis gamosaxuleba aTonis mTis xelnawerebSi

eTer ediSeraSvili

vaSingtonis kongresis biblioTekis oTxTavis Sin.Ms.Gr 165-isa da moqvis saxarebis (Q-902) miniatiurebis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis

181

XVI-XVII saukuneebis mxatvrobis tendenciebi TavaqaraSviliseuli `vefxistyaosnis~ miniatiurebSi

nana TargamaZe

164 165

digitalizacia/restavracia-konservacia

iost giperti

sabiblioTeko saqme xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi

darejan kldiaSvili

Zveli qarTuli palimfsestebis krebuli Codex vindobonensis georg. 2 da kavkasiuri albaneTis palimfsestebi sinas mTidan 182

ulrih zdeneki

ruseTis imperatrica ekaterine I-is da petre I-is feradi graviura xelnawerTaA erovnuli centris istoriuli dokumentebis fondidan

elene maWavariani

167 169

cifruli biblioTeka `manuskriptoriumi~: evropuli da msoflios xelnawerebis erTianobisaken

vasil TargamaZe

182

qarTul moxatul xelnawerTa Seswavlis istoria

lali osefaSvili

digitalizaciis laborataria xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi 171

Jak sikri

193

galobaTa ilustrirebis sakiTxi jruWis daviTnis miniatiurebSi

nikoloz JRenti, mixeil darjania

safrangeTis erovnul biblioTekaSi daculi qarTuli xelnaweris (Georg. 3) restavracia

lia sixaruliZe

200

Zveli qarTuli xelnaweris SeqmnaSi saWiro iaraR-danadgarebis samganzomilebiani vizualizaciarekonstruqcia sxvadasxva Zvel qarTul xelnawerze Sesrulebuli maxarebelTa miniatiurebis mixedviT

nino qavTaria

173 174

xelnaweri wignis aRdgena-restavraciis irgvliv

maikl felfsi

203 204

aTabagTa karis skriptoriumi XV-XVI saukuneebSi

Nlela qurdaZe

palimfsestebis digitalizebis gamovlenili meTodebi

sagamofeno saqme xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi (istoriuli aspeqti da Tanamedrove procesebi)

176

12

13

tamaz KoChlamazashvili

toward the typology of the Mravaltavi

38

Content

CodiCology-textual study

tamar abuladze

paul Crego

the "ordination" of St. Nino, with reference to the Prayers for Women deacons in the archieratikon of Manuscript a-86

irma maKaradze

39 40 42 43

Iambic Synaxary of arsen Bulmaisimisdze 21

damana meliKishvili

Georgian Manuscripts of Scholarly Content and the oriental Cultural tradition

tsisana abuladze

Manuscripts of the Gelati School and the Work Style of Gelati Scholars

nino meliKishvili

the Main trends of research Conducted by orientalists at the National Centre of Manuscripts

Khatuna baindurashvili

25

the Collection Margaliti ("Pearl") Containing Works of John Chrysostom

nana mrevlishvili

on one Muslim Catechism Preserved at the National Centre of Manuscripts

naira bepievi

27

the Sources and version of authorship of the Commentaries on Ecclesiastes by Metrophanes of Smyrna and olympiodorus of alexandria 44

avtandil niKoleishvili

ossetic Manuscripts and ossetic Written language on the Basis of Georgian alphabet 28

rusudan gvaramia, nana QanChaveli

textual analysis of Galaktion tabidze's Works

tamar otKhmezuri, Ketevan bezarashvili

45 47

the Greek Collection of the National Centre of Manuscripts 30 32

maia rapava

Middle asian Collection of arabic Manuscripts

darejan gogashvili

Papyri Kept at the National Centre of Manuscripts

timothy p. grove

legendary tradition about Gregory of Nazianzus (according to two Georgian Manuscripts) 49

liana samQurashvili

TheMirrorThatDoesNotReflect:Saet'lo Xiromant'ia (a 17 Century Georgian astronomical Manuscript) and the Almanacco Perpetuo of ottavio Beltrano (1639)

th

10th-13th centuries Georgian Medical Books and their arabic Sources 34

sopio sarjveladze

50

nino doborjginidze

New Materials on the four Gospels Manuscripts Preserved in Collection h of the National Centre of Manuscripts

Ketevan tatishvili

52 54 56

Tsinabche ("Introduction") and Questions of historical Study in old Georgian Philology

eKa dughashvili

35 36

Book of holy day readings of anton Catholicos

bernard outtier

Iadgari­SourceReflectiveofEarlyByzantineHymnography

liturgical Indications in Some old Biblical Georgian Manuscripts

14

15

giorgi Kavtaradze

ana Kharanauli

Manuscripts of Bernardo of Naples

lamara Kajaia

57 58 60 65

the type of Manuscript and the form of Edition

lela KhaChidze

83 85

a history of research into the Khanmeti Palimpsests

albert tan-Kate

Small-Size hymns in 10th-11th cc. hymnography

viKtoria jugheli

TheTextualAffiliationoftheGospelofJohninaGeorgianLectionary German Manuscripts at the National Centre of Manuscripts

nino Kimeridze, tamar Chumburidze

TowardstheIdentificationoftheTranslatoroftheGeorgianTextof the "life of Symeon the Stylite" by Symeon Metaphrastes (one More translation by Eprem Mtsire)

86

tsiala KurtsiKidze

towards the history of the Edition and Study of Georgian translations of Books of the old testament

irma Qaraulashvili

66

sourCe study-diplomatiCs/ arChival studies

bahram amirahmadian

WhyDoSpecificReportsAppearinSin.Geo.N.50OldestRecensionof Syrian fathers about the Mandylion of Edessa and the Ceramydion of hierapolis PolemicTreatise:"ConcerningtheDialogueandJudgmentInvolving the faiths of the Christians and Saracens" (historical-Philological analysis) Georgian Medical Manuscripts Cataloguization

Iranian-Georgian relations on the Basis of documents

lia aKhaladze

90 92

68

Paleographic Peculiarities of abkhazian Chased Inscriptions

hossein ahmadi

lela shatirishvili, tea Kartvelishvili

70 72 74 77 78

Political Conditions of Georgia under the Georgian republic from 1917 to 1922

miKheil baKhtadze

94

ramaz shengelia, nana Khelaia

on the reconstruction of one Passage in the text of the Istoriani da Azmani ("histories and Eulogies") 95

tamar gogoladze

gaga shurghaia

torre del Greco's Manuscripts of Bernardo of Naples

dali Chitunashvili

ManuscriptSourcesoftheHistoryoftheOkonaIconandCrucifix textual analysis of one Interpolation of the Kartlis Tskhovreba

96 97 100 102 103

"Song of Songs", Preserved in a viennese Manuscript (textual Study)

elene tsagareishvili

ia grigalashvili

on the history of Georgian armenology

tina tseradze, lela Khoperia

Khatuna todadze

two Monasteries ­ two Universes (likeness and differences)

vladimer KeKelia

VakhushtiBagrationi'sVersifiedBible(accordingtotheautographic manuscript preserved in St. Petersburg) a trace of Svan Umlaut in old Georgian Written literary texts

80 81

the testament of Ioane vardzieli

buba Kudava

zurab Chumburidze

once again about the Spuriousness of david the Builder's testament

16

17

hirotaKe maeda

TheRevoltofGiorgiSaakadze:Fromtheaccountofanewlydiscovered Persian source towards the Interpretatioan of one obscure Section of the "Petritsoni typicon"

105

Mtsnebai Sasjuloi and the Splitting of the Georgian Patriarchate into TwoParts:WesternandEastern(the1470s)

nodar shengelia

126 128

tamar mesKhi

Satsitsiano according to the 1728 Grand defter of tbilisi vilayet 106

mariam ChKhartishvili, Ketevan mania

paruir muradyan

towards Understanding the Interpolations of the Georgian recension and its armenian translation of the history of david the Builder 108

irina natsvlishvili

towards the history of the life of St. Nino (an episode ­ "miracles near spring")

marCo giolitto

129

TheBible:anImportantSourceforRepairingand Correcting Manuscript texts the archival legacy of the Georgian Emigration in the argentine

a Portrait of the Georgian Politician Irakli tsitsishvili through his letters and his (Unpublished) Papers

temo jojua

131

109 112 114

paata natsvlishvili

towards Establishing the original text of the deed Exempting the Catholicos Estates of Kartli and Kakheti from taxes (the Identities of the Issuer and receiver of the deed; the date of the drawing up of the document) 132

niKoloz otinashvili

on the Ethnohistory of the Eristavate of Ksani

Ketevan pavliashvili

theology/philosophy

tinatin bolKvadze

Information about the Participation of Georgian Clergy in the Jerusalem russian Ecclesiastic Mission (second half of the 19th c.)

goCha saitidze, eter Kavtaradze

116 118

ReflectionoftheEasternChristianLanguageTraditioninGeorgian hagiographic Writings and in Ilia Chavchavadze's theory of "three divine treasures" Samoseli Pirveli ("first Garment") and Tqavisa Samoseli ("leather Garment") in theological literature

136

archival Studies at the National Centre of Manuscripts

valeri silogava

nestan sulava

the autographic Signatures of the Georgian Catholicos-Patriarchs of the Period of Unity (11th-15th cc.)

mzia surguladze

137

120

merab ghaghanidze

Georgian Source Study at the National Centre of Manuscripts in 1959-2009 121

tariel putKaradze

TheDisputeoverAthos:Georgian-GreekConfrontation(19th-20th cc.) in Public awareness AReflectionoftheStruggleBetweentheAuthoritiesand the Church in Georgian and Byzantine hagiography Missionary travels of St. andrew the first-Called in Georgia

140

eKa ChQoidze

Bun-Türks:PaleographicError,OneoftheOldestEthnonymsDesignating a turkish-language People, Compactly Settled refugee "turks" or a Metaphor denoting "ruthless heathens"

142 144

123

ramaz Khalvashi

tamar Koridze

18

19

Cultural studies

nino abaKelia

elene maChavariani

history of the Study of Georgian Illumined Manuscripts

lali osepashvili

169

on the Meaning of Some vegetation and Zoomorphic Images and Symbols in old Georgian Manuscripts 147

maKa elbaKidze

the Question of Illustrating the hymns of the Miniatures of the Jruchi Psalter

niKoloz zhgenti, miKheil darjania

171

the Medieval romance of Chivalry as a Culturological Phenomenon

malKhaz toria

151

types of historical Narrative and Georgian historical thought of the Middle ages (Parallels with Byzantium and Medieval Europe)

Ketevan KaKitelashvili

three-dimensional visualization-reconstruction of tools of old Georgian Manuscript (according to manuscripts miniatures)

nino Kavtaria

173 174

153 155

the Scriptorium of the atabag Court in 15th-16th Centuries

lela Kurdadze

CulturePolicyinMedievalGeorgia:FormulationofIdentity Miniatures Created on Behalf of the holy Queen Ketevan, teimuraz I's "Martyrdom of Queen Ketevan" and "acrostic on Queen Ketevan" ­ all preserved at the National Centre of Manuscripts

marine tsintsabadze

Exhibition Work at the National Centre of Manuscripts (historical aspect and current processes)

nana ChiKvatia

176

157

about one Iconographic Image found in the Tsinamdzghvari ("abbot") of anastasius of Sinai

nestan ChKhiKvadze, maia Karanadze

177 179

booK art

nana beruChashivi

oldest Georgian Covers from the Svan Collection 158

izolda ChiChinadze

the Gold Codex of King demetre II

nana burChuladze

the Illustration and Icon-painting of 11th-13th cc. Georgian Manuscripts in the Context of Byzantine art

marK gusCin

towards the Interrelationship of the Miniatures of the Washington library of Congress four Gospels Sin. Ms.Gr 165 and the Mokvi Gospel (Q-902) 181 162 164

the Image of Edessa in Manuscripts on Mount athos

eter edisherashvili

digitalization/ restoration-Conservation

jost gippert

trends of 16th-17th Centuries Paintings in tavakarashvili's Miniatures of "the Man in the Panther's Skin"

nana targamadze

New Prospects in the Study of old Georgian Palimpsests 164 165

Zdenk Uhlí

182

librarianship at the National Centre of Manuscripts

darejan Kldiashvili

ManuscriptoriumDigitalLibrary:anAggregatoroftheEuropeanandWorld Manuscripts 172 digitalization laboratory at the National Centre of Manuscripts 193

vasil targamadze

Colour Engraving of Peter the Great and the Empress Catherine (from the fonds of historical documents of the National Centre of Manuscripts)

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jaCQues siCre

restoration of a Georgian Manuscript (Georg. 3) Preserved at the Bibliothece Nationale of France

lia siKharulidze

kodikologia-teqstologia

195 203 204

around the reconstruction-restoration of Manuscript Books

miChael phelps

Emerging Methods for the digitalization of Palimpsests

Tamar abulaZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

samecniero Sinaarsis qarTuli xelnawerebi da aRmosavluri kulturuli tradicia

1. Sua saukuneebis mecniereba am periodSi Seqmnili `kompleqsuri civilizaciis~ ganuyofeli, progresuli da dinamikuri nawilia. am periodSi mecnieruli azris mTavari biZgi da umTavresi miRwevac empirizmisa da eqsperimentuli sulis damkvidrebaa, rac upirvelesad muslimuri aRmosavleTis `oqros xanas~, muslimi mecnierebis fuZemdeblur naSromebs ukavSirdeba. 2. Sua saukuneebis periodis qarTuli mecniereba emyareboda mravalsaukunovan erovnul tradicias da SemoqmedebiTad iTvisebda elinur-bizantiur da aRmosavlur kulturaTa miRwevebs. man moicva, SeiTvisa da Semoinaxa mecnieruli azris ganviTarebis yvela ZiriTadi, saetapo mniSvnelobis faqti da asaxa dasavlur da aRmosavlur kulturaTa Serwymisa da urTierTgamdidrebis Sedegebi. 3. am periodis qarTuli Targmanebi da gadamuSavebebi ganekuTvneba mecnierebis sxvadasxva dargs da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, sparsul wyaroebs, cnobili aRmosavleli swavlulebis Sromebs, im periodSi miRebul aRmosavlur sqemebs ukavSirdeba. isini Semdeg dargebs ganekuTvnebian: astronomia/astrologia, kosmogonia da kalendaruli masala; medicina/biologia/farmacevtika; qimia, fizika, maTematika; mineralogia, geologia; geografia. 4. samecniero Sinaarsis Txzulebebis Semcveli qarTuli xelnaweri krebulebi tipologiurad ase davajgufeT: samec23

niero cnobaTa krebulebi: Tematurad mravalferovani, gaerTianebuli krebulebi ­ e.w. `samagido wignebi~, romlebic Seicavs, erTi SexedviT, SeuTavsebad masalas rogorc Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT, ise warmomavlobis mxriv (amvrosi nekreselis krebuli, yanCaeTis Jamn-gulani, kurTxevani) da sxvadasxva saxis saxelmZRvaneloebi. 5. qarTuli da sparsuli samecniero Sinaarsis krebulebisa da calkeuli Txzulebebis paralelurma Seswavlam enobrivi TvalsazrisiT SesaZlebeli gaxada Sua saukuneebSi Sesrulebuli qarTuli Targmanebisa da gadamuSavebebis sparsul wyaroebTan uSualo mimarTebis dadgena: gamovlinda asadi tuselis `strolabis~, uluR-begis `zijis~ vaxtang VI-is mier Sesrulebuli Targmanebis, mis stambaSi gamocemuli `qmnulebis codnis~, daviT bagrationis `iadigar daudis~ sparsuli originalebi; agreTve qarTuli mineralogiuri Sinaarsis Txzulebis `TualTa¡s~ pirveladi aRmosavluri sqema, romelic fsevdoaristoteles `qvaTa wigns~ ukavSirdeba. 6. qarTuli samecniero Targmanebi da gadamuSavebebi Seicavs mdidar masalas qarTul-aRmosavluri enobrivi urTierTobebis, leqsikur-terminologiur mimarTebaTa kvlevis kuTxiT. qarTveli mwignobrebi samecniero Targmanebsa da krebulebs urTaven specialur leqsikonebs, ganmartebebs, romlebsac mkveTrad gamoxatuli praqtikul-saganmanaTleblo mizandasaxuloba aqvs. isini asaxaven konkretuli periodis saliteraturo enis suraTsa da aRmosavlurenovani masalis mTargmnelTa da gardamTqmelTa wvlils qarTuli samecniero enis Seqmnisa da gamdidrebis saqmeSi.

cisana abulaZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

aRmosavleTmcodneTa kvlevis ZiriTadi mimarTulebani xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi

xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculia 1500-mde arabuli, 773 sparsuli, 350 Txzulebis Semcveli 275 Turqulenovani, 38 ebrauli, 4 siriuli, erTi eTiopuri da erTic monRoluri xelnaweri wigni. aqvea 510 sparsuli, 319 arabuli da 300 osmaluri sabuTi. institutis ZiriTadi Tematikis Sesabamisad, aq daculi masalebis gamovlenisa da samecniero brunvaSi Setanis mizniT institutis daarsebisTanave daiwyes muSaoba c. abulaZem, r. gvaramiam, m. mamacaSvilma, l. mamuliam da n. yanCavelma; 80-iani wlebidan maT SeuerTdnen m. maisuraZe, l. samyuraSvili da m. iluriZe. 1. xelnawerTa aRwerisa da katalogizaciis sagangebod aRmosavluri xelnawerebisaTvis SemuSavebuli meTodebiT Seudga pirveli Taoba aRmosavluri xelnawerebis aRwerasa da katalogebis Sedgenas. amis Sedegad 1969 wels gamovida K koleqciis arabuli, Turquli da sparsuli xelnawerebis katalogi, 1977 wels ­ Sua aziis sparsuli xelnawerebis, 1978 wels ­ adgilobrivi koleqciis arabuli xelnawerebisa, nakv. I da 2002 wels II nakveTi ­ daRestnuri qvekoleqcia. 2004 wels gamovida samive koleqciis Turqulenovan xelnawerTa erTiani katalogi. gamosacemad mzadaa adgilobrivi koleqciis sparsuli xelnawerebisa da Suaaziuri koleqciis arabuli xelnawerebis katalogebic. Sedgenilia dokumentebis katalogebi, romlebsac msurveli gaecnoba xelnawerTa erovnuli centris samkiTxvelo darbazSi. 2. samecniero mimoqcevaSi Semosulia saqarTvelos istoriis aRmosavluri wyaroebi, kavkasiisa da axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebTan saqarTvelos socialur-politikuri urTierTobis amsaxveli dokumenturi da naratiuli Zeglebi. masala sruladaa gamovlenili adgilze da moZiebulia evropisa Tu aziis siZveleTsacavebSi. gamocemulia originalis teqsti, nusxebis gaT25

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valiswinebiT, qarTuli TargmaniTa da komentarebiT; gansazRvrulia masalis wyaroTmcodneobiTi Rirebuleba. dokumentur wyaros erTvis faqsimilec. 3. mniSvnelovani mimarTulebaa arabul-siriuli da sparsuli enebidan qarTulad Targmnili sasuliero da saero mwerlobis nimuSebis Seswavla: wyaros dadgena, originalTan Targmanis identuroba, Targmanis mxatvruli Rirebuleba, dednis aRdgenisa da Seswavlis saqmeSi qarTuli versiis mniSvneloba, Targmanis Seqmnis adgilis ­ skriptoriumebisa Tu samwignobro kerebis roli saqarTvelos kulturul-istoriul yofaSi; qarTul TargmanTan erTad originalis publikacia. 4. axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebis sabunebismetyvelo da samedicino dargebisadmi qarTvelTa interesi dadasturda XIIIXVIII ss-is TargmanebiT: astronomiaSi, astrologiaSi, maTematikasa da qimiaSi sparsulidan, samedicino wignebisa da karabadinebisa ki ­ arabulidan. 5. calke kvleviT mimarTulebad warmoCnda qarTul-aRmosavluri enobrivi kontaqtebi, kerZod, gamovlena da dadgena qarTulSi sparsuli leqsikuri erTeulebis saero literaturis ZeglebSi, arabizmebisa samedicino wignebSi, sakuTriv Turquli da Turquli enis gziT arabul-sparsuli sityvebis damkvidreba qarTul saliteraturo da sasaubro enaSi. xelnawerTa erovnuli centris aRmosavleTmcodneebi, ZiriTad problematikasTan erTad, TanamedroveT acnoben TavianTi maswavleblebis ­ Pel. metrevelis, qr. SaraSiZis, il. abulaZis, s. jiqias, g. wereTlis da a. S. pirovnul xibls, samecniero da sazogadoebriv-pedagogiuri moRvaweobis faqtebs. amuSaveben cnobil mecnierTa da sazogado moRvaweTa xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi dacul pirad arqivebs.

xaTuna bainduraSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi erTi muslimuri katexizmos Sesaxeb [P-387]

islamis mimdinareobebisa da muslimuri mazhabebis arsebobas saqarTveloSi mravali saukunis istoria aqvs. aRmosavleTSi Tbilisi iTvleboda erT-erT TvalsaCino muslimur-Teologiur centrad, rasac adasturebs aT-Tiflisis nisbiT cnobili muslimi RvTismetyvelebis arseboba da maTi avtoriteti islamuri samyarosaTvis. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi SifriT P-387 daculia xelnaweri, romelic islamis Siitur moZRvrebas ekuTvnis. misi dawerisa da saxelmZRvanelod Camoyalibebis dro emTxveva iranSi ismail I-is (1501-1524 ww.) mier Siizmis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebas. ismails daekisra Seixis religiuri misia, rac dapyrobil teritoriebze islamis gavrcelebas gulisxmobda. xelnawerTa erovnuli centris sparsul fondSi daculi muslimuri (aq: sparsuli) katexizmoebis urTierTSedarebisas irkveva, rom maTi dasawyisi da mTlianad TxzulebaTa struqtura erTmaneTs emTxveva. xelnaweri P-387 Sedgeba 12 gverdisagan. rogorc xelnaweris aRwerilobidan vigebT (k. kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa institutis sparsul xelnawerTa katalogi (AaC koleqcia), Seadgina m. mamacaSvilma, Tb., 1977, gv. 72), igi unda warmoadgendes XVI-XVII saukuneebis didi muslimuri xelnaweris fragments. aRniSnuli xelnaweri xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi dacul muslimur katexizmoTa Soris yvelaze adreuli Cans. P-387 xelnawers (da aramarto mas) aRwerilobaSi ewodeba `muslimuri katexizmo~, magram unda aRiniSnos, rom katexizmos ­ am qristianuli terminis ­ arabuli Sesatyvisia `Ta' lim Sefahi~. xolo sparsulad am kategoriis muslimur xelnawerebs xSir SemTxvevaSi `Cahar fasl~-i (sityvasityviT `weliwadis

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oTxi dro~) an `mohemaT-e al moslemin~-i (muslimisaTvis aucilebeli, ZiriTadi) ewodeba. aRniSnuli sparsuli xelnaweri sainteresoa Semdegi TvalsazrisiT: igi iZleva SeZlebisdagvarad detalur informacias muslimuri moZRvrebis Sesaxeb; axsnilia imanis, namazis, moharamis, dasunaTebis, haramisa da halalis, SariaTisa da a.S. arsi da mniSvneloba; mTeli wlis manZilze muslimis movaleoba religiuri ritualebisadmi. katexizmoSi dasmulia yvela is SekiTxva, rac SeiZleba gauCndes rogorc muslims, ise aramuslims, da aqvea am SekiTxvebze pasuxebic. Cndeba varaudi, rom xelnaweri warmoadgens religiuri polemikisaTvis da agreTve islamis qadagebisaTvis gankuTvnil saxelmZRvanelos. savaraudoa, rom am tipis xelnawerebis saqarTvelos teritoriaze moxvedra iran-saqarTvelos religiuri konfrontaciis pirobebSi xdeboda.

naira bepievi

iv. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

osuri xelnawerebi da qarTuli anbanis safuZvelze Seqmnili osuri damwerloba

cnobilia, rom osebs umdidresi zepirsityvierebis saganZuri SeuqmniaT. narTebi saucxoo legendaruli samyaroa, romelic ueWvelad metyvelia misi Semqmneli xalxis geniisa, misi sibrZnisa. esaa umdidresi samyaro Tavisi Rrma SinaarsiTa da idealebiT. aseTi mdidari zepirsityvierebis mqone xalxs, rasakvirvelia, damwerlobac adreve eqneboda, magram uZvelesi pirdapiri wyaroebi amis Sesaxeb ar mogvepoveba, rac mravali mizeziTaa ganpirobebuli.

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aRsaniSnavia, rom osuri damwerloba sxvadasxva etapze sxvadasxva xalxis anbanze iqmneboda da gamoiyeneboda. Tavdapirvelad berZnul, Semdeg qarTul, laTinur da rusul Sriftebs osuri teqstebis dasafiqsireblad iyenebdnen XVII saukunidan dRemde. qarTul anbanze osuri damwerloba orjer gadavida. Tbilisis stambaSi 1778 wels daibeWda ,,osur-qarTuli locvis wigni" nusxuri asoebiT. xolo 1794 wels osur enaze nusxuri SriftiT gamovida `fsalmuni~. 1786 wels mozdokis stambaSi daibeWda osur-qarTuli locvis wigni, xolo moskovis stambaSi ­ ,,osuri anbani qarTuli asoebiT". Semdegi etapi osuri anbanis ganviTarebisa aseTia: ioane ialRuziZem qarTuli grafikis safuZvelze Seqmna osuri anbani 1802 wels. am anbans iyenebdnen rogorc samxreT, ise CrdiloeT oseTSi. ioane ialRuziZe-gabaraevi (1770-1830) XIX saukunis cnobili sazogado moRvawe iyo. man SesaniSnavi sasuliero ganaTleba miiRi erekle II-isa da giorgi XII-is karze. is iyo SesaniSnavi mcodne qarTuli, osuri da rusuli enebisa. igi eweoda pedagogiur da misionerul saqmianobas. 1820 wlidan igi Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi muSaobs qarTuli da osuri enebis maswavleblad. mas mravali wigni gadauweria, maT Soris ­ `vefxistyaosani~ da sulxan-sabas `sityvis kona~. ioane ialRuziZes 1802 wels uTargmnia qarTulidan osur enaze sasamarTlos wesdeba. es xelnaweri daculia xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi, xelnaweri Seiswavla da gamoaqveyna akad. g. axvledianma. osuri xelnawerebi, romlebic qarTuli anbanis safuZvelzea Seqmnili, ZiriTadad sasuliero teqstebs Seicavs. osuri xelnawerebisa da osuri wignebis SeqmnaSi didi roli iTamaSa Tbilisis sasuliero seminariam, sadac wlebis ganmavlobaSi iswavleboda osuri ena, meore mxriv ki, sasuliero seminariaSi mravali osi axalgazrda iRebda swavla-ganaTlebas.

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rusudan gvaramia, nana yanCaveli

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris Sua aziis arabul xelnawerTa koleqcia (zogadi mimoxilva)

1. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi dacul Sua aziis aRmosavlur xelnawerTa koleqciebs Soris erT-erTi mravalricxovania arabul xelnawerTa koleqcia. am koleqciis xelnawerebi, sparsul da Turqul xelnawerebTan erTad, 1935 wels Sua aziaSi SeiZines da TbilisSi gadmogzavnes cnobilma arabistma akademikosma giorgi wereTelma da enaTmecnierma stefane Cxenkelma maTi iq samecniero mivlinebiT yofnis dros. xelnawerebi Tavdapirvelad akad. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumSi inaxeboda, Semdeg isini muzeumis xelnawerTa ganyofilebis bazaze gaxsnili xelnawerTa erovnuli centris sakuTrebaSi gadavida, sadac daiwyo maTi Seswavla da katalogizacia. upirveles yovlisa, moxda meore msoflio omis dros xelnawerTa evakuaciis Sedegad erTmaneTSi areuli nusxebis enebis mixedviT dalageba da koleqciebis gamoyofa. Sua aziis aRmosavluri xelnawerebi aC SriftiT gamocalkevda. 2. Sua aziis arabuli xelnawerebis koleqcia 665 xelnawers Seicavs. maTi didi nawili warmoadgens erTi ZiriTadi TxzulebisTvis daweril komentarebs, komentaris komentarebs, maT glosebsa da superglosebs, Semoklebebs, rac arabuli sqolastikuri literaturis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebaa. koleqciis qronologiuri sazRvrebi XII-XIII saukuneebs moicavs. adreuli xelnawerebi mcire raodenobiT gvxvdeba. didi raodenobiTaa warmodgenili gviandeli, XVII-XIX saukuneebis nusxebi. gadaweris adgilad saxeldeba samaryandi, buxara Tavisi SemogareniT, xvarazmi, balxi da sxv. gansakuTrebiT xSirad saxeldeba buxara, rac bunebrivi unda iyos, vinaidan buxara saukuneebis manZilze, miT ufro gviandel saukuneebSi, Sua aziis kulturis centrs warmoadgenda.

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mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT mdidrulad gaformebuli xelnawerebi, faqtobrivad, ar gvxvdeba. gamonaklisia mxolod erTi xelnaweri krebuli, arac 196, mravali unvaniTa (TavsamkauliT) da moxatuli CarCoebiT. 3. Tavisi SedgenilobiTa da xasiaTiT xelnawerTa erovnuli centris Suaaziuri arabuli xelnawerebis koleqcia msgavsebas amJRavnebs buxaris arabul xelnawerTa koleqciasTan, romelic daculia sankt-peterburgSi, aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutSi. dasaxelebuli koleqciis mixedviT, SesaZlebeli xdeba msjeloba im tradiciul saswavlo-sqolastikur dargebze, romlebiTac mmarTveli wreebi iyvnen dainteresebulni da romlebic garkveul warmodgenas qmnian im saerTo sulier ganwyobaze, romelic ganapirobebda uamravi raodenobiT xelnawerTa Seqmnasa da gavrcelebas. Cvens koleqciaSi Warbad aris warmodgenili saRvTismetyvelo da samarTlebrivi xasiaTis dargebi: yurani da misi komentarebi, locvebi, hadisebi, dogmatika, filosofia, samarTali. saero dargebidan didi raodenobiTaa logika, gramatika, ritorika, gansakuTrebiT gramatika. naklebad aris warmoCenili sxva dargebi: maTematika, astronomia, medicina, leqsikografia, pedagogika, mxatvruli proza, poezia. istoria mxolod erT xelnawerSia. koleqcia ZiriTadad Seicavs muslimur samyaroSi cnobil da popularul Txzulebebs, romelTagan araerTi Zalze mniSvnelovani Txzuleba gamoiyofa. amasTanave, sayuradReboa is faqti, rom xelnawerebSi adgilobrivi avtorebic gvxvdeba. aris iseTi xelnawerebic, romelTac paraleli ar eZebnebaT CvenTvis xelmisawvdom cnobil katalogebsa da sacnobaro literaturaSi, an romlebic mxolod erT an or Suaaziur xelnawerTa katalogSia dafiqsirebuli. aseTi xelnawerebi, specialistTa azriT, zogjer SesaZlebelia unikumebad CaiTvalos. isini, rogorc Cans, adgilobriv pirobebs arian misadagebulni. aSkarad aseTi xasiaTisaa, rogorc saTauridan Cans, buxaris mosaxleobisTvis gankuTvnili feTvebis ­ samarTlebrivi daskvnebis ­ Sesavali (arac 502 | III). yovelive es aRniSnul koleqcias faseuls xdis. igi Sua aziis mosaxleobis kulturis dones warmoaCens da saintereso da mniSvnelovania maTi literaturisa da istoriis SemswavlelTaTvis.

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darejan gogaSvili

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi papirusebi (kodikologiuri analizi)

werilobiTi ZeglebisTvis sxvadasxva periodSi gansxvavebuli saxis saweri masala gamoiyeneboda: qva, liToni, xe, papirusi, pergamenti, qaRaldi da sxv. papirusis furcels mcenare papirusisagan (Cyperus papyrus l.) amzadebdnen. igi iseve, rogorc qaRaldi, mcenareuli boWkoa, qaRaldisagan gansxvavebiT, naklebad elastikuria, aqvs fenovani struqtura da Sedgeba erTmaneTis perpendikularulad ganlagebuli zolebisagan. papirusisagan damzadebul werilobiT Zegls orgvari forma SeiZleba Hhqonoda ­ gragnilisa da kodeqsis. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculia Zv. w. III ­ ax. w. VIII ss. daTariRebuli 160-mde papirusi. artefaqtebi moicaven berZnul enaze Sesrulebul astrologiur da samedicino traqtatebs, iuridiul dokumentebs, sxvadasxva xasiaTis qviTrebs, fsalmunis, epistolaruli da mxatvruli teqstebis fragmentebs da sxv. (papirusze Sesrulebuli teqstebi mcire kodikologiur aRwerilobasTan erTad gamoqveynebuli aqvs gr. wereTels). aqvea daculi IX saukuniT daTariRebuli papirusze Sesrulebuli xelnaweri sagalobelTa krebuli (h-2123), e. w. ,,Wil-etratis iadgari~. h-2123 gamorCeulia imiTac, rom aqvs kodeqsis forma. es unikaluri Zegli akinZulia sam wignad. xelnaweri Tavdapirvelad 340 furcels Seicavda, dReisaTvis SemorCelilia 313 ­ papirusis 194 da etratis 129 furceli (xelnaweri sxvadasxva TvalsazrisiT ganxilulia a. cagarlis, k. kekeliZis, a. SaniZis, r. Smerlingis naSromebSi. teqstis enobrivi mimoxilva warmodgenilia a. martirosovisa da a. jiSiaSvilis mier ak. SaniZis redaqciiT gamocemul wignSi. teqstis akademiuri gamocema ekuTvnis el. metrevels, c. Wankievsa da l. xevsurians).

moxsenebaSi warmodgenilia papirusze Sesrulebuli werilobiTi Zeglebis kodikologiuri analizi, gaTvaliswinebulia saweri masalisa da sawer-saRebavebis urTierTmimarTeba. Seswavlam gviCvena, rom sxvadasxva zomis fragmentebis saxiT SemorCenili papirusebi (Zv. w. III ­ ax. w. VIII ss.) ZiriTadad naweria furclis erT mxares (r-ze an v-ze). gvxvdeba Zvelad restavrirebuli, papirusis fragmentiTve gamagrebuli an gadabmuli adgilebi. zogjer pirvandeli teqsti gadarecxilia da furceli, savaraudod, xelmeored aris gamoyenebuli. rig SemTxvevebSi teqsti Sesrulebulia papirusis furclis Semadgeneli horizontaluri zolebis gaswvriv (r) da dayofilia svetebad, aseTi saxis papirusis gragnils axvevdnen marcxnidan marjvniv, horizontaluri boWkoebis mimarTulebiT. zogjer teqsti naweria erT svetad, horizontaluri zolebis perpendikularulad (v). aseTi saxis werilobiT Zegls, Sesabamisad, axvevdnen vertikaluri mimarTulebiT. papirusebis ZiriTadi nawili naweria karbonuli melniT, romelsac amzadebdnen naxSiris an kandelis Wvartlisagan. iSviaTad SeiniSneba rkina-galuri melani, romlis dasamzadeblad gamoiyeneboda mTrimlavi nivTierebis Semcveli mcenaris eqstraqti da rkinis sulfati. h-2123 xelnaweri Seicavs erTmaneTis monacvleobiT ganlagebul papirusisa da etratis furclebs, teqsti naweria erT svetad, furclis orive mxares (r, v), Savi melniT, gamoyenebulia singuric ­ sulfidebis klasis minerali. gvxvdeba papirusis furcliTve gamagrebuli adgilebi. xelnaweri dayofilia rveulebad, TiToeuli rveuli Sedgeba etratis oTxi da papirusis eqvsi furclisagan. TiTqmis yovelTvis daculia etratis dakecvisa da dawyobis wesi. papirusi dakecilia vertikaluri mimarTulebiT da dawyobilia ise, rom recto yovelTvis win uswrebs verso-s rveulis pirvel naxevarSi, xolo verso ­ recto-s rveulis meore naxevarSi, anu darRveulia simetria da gaSlil xelnawerSi ar xdeba papirusis furclis Semadgeneli horizontaluri da vertikaluri zolebis Tanxvedra.

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timothy p. grove

Biola University

THE MIRROR THAT DOES NOT REFLECT: SAeT'lo XIroMANT'IA (a 17th-CENtUry GEorGIaN aStroNoMICal MaNUSCrIPt) aNd thE AlMANAcco PerPeTuo of ottavIo BEltraNo (1639)

Saet'lo Xiromant'ia is a unique astronomical manuscript preserved at the National Centre of Manuscripts in tbilisi. the manuscript [Q 867] comprises 126 quarto leaves, and contains numerous hand-drawn illustrations. No title appears either on the binding or at the beginning of the text--the title Saet'lo Xiromant'ia ("zodiacalchiromancy")wasapparentlysuggestedbythefirstillustration(10v)of a human hand labeled with the principal lines used in palmistry, along with their planetary assocations. Much of this manuscript is clearly original, including its extremely interesting preface. however, a careful study of this text reveals that its writer drew material from a number of different sources. one of the more interesting features of Saet'lo Xiromant'ia is its cryptic reference to a western philosopher named "Beltrano," whom the author compares to aristotle and praises in the highest terms. I have succeeded in identifying this person as Ottavio Beltrano (fl. ca.1620-1671), a printer, bookseller, and miscellaneous writer who worked in Cosenza, Naples, terranova, and ancona. Beltrano's Almanacco Perpetuo("perpetualalmanac")wasfirstpublishedin1639, and proved to be an extremely popular work in Italy, where it appeared in numerous editions throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. a careful comparison of the two texts has established that several sections of Saet'lo Xiromant'ia incorporate both text and illustrations drawn from an early edition of the Almanacco Perpetuo. these include page 30r, the series of eclipses (31r-35r), pages 36v and 46r-47v, the tables of houses beginning on page 48v, the horoscope for 21 June 1635 (58v-59r), the Perpetual almanac (60v-74r), and additional material on pages 76v and 99v. Another source, as yet unidentified, provided the basis of the planetary descriptions found on pages 5r-9r. In its original form, Saet'lo Xiromant'ia presented a 28-year "perpetual almanac" covering the years 1652 through 1679, along with three further 2834

year cycles (1680-1707, 1708-1735, 1736-1763). at some point, strips of paper were glued over the original dates, in order to update the almanac by 84 years. It appears that the latest date listed (74r) corresponds to the year 1847. thus, Saet'lo Xiromant'ia remained in constant use throughout the entire 18th century and probably into the 19th. It appears probable that the manuscript was written during the second half of the 17th century and that its writer made use of an early edition of Beltrano's almanac which began with the 1652-1679 series. the eclipses illustrated on pages 31r-35r are those of 1652-1664, and the same series of eclipses is described by Beltrano. the Georgian writer's adaptations of Beltrano's illustrations are extremely interesting, involving numerous mirror-reversals and other mysterious changes. Some of the illustrations found in Saet'lo Xiromant'ia demonstrate remarkable innovations in the iconography of astrological representations-innovations which may be unique to this manuscript. When viewed alongside vakht'ang vI's Georgian translation of a work by `ali Qushji of Samarqand (Kmnulebis codnis c'igni, 1721), this use of an Italian source by the writer of Saet'lo Xiromant'ia reveals that Georgian intellectuals of thisperiodwereopentoacomplexnetworkofculturalandscientificinfluences from both the East and the West.

nino doborjginiZe

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

,,winabWe~ (prooivmion) da teqstis istoriis kvlevis sakiTxebi Zvel qarTul filologiaSi

moxsenebaSi gaanalizebuli iqneba Zvel qarTul filologiaSi SemuSavebuli kritikuli aparati, romelic teqstis istoriis kvlevis berZnul-laTinur da siriul tradiciebs eyrdnoba; warmodgenili iqneba tipologiuri kvlevis Sedegebi, romelTac aCvenes, rom antioqiis samwerlobo-mTargmnelobiTi skolis xe35

lnawerebSi teqstis istoriis kvlevasTan dakavSirebiT damuSavebuli sakiTxebi Sua saukuneebis filologiuri mecnierebis kardinalur problemebs ukavSirdeba da am problemaTa gadawyvetis saintereso gzebs gvTavazobs. teqstis, gansakuTrebiT, Targmanis, komentirebisa da Tavdapirveli teqstis (e. w. Codex archetypus ad cuius exemplaria sunt ceteri corrigendi) dadgenis is principebi, romlebic efrem mciris ,,fsalmunTa Targmanebis` Sesavalsa da mis sxva kolofonebSia warmodgenili, ganxiluli iqneba teqstis arqetipis kvlevis sxvadasxva tradiciasTan Sedarebis safuZvelze: 1) Toma harkelisa da filoqsene mabugelis vrcelkomentarebiani xelnawerebi (siriuli tradicia), 2) e. w. `ajnteblhvqh prov~~ tipis kolofonebis mqone xelnawerebi (berZnul-bizantiuri tradicia), 3) kasiodores mier SemuSavebuli principebiT gamarTuli xelnawerebi (laTinuri tradicia). tipologiurma kvlevam aCvena, rom berZnul-laTinur da siriul tradiciebTan erTad efremis mier SemuSavebuli principebi qmnis Tavdapirveli teqstis dadgenis im models, romelic sayovelTaod batonobda filologiaSi karl laxmanamde, anu XIX saukunis axali filologiuri skolis principebis damkvidrebamde.

eka duRaSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

skolis warmomadgenelTa VIII-IX ss. cnobili himnografebis ­ ioane damaskelis, kozma ierusalimelis, stefane sabawmindelis ­ himnografiuli kanonebisa da stiqaronebis ufro meti Targmanebi gvxvdeba X s-is did iadgarSi (miqael modrekilis iadgarsa da sinas mTis wm. ekaterines monastris nusxebSi). iadgarSi warmodgenili sagalobeli repertuari struqturiT (serobis, mwuxris stiqaronebi, ciskris kanoni, RvTismSoblis tropari) dgeba VIII-IX ss. berZnul tropologionebTan. iadgaris Targmanebi, romelTa berZnuli dednebi dadgenilia, mravalmxriv Taviseburebas avlens. sauflo dResaswaulebisa da RvTismSoblisadmi miZRvnili sagaloblebis Targmanebi originalTan meti teqstobrivi sazustiT gamoirCeva. berZnuli dednis formac (Zlispir- troparis marcvalTraodenoba) SeZlebisdagvarad daculia. wmindanebisadmi miZRvnili kanonebis TargmanebSi metia teqstobrivi Tavisufleba. gvxvdeba ramdenime avtoris sagalobelTa kompilaciuri Targmani, dednisgan gansxvavebuli Zlispiri da sxv. iadgaris stiqaronebi( dednisgan gansxvavebiT) Zlispirebzea gamarTuli. saRvTismetyvelo Sinaarsis sityvebi adekvaturad aris Targmnili, azrobrivad rTulad gasagebi frazebi (kompozitebi, mimReobebi) gamartivebulia da qarTuli enisTvis bunebrivi formebiTaa Targmnili. berZnulis akrostiqiani sagalobeli qarTulad zogjer akrostiqiT aris Targmnili, zogjer ­ uakrostiqod. am TaviseburebebiT qarTuli iadgari unikaluri Zeglia da adrebizantiur himnografias Taviseburad warmoadgens.

iadgari ­ adrebizantiuri himnografiis amsaxveli Zegli

adrebizantiuri himnografiis uZvelesi qarTuli Targmanebi (troparebi) pirvelad dasturdeba ierusalimuri saeklesio praqtikis amsaxvel ZeglSi, ierusalimur kanonarSi (VII s.), Semdgom uZveles iadgarsa da did iadgarSi (X s). sabawminduri

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Tamaz (eqvTime) koWlamazaSvili

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti.

Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

mravalTavis tipologiisaTvis

mravalTavis saxeliT samecniero literaturaSi moixsenieba IX-XI ss-is ramdenime liturgikul-homiletikuri krebuli, romelTagan TiToeuli Seicavs sadResaswaulo homiliebisa da hagiografiuli sakiTxavebis did koleqcias. erT-erTi sakiTxi, romelsac mravalTavis mkvlevarTagan TiTqmis yvela Seexo, esaa am krebulis tipologia: ratom ewoda mas aseTi saxeli; riTi gansxvavdeba igi homiletikur sakiTxavTa sxva krebulebisagan? _ am kiTxvaze mkvlevarT daaxloebiT erTnairi pasuxebi aqvT: mravalTavs aseTi saxeli mieca oTxTavis analogiiT; mas ase unda Serqmeoda imitom, rom mravali Tavisagan, e. i. mravali Txzulebisagan, aris Semdgari. radganac `mravalTav~ kompozitis nawilebi (`mravali~ da `Tavi~) araviTar bundovanebas ar Seicavs, amitomac zemoaRniSnuli ganmarteba Zalze gamWvirvalea da TiTqos kamaTs ar unda iwvevdes. magram upasuxod rCeba kiTxva: mravalTavis saxeliT cnobil homiletikur krebulTa garda sxva mravali masStaburi krebulic arsebobs, romlebic aseve mraval Txzulebas (`mraval Tavs~) Seicaven; maS, Tu esaa `mravalTavad~ saxeldebis safuZveli, ratom isinic aseve ar moixseniebian? Cveni azriT, mravalTavis ganmartebis amosaval wertilad oTxTavTan misi analogia unda miviCnioT, magram, amasTan, mxedvelobaSi unda gvqondes ara Semadgenel TavTa meqanikuri ricxobrivi Tanafardoba [e. i. ara is, rom oTxTavi oTxi Tavisagan (oTxi Txzulebisagan) Sedgeba, xolo mravalTavi _ mravali Tavisagan (mravali Txzulebisagan)], aramed is, rom oTxTavis msgavsad, romelic nebismieri xasiaTisa da saxelwodebis oTxi Txzulebis krebuli ki araa, aramed _ oTxi `saxarebisa~ (e. i. erTsa da imave Temaze daweril, erTisa da imave saTauris mqone oTxi Txzulebisa), mravalTavic TiToeuli dResaswaulis Temaze

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warmoTqmuli (maSasadame, saerTo saTauris mqone) mravali sakiTxavis krebulia. marTlac, sxva homiletikur krebulTagan gansxvavebiT, sadac TiTo dResaswaulze TiTo sakiTxavia dadebuli, mravalTavSi TiToeuli dResaswaulis Temaze ramdenime sakiTxavi gvxvdeba. amrigad, `oTxTav~ da `mravalTav~ terminebSi `Tavi~ arc erTiani Txzulebis Semadgenel nakveTs unda niSnavdes, arc krebulSi Setanil nebismieri xasiaTisa da Sinaarsis Txzulebebs, aramed _ erTsa da imave Temaze daweril, saerTo saTauris mqone qmnilebebs. erTi da igive sakiTxi (erTi da imave saTauriT) sxvadasxva avtoris mier mraval Tavad miewodeba mkiTxvels. aseTi ganmartebis safuZvelze SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom mravalTavis tipis homiletikur krebulTa evolucia sulac ar damTavrebula aTonis mravalTaviT (X s.), rogorc bolo xans ivaraudes, aramed analogiuri principiT Sedgenili literaturuli krebulebis saxiT momdevno saukuneebSic iCenda Tavs (h-2258, Jer. 17, Jer. 23, S-1276, a-1170 da sxv.).

dr. paul Crego

library of Congress. Washington, U.S.a

"thE "ordINatIoN" of St. NINo, WIth rEfErENCE to thE PrayErS for WoMEN dEaCoNS IN thE arChIEratIKoN of MS. 86 of thE forMEr ChUrCh-arChEoloGICal MUSEUM of tBIlISI."

In one of the texts associated with St. Nino's conversion of the Georgians to Christianity there is a scene that resembles an ordination. Juvenal, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, calls St. Nino to the sanctuary of the church, lays hands upon her, and prays to God. St. Nino's subsequent ministry includes healing, preaching, and most importantly, but unusually for women in the fourth century, the administration of the sacrament of baptism. the inclusion of an ordination scene is essential in the context of St. Nino's ministry.

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the appearance of Juvenal, named as St. Nino's uncle, is an anachronism. he lived a century after St. Nino. he is, however, an important symbol of the Georgian Church's reception of the Council of Chalcedon. More importantly for this paper, St. Nino's ordination is described in conjunction with her tutor Sarah's extraordinary speech, in which the young woman's strength is compared with the female orbi and the lioness, described as superlative characters in the animal kingdom. There is, then, first of all, a strong selfconsciousness within the text of St. Nino playing a role that would not ordinarily be expected. on the other hand, the manuscript of an archieratikon from ca. 1000 includes prayers for women deacons, that include language much stronger than Byzantine Greek prayers that, by the turn of the millennium, had fallen out of use. It is important when considering the narratives of St. Nino's ministry that we understand what the writers would have thought possible in the setting of the Georgian Church. these deacon ordination prayers help us provide that context.

irma makaraZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

arsen bulmaisimisZis iambikuri svinaqsari (struqtura, versifikacia, stili)

Zvelma qarTulma xelnawerebma Semogvinaxa liturgikuli mwerlobis erTi metad saintereso Zegli ­ `aT or TTueTa proloRia~. masTan dakavSirebulia qarTuli sulieri kulturis sami udidesi moRvawis ­ ioane petriwis, arsen bulmaisimisZisa da anton kaTalikosis ­ saxeli. naSromSi mocemulia prolog-svinaqsaris arsen bulmaisimisZiseuli monakveTis versifikaciuli, struqturuli da stiluri analizi, rasac safuZvlad davudeT am teqstis gacnoba

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xelnaweris a-85 (1233 w.) meSveobiT. kvlevis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi da daskvnebia: a) teqstis arsen bulmaisimisZiseuli monakveTi, romelic moTavsebulia a-85 xelnaweris 224r-236r gverdebze, gadawerilia nusxuriT, xolo saTaurebi ­ asomTavruliT. asomTavruli anbaniTve iwyeba yoveli axali muxli, romelic danomrilia, xolo Sesabamisi numeracia erTvis arSias. b) teqsti iambikuri sazomiT aris dawerili. Sesabamisad, taepSi Tormeti marcvalia, romelsac cezura moudis, ZiriTadad, xuTi marcvlis Semdeg. xelnawerSi cezuras aRniSnavs mZime, xolo taepebs erTmaneTisgan wertilebi yofs. yoveli muxli sruldeba orwertiliTa da mZimiT. iambikuri sazomi qarTuli leqsis bunebrivi intonaciisa da kilosTvis mZimea, Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, arsen bulmaisimisZe araiSviaTad axerxebs iambikuri sazomis qarTul leqsTan efeqtur Sexamebas, rac gvaZlevs ritmulad organizebul, mxatvrulad srulqmnil striqonebs. g) arsen bulmaisimisZe strofebs alagebs wmindanTa xsenebis dReebis mixedviT. TiTo muxli Seicavs erT dRes mosaxsenebel wmindanTa saxelze daweril teqsts. Sesabamisad, erT TveSi imdeni muxlia, ramdeni dRec aris. muxlebSi striqonebis raodenoba sxvadasxvaa. d) qarTul naTargmn ZglebSi XI s-is meore naxevarSi dawyebuli elinizaciis procesi gavlenas axdens originalur literaturazedac. elinuri stilis tradiciebis erTguleba gansakuTrebiT kargad gamoCnda `proloRiaSi~, sadac uxvad gvxvdeba gelaTuri stilisTvis damaxasiaTebeli gramatikuli formebi Tu leqsikuri erTeulebi. `proloRiis~ formati iTxovda maqsimalur lakoniurobas, Sesabamisad, avtoric TiTo an ori striqoniT exmianeba wmindanis cxovrebidan ama Tu im vrcel epizods, zog SemTxvevaSi ki saerTod erTi an ori sityviT migvaniSnebs masze. miuxedavad amisa, teqsti ar aris faqtebis oden mSrali aRwera, avtori araiSviaTad arCevs xatovan formebs mkiTxvelze emociuri zemoqmedebisTvis.

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damana meliqiSvili

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

gelaTis saRvTismetyvelo-filologiuri skolisaTvis da mis saxes gansazRvravs. es Zegli, gelaTSi Sesrulebul egzegetikur-komentaruli Janris sxva SromebTan erTad, am skolis moRvaweTa saqmianobis damagvirgvinebelia.

gelaTis skolis xelnawerebi da gelaTel mwignobarTa muSaobis stili

1. A1108 xelnaweri unikaluri avtografuli nusxaa, romelic mTargmneli-redaqtoris xelidan Cans gamosuli (lamazi, gakruli xeli, odnav marjvniv daxrili asoebiT, `swavlulis xeli~ da ara kaligrafisa). teqsti nasworebia melniTa da imave lamazi gakruli xeliT, romliTac Sesrulebulia nusxa `levitelebidan~ `ruTamde~. nasworebia igi gzadagza, muSaobis procesSi da ara Semdeg, rac iqidanac Cans, rom koreqtura xSirad zemodan ki ar aris gakeTebuli, aramed mosdevs gadaSlil sityvas (an mis daumTavrebel nawils) anda mTel Sesityvebas imave striqonze. Casworebani sxvadasxva xasiaTisaa da maTze dakvirveba warmodgenas gviqmnis imaze, Tu ra principebiT xelmZRvanelobda muSaobis procesSi mTargmneli-redaqtori, ra tendenciebi amoZravebda mas, rogor xvewda stilisturad frazas (erideboda tavtologias, leqsikuri Tu gramatikuli sinonimebidan romels irCevda, ras Slida da ras tovebda, rogor aRwevda sizustes dedanTan mimarTebiT da sxv.) 2. es xelnaweri uaRresad saintereso da mniSvnelovan masalas Seicavs teqstualuri kritikis TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis, qarTuli Teologiuri terminologiis istoriis, istoriuli stilistikis kvlevisaTvis, mTargmnelebisa (Cans, rom am katenuri krebulis Targmnaze mTeli jgufi muSaobda) da redaqtoris muSaobis procesze dakvirvebisa da, saerTod, gelaTis skolis mTargmnelobiTi meTodis SeswavlisaTvis, radganac am unikalur ZeglSi Tavmoyrilia is ZiriTadi msoflmxedvelobriv- Teoriuli Tu enobriv-stilisturi tendenciebi da ganxorcielebulia is praqtikul-mTargmnelobiTi principebi, romlebic sazogadod damaxasiaTebelia

nino meliqiSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

ioane oqropiris TxzulebaTa Semcveli krebuli `margaliti~

I. krebul `margalitis~ raoba da mniSvneloba; II. krebul `margalitis~ qarTuli Targmanis Semcveli adreuli xelnawerebi (XI-XVI ss.); krebulis Sedgeniloba da masSi warmodgenili redaqcia. III. krebul `margalitis~ qarTuli Targmanis Semcveli gviandeli xelnawerebi (XVIII-XIX ss.); krebulis Sedgeniloba da masSi warmodgenili redaqcia. IV. `margalitis~ teqstis Semcveli nusxebis urTierTmimarTeba; V. `margalitis~ gviandel nusxebSi (XVIII-XIX ss.) arsebuli Targmanis mimarTeba adrindel (XI-XVI ss.) nusxebSi arsebul teqstTan; VI. krebul `margalitis~ struqturis dadgena adrindel (XIXVI ss.) da gviandel (XVIII-XIX ss.) nusxebze dayrdnobiT.

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nana mrevliSvili

SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis literaturis instituti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

eklesiastes mitrofane smirnelisa da olimpiodore aleqsandrielis ganmartebaTa wyaroebi da avtorobis versia

miTiTebuli ori avtoris eklesiastes ganmartebaTa qarTuli Targmani, Sesrulebuli gelaTis saliteraturo skolis normebiT, SemorCenilia erTaderTi, a 61 xelnaweriT. Zegli katenuri tipis Txzulebas warmoadgens da sainteresoa rogorc literaturuli, ise saRvTismetyvelo-Teologiuri aspeqtiT. Txzulebis, romlis qarTuli Targmani struqturul-kompoziciuri mTlianobiT xasiaTdeba, erTi, mitrofane smirneliseuli nawili gamosca k. kekeliZem 1920 wels vrceli gamokvleviT (Cveni kvlevis sagans orive avtoris Txzuleba warmoadgens). Zeglis am nawilis avtorobis sakiTxze samecniero literaturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaoba iyo. minis gamocemis gaTvaliswinebiT, Zeglis avtorad grigol akrakanteli miiCneoda. 2005 wels gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis Jurnal `inteleqtSi~ gamoqveynebul statiaSi (eklesiastes ganmartebaTa gelaTuri Targmanebi) SevniSnavdiT: `qarTuli Targmanis siZvelisa da PG-s arakritikuli gamocemebis gaTvaliswineba imasac gvafiqrebinebs, rom, SesaZloa, eklesiastes ganmartebis es teqsti swored mitrofane smirnel mitropolits ekuTvnodes da swori versia Zeglis avtorobis Sesaxeb qarTul xelnawerSi iyos Semonaxuli.~ xangrZlivi kvlevis Sedegad da qarTul xelnawerSi miTiTebuli avtorobis versiis daxmarebiT belgieli mecnierebi mividnen daskvnamde, rom Zeglis miTiTebuli nawili ekuTvnis swored mitrofane smirnel mitropolits. qarTul samecniero sivrceSi belgieli mecnierebis es Tvalsazrisi pirvelad Cvens moxsenebaSi iqneba warmodgenili. ramdenadac Zegli katenuri tipisaa, igi, garda mitrofanesi da olimpiodores ganmartebebisa, sxvadasxva avtoris ko44

mentarebsac Seicavs. gvxvdeba citatebi saxarebidan, pavles epistoleebidan, fsalmunebidan... klasikuri filosofiuri memkvidreobidanac. komentarebis didi nawilis avtorTa vinaoba ucnobia da, nacvlad avtorTa saxelebisa, amgvar monakveTebs wamZRvarebuli aqvs miTiTebebi: gonebisa mimarT, sxua¡, sxuaTa momTxrobelobiTi, gonebisa mimarT esreT gulis£misa¡... moxsenebaSi vmsjelobT im wyaroebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac rig SemTxvevebSi iyeneben mitrofane smirneli da olimpiodore aleqsandrieli. amdenad, warmodgenili moxseneba Seicavs or saintereso siaxles ­ a) a-61 xelnawerSi daculi erT-erTi teqstis avtorobis sakiTxis axlebur gaSuqebas da b) amave Zeglis wyaroTa kvlevas. am ukanaskneli TvalsazrisiT Zegli TiTqmis Seuswavlelia, rac TavisTavad ganapirobebs kvlevis aqtualurobas. vfiqrobT, aranakleb aqtualuria Zeglis avtorobis sakiTxic, miT ufro, rom mniSvnelovani da arsebiTi wili sakiTxis garkvevisas qarTul Targmanze modis.

avTandil nikoleiSvili

quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti. quTaisi, saqarTvelo

galaktion tabiZis Semoqmedebis teqstologiuri variantebi, rogorc masala avtoris msoflmxedvelobrivi mrwamsisa da poeturi stilis Sesaswavlad

rogorc galaktion tabiZis Semoqmedebis teqstologiuri variantebis SeswavliT irkveva, misi poeturi Sedevrebis bevri nimuSi sakmaod didi SemoqmedebiTi Ziebisa da Sromis Sedegad Rebulobda sabolood srulyofil saxes. swored am ,,didi da dauRalavi Sromis` (poetis sityvebia) dadasturebaa is uamravi variantuli saxesxvaoba, galaktionis calkeul nawarmoebebs

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rom moepovebaT. am variantebidan naTlad Cans, raodeni Rvwisa da rudunebis Sedegad aRwevda avtori im srulqmnil harmonias, riTac misi Sedevrebi gvaoceben. ZiriTadi teqstisagan ritmul-versifikaciuladac da azrobrivi pasaJebiTac zogjer mkveTrad gansxvavebuli am variantebis erTi nawili poeturi ostatobis mxriv calkeul SemTxvevebSi imdenad srulyofilia da daxvewili, rom romelime maTgans mxolod pirobiTad Tu SeiZleba mivaniWoT upiratesoba. Tavisi Semoqmedebis calkeuli nimuSebis dasaxvewad da srulyofisaTvis muSaobas galaktioni ramdenime ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT warmarTavda; kerZod: 1) poeturi warmosaxvis sagnad qceuli movlenisaTvis yvelaze metad Sesatyvisi ritmulversifikaciuli formis SesarCevad; 2) nawarmoebis poeturi mxaris kidev ufro metad dasaxvewad; 3) cenzuris Tvalis asaxvevad samoqmedo droisa da adgilis mizanmimarTulad SesaniRbavad da gasaucxoeblad da a. S. yovelive zemoTqmulis naTelsayofad naSromSi mravladaa moSveliebuli konkretuli magaliTebi galaktionis poetur qmnilebaTa ZiriTad teqstebSi Seutaneli maTi variantebidan. maTdami interess mniSvnelovanwilad zrdis is faqti, rom isini metad saintereso masalas gvawvdian maT ZiriTad teqstebSi gamoxatuli avtoriseuli erovnul-politikuri mrwamsis kidev ufro Rrmad da safuZvlianad gasaazreblad. musikaluri srulqmnilebisa da ritmul-melodiuri harmoniis misaRwevad galaktioni imden xilul Tu uxilav xerxsa da saSualebas iyenebs, rom maTi srulyofili gacnobiereba, faqtobrivad, SeuZlebelia. da Tu mainc SevecdebiT am TvalsazrisiT zogierTi arsebiTi faqtori gamovyoT, am SemTxvevaSi usaTuod unda aRiniSnos iseTi mkveTrad gamorCeuli Taviseburebani, romelnic, versifikaciul sazomTa mravalferovnebis garda, ritmul variaciaTa da intonaciaTa saocar simravles, riTmaTa ukidures daxvewilobasa da musikalobas, bgeraTa uCveulo evfonias, poeturi refrenisa da ganmeorebis efeqts, striqonTa da winadadebaTa originalur konstruqciebsa da sxva mraval niSan-Tvisebasa da stilur gamorCeulobas gulisxmobs.

46

imis naTelsayofad, poeturi nawarmoebis ritmul-versifikaciul formaTa mravalferovnebas poeti gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas rom aniWebda, naSromSi misi poeziisaTvis farTod damaxasiaTebel iseT tendenciasac aqvs yuradReba miqceuli, rogoricaa mkiTxvelisaTvis kargad cnobili zogierTi nawarmoebisaTvis erTmaneTisagan arsebiTad gansxvavebul ritmul-versifikaciul formaTa misadagebis aqtiuri mcdeloba. g. tabiZis nawarmoebTa teqstologiur variantebSi sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba farTod cnobili ama Tu im poeturi fragmentis pirdapiri an odnav saxecvlili formiT ganmeorebis SemTxvevebic misive Semoqmedebis calkeuli nimuSebidan. galaktionis poeziaSi sakmaod mravlad gvxvdeba iseTi nawarmoebebic, romelnic avtors jer prozis saxiT dauweria da Semdeg miucia maTTvis poeturi qmnilebis forma. vfiqrob, yovelive zemoTqmulis safuZvelze kidev erTxel unda gaesvas xazi im garemoebas, rom g. tabiZis grZneuli poeturi samyaros idumali bunebis srulyofilad Secnoba misi Semoqmedebis xelnaweri variantebisa da umdidresi saarqivo Canawerebis safuZvliani gansja-gaanalizebis gareSe yovlad SeuZlebeli iqneba.

Tamar oTxmezuri, qeTevan bezaraSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris berZnuli koleqcia

saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi berZnuli xelnawerebis koleqcia sul 34 erTeuls Seicavs, Tumca Tavisi Janrobrivi mravalferovnebiTa (bibliuri wignebi, homiletika, himnografia, egzegetika da a. S.) da farTo qronologiuri CarCoTi (V-XVIII ss.) saintereso masalas iZleva bizantiuri da postbizantiuri xelnaweri wignisa da, zogadad, berZnuli mwignobrobis istoriis SeswavlisaTvis.

47

moxsenebaSi zogadad mimoxilulia iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa: (1) xelnawerTa erovnuli centris berZnul xelnawerTa warmomavlobisa da koleqciaSi moxvedris istoria (basili didis `iTika~, korideTis saxareba, himnogafiuli krebulebi daviT batoniSvilis koleqciidan); (2) paleografiuli TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT RirsSesaniSnavi nusxebi da maTi daweriloba (berZnuli maiuskulis qarTuli da slavuri duqtusi, maiuscola biblica, maiuscola liturgica, tipo anastasio da sxv.); (3) bizantiuri mwignobruli tradiciis ganviTarebis istoriisaTvis gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo xelnawerebi (Gr. 33/48); (4) postbizantiuri epoqis samarTlis istoriis, aseve saeklesio musikis istoriisaTvis saintereso masala (kanonikuri krebulebi ­ Gr.: 6-7, 8, 10 da sagalobelTa nevmirebuli nusxebi ­ Gr.: 1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 19, 20, 21); (5) teqstualuri istoriis TvalsazrisiT sayuradRebo teqstebi (korideTis saxarebis markozis Tavi, rogorc uZvelesi teqstualuri tradiciis e. w. kesariuli tipis teqsti); (6) berZnuli koleqciis mniSvneloba qarTul-berZnuli urTierTobebis kvlevisaTvis (korideTis saxarebis arSiebze moTavsebuli X-XIII saukuneebis qarTuli da berZnuli minawerebi, rogorc wyaro samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis SeswavlisaTvis; kanonikuri krebuli Gr. 10 antioqiis patriarqis, makar III-is sakuTreba da vaxtang VI-is `samarTlis wigni~); (7) xelnawerTa erovnuli centris berZnuli koleqciis xelnawerTa mxatvruli Rirebuleba (Gr. 33/48-is inicialebi, ramdenime miniatiura ­ Gr. 33/48, Gr. 26, Gr. 27). moxsenebaSi yuraReba aris gamaxvilebuli bolo dros mikvleul ramdenime fragmentze (palimfsesturi furceli Wiletratis iadgaridan ­ Gr. 31, V s. da somxur saxarebaSi damcav gverdebad CarTuli furceli Gr. 32, X s.), maT identifikaciasa da daTariRebaze.

maia rafava

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

legenduri gadmocemebi grigol nazianzelis Sesaxeb (,,vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebisa~ da ioane oqropiris ,,maTes Tavis saxarebis Targmanebis~ mixedviT)

qarTul mwerlobaSi hagiografiuli legendebis saxiT Semonaxulia gadmocemebi grigol RvTismetyvelis Sesaxeb. I. vaxtang ,,gorgaslis cxovreba` (,,qarTlis cxovreba~). 1. TxzulebaSi ramdenimejer aris dasaxelebuli toponimebi anZianZori, anZoreTi. mkvlevarTa mier es toponimebi sxvadasxva geografiul punqtTan aris identificirebuli. sinamdvileSi ,,anZianZori~ bgeraTa metaTezisis safuZvelze miRebuli ,,nazianzis~ Sesatyvisia, rac araerTgzis aris damowmebuli grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis Semcvel qarTul xelnawerebSi.. A`arianzic~, sadac, rogorc cnobilia, aris grigol RvTismetyvelis saflavi, imave qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, xSirad gadmocemulia ,,anZianZo~, ,,anZianZori~ formebiT. ,,vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebis~ ,,anZianZori~ SeiZleba gaigivebul iqnes grigol nazianzelis ,,nazianzTan~ da ,,arianzTan~. 2. TxzulebaSi grigoli moxsenebulia, rogorc ,,didi moZRvari~, ,,RmrTivgamometyueli~ da ,,RmrTismetyueli~. Ggrigol nazianzeli aris erT-erTi im samTagani (ioane RvTismetyvelTan da simeon axal RvTismetyvelTan erTad), romlebic, sxvebisgan gamorCeviT, RvTismetyvelad iwodebian. 3. vaxtang gorgaslis saberZneTSi laSqrobis peripetiebSi ivliane mekerpisa (gandgomilis) da berZenTa mefis, ivbimianosis, xSiri xseneba grigol RvTismetyvelis TanamedroveobasTan asocirdeba. aRreva da Seusabamoba droisa (erTi saukunea sxvaoba) da sivrcis (kapadokia-ponto) TvalsazrisiT, rasac adgili aqvs ,,vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebis` epizodebis grigol nazianzelTan dakavSirebis gamo, aixsneba hagiografiuli legendebis spe49

48

cifikiTa da ideuri mizandasaxulobiT, ris gavlenasac uTuod ganicdis `cxovrebis~ avtori. II. ,,maTes Tavis saxarebis Targmaneba~. Nnawarmoebis winasityvaoba, romelic dasturdeba ioane oqropiris ,,maTes Tavis saxarebis Targmanebis` Semcvel qarTul xelnawerebSi da romlis avtorad ioane qarTveli (efTvime mTawmidlis mama) miaCniaT, Seicavs legendur gadmocemas imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor Seityo Tavis xilvaSi grigol RvTismetyvelma saRvTo neba, rom maTes saxarebis Targmaneba unda Seesrulebina ara mas, aramed ioane oqropirs.

liana samyuraSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

X-XIII ss. qarTuli samedicino wignebi da maTi arabuli wyaroebi

1. adreuli samedicino Zeglebis sistematur mecnierul Seswavlas gasuli saukunis 30-ani wlebidan Cauyara safuZveli am Zeglebis pirvelmkvlevarma da gamomcemelma, eqimma lado kotetiSvilma. 2. dReisaTvis cnobili wminda samedicino Txzulebebidan pirveli aris qananelis avtorobiT cnobili@`usworo karabadini~, gamocemuli l. kotetiSvilis mier 1940 wels ori nusxis safuZvelze (xeln. erovn. centris Q-26, XIII s. da sankt-peterburgis aRm/mc. inst.-is K-13(23), XvIIs.). usworo karabadini sami damoukidebeli nawilisgan Sedgenil samedicino krebuls warmoadgens. pirvel ganyofilebaSi mocemulia zogadi anatomiurfiziologiuri, biologiuri, embriologiuri xasiaTis cnobebi, agreTve cnobebi sicxiani sneulebebis Sesaxeb. meoreSi gadmocemulia kerZo paTologiisa da Terapiis mokle aRwera da mkurnaloba. mesameSi aris cnobebi garegani sneulebebis Ses50

axeb, higienur-dietetikuri rCevebi da bolos erTvis martivi wamlebi. enobrivi analizis Sedegad gamovlenili uxvi arabuli leqsika, teqstis stiluri Taviseburebani, aseve masSi moxseniebuli arabi avtorebi da maTi Sromebi, arabizebuli formiT mocemuli berZen avtorTa saxelebi Zeglis arabul wyaroze damokidebulebis maCvenebelia. teqstSi moxseniebul avtorTa moRvaweobis zeda zRvari X-XI ss-ia, rac SeiZleba Txzulebis Seqmnis TariRad CaiTvalos. aseT daTariRebas mxars uWers teqstSi gamovlenili arqauli qarTuli leqsika da gramatikuli formebic. 3. am periodis momdevno samedicino Zeglia `xuarazmSahis saunjis qarTuli versia~, romelic erTaderTi xelnaweriT aris Semonaxuli (maten. `ucxo fondi~ #18). teqsti momzadebulia gamosacemad gamokvleviTa da leqsikoniT l. samyuraSvilis mier. Txzuleba medicinis sistematur kurss warmoadgens. Sedgeba ori erTnairi arqiteqtonikiT agebuli wignisagan. I wigni eqvs `naTqoms~ Seicavs da ganxilulia anatomiuri cnobebi da organizmSi moqmedi Zalebi. II wignSi cxra `naTqomia~, gadmocemulia sneulebebi da diagnostika vrclad. III nawilad erTvis farmakologiuri nawyveti. Txzulebis II wignis Tavsa da bolos motanili cnobis Tanaxmad, igi momdinareobs `xuarazmSahisa daxirasagan~, romelic aris sparsi avtoris ismail jurjanis (+1136 w.) samedicino Sroma `zaxirai xuarizmSahi~ ­ `xuarazmSahis saunje~. Zeglis enobrivi analizis Sedegad gamovlenili arabizmebi ­ leqsika da gramatikul-stiluri Taviseburebani adasturebs qarTuli versiis literaturul wyarod arabuli Targmanis ­ `zaxiraT xuarizmSahis~ gamoyenebas. istoriulkulturuli kontaqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT qarTuli versia XII saukunis dasasruliT SeiZleba daTariRdes. 4. mesame Zeglia xojayofilis Targmnili `wigni saaqimoi~, gamocemuli l. kotetiSvilis mier 1936 w. erTaderTi nusxis (xeln. erovn. centris S-1274, Xv s.) safuZvelze. Txzulebis dasawyisSi naTqvamia, rom es wigni qarTulad Targmna xojayofilma basianis brZolis dros nadavlad mopovebuli wignidan. igi erTi mTliani, enciklopediuri xasiaTis Txzulebaa, gamoirCeva

51

avtorTa simravliT (22 avtori) da ori ZiriTadi nakveTisagan Sedgeba: I. zogadi filosofiur-eqimuri Terapia da II. nervuli, Sinagani da garegani sneulebani. teqstologiuri kvlevis Sedegad gamovlenilma argumentebma daadastura mkvlevarTa adre gamoTqmuli varaudi misi arabuli warmomavlobis Sesaxeb (e.TayaiSvili, l. kotetiSvili), sapirispirod somxuridan momdinareobis Sesaxeb (n. mari). 5. miuxedavad Sesabamisi arabuli teqstebis uqonlobisa, samive Zeglis kvlevam reliefurad gamoavlina maTSi dadasturebuli arabuli enobrivi Taviseburebebi da cxadi gaxada maTi Seqmna arabuli wyaroebis niadagze. amas ganapirobebda imdroindel saqarTveloSi arsebuli istoriul-kulturuli viTareba da arabuli enis saerTaSoriso statusi. @

sofio sarjvelaZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

axali masalebi xelnawerTa erovnuli centris h koleqciaSi daculi oTxTavis nusxebis Sesaxeb

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris saarqivo fondSi daculia gamoCenili qarTveli mecnierisa da sazogado moRvawis, eqvTime TayaiSvilis arqivi. e. TayaiSvilis arqivSi daculia mecnieris umdidresi memkvidreoba, maT Sorisaa 1910 wels leCxumsa da svaneTSi ganxorcielebuli arqeologiuri eqspediciis Canawerebi da fotosuraTebi. arqivis 398 erTeulSi inaxeba mecnieris svaneTSi mogzaurobis dros d. ermakovis mier gadaRebuli fotoebi. aq, # 16 fotoze aRbeWdilia mestiaSi ,,blaRoCin" besarion niJaraZis saxlSi nanaxi xelnaweris 6 gverdi. Cven SevZeliT fotoze gamosaxuli xelnawerTa am gverdebidan oTxis identifikacia. aqedan 3 gverdi ekuTvnis dRes

52

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris h fondis # 1870 oTxTavis giorgi mTawmidliseuli redaqciis teqstis Semcvel xelnawers, amaTgan pirvel gverdze gamosaxulia ioane maxareblis miniatiura (62v), meore gverdze - lukas saxarebis 24-e Tavis 21-32 muxlebi (59r), mesame gverdze ki aRbeWdilia XVI saukunis svanuri sabuTi (61v) ­ dawerili erTobilTa lahelTa ­ romelic gamoqveynebuli aqvs valeri silogavas svaneTis werilobiT ZeglebSi1. CvenTvis yvelaze saintereso aRmoCnda fotosuraTze aRbeWdili palimfsesturi xelnaweris erTi gverdi, romlis zeda fena warmoadgens lukas saxarebis pirveli Tavis dasawyis muxlebs, xolo qveda fena asomTavruliTaa naweri da is ioanes saxarebis meoce Tavis 15-20 muxlebis teqsts Seicavs. xelnaweris am gverdebis Sedarebis Sedegad oTxTavis sxva xelnawerebTan CvenTvis cxadi gaxada, rom fotoze gamosaxuli es gverdi aris xelnawerTa erovnuli centris h fondSi daculi # 1871 xelnaweris 22r. es aris oTxTavis teqstis Semcveli xelnaweri, romelic dRes 101 furclisagan Sedgeba. xelnaweris zeda fena XVI-XVII saukuneebs ganekuTvneba. teqsti naweria nusxuriT. palimfsestis qveda fena ori sxvadasxva xelnaweria, pirveli asomTavruliTaa naweri, meore ki - nusxuriT. orive Tavdapirveli xelnaweri oTxTavis teqstebs Seicavs da isini X saukuniT SeiZleba davaTariRoT. palimfsestis qveda fenis orive xelnaweris fragmentebis amokiTxvis nawilobriv Sedegad dadginda, rom isini Seicaven oTxTavis qarTuli Targmanis protovulgatis redaqciis teqsts. palimfsestis zeda fena Seicavs oTxTavis qarTuli Targmanis narev redaqcias. es redaqcia daculia X s. qsnis oTxTavis markozis saxarebis teqstSi da gamovlenilia ivane imnaiSvilis mier.2 redaqcia warmoadgens oTxTavis qarTuli Targmanis adiSuri da protovulgatis redaqciebis narev teqsts. maTes

1

2

valeri silogava, svaneTis werilobiTi Zeglebi, Tbilisi, 1986, gv. 136-137. iv. imnaiSvili, qsnis oTxTavis redaqcia, literaturuli Ziebani, t. v, Tbilisi, 1949.

53

saxarebis amgvari redaqciis teqsti dasturdeba oTxTavis or sxva xelnawerSi.3 h-1870 da h-1871 xelnawerebi muJalis Temis sakuTreba iyo. Semdgom isini inaxeboda mestiaSi, besarion niJaraZis saxlSi. es xelnawerebi svaneTSi sxvadasxva dros naxes da maTi mcire aRweriloba gamoaqveynes d.baqraZem, al.xaxanaSvilma da w.TayaiSvilma.4 al. xaxanaSvilisa da b.niJaraZis cnobiT, h-1871 xelnaweri im dros 116 furcels Seicavda.5 dRes igi 101furcliania. xelnaweris Seswavlis Sedegad gamoirkva, rom misi 3 furceli dRes daculia xelnawerTa erovnuli centris h koleqciis fondSi, oRond sxva nomriT (h-1395).

qeTevan tatiSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

anton I kaTalikosiseuli sadResaswaulo

1. Aanton I kaTalikosis sadResaswaulo aris mniSvnelovani liturgikuli krebuli. misi Sedgenisas gamoyenebulia slavur­rusuli tipikonic. gamorCeulia kalendris sisruliT. ayvanilia Tvenis principamde. masSi TiTqmis yvela dRis gangebaa mocemuli. Aamave dros, ramdenime gamonaklisis garda, sruladaa warmodgenili qarTveli wmindanebis gangebebi. Aantonma zogi sagalobeli Tu sagalobelTa pasaJebi da Zlispirebic ki

xelaxla Targmna rusulidan da Zveli Targmanebisgan gansasxvaveblad gverdiT arSiaze dausva rgoli A(anton kaTalikosis liturgikul moRvaweobas sxvadasxva dros ikvlevdnen k. kekeliZe da m. qavTaria). 2. Aantonma saeklesio kalendarSi daamata erTi wmindanis, kerZod, neofite urbnelis xseneba. igi iyo pirveli himnografi, romelmac Seadgina daviT aRmaSeneblis, grigol xanZTelisa da neofite urbnelis gangebebi. Mmanamde ar arsebobda am wmindanebis 9-odiani kanonebi mcire formis sagaloblebiTurT. 3. Cvenamde moRweulia sadResaswaulos kidev erTi redaqcia, romlis Sedgenisasac aseve gamoyenebulia rusuli sadResaswauloebisa da Tvenebis masala. Eigi ekuTvnis aleqsi mesxiSvils. aleqsi mesxiSviliseuli da antoniseuli sadResaswauloebis Sedarebam gviCvena, rom krebulebi garkveulwilad hgavs erTmaneTs, magaliTad,Aaleqsi mesxiSvilmac gangebebs bolos daurTo tipikaluri SeniSvnebi. Aam TvalsazrisiT, orive krebuli gamorCeulia adrindeli redaqciebisgan. Ggansxvavebas maT Soris ZiriTadad iwvevs antonis mier xelaxla Targmnili masala da qarTveli wmindanebisadmi miZRvnili sagaloblebis nawili. Tanac antoni SeZlebisdagvarad uTiTebs sagalobelTa avtorebis vinaobas, agreTve ­ sxvaobas Zlispirebis qarTul Targmanebsa da rusuli sadResaswaulos Sesabamis Zlispirebs Soris, aleqsi mesxiSvili ki aseTi Tanamimdevruli ar aris.

bernar utie

parizi, safrangeTi

S. Sarjveladze, Problem of Establishing of the recensions of Georgian version of Matthew'sGospel:Severalexamples(ibeWdeba). 4 ..,,,X,1904,,.18-19;.,, ,.VI, 1864; eqvTime TayaiSvili, arqeologiuri eqspedicia leCxum-svaneTSi 1910 wels, parizi, 1937, gv. 306-307. 5 ..,iqve; b.niJaraZe, svaneTis xelTnawerebi, "moambe", 1904, #9, gv.65.

3

liturgikuli xasiaTis miTiTebebi ramdenime qarTul bibliur Zvel xelnawerSi

1950 wels b-nma ilia abulaZem gamosca "saqme mociqulTas~ teqsti Zveli xelnawerebis mixedviT. am gamocemis mizani iyo, warmoedgina bibliis uZvelesi qarTuli Targmanis teqsti, misi

55

54

uZvelesi redaqcia da Semdegi reviziebic, da es SesaniSnavad gaakeTa b-nma iliam. gamouqveynebeli darCa liturgikuli sakiTxavebis miTiTebebi, romlebic moTavsebulia S-407 nusxis arSiebze da ganyofis mniSvneloba, rogorc es aris aTonis 42 nusxaSi. rogorc Cans, Zvelad arsebobda ganyofis ori didi sistema: S-407, S-1398 da S-176 nusxebi icnobs 58 ganyofas, aTonuri da sinuri xelnawerebi ki ­ 48 ganyofas. rasakvirvelia, aseT ganyofebs kavSiri aqvs wminda miwis Zvel liturgikul wesebTan. es masala sainteresoa imisaTvis, rom ukeTesad gavigoT ierusalimis qarTuli liturgiis istoria. amitom saWiroa, SevadaroT es ganyofebi kanonis sakiTxavebs.

for this, we shall have to compare these systems with the readings of the lectionary of Jerusalem.

giorgi qavTaraZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

tore del grekos qarTuli xelnawerebi

aRmosavlur qveynebTan diplomatiuri urTierTobebis gaaqtiurebaSi erT-erTi mTavari roli misionerulma moZraobam Seasrula. kaTolikuri eklesiis misioneruli moRvaweoba aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT saTaves jvarosnuli laSqrobebidan iRebs da XIX saukunemde grZeldeba. amjerad Cveni interesis sagans XVII saukunis meore naxevari warmoadgens, maSin, roca romis papma aleqsandre VII-m (1655-1667 ww.) 1661 wlis 13 ivnisis dekretiT saqarTveloSi gamogzavna kapuCinTa (ital. Cappuccino (kapuCini), laT. Capucino (kapucini) rvakaciani misioni. swored kapuCinTa ordenis warmomadgeneli iyo CvenTvis saintereso pirovneba ­ bernarde-mariam neapoleli (ital. Bernardo-Maria da Napoli; laT. Bernardus maria Neapolensis; 1629-1707 ww.). qarTul istoriografiaSi misi saxeli damkvidrda `bernarde neapoleli~-s saxiT. bagrationi mefeebis ­ vaxtagn V `Sahnavazi~-sa (1658-1676 ww.) da giorgi XI-is (1676-1688 ww.) dros saqarTveloSi moRvaweobda italieli mosioneri bernarde neapoleli, romelmac saqarTvelodan waiRo uamravi xelnaweri ­ rogorc mis mier Sedgenili da gadawerili, aseve qarTul biblioTekebSi daculi da mis mier moZiebuli. bernarde neapolelis mier saqarTvelodan waRebul xelnawerebs XIX saukunis miwuruls miakvlies avstrielma qarTvelologma hugo Suxardtma (germ. hugo Schuchardt) da qarTvelma istorikosma mixeil TamaraSvilma (laT. Michel tamarati). es xelnawerebi inaxeboda neapolis regionSi mdebare

57

bernard outtier

Paris, France

lItUrGICal INdICatIoNS IN SoME old BIBlICal GEorGIaN MaNUSCrIPtS

as early as 1950, I. abuladze gave an edition of the acts of the apostles according to old manuscripts. It is clear that the main goal of the editor was to present the older Georgian translation of this biblical text and the subsequent revisions, and I. abuladze did this wonderfully. But some liturgical indications were not published: these are either in the margin, as in ms. tbilisi S-407, and related to liturgical readings, or readings' divisions, as in ms. Iviron Georgian 42. There seems to have been two main systems for the division of the text: either 58 lessons, as in mss tbilisi S-407, S-1398 and Kutaisi 176, or 48 lessons, as in the Iviron and Sinai manuscripts. Of course, these divisions are related with liturgical readings, first of all the ones in the holy land. that is why they are useful to know better the reception of the liturgical practice of Jerusalem in the Georgian liturgy.

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sofel tore del grekoSi (ital. torre del Greco ­ sityvasityviT ­ berZnuli koSki), vulkan vezuvis maxloblad. aRniSnul xelnawerTa aRmomCenis wvlilsa da saxels Tanabrad inawileben rogorc hugo Suxardti, ise mixeil TamaraSvili, radgan XIX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi maT damoukideblad miakvlies am xelnawerebs. hugo Suxardtisa da mixeil TamaraSvilis mier mikvleuli xelnawerebis safuZvelze Cven SevecadeT, Segveswavla bernarde neapolelis misioneruli moRvaweoba saqarTveloSi. ra Tqma unda, tore del grekos qarTuli xelnawerebis aRwerasa da daxasiaTebas qarTveli mecnieri ufro safuZvlianad gadmogvcems, vidre avstrieli. Tumca maT mier Sedgenili bernarde neapolelis xelnawerebis katalogebidan irkveva, rom maT mier Catarebuli kvleva bolomde safuZvliani ar aris.

lamara qajaia

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xanmeti palimfsestebis Seswavlis istoria

1. xanmeti palimfsestebis aRmoCena da kvleva ukavSirdeba iv. javaxiSvilis saxels da saTaves iRebs gasuli saukunis ociani wlebidan. mkvlevari palimfsestebTan oqsfordis palimfsestma miiyvana, romelic cnobilma ebraistma p. kokovcovma miawoda mas gasarkvevad. es iyo orenovani fotoasli, romlis zeda teqsti, XI saukuniT daTariRebuli, warmoadgenda ebrauli Talmudis fragments, xolo qveda Seicavda ieremias winaswarmetyvelebis qarTul teqsts, V-VI ss. 2. iv. javaxiSvilma palimfsestebis gamosavlenad Seiswavla qarTuli xelnawerebi. man miakvlia ramdenime xelnawerpalimfsests (a-89, 737, 844, h-999) da gaarkvia, rom isini Seicavdnen fragmentebs Zveli da axali aRTqmidan da warmoadgendnen xanmet teqstebs, V-VI ss.

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3. xanmeti teqstebis aRmoCenam ganmarta termini `xanmeti~, romelsac Seicavda giorgi mTawmidelis redaqciiT gamarTuli oTxTavis anderZi (XI s.). terminis marTebuli interpretacia mogvca ak. SaniZem. 4. akaki SaniZis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli ,,xanmeti" da ,,haemeti" Zeglebis Semdgomi aRmoCena da Seswavla. esenia ,,xanmeti mravalTavi" da ,,ierusalimis ganCineba". mkvlevarma am ukanasknels ,,haemeti" uwoda, vinaidan teqsts ,,x"-s nacvlad ,,h"-s xmareba axasiaTebda, orive Zegli VIII saukuniT daaTariRa da gamosca. ak. SaniZes ekuTvnis agreTve kembrijis xanmeti fragmentebis gamocemac. 5. SemdgomSi xanmet teqstebze muSaobas agrZelebs il. abulaZe. mas ganzraxuli hqonda, iv. javaxiSvilis amokiTxuli masala Seevso da xelaxla gamoeca. muSaobis procesSi mkvlevarma miakvlia ,,qristinas wamebis" ucnob teqsts. man ver moaswro misi Seswavla. 6. xanmeti teqstebis mimarT interesi ar Sewyvetila. il. abulaZis dawyebuli saqme Cven gavagrZeleT. Cven mier Seswavlilia yvela xanmeti teqsti saqarTvelosa da venis nacionaluri biblioTekisa, gamovlenilia axali masala. axleburadaa gaSuqebuli xanmet palimfsestTa urTierTobisa da Sedgenilobis sakiTxebi da sxv. 7. xanmet teqstebze muSaoba mimdinareobda sazRvargareTac. birmingemis universitetis profesorma j. n. berZolma Seiswavla venis nacionaluri biblioTekis qarTuli palimfsesti. am xelnaweridan man gamosca iakobis pirvelsaxareba, ezras I wignisa da oTxTavis fragmentebi. mainis frankfurtis universitetis profesorma iost gipertma Cveni da z. sarjvelaZis monawileobiT gamosca venis nacionaluri biblioTekis xelnawer-palimfsestidan xanmeti teqstebi. amJamad Cven gamosacemad vamzadebT xanmeti teqstebis korpuss.

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a.a.s. ten Kate

Bergen op Zoom. Netherlands

4 5

id. it vg sy arm eth diatl; Clalmin.:«inGod». id.itvgsybo;grL:«theGod»;geooc lgeolt:«merti»; geoa t:«mert».

thE tEXtUal affIlIatIoN of thE GoSPEl of JohN IN a GEorGIaN lECtIoNary

the Paris-lectionary is is very well edited in tbilisi in 1997. It contains a very large part of all the lessons of the Church-year. We have looked to the parts of the Gospel of John occurring in it and have compared them with the old Georgian Bible Manuscripts edited by Blake and Brière in Patrologia orientalis. So we hope to make this lectionary available to a broader range of specialists. this research is very fruitfull. In almost every verse of the Gospel, there are variants that have affinities with different textual witnesses of the New Testament. Mostly they side with the Georgian tradition known from the opiza and tbeti-manuscripts; and inside this one, mostly with the opza-manuscript. But there are also many examples where it sides just with the tbeti-manuscript. to make it even more complicated, there are also many variants shared only with the adish-manuscript. Even in one and the same verse, appear different textual affiliations.Apartfromthis,therearealsoverymanyuniquereadings,someshared with one or more Greek traditions, but some also only with one other version. So thepictureofthetextualaffiliationisrathercomplicatedforthismanuscript. We shall try to give you an impression of this textual diversity by taking examples from different verses of the Gospel of John. to avoid confusion we shall translate all the texts concerned as literally as possible. 1:ExampleofuniquenessofthewholeGeorgiantradition: John1,1: Greek:«InbeginningwasthewordandthewordwasnearGod,andGodwas the word». lgeolt:«1Fromfirstwas 2a word and 3the word was 4with God, God5 was the word».

«pirvelitgan»:id.geo; EthQ4.1:«first»;armCarm1Jn aphrarm:«frombeginning»;itvg orJer Jn:«inprinciple»;eth:«itsbeginning»;Diatv:«always». 2 id. it vg sy geo(«sit'q'ay») lGr; diatlmg v t:«sonofGod»;EthAphrarm(pt):«avoice». 3 «sit'q'ay igi»:id.gr;syc p diatl h C lGr aphrarm Nst44:«thatword»;eth:«thatvoice».

1

2:Differencebetweengeoa and the geoo t + lgeolt: John1,2: Greek:«thisonewasinbeginningneartheGod». lgeolt:«1this one was 2fromfirst3with God».

1 2

3

sa:«thisinbeginning»;eth:«andlikeit». id. geoo t(«pirvelitgan»); etha diatP:«itsbeginning»;armgeoa(«dasabamitgan») ethCc d lpal Nhvii2.5 aphrsy arm:«frombeginning»;itvgAug:«inprinciple». id. sa bo geo(«mertisa tana») lGr am;itvgsyarm:«nearGod».

3:Uniquevariant,togetherwithdifferencefromgeoa and geoo t in one and thesameverse: John1,3: Greek:«allthingshappenedthroughhim,andwithouthimnotevenonething happened, that has happened». lgeolt:«1all whatever was made through him2, 3without him 4not even one thing 5 was made, 6which were ever made».

1 2 3 4 5 6

id. arm geoa o(«q'ovelive»); geot:«all»(«q'oveli»). gr(incl. geoa o t)add:«and». geoa:«outsidehim»(«missa garese»). gr P66 d 1 1071 1585* f1 it vg geoa(«ara ray») Clalmin. orJn13.118(pt):«nothing». geoo t:«wascreated»(«seikmna»). id. geoo t («ravdeni-ray ikmna»); geoa: «which ever was made» («romel ray ikmna»).

4:UniquevarianttowardsGreek: 21,23: Greek:«Thuswentoutthiswordtothebrothersthatthatdiscipledoesnotdie; andJesussaidhimnot,thathedoesnotdie,but:ifIwanthimtostaytillIcome, what is to you?». lgeoP:«And1 went out this word among2 the brothers, that 3the disciple 4would not die, and5 not said Jesus him that6hewouldnotdie,but:If7I may want 8that one to be, till 9I, for me, shall come10».

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61

id. ita min. sys p arm geo(«da») diatP a lGr am thMsy; sa132 boBodmbo:«however»;saM bot diatt:om. 2 id. itmaj. vgmin. sys p sa boBodm bo geoo t(«soris») diath C v t P a thMsy aug; geoa: «mimart». 3 id. sys geo(«moc'apey igi»);arm:«thisdisciple»;grP122:«thediscipleofthatone». 4 id. ita b arm geo(«mok'udes») diatl h C t P ac lGr am; itc sa boBodm bo datv am:«willnot die». 5 id.grADKMUsf1 M 2 69 118 124 157 565 700 1071 1346 1424 ita e maj. vg syh arm geo(«da») diath C v t a lGr am geoP aug; diatl:«andhowever»;gr69 124 1346 ita aur romit:«him»;samaj. bomin. diatP:om. 6 sy geoa:omit. 7 id. eth geo(«mindes»); sa boBodmbo:«Ishouldwish»;itff diath C tomit:«if»;ita min. vgM G diatl v lGr amAug:«soIwish»;armadds:«forme». 8 id. arm geo(«magisi»); lgeopomits:«that»(«vitarmed»). 9 geoa:«tillmyarrival»(«cemda moslvadmde»); geoo t:«thearrivalofme»(«moslvad cemdamde»); lgeopadds:«forme»(«me»). 10 gr * C2 1 565 1582* ita e maj. sys arm boBodmboadd:«whatisforyou?»;saadds: «whoareyou?»;syp h thMsyadd:«whatdoyouhave?»;itcAugadd:«you,foryou,

1

6:Affinitywithgeoo,mainly: Jn21,25: Greek: «There are, however, many other things, that Jesus did, that, if they would be written one by one, I think, the world even not would contain the written books». lgeoP:«And1 2even many other signs, which3 Jesus did, 4which, if even they would be written down one by one, 5not yet, 6I think, that7 this8 world 9would contain 10upwritten writings11».

id. sys geoo t(«da») etha diatP a; gr: «however»; ita maj. bomin.: «and however»; orJn13.27:«for»;sa104 diatl v t:om. 2 id. itb r c geoo(«sxuanica»); etha diath C:«muchother»;sa132:«otherthings»;geot: «much other miracle»(«scuaca mraval sasc'aul»); diatP: «very many other miracles». 3 gr a C3DKMUWs f1 M 2 69 124 157 565 700 1071 1424 geoa:«so many that»; ita e maj.:om.;itb diatladd:«thatarenotwritteninthisbook». 4 («romelni, uk'uetumca»);gr:«which»;geo:«ifwhenever»(«romeli tumca»);eth: «andwhen»;sabo:«these»;Diath C:«for,who»;Diatl:«for,if»;DiatP:«if». 5 («ara»); gr: om.; arm geoa(«vermeca»): «not also»; geoo t: «never yet»(«arcaa»). 6 id. gr (incl. geoo)(«vegoneb»); sys geoa t:om. 7 id. geoo(«vitarmca»);gr:om. 8 id. syp h arm geo(«ese») thMsy;gr:«the». 9 id. geo(«dait'a»);grcBC*:«willcontain»;ita e maj.vgAug:«contains»;sys p (arm) thMsy:«wouldbesufficienttocontain(bear)»;ita q boBodmbo:«wouldnot be able to contain»; diatl h C:«shouldnotberefrainedfromtheworld»;sys:«.. contain these». 10 id. armM* geoo t(«ac'erili c'ignebi»); armE M geoa:«thewrittenbooks»(«dacerili c'ignebi»); sys:omitsthismention. 11 grKMUsM 2 69 124 157 565 700 1071 1424 itmin. vgmaj.(Aug)geoo ethCb Eadd:«amen».

1

follow me!».

5:Affinitymainlywithgeoa: 21,24: Greek:«Thisisthedisciplewhitnessingaboutthesethingsandhavingwritten these things, and we know that true is his witness. lgeoP:«Thisisthedisciple1, who witnesses about him2 3and who wrote this; 4we know that true is his witness».

1 2

3

4

id. geoa(«moc'apey»); geoo t:(«moc'ape»). id. geoa(«mis»); geoo diatl h C:«thisone»(«amis»); syh arm geot:«these»(«amat»); samin. eth diatv t acomit:«about»;itff:«me»;ite:«Jesus». id. gr B W syp geoo t lgeop(«da romelman») thMsy; gr *ABCDKMUWs fM 2 157 565 700 1071 1424 itaur f vg sys sa boBodm bo diatl h C t lamAug:«and»; gr 133691241346syp h saM boBodm bomin. arm geoa(«romelmanca») orJn32.261: «whoalso»;Diatv P lGr:omitthisclause. lgeop omits:«and»;grP122:«all»;LgeoP:«vicit»; geoa:«weunderstand»(uc'q'it»); geoo:«Iknow»(«vici»); geot:«heunderstands»(«uc'q'is»); diatab:«youknow»; diatl:omitslastpart.

7:Liturgicalvariant: Jn17,1: Greek:«ThesethingsspokeJesus» lgeoP:«This1 spoke the lord ..».

1

id. arm geo(«ese») diatl h C t a.

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63

8:Simplifyingvariant: Greek:«Letyourheartnotbeshocked;believeinGodandbelieveinme!». lgeoP:«Yourhearts1 2are not shocked; believe in me !».

1 2

nino qimeriZe, Tamar WumburiZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

id. arm geoa(«gulni») diath v a. «sedzrc'undebian»; itmin. vg syp thMsyAug: «will not be troubled»; sa boBodm bo diatl a:«letnotbetroubled»;LGr:«maynotbesad»;sys:«shouldnothaste»;gr 1071 ite lamadd:«norfearing».

germanuli xelnawerebi saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi

saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnuli centris fondSi `varia~ Tavmoyrili germanuli xelnawerebis enobrivi principiT dalagebam dRis wesrigSi daayena dacul germanul xelnawerTa gadaxedva da Sesabamisi kriteriumebis mixedviT maTi sistematizacia-dalageba. zemoxsenebuli koleqcia mcirericxovania (18 erTeuli), magram teqstobrivi monacemebis mixedviT, is sainteresoa rogorc germanuli filologiis sferoSi momuSave mkvlevarTaTvis, aseve istorikosTa da wyaroTmcodneTaTvis. aRniSnuli xelnawerebi am etapze, faqtobrivad, ar aris detalurad Seswavlili da dRemde ucnobia rogorc qarTuli, ise ucxouri samecniero sazogadoebisaTvis. xelnawerTa Seswavlis pirvel etapze warmarTulma samuSaoebma aCvena, rom maTSi mocemuli faqtobrivi masalis gamo gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs: doqt. gustav rades mogzaurobis Canawerebi, liturgikuli teqstebi (maT Soris ­ erTi palimfsesti), avstriuli da prusiuli sigelebi, g. Smidtis naSromi kavkasiuri enebis Sesaxeb, oficialuri mimarTva kavkasiis mefisnacvlisadmi da misT. amJamad Catarebulia zemoxsenebuli xelnawerebis winaswari sistematizacia-aRwera. xelnawerebs gaukeTda paginacia. Semdgom etapze, rac iTvaliswinebs zemoxsenebuli koleqciis akademiur aRweras, igegmeba: konkretul xelnawerTa komentireba: teqstSi mocemul pirTa da saganTa registri. teqstobrivi monacemebis mokvlevis safuZvelze Sejerdeba da dazustdeba registris Semadgeneli TiToeuli ganmarteba;

9:Theologicalremarkablevariants: Jn1,18: Greek:«NoonesaweverGod;anonlybornGod,whoisintothebosomofthe father, that one explained him ». lgeoP*: «Never someone saw God, except1 2the only-born, who was at the breasts of the father, he announced».

id. gr Ws ita e maj. arm geoa(«garna») diatl C P armKh53add:«unless»;geoo t:«but» («aramed»). 2 («mxolod- sobilman»); id. orJer15 CyrJer; gr P66 75 B C* l Ws syp boBodm bo geot(«mxolod-sobilman mertman») etha diata Nhviii.1.39 Clalmaj. orJer32.364: «the only begotten God»; gr a C3fM 2 28 157 565 579 700 1071 1424 itmaj. vg syc h arm geoa o(«mxolod- sobilman dzeman») diatl C h t P Ephr lGr am [geop] Cthh Clalmin. thMsy gr Nst208 Nhi.5 armKh53:«theonlybegottenson»;sa:«Godtheonlyson»;ita: «hisonlyson»;itq:«theonlybegottensonofGod».

1

Conclusion Thetextualcharacterofthisremarkablemanuscriptisdifficulttoassign.The great number of variants points to a stage where no more the majority of Georgian Bible-manuscripts was followed, but for the sake of clarity, it went its own way. When the Georgian text was not clear enough, there is a tendency to approach the Greek text. Many simplifying variants point in the direction of the liturgical use of the text as the origin of this manuscript. the variant in nr. 9 shows a stage of notdeciding in the discussion of christology in the Early Church.

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miznobrivad SerCeuli, Seswavlili da komentirebuli xelnawerebis transliterirebuli versiebi iTargmneba, raTa SemdgomSi isini mkvlevarTaTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxdes, rogorc wyaro; konsultaciebi germanel kolegebTan teqstobriv da enobriv monacemTa Seswavlis Semdgom zogierTi xelnaweris TariRis dazustebis mizniT; Seswavlili da komentirebuli xelnawerebi momzaddeba gamosacemad.

ciala qurcikiZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

Zveli aRTqmis wignTa qarTuli Targmanebis gamocemisa da Seswavlis istoriisTvis

qarTul enaze Zveli aRTqmis wignebis uZvelesi Targmanebia daculi. calkeuli xelnawerebis mixedviT maTi gamocema da Seswavla adrec xorcieldeboda (n.mari, briuri, r.bleiki, a. SaniZe, st. Cxenkeli). 1. xelnawerTa institutis gaxsnasTan erTad ilia abulaZem miznad daisaxa am wignebis yvela arsebuli nusxis mixedviT gamocema. man 60-iani wlebis dasawyisSi institutis mecnier TanamSromelTagan Seadgina jgufi, romelic am TemiT iqneboda dakavebuli. jgufSi Sediodnen: TviTon ilia abulaZe, baqar gigineiSvili, nargiza goguaZe, cotne kikviZe, gulnaz kiknaZe, ciala qurcikiZe, uCa cindeliani. amave Temaze institutis gareT muSaobdnen: korneli danelia, elene doCanaSvili, zurab sarjvelaZe, mzeqala SaniZe, Tina cqitiSvili. 2. teqstis gamosacemad momzadebaze muSaoba ZiriTadad 1969 wlisTvis damTavrda. daiwyo gamocemaze zrunvac. am droisTvis mzeqala SaniZes ukve hqonda gmocemuli fsalmuni (1960w.), 1970 wels Cven gamovaqveyneT Zveli aRTqmis eqvsi arakanonikuri

66

wigni, T. cqitiSvilma 1978 wels gamosca ezekielis wigni, elene doCanaSvilma 1981-86 wlebSi ­ sulxan-saba orbelianis biblia (a-51), korneli daneliam 1995 wels ieremias wigni. teqstebi gamoqveynda saTanado gamokvlevebiTurT. 1989-91 wlebSi moxerxda pirveli rva wigneulis gamocema. amis Semdeg gamocema aRar gagrZelebula. 3. teqstebis Seswavlis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom Zveli aRTqma qarTul enaze samjer uTargmniaT. uZvelesi, V-VI saukuneebSi Targmnili, teqsti ase Tu ise sruli saxiT daculia oSkis bibliaSi (ath.1) da mis mimyol xelnawerebSi, XII s-is e.w. gelaTuri Targmani 27 wignisa Semogvenaxa a-179, a-1108 da Q-1152 xelnawerebSi, xolo sxva 22 wignis XVIII saukunis Targmani slavuridan ­ baqaris bibliaSi. 4. redaqcia ZiriTadad ori gamoikveTa: xsenebul 27 wignSi erTmaneTis paralelurad dadga oSkisa da gelaTis redaqciebi, danarCen 22 wignSi ki oSkisa da baqariseuli redaqciebi. arsebobs sami redaqcia: ori uZvelesi, erTmaneTze damokidebuli da mesame ­ giorgi aTonelis Targmani. ramdenime wignSi gamoiyo 3 (Sesaqme) da 4 (gamosvlaTa, ricxvTa, mefeTa oTxive wigni) redaqciac. mesame da meoTxe redaqciebSi oSkuri teqstis Semdgomi gadamuSavebis Sedegad aris miRebuli. fsalmunTa wigni arc erT zemoT CamoTvlil xelnawerSi ar dasturdeba, rogorc damoukidebeli moxmarebis wigni, igi damoukideblad Cans Targmnili. 5. teqstebze muSaobam gviCvena, rom Zveli aRTqmis wignTa umravlesoba qarTul enaze berZnulidan momdinareobs. mMxolod ramdenime wignis warmomavlobaa gaurkveveli, radgan isini am TvalsazrisiT jerjerobiT Seswavlili ar aris. dReisaTvis xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi gamosacemad mzadaa Zveli aRTqmis wignebis sruli teqsti.

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irma yaraulaSvili

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

ratom Cndeba N/Sin-50-is siriel mamaTa cxovrebis uZveles redaqciaSi Taviseburi cnobebi edesis mandilionisa da hierapolisis keramidionis Sesaxeb?

moxsenebaSi ganxiluli iqneba N/Sin-50-Si, siriel mamaTa cxovrebis uZveles redaqciaSi (ioane zedaznelisa da mowafeTa saqmeni) motanili cnoba, romlis Tanaxmadac ezderioz samTaviselma da Teodosios mrexelma, romlebic dasaxelebuli arian saqarTveloSi VI saukunis I naxevarSi mosul 12 siriel mamaTa Soris, `ganiZraxes, ra¡Tamca xatisa mis wil macxovrisa xatebi gaweres sasurvelad. da Tevdosios Semzada kedeli, xolo ezderioz Seqmna ficari...~ moxsenebaSi gaSuqebuli iqneba is paralelebi, romlebic qarTul teqsts, romelsac misi gamomcemeli, b-ni zaza aleqsiZe, X saukuniT aTariRebs (xolo mis prototips ki ufro adreulad miiCnevs) eZebneba rogorc adreul siriul literaturaSi, agreTve bizantiur da laTinur werilobiT tradiciebSi. mecnierTa azriT, edesaSi arsebuli realuri xati legendarul aRwerilobas ar Seesabameboda. kristofer valteris varaudiT, es iyo mxatvruli gamosaxuleba, romelsac Tavad edesis xatTan saerTo araferi hqonda. herbert kesleris Tanaxmad, edesis xatis mxatvrul modelad aRebuli iyo clipeata portreti, romelic popularuli iyo jer kidev antikur periodSi da agreTve kargad iyo cnobili xatmebrZolobis Semdgom periodSic, rogorc WeSmariti xatis amsaxveli simbolo. adreuli aRmosavlur-qristianuli (siriuli da arabuli) wyaroebis mixedviT, qristes edesis xati daxatuli iyo, Tanac, savaraudod, ficarze. rogorc averil kameronma (runsimanis Semdeg) aRniSna, safiqrebelia, rom Tavdapirvelad edesis xati

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arasodes yofila tiloze aRbeWdili da igi, albaT, arasodes gansxvavdeboda qristes sxva Zvirfasi xatebisagan. rac Seexeba cnobas qristes sruli figuris xelTuqmneli gamosaxulebis Sesaxeb, qarTveli avtoris mier gadmocemuli ambis tipologiurad msgavsi Txrobani dasturdeba rogorc bizantiur tradiciaSi (egnate beris avtorobiT cnobili Txroba salonikSi hosios daviTis eklesiaSi qristes gamosaxulebis gamoCenis Sesaxeb, romelsac mkvlevarni XII saukuniT aTariReben), agreTve laTinurenovan samyaroSic (lateranis Sancta Sanctorum acheropita-d cnobili xatis irgvliv Seqmnili Txzulebani). katarina kavanis Tanaxmad, berZnul tradiciaSi msgavsi gadmocemis Semcveli teqstis avtorebs Tvalwin hqondaT raRac gansakuTrebuli gamosaxuleba, romelzec/romelsac maT Txroba SeTxzes/moarges. me ki, qarTveli istorikosis cnobebisa da lateranis xatis Sesaxeb arsebuli literaturuli tradiciis gaTvaliswinebiT, gamovTqvam mosazrebas, rom VIII-IX saukuneebisaTvis (an, SesaZloa, ufro adrec) arsebobda garkveuli tradicia qristes srultaniani xelTuqmneli gamosaxulebis Sesaxeb. amdenad, SeiZleba gamovTqvaT mosazreba, rom asurel mamaTa cxovrebis uZvelesi redaqciis avtori, SesaZloa, ar icnobs bizantiur tradicias edesis xatis tiloze aRbeWdvis Sesaxeb, magram icnobs da iyenebs qristianul samyaroSi arsebul sxva gadmocemebs qristes xelTuqmneli gamosaxulebebis Sesaxeb. savaraudod, avtori Segnebulad mimarTavs am modelebs, vinaidan, misi nawarmoebis Tanaxmad, xelTuqmneli xati da freska arc siriidan iyo saqarTveloSi Camotanili da arc originalTan uSualo kontaqtis Sedegad warmoqmnili; isini adgilze saswaulebrivad iqna gamosaxuli.

69

lela SaTiriSvili, Tea qarTveliSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

polemikuri Txzuleba `£seneba¡ sity¢sgebisa¡ da sasjelisa¡ SjulisaT¢s qristianeTa¡sa da sarkinozTa~ (istoriul-filologiuri analizi)

1. XII saukuneSi saqarTvelom Tavi daaRwia islamuri saxelmwifoebis agresias da Tavad gadavida Setevaze, Tumca TavisTavad samxedro konfrontaciis arseboba or mxares Soris antagonistur damokidebulebas ar anelebda. samxedro konfrontacias, Tavis mxriv, ideologiuri konfrontacia asazrdoebda, rac ZiriTadad religiuri niSniT mimdinareobda. aRniSnuli periodis qarTul saistorio Tu mxatvrul mwerlobaSi islami odiozuradaa Sefasebuli da, cxadia, xdeba mahmadianTa rjulis diskreditacia. muslimanuri qveynebis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli da gamarjvebuli qveyana saWiroebda sakuTari religiuri upiratesobebis warmoCenasa da mowinaaRmdegis sarwmunoebis damcirebas. saerTo viTarebidan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, rom am dros gaCnda saWiroeba, qarTulad eTargmnaT antimahmadianuri polemikuri Txzulebebi, amasTan, iqmneba originaluri polemikuri nawarmoebic. 2. Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi XII-XIII ss-is sayovelTaod cnobil krebul `dogmatikonSi~ Tavmoyril TargamanebSi, romlebic arsen vaCesZes, anu arsen iyalToels, ekuTvnis, ukanasknel, samocdameTormete, sakiTxavad warmodgenilia antimahmadianuri polemikuri Txzuleba `£seneba¡ sity¢sgebisa¡ da sasjelisa¡ SjulisaT¢s qristianeTa da sarkinozTa~, romelSic kiTxva-migebis formiT aRwerilia sarkinoz iamame xelmwifesa da qarTvel marTlmadidebel bers Soris gamarTuli kamaTi dogmatikur sakiTxebze. Txzuleba krebulSi anonimuradaa daculi; masTan dakavSirebiT ismis ori sakiTxi: a) Txzuleba originaluria; b) avtori SeiZleba iyos Tavad arsen iyalToeli da masve damamTavrebel sakiTxavad Seutania aRniSnuli sakiTxavi `dogmatikonSi~.

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3. Txzuleba, rogorc Cans, didi mowonebiT sargeblobda. igi, arsen vaCesZis `dogmatikonis~ garda, Sesulia sxvadasxva dogmatikur-polemikur krebulSi, romlebic gamokrebilia gadamwerTa mier damkveTTa miTiTebebis mixedviT. dResdReobiT cnobilia XII- XVIII ss. gadawerili rva nusxa (S-1463, K-23, Q-50, h-1000, h-137, S-248, S-312, a-1132), romlebic Seicavs zemoaRniSnul traqtats. kvlevis Sedegad gamoikveTa nusxaTa amgvari urTierTmimarTeba: a) moRweul nusxaTa arqetips unda warmoadgendes S-1463 an is xelnaweri, saidanac gadaiwera Cvenamde moRweuli yvelaze adreuli xelnaweri. b) moRweul nusxaTa ikiTxvisebi, variantuli cvlilebebi SeiZleba momdinareobdes teqstis im dednebidan, romlebiTac isini sargeblobdnen, an gadamwerTa Segnebuli Tu meqanikuri sworebis Sedegi. g) nusxebSi mravladaa orTografiuli sxvaobani, rac umTavresad ganapirobebs kidec maT gansxvavebulobas. 4. avtori kargad icnobs antimahmadianur polemikur literaturas. nawarmoebSi dasmulia is sadavo sakiTxebi, romlebzec polemika mimdinareobda qristianTa da muslimanTa Soris, magram argumentebi Tavisi originalobiT gamoirCeva. mopaeqre qristiani amJRavnebs ara mxolod Rrma qristianul Teologiur ganswavlulobas, aramed SesaniSnavad icnobs yurans. dava mimdinareobs samebis dogmatze, ieso qristes RvTaebrivi bunebis Sesaxeb, qalwul mariamis RvTismSoblobaze, muhamedis crumociqulobis Taobaze da a. S. nawarmoebi agebulia qristianuli da islamuri moZRvrebebis Sepirispirebis qargaze. aRsanaSnavia, rom polemika mimdinareobs muslimanTan erTad mogvi varskvlavTmricxvelis winaaRmdegac, rac, rogorc irkveva, damaxasiaTebeli iyo aRniSnuli periodis qarTuli literaturisTvis, amasTan, avtori xazs usvams qristianobis erovnul xasiaTs. TxzulebaSi naklebadaa damowmebuli citatebi Zveli da axali aRTqmidan. analogiebis moxmobis safuZvelze, kiTxva-migebiT, logikuri msjelobis gziT mowinaaRmdege CixSi emwyvdeva da aRiarebs qristianobis WeSmaritebas.

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ramaz Sengelia, nani xelaia

Tbilisis saxelmwifo samedicino universiteti. saqarTvelo

medicinis istoriisa da bioeTikis departamenti

informaciam tradiciuli medicinis (tm) Sesaxeb moaRwia umniSvnelovanesi wyaros meSveobiT ­ werilobiTi Zeglebis gziT. Zveli samedicino xelnawerebi gvevlineba Tavisi epoqis mecnierul medicinad, romelmac gauZlo mraval saukunes da miCneulia e.w. `dadasturebul medicinad~ ("Evidence Based Medicine"). maT umetes SemTxvevaSi hyavT avtorebi. bevri qveyana, romelTac ar aqvT Zveli samedicino xelnaweri Tu nabeWdi wignebi, mimarTaven e.w. `xalxur mkurnalebs~, an iyeneben xalxis mexsierebaSi SemorCenil samkurnalo meTodebsa da saSualebebs. saqarTvelos tm moicavs uZveles mecnierul medicinas. am fenomenis kulturuli da praqtikuli mniSvnelobis Seswavla daiwyo jer kidev XIX s. 60-ian wlebSi. qarTuli samedicino Sinaarsis xelnawerTagan Seswavlili da gamoqveynebulia l. kotetiSvilis mier X s. qananelis `usworo karabadini~ (1940), XIII s. xojayofilis `wigni saaqimo¡~ (1936), XVI s. daviT bagrationis `iadigar daudi~ (1938), jer m. saakaSvilisa da i. abulaZis (1950), xolo Semdeg m. Sengelias mier (1959, 1978) iqna gamoqveynebuli XVs. moRvawis zaza fanaskertel-ciciSvilis `samkurnalo wigni ­ karabadini~. es Zeglebi gvevlinebian Tavisi drois Sedevrebad. isini saintereso arian rogorc kulturologiuri fenomeni, praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT ki aqvT gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba, rac ganpirobebulia: a) anatomiur-fiziologiuri codnis maRali doniT, b) daavadebaTa klinikuri suraTis aRweris sisruliT, g) daxvewili da zusti recepturiT, d) samkurnalo mcenareTa gamoyenebis farTo speqtriT, maT Soris -endemuri saxeobebis, e) cxoveluri da mineraluri warmoSobis mravalferovani resursebis gamoyenebiT. 1997 wels Tbilisis saxelmwifo samedicino universitetis (Tssu) mecnierTa jgufma r. Sengelias xelmZRvanelobiT

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rubrikiT `qarTuli samedicino saunje~ xelaxla gamosca X s. qananelis `usworo karabadini~ (tomi I), romlis teqsti gamosacemad moamzada d. kuxianiZem, xolo leqsikoni gadaamuSava n. xelaiam. maTive iniciativiT ganaxlebuli gamocemisaTvis momzadebulia XIII s. xojayofilis `wigni saaqimo¡~ (tomi II). 1975-1980 ww. Cven mier m. Sengelias xelmZRvanelobiT aRinusxa 500-ze meti qarTuli samedicino xelnaweri (qsx), romlebic daculia saqarTvelos sxvadasxva qalaqis wignsacavebSi da romelTa mixedviTac Seswavlil iqna medicinis sxvadasxva dargis ganviTarebis istoria. 1980-1984 ww. qsx-Tagan n. xelaiam SearCia da Seiswavla iqna originaluri nimuSebi: XVI-XVII ss. `karabadini kargi da margebeli~, XVII s. `abram mwerlis karabadini~, XVIII s. `saeqimo wigni~ (xelnawerTa erovnuli fondi h-414, h-916, h-3045), XVIII s. `azrumelis cnobari~ (medicinis istoriis muzeumi 46 ­ 6). qsx-Si mocemuli masalis gamoyenebiT Cven mier ganxorcielebul iqna ramdenime proeqti: `saqarTvelos tm-Si gamoyenebul bss-Ta kartografireba~ (1993-1995); `tradiciuli medicinis sainformacio baza da analizi~ (1997-1998); `sicocxlis gaxangrZliveba da misi xarisxis gaumjobeseba kavkasiuri dRegrZelobisa da saqarTvelos tm-is safuZvelze~ (2004-2007). Cven mier Catarebuli kvlevis siaxle mdgomareobs SemdegSi: 1998-2004 ww. Seiqmna qsx-Ta unikaluri, aRwerilobiTi xasiaTis katalogis eleqtronuli versia, sadac, teqnikuri monacemebis garda, aris informacia Sinaarsis Sesaxeb, kerZod, mowodebulia, daavadebaTa saZiebeli, rac xels Seuwyobs medicinis sxvadasxva dargis mkvlevrebs maTTvis saintereso masalis mizanmimarTul moZiebaSi. katalogi arasrulia, radgan Sesaswavlia saqarTvelos sapatriarqos arqivebi da fondebi, sxvadasxva muzeumsa da kerZo koleqciebSi daculi nimuSebi da xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi 1980 wlidan Sesuli xelnawerebi; gaSifrulia uZvelesi receptebi, dadgenilia bunebriv samkurnalo saSualebaTa (bss) dasaxelebebi maTi identificirebis mizniT, mowodebulia maTi Tanamedrove dasaxeleba; iqmneba n. xelaias mier Seswavlili XVI ­ XVIII ss-is qsx-Ta teqstebis, komentarebisa da erTiani leqsikonis eleqtronuli

73

versia, momavalSi vgegmavT maT gamoqveynebas, romlebic Sevlen `qarTuli samedicino saunjis~ tomeulebSi erT-erT wignad, saTauriT `XVI ­ XVIII saukuneebis oTxi qarTuli samedicino xelnaweri~; qsx-Si moxseniebul bss-Ta aprioruli Sefasebisa da SeswavlisaTvis r. Sengelias mier Seiqmna specialuri kompiuteruli programa ­ remedies Estimating Program, romlis daxmarebiT dadginda, zogadad, bss da konkretuli daavadebebis mimarT maTi e. w. `sandoobis koeficienti~, romlis gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia monacemTa bazis SeqmnisaTvis da momavalSi saimedo bssTa samedicino praqtikaSi gamosayeneblad.

gaga SurRaia

veneciis saxelmwifo universiteti ,,ka' foskari~

tore del grekos bernarde neapoleliseuli xelnawerebi

naSromSi Seswavlilia neapolis axlos, vezuvis mTis Ziras mdebare daba tore del grekos franciskanel kapucinel berTa dRes ukve gauqmebul monasterSi 1936 wlamde dacul da Semdeg neapolis erovnul biblioTekaSi gadatanil bernarde neapoleliseul xelnawerTa istoria da gaanalizebulia maTi Sedgeniloba. 1. tore del greko pirvelad 1019 wlis 23 maisiT daTariRebul etratSi ixsenieba. 1560 wels tore del grekos universitetma tomazo kuCinielosa da ferdinando brankaCosagan SeiZina miwis nakveTi da saCuqrad gadasca kapucinel berebs, romlebmac 1574 wels aaSenes monasteri da xarebis eklesia. am savanem mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula ara marto tore del grekos, aramed, sazogadod, samxreT italiis kulturul cxovrebasa da kaTolikuri eklesiis samisionero moRvaweobaSi.

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1861 wels italiis gaerTianebis Semdeg, monastrebis daxurvis Sesaxeb gamocemuli kanonis Tanaxmad, monasteri oficialurad gauqmda. 1867 wels misi Senoba gadavida tore del grekos meriis gamgeblobaSi, romelmac igi imave wels sargeblobaSi gadasca wminda francisk asizelis stigmatebis saxelobis ordenis franciskaneli monazvnebis mier mowyobil uwmindesi samebis saxelobis upatrono bavSvTa TavSesafars. 1879 wlis 13 seqtembers es monazvnebi alkantarelma franciskanelma monazvnebma Secvales, romlebic aq 1977 wlamde imyofebodnen; 2. tore del grekos monasterSi moRvaweobda qarTveli sazogadoebisaTvis kargad cnobili kapucineli beri bernarde maria neapoleli (1628-2.02.1797), eriskacobaSi antonio Cofi an Cofo, romelic 1670-1677 wlebSi imyofeboda saqarTveloSi. man saucxood Seiswavla qarTuli ena da imdroindeli saqarTvelos Sesaxeb unikaluri masalebi dagvitova qarTul da italiur enebze. rogorc saqarTveloSi mis sulier SvilebTan da axlobel-megobrebTan mimowera mowmobs, mas arc 1677 wels neapolSi dabrunebisa da 1686 wels ordenis neapolis provinciis winamZRolad arCevis Semdegac gauwyvetia Cvens qveyanasTan kontaqti. aRsaniSnavia, rom misi qarTuli xelnawerebi, rogorc kapucinelTa wignsacavis yvelaze Zvirfasi nawili, alkantarel dedaTa iRumenis zedamxedvelobis qveS datoves maSin, rodesac 1896 wels, monasterSi im dros daculi toreli istorikosis franCesko kastaldoseuli katalogis mixedviT 2.649 nabeWdi wigni gadaitanes jer tore del grekos meriaSi, xolo Semdeg ­ tore del grekos komunalur biblioTekaSi. italiis erovnuli ganaTlebis saministros 1935 wlis 20 noembris gadawyvetilebiT, meriam 1936 wlis 7 Tebervals es xelnawerebi Sesanaxad gadasca neapolis erovnul samefo biblioTekas (dRevandeli neapolis erovnuli biblioTeka), sadac dRemde inaxeba SifriT "XX.122"; 3. qarTvelma sazogadoebam tore del grekos xelnawerTa arsebobis Sesaxeb Seityo 1896 wels, rodesac cnobilma avstrielma qarTvelologma, hugo Suxardtma Jurnal ,,iveriaSi` gamoaqveyna mis mier imave wels germanul gazeT "Beilage zur allgemeinen Zeitung"-Si (zogadi gazeTis damateba) dastambuli mokle angariSis qarTuli redaqcia. qarTveli sazogadoebisaTvis,

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aseve, cnobilia zemoaRniSnul xelnawerTa mixeil TamaraSviliseuli CamonaTvalic, romelic mogvianebiT Sesrulda. sinamdvileSi arsebobs am xelnawerTa rogorc Suxardtamdeli, ise mixeil TamaraSvilis Semdgom Sedgenili pirveladi aRwerilobani, romelTac didi mniSvneloba aqvs bernarde neapoleliseuli xelnawerebis istoriis bundovani sakiTxebis garkvevisaTvis; 4. tore del grekos bernarde neapoleliseuli xelnawerebis Sesaxeb pirvel, metad sayuradRebo kodikologiur monacemebs Seicavs kapucineli beris apolinare valenselis 1886 wels dastambuli tomi ,,neapolis provinciis kapucinel ZmaTa biblioTeka`, sadac miTiTebulia bernarde neapolelis xelnawerTa TerTmeti saarqivo erTeuli. aq CamoTvlilia ara marto xelnawerebi, aramed ­ nabeWdi wignebic. isini dawerilia qarTul da italiur enebze; 5. mogvianebiT sakvlevi xelnawerebis CamonaTvali Seadgines: hugo Suxardtma ­ 1896 wels (11 dasaxeleba), mixeil TamaraSvilma ­ 1902 wels (13 dasaxeleba), gaetis eparqiis mRvdelma vinCenco di donam ­ 1912 wels (15 dasaxeleba), agreTve, ucnobma italielma arqivistma (15 dasaxeleba), romlis mokle aRwerilobis asli inaxeba TbilisSi, xelnawerTa erovnuli centris aleqsandre cagarlis fondSi. zemoaRniSnuli xelnawerebi (15 saarqivo erTeuli) uwmindesi samebis saxelobis upatrono bavSvTa TavSesafris prezidentma vinCenco balcanom da TavSesafris mdivanma vinCenco aveniam 1936 wlis 7 TebervliT daTariRebuli aqtiT gadasces neapolis erovnuli samefo biblioTekis bibliografiuli ganyofilebis ufross, profesor rafaele kantarelas; 6. sxvadasxva CamonaTvalSi gansxvaveba xelnawerTa raodenobaSi calkeul SemTxvevaSi gamowveulia imiT, rom zogierTi mecnieri yuradRebas mxolod qarTul xelnawerebze amaxvilebs, zogierTi ki ­ sxvaenovan xelnawerebzedac. zogjer gansxvavebas ganapirobebs is, rom cal-calkea dasaxelebuli erT xelnawerSi, maSasadame, erT saarqivo erTeulSi, moTavsebuli Txzulebebi. magaliTad, rogorc mixeil TamaraSvilis Semdegdroindeli aRwerilobebi gvarwmunebs, mis mier Sedgenil CamonaTvalSi II, III da XIII nomrebad miTiTebuli `romanci an qarTuli zRapari

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baama~, ,,qarTlis cxovreba~ da ,,ganTqmuli patara poema reskarianisa~ erT xelnawerSia moTavsebuli; 7. zogierTi uzustobis miuxedavad, 1936 wels sakvlev xelnawerTa neapolis erovnuli samefo biblioTekisaTvis gadacemis aqtSi arsebuli CamonaTvali Seesabameba xelnawerTa dRevandel viTarebas, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs, zustad davadginoT, Tu romeli xelnawerebi daikarga 1886-1936 wlebSi. dakargulia mxolod erTi qarTuli xelnaweri; 8. neapolis erovnul biblioTekaSi daculi saarqivo masalebi saSualebas gvaZlevs, vicodeT im mecnierTa vinaoba, romlebic dainteresdnen sakvlevi fondiT; 9. Cven mier italiur enaze ukve Sedgenilia sakvlev xelnawerTa detaluri aRweriloba, romelic daistambeba italiaSi.

dali CitunaSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

venur xelnawerSi daculi `qeba¡Y qebaTa¡Y~ (teqstologiuri kvleva)

1. venis nacionalur biblioTekaSi sxva qarTulenovan xelnawerebTan erTad inaxeba 1160 wels daviT garejSi nikoloz nikra¡s mier gadawerili xelnaweri. xelnaweri Tavisi SedgenilobiT mravalferovania, masSi warmodgenilia egzegetikuri (grigol noselis `Targmaneba¡Y momi£seneTa~), homiletikuri (anastasi sinelis `SemosvlisaT¢s marxvaTa¡sa~) apokrifuli (`cxoreba¡ SiSuelmarTalTa¡Y~, `sakiTxavi dionisios ariopagelisa~), polemikuri (mwvalebelTa SeCvenebani) da bibliuri (`qeba¡Y qebaTa¡Y~) teqstebi. 2. ven. 4-Si daculi qebaTa qeba Seswavlili da gamoqveynebuli aqvs zurab sarjvelaZes. man dawvrilebiT Seiswvala Txzulebis teqsti da Seudara `qeba¡Y qebaTa¡Ys~ sxva qarTul Targmanebs da mivida im daskvnamde, rom venur xelnawerSi daculi teqsti

77

berZnulidan damoukidebel Targmans warmoadgens, Tumca is xSirad Tavad cnobili berZnuli teqstisaganac gansxvavebul wakiTxvebs gviCvenebs. 3. venur xelnawerSi daculi `qeba¡ qebaTa¡~ dawerilia, rogorc himnografiuli teqsti. rogorc amas xelnaweris gviandeli zandukic gvamcnobs, is iambikos formiTaa warmodgenili (is , rom teqsti iambikoa, aRniSnuli aqvs, rogorc xelnaweris pirvel aRmwerels, gr. feraZes, aseve T. jojuasac, romelic bolo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi muSaobs ven. 4-is minawerebze). moxsenebaSi ganxilulia venuri teqstis gansxvavebebi sxva teqstebTan mimarTebiT, swored iambikos formisaTvis angariSis gawevis konteqstSi. 4. teqstebis Sedarebam gviCvena, rom `qeba¡ qebaTa¡s~ iambikuri teqstis avtori akeTebs ara axal Targmans, aramed iyenebs Zvel Targmanebs ise, rom 12 ­ marcvliani strofi miiRos. mis wyaroebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos rogorc `qeba¡ qebaTa¡s~ uZvelesi Targmanebi, aseve giorgi mTawmidliseuli qebaTa qebis Targmanebac. 5. venuri teqstis avtori krgad icnobda aseve a-65-Si (1188 w.) warmodgenili qebaTa qebis Targmanebis teqstsac, rasac cxadyofs saerTo leqsika, romliTac es ori teqsti qebaTa qebis yvela sxva teqsts upirispirdeba.

elene cagareiSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

qarTuli armenologiis istoriidan

saqarTveloSi armenologiur kvleva-Ziebas xangrZlivi istoria aqvs. somxurma saistorio mwerlobam jer kidev XIX saukuneSi miipyro saqarTvelos istoriis specialist mkvlevarTa yuradReba. rogorc qarTvelologiis, aseve armenologiis mTeli rigi problemebis mecnieruli Seswavlisa da farTo masStabiT kvle78

vis saqmeSi gansakuTrebiT didi wvlili Seitanes qarTuli armenologiis problemebis TvalsaCino mkvlevrebma ­ m. brosem, iv. javaxiSilma, n. marma, a. SaniZem, l. meliqseT-begma, il. abulaZem. akad. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelTan dakavSirebulia qarTul armenologiaSi axali mecnieruli kvlevis etapis damkvidreba. prof. il. abulaZe ki qarTul-somxur filologiaSi axali etapis fuZemdeblad iTvleba. man ganagrZo qarTul-somxuri filologiuri Ziebis Zveli tradiciebi. Tavis naSromebSi naTelyo qarTul-somxuri literaturuli, enobrivi, istoriuli kavSirebisa da urTierTobaTa arseboba, daarRvia am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmuli mravali mcdari mosazreba da marTebuli, swori axsna-ganmarteba mouZebna maT. il. abulaZis TaosnobiT saqarTvelos istoriis muzeumis xelnawerTa ganyofilebis bazaze 1958 wlis zafxulSi mecnierebaTa akademiis sistemaSi Seiqmna axali instituti, Tavdapirvelad paleografiis institutis saxelwodebiT, romelsac Semdeg ewoda k. kekeliZis sax. xelnawerTa instituti (dRevandeli xelnawerTa erovnuli centri). aq il. abulaZem Seqmna rogorc qarTvelologTa, ise armenologTa skola, sadac armenologiuri muSaoba warimarTeboda (da dResac mimdinareobs) teqstologiisa (m. rafava, d. CitunaSvili) da wyaroTmcodneobis (z. aleqsiZe, l. janaSia, m. diasamiZe, e. cagareiSvili) mimarTulebiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom somxuri saistorio mwerlobis calkeul Zeglebs farTod gaecno qarTuli samecniero sazogadoeba XX saukunis 60-iani wlebidan, rodesac saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiasTan Seiqmna `saqarTvelos Sesaxeb arsebuli ucxouri wyaroebis komisia~, romlis somxuri wyaroebis seriis redaqtori iyo ili a abulaZe, mis Semdeg ­ laSa janaSia, xolo amJamad mas xelmZRvanelobs zaza aleqsiZe. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi moRvawe armenologebs mecnieruli kontaqtebi aqvT damyarebuli rogorc Cveni qveynis, ise ucxoel armenologebTan. isini aqtiurad monawileoben armenologiuri problemebis kvlevisadmi miZRvnil rogorc adgilobriv, ise saerTaSoriso konferenciebisa da simpoziumebis muSaobaSi.

79

Tina ceraZe, lela xoferia

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

vaxuSti bagrationis galeqsili biblia (sankt-peterburgSi daculi avtografuli nusxis mixedviT)

ruseTis mecnierebaTa akademiis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis sankt-peterburgis filialis koleqciaSi daculia unikaluri nusxa ­ xelnaweri E-99, romelic Seicavs Zveli da axali aRTqmis Sairad gawyobil teqsts, romelic dResdReobiT mxolod am nusxis mixedviT aris cnobili. teqsti naweria XVIII saukunis mxedruliT, gakruli, Znelad sakiTxavi xelweriT. xelnaweris ZiriTad teqstze darTul anderZze dayrdnobiT, agreTve paleografiuli da sxva istoriul-filologiuri monacemebis safuZvelze gairkva, rom aRniSnuli nusxis saxiT saqme gvaqvs vaxuSti bagrationis avtograful xelnawerTan. vaxuStiseul teqstSi warmodgenilia 257 oTxtaepiani strofi, romlebic aerTianebs Zveli da axali aRTqmis calkeul adgilebs (dawyebuls `dabadebidan~ `ioanes gamocxadebis~ CaTvliT), galeqsils qarTuli klasikuri Teqvsmetmarcvlovani SairiT. teqstSi metruli erTferovnebis Tavidan asacileblad vaxuSti teqstSi erTmaneTs unacvlebs e.w. maRal da dabal Sairs, rac, sazogadod, damaxasiaTebelia qarTuli tradiciuli SairisaTvis. galeqsili bibliis teqstis bolos darTuli anderZidan irkveva, rom qarTuli galeqsili bibliis Sesaqmnelad vaxuStisaTvis erTgvar biZgs warmoadgenda `laTinTa~ mier galeqsili biblia (galeqsili bibliis teqstis gacnoba). qarTveli batoniSvilis sityvebiT, mas imdenad moswonebia / gulze moxvedria es teqsti, rom gadauwyvetia, aseve gaeleqsa ­ `gaewyo~ qarTuli Bbiblia. anderZSi vaxuSti agreTve gvauwyebs, rom man zogierT SemTxvevaSi naTeli mohfina bibliis ama Tu im teqstSi Cadebul farul azrs. xelnaweris teqstis Seswavla gvarwmunebs, rom

80

vaxuStis marTlac sakmaod didi samuSao Cautarebia am mimarTulebiT. xSir SemTxvevaSi strofis meoTxe (an mesame-meoTxe) taepi warmoadgens avtoriseul CanarTebs, romlebic sxvadasxva kuTxiT wamogvidgens winamaval taepebSi gadmocemul Txrobas, Semoaqvs gansakuTrebuli emociuri muxti, imowmebs paralelebs (simbolur-alegoriulsa Tu teqstobrivs) wminda werilis sxva wignebidan. yvelaferi es, avtoriseuli CanafiqriT, xels uwyobda wminda werilis teqstis ukeT aRqmasa da gaazrebas. aRniSnuli CanarTebi Sinaarsis mixedviT Semdegnairad SeiZleba dajgufdes: zneobriv-eTikuri / moraluri xasiaTis; alegoriuli, egzegetikuri, anagogiuri, istoriuli saxis CanarTebi; sakmaod mravlad vxvdebiT agreTve ritorikul SekiTxvebsa da mimarTvebs. faqtobrivad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am Txzulebis wyalobiT qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi mkafiod warmoCnda mimarTuleba, romelic wminda werilis metruli parafrazebis Seqmnas moiazrebs da romlis meSveobiTac qarTuli literatura msoflios umdidresi tradiciebis mqone qristianuli kulturebis rigSi dgeba.

zurab WumburiZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

svanuri umlautis kvali Zvel qarTul werilobiT ZeglebSi

1. umlautiani xmovnebi qarTveluri svanurs axasiaTebs, rasac pirvelad miaqcia enisa da kulturis TvalsaCino mkvlevarma (1888 w.), svanuri umlautis damajerebeli akad. akaki SaniZem (1925 w.) enebidan mxolod yuradReba svanuri besarion niJaraZem analizi ki mogvca

81

2. a. SaniZem daadgina, rom umlauti svanurSi e da i xmovanTa gavlenis Sedegia. es viwro xmovnebi nawilobriv imsgavseben (aviwroeben) winamaval farTo xmovnebs ­ a-s, o-sa da u-s (balszemourSi agreTve grZel xmovnebs: ó-s, o-sa da ð-s). asimilaciis aucilebeli pirobaa, rom ama Tu im farTo xmovnis Semcvel marcvals uSualod mosdevdes e-s an i-s Semcveli marcvali. 3. Semdgomi kvleva-ZiebiT dadginda, rom viwro (umlautiani) xmovnebi svanurSi mxolod farTo xmovanTa daviwroebiT ki ar aris miRebuli, aramed araiSviaTad viwro xmovanTa gafarToebis Sedegia: dideba > didòb, ezo > hòzñ, saTiTur-i > saTòTñr... am saxis umlauts, pirvelisgan gansxvavebiT, ukana mimarTulebis umlauti ewoda (prof. maqsime qaldani, 1967 w.). zemoxsenebuli orive saxis umlautis nimuSebi ­ ara sistematurad, magram arcTu iSviaTad ­ dasturdeba X-XVIII ss. svaneTis werilobiT ZeglebSi, romelTa ZiriTadi nawilic Tavmoyrilia da vrceli gamokvlevebiTa da samecniero aparatiT gamocemulia or tomad prof. valeri silogavas mier (`svaneTis werilobiTi Zeglebi~, t. I, istoriuli sabuTebi da sulTa matianeebi, 1986; t. II. epigrafikuli Zeglebi. 1988 w.). moviyvanT mcire sailustracio masalas am Zeglebidan. ukana mimarTulebis umlauti aznaur-i: aznañir||azna¢r||azanñir||anzañir pasux-i: pasñix|| pasñixñ suf-i: sñif (`moedani) wurem-i (soflis saxeli): wñirm|| w¢rm wina mimarTulebis umlauti azarfeSa > azarfaSa deda > dada|| dad; baba-dada (`mama-deda~) bela (mTis saxeli) > bal (=bòl). faTerak-i: faTarak || faTrak (bz.), faTrek (bq, qs.) zedaSe: zadòS samreklo: samrekñ > samrakñ TevareSo (top.) > TavraSo qorepiskopos-i: qñerebiskopos

82

ana xaranauli

g. wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis instituti, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

xelnaweris tipi da gamocemis forma (avtografisa da avtorizebuli xelnaweris gamocemis principebi gelaTis katenebiani bibliis xelnawerebis magaliTze)

Cvenamde moRweuli xelnawerebi Tavis originals sxvadasxva droiT arian daSorebuli: umetes SemTxvevaSi ­ saukuneebiT, aTwleulobiT, ufro iSviaT SemTxvevaSi ki avtoris sicocxleSive arian gadawerili, misi meTvalyureobis qveS anda sulac misive xeliT ­ avtografebs warmoadgenen. rogor unda gamoices yvela es xelnaweri: erTi da imave Tu sxvadasxva meTodiT, ra prioritetebiTa da principebiT unda ixelmZRvanelos gamomcemelma, raze unda iyos damokidebuli am principebis SerCeva da, saerTod, ramdenad iZleva masala da misi xasiaTi teqstis gamocemisadmi diferencirebuli midgomis saSualebas ­ yvela es kiTxva TandaTan ufro aqtualuri xdeba, radganac paleografiis ganviTarebisa, erTi mxriv da, meore mxriv, Sua saukuneebis moRvaweTa Sesaxeb Cveni codnis zrdis kvaldakval izrdeba xelnawerebis gadamwerTa identifikaciis saSualeba da, Sesabamisad, avtografebisa Tu avtorizebuli xelnawerebis ricxvi. avtografi Tu avtorizebuli xelnaweri avtoris (// teqstis recenzentis) nebis gamoxatulebaa da igi sporadulad ki ar asaxavs mis individualur Tu im mwignobruli skolis maxasiaTeblebs, romelsac es avtori miekuTvneba, aramed asaxavs saboloo saxes, rac teqstis werisa da gaformebis erTian sistemaSi gamoixateba da, zog SemTxvevaSi, teqstis Seqmnis istoriasac. amdenad, cxadia, amgvari xelnaweris gamocema unda gansxvavdebodes im xelnaweris gamocemisagan, romelic Tavis arqetips saukuneebiTaa dacilebuli da sxvadasxva epoqis, enobrivi garemosa Tu stilis, sxvadasxva ganaTlebisa da monacemebis gadamwerTa ­ gamomcemelTa produqts warmoadgens, miuxedavad imisa, Tu ra xarisxiT cvlian isini teqsts.

83

sxva saqmea, Tu rogor unda moxdes avtografSi avTenturad asaxuli Sua saukuneebis mwignobruli standartis (orTografiis, gramatikuli normebis, sityvaTa ganyofis, punqtuaciis, sityvaTa Semoklebisa da daqaragmebis sistema, prosodiis niSnebi da a.S.). gamocemaSi asaxva ­ rogor unda Sejerdes gamocemaSi xelnaweris avtorisa da mkiTxvelis interesebi. meTodika amgvari gamocemebisa jer damuSavebuli ar aris da yoveli axali avtografuli nusxis gamocema axali, eqsperimentuli nabijia teqstologiis istoriaSi. moxsenebaSi gelaTuri katenebiani xelnawerebis magaliTze xdeba am meTodikis aprobacia. gelaTuri katenebiani xelnawerebi (a-1108 da Q-1125) gamocemis teqnikis TvalsazrisiT sxvadasxva kuTxiT aris saintereso da niSandoblivi: 1. kimen-kateni, rogorc wignis forma, rasTanac dakavSirebulia gansamartavi teqstisa da misi komentaris erT gverdze ganawileba, numeraciis sistema, pirobiTi niSnebi, avtorTa dasaxeleba; 2. teqstis Sedgenis procesi: Zveli Targmanis gamoyenebiT berZnulidan axlad Targmna, Sesworebebis Setana ukve naTargmni teqstis gadaweris procesSi, avtografis gadaTeTreba da masSi Secdomebis gasworeba; 3. punqtuaciis sistema, sityvaTa Semoklebisa da daqaragmebis sistema; 4. ena da enis normalizacia: dialeqturi formebi, gardamavali gramatikuli (fonetikuri da morfologiuri) formebi; 5. orTografia ­ orTografiuli sistema, Secdomebi da maTi tipebi. gelaTis katenebiani bibliis xelnawerTa gamocemis mizania, moZebnos gza, rom asaxos yvela es niuansi, rogorc Semadgeneli nawili qarTveli mwignobrisa (a-1108) da gadamweris (Q-1125) mier SemuSavebuli sistemisa, asaxos agreTve mTeli xazi teqstis Seqmnisa ­ Savi Targmanidan mis aslamde. amave dros, moZebnos meTodi, romelic am niuansebs mkiTxvelisaTvis gasagebi formiT warmoadgens gamocemaSi.

84

lela xaCiZeLELA LA

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti.

saqarTveloE

mcire formis sagaloblebi VIII-X saukuneebis bizantiur, qarTul da slavur himnografiaSi (`marxvanebis~ mixedviT)LA

LEmcire formis sagaloblebi liturgiis erT-erT mniSvnelovan elements warmoadgens. analogiuri viTarebaa liturgikul ­ himnografiul krebulebSi, maT Soris ­ `marxvanebSi~. vrceli formis sagaloblis ­ kanonisgan gansxvavebiT, mcire formis sagaloblebi naklebadaa Seswavlili. qarTuli xelnawerebi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs am vrceli repertuaris kvlevisaTvis. X saukunis pirvel naxevarSi universaluri `iadgaridan~ calke krebulad iqna gamoyofili I qarTuli `marxvani~. rogorc irkveva, `marxvani~ gansakuTrebuli yuradRebiT sargeblobda rogorc qarTul, ise bizantiur da slavur himnografiaSi. im avtorTagan, visac sagangebod umuSavia `marxvanebis~ stiqaronul repertuarze, gamoiyofa SesaniSnavi himnografis ­ andrea pirosis `idumalebiT moculi pirovneba~. mas ekuTvnis `marxvanisaTvis~ gankuTvnili 85 mcire formis sagalobeli, romelTagan yvela `TviTZlispiria~. andrea pirosis sagaloblebi moicavs didmarxvis vrcel periods ­ xorcielis kviriakidan dawyebuli bzobis paraskevis CaTvliT. es sagaloblebi bizantiuri himnografiis Sedevrebad iTvleba. analogiuri mdgomareobaa qarTul himnografiaSic ­ `iadgaridan~ calke krebulad gamoyofili I qarTuli `marxvani~ Seudgenia did qarTvel himnografs ­ ioane minCxs. minCxis es sagaloblebic qristianuli poeziis saukeTeso nimuSebs warmoadgens da gankuTvnilia didmarxvis mTeli periodisaTvis. I qarTuli `marxvanisaTvis~ stiqaronuli nawilis (88 mcire formis sagalobeli) Sedgena iyo iSviaTi da warmatebuli cda

85

berZnulidan Targmnili am umniSvnelovanesi krebulis `gaqarTulebisa~. aseTive iSviaTi da sagulisxmo movlena dasturdeba X s-is slavur himnografiaSic, e.w. `bitolis triodionSi~ ( XI s.), romelic gadawerilia bulgareTSi. am krebulSi, cnobili bizantieli himnografebis vrceli formis sagaloblebTan erTad, Sesulia mTeli cikli X saukuneSi moRvawe SesaniSnavi slavi himnografis ­ konstantine preslavelis stiqaronebisa. es sagaloblebic himnografiis saukeTeso nimuSebadaa miCneuli. sainteresoa, rom am SemTxvevaSic saqme gvaqvs berZnulidan YTargmnili krebulis `nacionalizaciasTan~. aqac iseve, rogorc ioane minCxis SemTxvevaSi, areklilia Sesabamisi epoqebisa da garemos suliskveTeba. naSromSi, SedarebiTi analizis meTodiT, ganxilulia samive avtoris TiTo sagalobeli, gankuTvnili didmarxvis erTi (bzobis samSabaTi) dRisaTvis.

viqtoria juReli

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

svimeon metafrastis svimeon mesvetis cxovrebis qarTuli teqstis mTargmnelis identifikaciisaTvis (efrem mciris kidev erTi Targmani)

svimeon metafrastis svimeonis cxovreba (X s.) warmoadgens ramdenime wyaros kompilacias. Tavisi teqstisaTvis metafrastma redaqtireba gaukeTa Teodorite kvirelis filoTeon istoriis XXVI Tavs, magram dednis ZiriTadi nawili met-naklebad xeluxleblad datova. man sxva avtorTa gadmocemebic gaiTvaliswina, Tumca misi da Teodorites Sesabamisi teqstebis Sejere86

ba aaSkaravebs, rom filoTeon istoria metafrastis naSromis ZiriTadi wyaroa. qarTul enaze arsebobs metafrastis svimeonis cxovrebis ori Targmani: erTi ­ Teofile xucesmonazvnisa (ath. 20/29), meore ki ­ gadmoRebuli XI-XII ss-is ucnobi mTargmnelis mier, romelic, rogorc kvlevam gviCvena, efrem mcire unda yofiliyo. meore Targmanis kritikuli gamocema ekuTvnis nargiza goguaZes (Zveli metafrasuli krebulebi. Tb., 1986 w., gv. 2658). gamocema eyrdnoba Semdeg nusxebs: h-1347, a-70, K-4, a-179, romelTa anderZ-minawerebsa da aRwerilobebSi, arc im mkvlevarTa cnobebSi, romlebic efremis Sromebs CamoTvlian, efremi, rogorc am Sromis mTargmneli, naxsenebi ar aris. svimeonis cxovrebis qarTuli teqsti metafrastis berZnulidan sityvasityviT aris Targmnili. misi leqsika da Targmnis meTodi efrem mciris filoTeon istoriis XXVI Tavis Targmans mogvagonebs. aris monakveTebi, sadac efrem mciris mier gadmoRebuli filoTeon istoriis XXVI Tavisa da metafrastis svimeonis cxovrebis teqstebi erTmaneTs TiTqmis zedmiwevniT emTxveva. magaliTad, am ori teqstis dasawyisebi TiTqmis identuria: `s¢meon yovlad (+ ganTqumuli fil.ist.) didi sak¢rveleba¡ yovlisa soflisa¡, Seiswaves ukue yovelTa morCilTa berZenTa samTavro¡saTa~ (Sdr. Teofiles Targmani: `s¢meons sanatrelsa, didsa mas sak¢rvelsa soflisasa, iqmnnes mecnier yovelnive samTavroni hromTa da berZenTani~, ath. 20/29, 4r). axlos dgas erTmaneTTan sxva monakveTebic: K4

`xolo iqmna odesme w¢ma¡ mZafri da cxovarni misni Sina dawyudeul iqmnnes, vina¡ca mieca mas mocaleba¡ da warvida igi mSobelTa T¢sTa Tana eklesiad~ (goguaZe, T. 3, gv. 27).

a 689

`xolo iqmna odesme w¢ma¡ mZafri, romlisa mier iiZulnes cxovarni Sina dawyudevad da mocaleba eca didsa s¢meons, vina¡ca Tana warhyva mSobelTa wmidad eklesiad mimavalTa~ (26.2).

amgvari damTxvevebi svimeonis cxovrebisa da filoTeon istoriis XXVI Tavis qarTul Targmanebs Soris SeiniSneba Tavi87

dan bolomde, Tumca maTi berZnuli teqstebi garkveulwilad sxvaoben erTmaneTisagan. filoTeon istoriis TargmanSi naxsenebia anTroponimi vlasosi (26.8), romelic ar Seesabameba berZnul nusxaTa ikiTxvisebs da misi mcdari gamoyeneba metafrastis Sromis gavleniT Cans gamowveuli, sadac svimeonis megobars swored es saxeli hqvia (T.10, PG 114, sv. 341B). SeiniSneba erTi saintereso frazeologiuri damTxvevac: filoTeon istoriaSi gvxvdeba ori mimReoba ­ `aRmzrdeli da mpoxeli~ (9.10), romelsac berZnul teqstSi mxolod erTi ­ titqhv Seesabameba. aseT frazas metafrastTanac vxvdebiT: `zrdida da ganapoxebda~ (T. 14), romelsac Seesatyviseba ori zmna: trevfein...kai; katapiaivnein. filoTeon istoriis XXVI Tavisa da metafrastis svimeonis cxovrebis qarTuli Targmanebis siaxlove ar unda iyos SemTxveviTi. vfiqrobT, rom es teqsti efremma filoTeon istoriaze adre gadmoiRo da gaiTvaliswina metafrastis naSromis sakuTari Targmanic. igulisxmeba, rom efremi ar mohkidebda xels da ase ar daeyrdnoboda metafrastis am Targmans, igi sxvisi gadmoRebuli rom yofiliyo. amas garda, efrems ainteresebda svimeon metafrasti da misi Sromebi. efrems Seukrebia cnobebi misi moRvaweobisa da metafrasebis Sesaxeb TxzulebaSi mosa£senebeli mcire s¢meonisT¢s loRoTetisa, romelSic SeniSnavs, rom uTargmnia `raodennime sakiTxavni loRoTetisa metafrasTagan~. efremisaTvis svimeonis cxovrebis Targmanis mikuTvnebis sawinaaRmdego argumentad SeiZleba CaiTvalos is, rom teqsts ar erTvis misi naSromebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kritikuli aparati. meore mxriv, igi arc im teqstebs erTvis, romlebic am nusxebSivea daculi da romelTa mTargmnelic efremia. vfiqrobT, es faqti aixsneba imiT, rom Targmani efremis moRvaweobis adreul periodSia Sesrulebuli, rodesac mas jer ar hqonda mTargmnelobiTi meTodi srulad Camoyalibebuli. amazeve unda metyvelebdes isic, rom svimeonis cxovrebis qarTuli Targmani ar aris Zalze kalkirebuli da rom masSi xSiria teqstis Sinaarsobrivi, Tumca ara Tavisufali Targmani.

88

mTlianobaSi ki, svimeon metafrastis svimeonis cxovrebis qarTuli Targmanis leqsikuri, enobrivi da frazeologiuri damTxvevebi efrem mciris Targmnili filoTeon istoriis XXVI TavTan gvafiqrebineben, rom gansaxilveli naSromis saxiT xelT unda gvqondes svimeon metafrastis sakiTxavebis kidev erTi efremiseuli Targmani.

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wyaroTmcodneoba-diplomatika/ arqivTmcodneoba

dr. bahram amirahmadian

Tehran, Iran

IraNIaN-GEorGIaN rElatIoNS oN thE BaSIS of doCUMENtS

about Iran-Georgia relations from the beginning of the 19th century to the independence of Georgia in 1918-20, and from 1920-1991 in the Soviet period, during which Georgia was under Soviet rule, there are some information in Iranian historiography. among valuable works that have significant information about Iran-Georgia relations, the "History of Georgia" translated by Brosset in to french should be mentioned. this work has valuable information about the campaign of agha Mohammad Khan Ghajar (Iranian King) to tbilisi which happened at the end of the 18th century. Certain part of this book has been translated from french into Persian by Sa'eedNafisi(Iranianscholar)inhisworkentitled"Socio-politicalhistory of Iran". there are some centres and organizations in Iran that are interested in this field to have cooperation with Georgian National Document Institute. among them stands the center for documents and diplomatic history of the Ministry of foreign affairs of Iran (Mfa). "National library and archive of Iran" is the second one. they have gained valuable experience on cooperation with neighbouring countries national archives on protection and repair of documents. Publishing of the "history of Karabagh"(Ghrabagh Nameh) and the "history of daghistan", "akhbar Nameh", "Golistan-e Eram"(of Bakikhanov) and some others in this centre in tehran, can be mentioned which are about the history of the Caucasus. Unfortunately the history of the Caucasus has not been studied in Iran so well as Georgian history. however, the short history of Georgia by roin Metreveli (translated by the author of

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this paper into Persian) was published in tehran in 1997. But more useful and interesting is the comprehensive history of Iranian­Georgia relations in the 16th. to 19th. centuries. as we know the valuable works of the Institute of history of the academy of Sciences of Georgia in publishing two volumes "farmans of Iranian kings" in tbilisi is amongst the best sources for the study of bilateral historical relations. republishing of these works in the Persian language in betterconditionwithqualifiedprintinginTehraninMFAofIrancanhelpin this field. For this purpose, negotiationswith Iranianauthoritiesshould be carriedon.Wearesurethattherearemanycommoninterestsinthisfieldon bothsides.Becauseofexistingtechnicalfacilitiesandfinancialpossibility in tehran better than tbilisi, we will be able to do that. We offer it to be published in tehran. for this purpose a common committee consisting of both organizations with the participation of skilled experts and specialists from both sides should be arranged. In this case, with using printed materials and documents, Iranian historiography will be able to present Iranian history in mentioned periods. there are some old and modern documents that they are more important for historical research in the mentioned period. there are also some spread documentsin Russian Regent in Caucasus and some other affiliatedfunds and authorities organs. By studying them, we will be able to get familiar with different problems, specially the multilateral relations between russia, Georgia and Iran in the 19th. and early 20th. centuries, russia-Iran wars and Iranian Constitutional revolution in 1905-11. We know that many Georgian revolutionary forces helped Iranian revolutionary leaders in that period, but unfortunately there is some information about them in Iranian historical works such as "Enghelab-e Mashrutiat" (Constitutional revolution of Iran) by ahmad Kasravi, a well-known Iranian historian. We know that there are different documents about 19th.andfirstquarter of 20th. century in several organizations and funds in Georgia. researchers interested in these documents will be able to study several problems of political and diplomatic history, social and economic problems, especially about neighboring countries, such as Georgia. there are three books interestingfortheabovementionedsubject.Theyareasfollow: - Fehrest-e Tafsili-ye Nosakh-e Khati-ye Farsi-ye Anstitu Kekelidze Teflis(the list of farsi detailed handwritten manuscript documents in tibilisi

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KekelidzeInstitute,By:SeifollahModabberChaharBorji,Vol.I,TheCentre for documents and research services, Mfa. Iran Summer 2004 - Fehrest-e Asnad-e Arshiviha-ye Gorjestan Dar Bare-ye Tarikh-e Iran, Jeld-e Dovvom(Asnad-eFarsi) (the list of documents in Georgian archives abouthistoryofIran.Vol.II(Persiandocuments),)by:GoodarzRashtiani. the Centre for documents and diplomatic history, tehran 2005 - Fehrest-e Asnad-e Arshivha-ye Gorjestan Piramun-e Tarikh-e Iran (the list of documents in Georgian archives about the history of Iran. Vol. I(Persian documents)), by : Alexandre Chelokhadze, The Centre for documents and diplomatic history, tehran 2005

lia axalaZe

soxumis universiteti, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

afxazeTis Weduri warwerebis paleografiuli Taviseburebani

afxazeTis epigrafikul fondSi lapidarul da freskul warwerebTan erTad Weduri warwerebis mniSvnelovani nawilia aris daculi. aRniSnul Zeglebs ara marto saistorio wyaros Rirebuleba, aramed paleografiuli mniSvnelobac aqvs. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom afxazeTis Wedur warwerebSi kargad Cans qarTuli epigrafikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela niSani, maT paleografiaSi aSkarad gamoikveTa, rogorc saocari msgavseba saqarTvelos sxva regionebis am tipis warwerebTan, aseve is Taviseburebani, romlebic, ZiriTadad, damaxasiaTebelia am regionis lapidaruli warwerebisaTvis. Aam mxriv, gansakuTrebuli aRniSvnis Rirsia xelovnebiTi damwerlobebis xSiri gamoyeneba grafemebis amokveTis dros, sityvaTa daqaragmebis wesebSi mravalferovneba, grafemebis moxazulobaTa Taviseburebani, punqtuacia da a. S. erT-erT Taviseburebad unda CaiTavlos isic, rom Cven mier ganxilul 15-ze met Wedur warweraSi umTavresad gamoyenebulia

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asomTavruli anbani, iSviaTad - mxedruli, xolo nusxuri saerTod ar gvxvdeba. aRniSnuli movlena unda aixsnas ara marto asomTavrulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli monumenturobiT, aramed im TaviseburebiTac, romlebic zogadad axasiaTebs afxazeTis epigrafikuli Zeglebis yvela jgufs. msgavsi SemTxvevebi gvaqvs xelovnebiTi damwerlobis nimuSebSic, sadac, ZiriTadad, asomTavruli anbani aris gamoyenebuli, rac damaxasiaTebelia, zogadad, qarTuli epigrafikuli fondisaTvis. Weduri warwerebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia xelovnebiTi damwerlobis iseTi saxeebi, rogoricaa kidurwaisruloba da kidurwertilovneba. yuradRebas iqcevs daqaragmebisa da punqtuaciis sakiTxebi afxazeTis Wedur warwerebSi, romlebSic gamovlinda daqaragmebisa da punqtuaciis zogierTi Tavisebureba. qaragma gamoiyeneboda Zvel qarTul xelnawerebsa da epigrafikul ZeglebSi. rbil masalaze Sesrulebuli xelnawerebisagan gansxvavebiT, epigrafikul ZeglebSi qaragmas Taviseburebani hqonda. kerZod, qvis kveTisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Zneli samuSao da warwerisaTvis gankuTvnili adgilis SezRuduloba warmwerels saSualebas ar aZlevda qarTuli damwerlobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qaragmis wesebis srulyofili gamoyenebis saSualebas. M daqaragmebis wesebis Seswavlas didi mniSvneloba aqvs daqaragmebuli sityvis swori gaxsnisa da wakiTxvisaTvis. Ddaqaragmebis mravalferovneba xSirad iwvevs araswor interpretaciasa da qaragmis araswor gaxsnas, an saerTod argaxsnas. afxazeTis epigrafikul Zeglebze (lapidaruli, freskuli da Weduri warwerebi) dakvirvebam cxadyo rom daqaragmebis problema Zvel qarTul epigrafikul ZeglebSi gacilebiT ufro rTuli iyo, vidre xelnawerebSi. maTSi xSirad darRveulia qaragmis tradiciebi da wesebi. garda amisa, gamoikveTa qaragmis gamoyenebis sxvadasxva wesi IX-XIII saukuneebis warwerebsa da gviani Sua saukuneebis qarTul warwerebSi. sxvaoba ufro mkveTrad Cans Weduri warwerebis qaragmebSi ­ Cven mier Seswavlili Weduri warwerebis Sedarebam cxadyo, rom gviani periodis sityvaTa daqaragmebis wesebSi cvlilebebi mkveTrad Cans. Gzogjer gansxvavebulia ara marto sityvis daqaragmebis wesi, aramed TviT qaragmis niSnebic ki.

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miuxedavad imisa, rom Zvel qarTulSi daqaragmebul sityvaTa formebis wasakiTxad arsebobs arasruli, magram sagrZnoblad vrceli sacnobaro Sromebi, afxazeTis epigrafikul ZeglebSi mainc gamoikveTa qaragmis gaxsnis gansxvavebuli (aratradiciuli) formebi. afxazeTis Weduri warwerebis paleografiuli Taviseburebebi argumentirebulad adasturebs, rom xelovnebis es nimuSebi adgilobrivi ostatebis mier aris Sesrulebuli da rom saqarTvelos es istoriuli regioni erTiani qarTuli kulturuli sivrcis nawili iyo da Sua saukuneebis afxazeTi sxva sadamwerlobo kulturas ar icnobda.

mixeil baxtaZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

`istoriani da azmanis~ teqstis erTi adgilis aRdgenis Sesaxeb

1. mariamiseuli nusxis teqstSi, im adgilze, sadac xdeba pirovnebaTa saxelis aRdgena, araferi weria. ar aris araviTari miniSnebac ki imaze, Tu romeli saxelis aRdgena SeiZleba. ar Cans arc gadafxekisa da arc zemodan gadaweris kvali (rogorc, magaliTad, anton glonsTavisZesTan dakavSirebiT). 2. rCeba saxelis arapirdapiri gziT aRdgenis gza da im pirovnebaTa saxelebi, romlebic CvenTvis saintereso periodSi moRvaweobdnen. es TavisTavad ukve garkveul pirobiTobas Seicavs. 3. gamrekel Torelis aRdgena ar SeiZleba, radgan imave `istoriani da azmanis~ mixedviT vigebT, rom gamrekel Torels amilaxoroba eboZa (amis gamo iv.javaxiSvili kiTxvasac ki svamda, ori gamrekel Toreli xom ar iyoo?). 4. ver aRvadgenT verc miqael mirianis Zes, radgan, basili ezosmoZRvris mixedviT, miriani, Tamaris daviT soslanze daqorwinebamde cota xniT adre gardaicvala, `istoriani da azmani~ ki `orTa~ gardacvalebaze jer kidev giorgi rusis moyvanamde saubrobs. 5. ver aRvadgenT verc yubasars, rogorc amas S.mesxia varaudobs, radgan mas gardacvalebamde CamoerTva Tanamdebobebi. 6. SeiZleba gvenaxa, Tamar mefis gamefebamde moRvawe pirebidan romeli aRar moixsenieba 1184 wlis Semdeg da gvefiqra, rom swored is gardaicvla (ase SeiZleba afridonic aRvadginoT), magram esec Zalian pirobiTia. 7. nebismier SemTxvevaSi saxelis aRdgena iqneba Zalian subieqturi, naklebad argumentirebuli da pirobiTi.

hossein ahmadi

Islamic azad University. tehran, Iran

PolItICal CoNdItIoNS of GEorGIa UNdEr thE GEorGIaN rEPUBlIC froM 1917 to 1922.

In the documentation Center of the Iranian Ministry of foreign affairs there are 4000 documents of a certain period of (1917-1922). Themajorityofthesedocumentsconerns: - the establishment of the national state of Georgia. - relationship with the neighbours, especially with azerbaijan. -ConflictbetweentheGeorgiansandthebolsheviks. - relationship between armenians and Georgians. - the Iranian residents in tiblisi. - the Iranian democratic community in tiblisi. - Satisfaction of Iranian with Georgian behavior. - Willingness of the Georgian state to buy alimentry material from Iran. - Independence of Georgia from russians. - Iranian help to the victims of the earthquake of Gori city. - Iranian's school in tiblisi.

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8. radgan verc pirdapiri da verc arapirdapiri gziT saxelebis aRdgena am etapze ver xerxdeba, jobia, teqsti ise davtovoT, rogorc aris (k. kekeliZiseulad).

Tamar gogolaZe

goris universiteti. saqarTvelo

oqonis jvarcmis istoriis xelnaweri wyaroebi

X saukunidan dRemde qarTvelTaTvis saTayvano da sasoeba ­ oqonis xati, romelic Tavis warmoSobas bizantiis qalaq ikoniidan iRebs, legendebiTa da saidumloebiTaa moculi. sakvlevia TviT xatisa da masTan dakavSirebuli jvarcmis `mogzaurobaTa~ istoria da, Tumca sxvadasxva epoqaSi maTze Sesrulebuli warwerebi gaSifrulia da Seswavlilia, urTierTdakavSireba, saerTo daskvnebis gamotana jer kidev ar momxdara, rac kidev ufro abundovanebs xatisa da jvarcmis istorias. gaurkvevelia cnebis ­ `oqonis xati da jvarcma~ ­ Sinaarsi da igi Tu saukuneTa manZilze jer `oqonis xatis~ gagebiT ixmareboda, araerT sigel-gujarSi (gsiem 162, 190a 191), vaxtang VI mier 1725 wlis 13 ianvriT daTariRebul sigelSi (gsiem 169) mxolod jvarcmaa naxsenebi, Semdeg calke ixmareba `oqonis xati~ (1800-1919 ww.), amJamad ki `oqonis xati~ aRniSnavs `oqonis triptiqons~, oqonis jvarcma ki moixsenieba, rogorc `garsevaniSvilebis sawinamZRvro jvarcma~ da asedac aris formulirebuli saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis fondebis aRwerilobaSi. `oqonis jvarcma~ moixsenieba mxolod mkvlevar g. WaniSvilis naSromSi `samTavros dedaTa monasteri~. aRniSnuli gaugebrobani gamowveuli iyo: a) oqonis triptiqonTan erTad CamobrZanebuli ramdenime siwmindisaTvis daaxl. XIV saukuneSi calke jvarcmisa da sanawilis SeqmniT; b) oqonis triptiqonisa da jvarcmis (romlebic ganuyrelad, erTobliobaSi unda yofiliyo) perioduli daSorebiTa da e.

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w. `mogzaurobebiT~. yovelive amis Sesaxeb saintereso masalas gvawvdis rogorc cnobili fotografis, ermakovis koleqciidan `12833 ( . . 51) Semonaxuli foto, ise Tavad jvarcmis kubos vercxlis firfitaze levan II dadianis (1611-1657 ww.) dakveTiT Sesrulebuli warweris analizi, goris saxelmwifo istoriul-eTnografiuli muzeumis fondebSi daculi garsevaniSvilebis sagvareulo genealogiuri nusxa (gsiem 162-1937 w.) da ramdenime xelnaweri sigeli, mkvlevar s. alimbaraSvilis mier (goris saistorio-eTnografiul muzumSi, goris saxelmwifo arqivSi, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo istoriul arqivSi, saqarTvelos erovnul biblioTekasa da xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi Seswavlili xelnawerebis safuZvelze) dadgenili oqonis jvarcmis istoria 1725-1919 ww. aRniSnuli masalis Seswavlam migviyvana oqonis xatisa da jvarcmis istoriis `bneli adgilebis~ gaSuqebamde da erTgvarad gamokveTa maTi erTobliobaSi definiciis aucileblobis idea. aRniSnuli kulturologiuri kvleva dafuZnebulia, ZiriTadad, xelnawer masalaze da warmoadgens siaxles `oqonis xatisa da jvarcmis~ istoriisaTvis. kvlevis Sedegebi da daskvnebi dRemde srulad gamoqveynebuli ar yofila. pirvelad iqneba warmodgenili saerTaSoriso simpoziumze.

ia grigalaSvili

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

`qarTlis cxovrebis~ erTi CanarTis teqstologiuri analizi

1. miiCneven, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ erT-erT CanarTi, sadac moTxrobilia wm. andria, wm. svimeon kananelisa da wm. mataTa mociqulebis mier qarTvelTa gaqristianebis ambavi,

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kerZod ki, wm. andrias moRvaweobis amsaxveli epizodebi efTvimes mier naTargmni Txzulebis teqstidan unda iyos Setanili. vfiqrobT, CanarTis avtorebs erT-erT wyarod gamouyenebiaT nikita paflaRonielis `mimosvla andria mociqulisa~, Tumca usargebliaT sxva masalebiTac. erTi SexedviT, CanarTisa da `mimosvlaTa~ teqstebis Tanaxmad, wm. andria mociqulis moRvaweobis geografiuli areali erTmaneTs emTxveva, Tumca, TxzulebaTa teqstologiuri analizi sxva suraTs gviCvenebs. `mimosvlaTa~teqstis Tanaxmad, wm. andria misula jer `trapezunds~, xolo ierusalimis paseqis Semdeg qarTlSi wm. svimeon kananelTan da mataTasTan erTad uqadagebia `vidre mdinaredmde Woroxisa~, Semdeg `sosangelTa~ qveynis mcxovrebni mouqcevia. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTis mixedviT ki, wm. andria trapizonSi qadagebis Semdeg Sevida `queyanasa qarTlisasa, romelsa didaWara ewodebis~. im adgilas, sadac RvTismSoblis xati daasvena, wyaro aRmocenda. wm. mociqulma monaTla adgilobrivi mcxovrebni. misi brZanebiT eklesia aages. `didaWara~Daris sofeli xulos raionSi. mosaxleoba dResac miuTiTebs wminda wyaroze da agreTve maRal gorakze adgils, romelsac `Tarangelis yels~ uwodeben. Zvelad aRniSnul adgilas, marTlac, unda yofiliyo eklesia. bolo dros Catarebuli arqeologiuri kvlevebiTac dasturdeba, rom wm. andria mociqulis brZanebiT didaWaraSi unda Cahyroda safuZveli Cvens qveyanaSi eklesiaTa mSeneblobas, rac uaRresad sayuradRebo faqtia qarTuli mecnierebisaTvis, vinaidan eklesiaTa agebis uZvelesi tradicia Cvens qveyanas ukavSirdeba. 2.`mimosvlaTa~ teqstis avtori wm. andrias saqadageblad qarTlSi mosvlis aRsaniSnavad zmnebTan iyenebs `mi~ zmniswins, xolo `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTSi xSirad vxvdebiT `mo~ zmniswins, rac im faqtis dasturad migvaCnia, rom CanarTis avtorebs gamouyenebiaT adgilobriv mcxovrebTa zepirgadmocemebi an imJamindeli werilobiTi wyaroebi, romlebic CvenTvis xelmiuwvdomelia. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTSi uxvadaa warmodgenili qarTuli etimologiis mqone toponimebi: `didaWara~, mTa `rkinis juari~, `xevi oZraxisa~, `samcxe~, sofeli `zaden-gora~,

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`saqrisi~, `taosa~da `svaneTisa qveyana~, sadac martviliis dResaswaulis Semdeg ierusalimidan dabrunebulma wm. mociqulma andriam iqadaga. svaneTSi mas erTi dedakaci mouqcevia, aseve `mTavris~ wodebis mqone. saqrisis velze gamarTuli kamaTi zustad asaxavs qristianobis gavrcelebis pirvel xanebSi arsebul ideologiur dapirispirebas qristianTa da araqristianTa Soris. am konkretuli epizodis mixedviT `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTis avtorebi yvebian artemisa da apolonis kerpebis Sesaxeb, romelTa arseboba Cvens qveyanaSi naklebad savaraudod migvaCnia. `mimosvlaTa~teqstis Tanaxmad, wm. mociquls gaunadgurebia aRniSnuli kerpebi nikeaSi da ara Cvens qveyanaSi. vvaraudobT, rom `mimosvlaTa~ teqsti CanarTis avtorebisaTvis sakmaod sando, avtoritetuli wyaro yofila, rac gamxdara imis mizezi, rom zogierTi epizodi ukritikod gadmouRiaT. swored amitom mniSvnelovania, momavalSi gagrZeldes aRniSnuli Txzulebis wyaroTa dadgena da maTi kritikuli ganxilva. vfiqrobT, Cven mier Catarebuli teqstologiuri analizi mokrZalebul wvlils Seitans `qarTlis cxovrebis~ teqstis mecnierul SeswavlaSi. 3. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTis avtorebi, `mimosvlaTa~ teqstsa da sxva wyaroebze (adrebizantiuri wyaroebi, folkloruli masala) dayrdnobiT, sayuradRebo cnobebs gvawvdian I-II saukuneebis RvTismsaxurebis Sesaxeb. `mimosvlaTa~ teqstsa da `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTSi daculi cnobebi naTel warmodgenas gviqmnian mociqulTa epoqaSi arsebul liturgikul praqtikaze. saTanado literaturaze dayrdnobiT Cven vasabuTebT aRniSnul wyaroTa sandoobas. aRniSnul sakiTxTa kvleva momavalSic gauwevs samsaxurs qarTuli adreqristianuli kulturis problemaTa analizsa da maRalmecnierul doneze Seswavlas.

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xaTuna TodaZe

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

ori monasteri ­ ori samyaro (msgavseba-gansxvavebani)

samonastro cxovrebis Seswavlas saqarTveloSi didi xnis istoria aqvs. Cveni mecnierebis mier Catarebulma kvlevebma bevri ram axali warmoaCina. XX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis saqarTvelos istoriis kaTedraze daibada idea, gakeTebuliyo qarTul-berZnuli tipikonebis SedarebiTi analizi. am kuTxiT garkveuli samuSaoebi Catarebuli gvaqvs da statiebic gamovaqveyneT. am wlebis manZilze wyaroTmcodneobiTi baza gaizarda. 2000 wels vaSingtonSi 50 berZnuli tipikonis inglisuri Targmani gamoica. Cvens Txovnaze, moewodebinaT proeqti, avtorebi Tavazianad dagvTanxmdnen. aman saSualeba mogvca, qronologiuri principiT Segvedarebina qarTul-berZnuli masala. winamdebare naSromi amis ilustraciaa. petriwonis savane sevastosma da dasavleTis domestikosma, gamoCenilma qarTvelma moRvawem, grigol bakurianis Zem 1083 wels daaarsa bizantiaSi, axlandeli bulgareTis teritoriaze, qalaq filipopolis (respicite: plovdivi) maxloblad, sadac amJamad sof. baCkovoa. 1084 wels grigol bakurianis Zem savanes tipikoni Seudgina. konstantinopolis yovladmowyale macxovris tipikonic XI saukunisaa. monastris damaarsebelia miqael ataliate. igi, savaraudod, 1020-1030 wlebSi daibada. RvTiTboZebuli niWis wyalobiT SemdgomSi senatori da msajuli gaxda. miqael ataliate ufro cnobilia, rogorc 1034-1079 wlebis `istoriis~ avtori. rogorc ganawesidan irkveva, is 1077 wels daiwera. tipikonis teqstis inglisuri Targmani, TandarTuli gamokvleviTurT, cnobil amerikel bizantinist alis-meri TalboTs ekuTvnis. qarTuli Targmani Cvens samecniero literaturaSi pirvelad Semodis.

samonastro cxovrebis, anu monasticizmis (berZnuli zmnidan monazi `marto cxovreba~ Tanamedrove bizantinistikaSi damkvidrebuli termini), erTnairi idealebis miuxedavad, qarTul da bizantiur tipikonebs bevri ram ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisgan. qarTuli tipikoni bevrad ufro axlosaa Tavdapirvel samonastro idealebTan. am daskvnas orive tipikonis bevri muxli adasturebs. erTi saxelmwifos farglebSi arsebobisa da qronologiuri Tanxvedris gamo, orive monasters erT makrostruqturasTan uxdeba urTierToba. XI saukunis bolodan bizantiaSi monastrebis mepatroneni tipikonebiTa da sxva mniSvnelovani dokumentebiT cdiloben monastris keTildReobisa da usafrTxoebis dacvas. am niSniT qarTuli da bizantiuri tipikonebi msgavsia, Tumc aris gansxvavebac: savaraudod, miqael ataliatem tipikoni etapobrivad Seadgina, amdenad, saxelmwifosadmi damokidebuleba tipikonSi cvalebadia. amerikeli mecnieri qarTul da bizantiur tipikonebs Soris erT gansxvavebaze miuTiTebs: misi azriT, miqael ataliate, rogorc mepatrone, misi Tanamedrove grigol bakurianis Zisagan gansxvavebiT, novatori ar yofila. SepirispirebiTi analizi adasturebs alis-meri TalboTis daskvnis marTebulobas. qarTuli da berZnuli tipikonebis SepirispirebiTi analizi naTels hfens ara marto qarTul da berZnul samonastro cxovrebas, aramed sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis araerT aspeqts, radgan, Tanamedrove bizantinistikaSi damkvidrebuli azris Tanaxmad, nebismieri korporacia imeorebs ZiriTad sistemas.

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vladimer kekelia

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

ioane varZielis anderZis daTariRebisaTvis

ierusalimis berZnuli marTlmadidebluri sapatriarqos qarTul xelnawerTa fondSi #76 nomriT daculi xelnaweri SinaarsiT saweliwdo-samociquloa. dawerilia XIII-XIV ss-Si gavrcelebuli msxvili nusxuriT. xelnawerze Sesrulebuli minawerebidan yvelaze vrcelia momgeblis anderZi (242v-243r). anderZi avTenturi wyaroa muslimebisa da uflis saflavis qristian moweseTa urTierTobis, agreTve kompleqsSi arsebuli viTarebis Sesaswavlad. anderZs mecnierebi sxvadasxva droiT aTariReben. Cven SeviswavleT xelnawerTa erovnuli centris fotoTekaSi daculi xelnaweris fotopiri, SevadgineT anderZis teqnikuri aRweriloba. xelnaweris 8r-ze Sesrulebuli XIV saukunis moRvawis, Tevdas minaweri miuTiTebs, rom xelnaweri XIV saukuneze gvian ar aris Sesrulebuli. xelnaweri daiwera uflis saflavis taZris muslimebis (Turqebis) mier dakavebidan 32 (lb) wlis Semdeg. zusti TariRis gamoTvla muslimTagan XIII an XIV saukuneSi uflis saflavis taZris dakavebidan 32 wlis gadaTvliT aris SesaZlebeli. XIIIXIV saukuneebSi muslimebma ierusalimi orjer daikaves: pirvelad 1244 wels, meored ­ 1300 wels. 1244 wlidan 32-e weli 1276 welze modis. cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom am droisaTvis uflis saflavis taZarSi qristiani sasuliero pirebi mudmivi yofnis uflebiT sargeblobdnen, ar moipoveba. daaxloebiT 1299-1300 wlebSi monRolebma da maTma mokavSire-qveSevrdomma qristianebma droebiT wminda miwa daikaves. am faqtis Sesaxeb XIV saukunis sami wyaro (ori evropuli da erTi somxuri) mogviTxrobs.

1300 wlidan 32 weli 1332 welze modis. XIV saukuneSi qarTvelebis uflis saflavis taZarSi mudmivad yofna eWvs ar iwvevs. evropeli piligrimebi XIV saukunis ocian wlebSi uflis saflavis taZarSi mxolod qarTvelebis yofnas aRniSnaven. 1336 wels ierusalimSi Casuli germaneli piligrimis Canawerebi anderZSi asaxuli viTarebas analogiuria. amdenad, ioane varZielis anderZSi dasaxelebuli ­ muslimebis mier saflavis dakavebidan 32 weli, 1300 wlidan unda iyos aTvlili. aqedan gamomdinare, Jer.#76 xelnaweri 1332 wels aris dawerili. xelnaweris anderZi adasturebs da avsebs im evropeli piligrimebis cnobebs, romlebic XIV saukuneSi uflis saflavis kompleqsSi arsebul viTarebas aRweren.

buba kudava

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

kidev erTxel daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZis nayalbevobis Sesaxeb

1. SiomRvimis monastrisadmi gacemuli anderZis garda Cvenamde moaRwia daviT aRmaSeneblis meore anderZmac. es ukanaskneli karga xnis manZilze realur anderZad iyo miCneuli. `qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis korpusis~ I tomis publikaciisas nodar SoSiaSvilma daasabuTa, rom sabuTi nayalbevia. miuxedavad myari argumentaciisa, anderZis nayalbevoba sabolood mainc ar aris gaziarebuli qarTul istoriografiaSi. 2. nodar SoSiaSvilis argumentebi mokled ase gamoiyureba: a) sabuTis Sinaarsidan Cans, rom mefe gardacvlilia da misi saxeliT sabuTs adgens vinme `mlocveli beri~; b) sabuTSi arsebuli mimarTvis forma uCveuloa da ar eZebneba analogi am periodis dokumentebSi; g) daviTi anderZSi awesebs memkvidreobis axal wess, romelic sakmaod bundovnad aris formulirebuli.

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3. vfiqrobT, anderZis nayalbevobis dasamtkiceblad SesaZlebelia rogorc warmodgenili mosazrebebis gamyareba, ise damatebiTi argumentebis moxmobac, magaliTad: a) Tu daviTi marTla ubarebs ufros Svils demetres, rom mis Semdeg gaamefos umcrosi Zma vaxtangi (romlis saxelic ki ar aris sabuTSi moxseniebuli), gaurkveveli rCeba, romel memkvidres unda gadaeces taxti vaxtangis gardacvalebis Semdeg; b) anderZis bolo nawilSi mefe gascems garkveul Sewirulobebs. aqac sakmaod bundovania bevri ram: anderZis aRmsruleblis ufleba-movaleobebi (`Tu eleodes mefe dimitri, yoveli misces moZRuarsa Cemsa, Tu ara ­ naxevrisaT¢s ... vesajebi~), Sewirulobis odenoba (`Cemni lalni da Tualmargalitni~), adresati (`romelni monasterni mamulisa Cemisani ganmimwarebian~). 4. sabuTis Sesaxeb gamoTqmulia amgvari mosazrebac: anderZi namdvilia, memkvidreobis wesis Secvlis Sesaxeb informacia ki mogvianebiT aris masSi Camatebuli. aseT SemTxvevaSi pasuxi unda gaeces zemoT warmodgenil sxva argumentebsac. garda amisa, gaugebari xdeba, Tuki dedanSi taxtis memkvidreobis wesis Sesaxeb ar iyo saubari, risTvisRa daiwera anderZi? mxolod im gaurkveveli Sewirulobebis gasacemad? 5. marTalia, anderZis nayalbevobis damtkiceba bevr sakiTxs xsnis, Tumca dRis wesrigSi ayenebs sxva kiTxvebs: vin da rodis Seqmna igi? ra tipis sazogadoeba iyo yalbi sabuTis SinaarsiT dainteresebuli? sabuTis nayalbevobis dadgena gacilebiT advili iqneboda XII saukuneSi, maS, ra azri hqonda mis gayalbebas? sazogadoebis ra nawilze iyo gaTvlili yalbi anderZi? sad iyo dokumenti daculi da rogor moxda, rom igi ara marto SemogvrCa, aramed saukuneTa manZilze adgilic ki daimkvidra, rogorc daviT aRmaSeneblis realurma anderZma? 6. sakiTxis kvlevas Zalze arTulebs dokumentis pirebis gviandeloba. dReisaTvis gvaqvs XIX saukunis 4 piri da sxvadasxva pirebze damyarebuli gamocemebi.

hirotaKe maeda

osaka University. osaka, Japan

The Revolt of Giorgi Saakadze: From the account of a newly discovered Persian source

THE REVOLT OF GIORGI SAAKADzE: FROM THEACCOUNT OF Hirotake Maeda (Osaka University) a NEWly dISCovErEd PErSIaN SoUrCE

Fol.491b Sending a daughter of Isa Khan QurchibashiKhanal-sultanat (of state) for Simon Khan with fol. 491b Sending a daughter of Isa rukn Qurchibashi rukn al-sultanat (of

state) forQarchaqayKhancommander-in-chief of Qarchaqay Khan, commander-in-chief of Simon Khan, with lalaship of the army to Georgia and masccare of Kakhetinas lalaship of the army to Georgia and masccare of Kakhetinas. fol. 494a with Mourav Beyg the Georgian (Giorgi Saakadze) from farahabad to the direction of Beyg the Georgian (Giorgi Saakadze) from Farahabad to the direction of Georgia Fol.494a with Mourav Georgia.

Fol.496b

fol. 496b

491 494 496 500 504 . 505 507 509

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105

Tamar mesxi

giorgi wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis instituti. saqarTvelo

`petriwonis wesdebis~ erTi bundovani monakveTis ganmartebisaTvis

`petriwonis wesdebis~ 35-e TavSi warmodgenilia sia im oqrobeWdebisa da sabuTebisa, romlebic grigol bakurianis Zes bizantiis saimperatoro karze erTguli samsaxurisaTvis miuRia. am CamonaTvalis erT-erTi muxlidan (qarT. teqst. 35a,12; berZn. 35,10) vigebT, rom grigol bakurianis Zes bizantiis imperator mixeil VII-sagan miuRia simiosini (sigeli), magram ra damsaxurebisaTvis, bolomde naTeli ar aris. m. TarxniSvilis mier gamocemul sofiis xelnawerSi es monakveTi ase ikiTxeba: `simiosini erTi mixael mefisaY pewinagisa harbevisaT¢s~. s. yauxCiSvilma Sesatyvisi berZnuli teqsti (« », 35,10) ase Targmna: `sigeli kir mixaelisa Sesaxeb paWinakis maSin momxdari amoZravebuli Tavdasxmisa~. ak. SaniZem yuradReba gaamaxvila sityvaze `harbevisaT¢s~ da im daskvnamde mivida, rom m. TarxniSvilma sofiis xelnaweridan mcdarad amoikiTxa aRniSnuli sityva (radganac S da b TiTqmis erTnairad iwereba). ak. SaniZis mtkicebulebis Tanaxmad, .`petriwonis wesdebis~ qiosur xelnawerSi `harbevisaT¢s~ ki ara, sityva `harSivisaT¢s~ weria. `harSivis~ mniSvneloba ki, misive TqmiT, igive unda iyos, rac somxuri haSiv-isa, romelic `angariSs~ niSnavs. am monakveTis s. yauxCiSviliseul TargmanTan dakavSirebiT ki aRniSna: `damokidebulia sofiis xelnawerSi m. TarxniSvilis mier mcdarad amokiTxuli sityvisagan da misi laTinuri Targmanisagan~. `wesdebis~ ak. SaniZiseul gamocemaSi sadavo monakveTi ase ikiTxeba: `simiosini erTi mixael mefisaY pewinagisa harSivisaT¢s~ (35,12). vfiqrobT, sakiTxi verc ak. SaniZiseuli ganmartebiT ganaTda. Cveni azriT, es bundovaneba, zemoT ganxilul sityvebTan

106

(`harbevisaT¢s~// harSivisaT¢s~) erTad, sityva `pewinagi~­s arasworma interpretaciam gamoiwvia. sityva `pewinagi~ `tipikonis~ teqstSi, ukve moxmobilis garda, sxva monakveTSic dasturdeba: `daam£ua Cven mier uSjuloY da friad mZlavri mteri qristeaneTa da saberZneTisaY naTesavi pewinagTa¡~ (2,18, ak. SaniZis gamoc.). e.i. am SemTxvevaSi `pewinagi~ niSnavs pawanikebs, rusuli istoriografiiT ­ . `petriwonis wesdebis~ Zveli qarTuli teqsti ar iZleva imis saSualebas, rom or sxvadasxva monakveTSi dafiqsirebuli msgavsi JReradobisa da dawerilobis sityvebs (pewinagTa, 2,18 / pewinagisa, 35a,12) Soris arsebuli semantikuri gansxvaveba amovicnoT. berZnuli Sesatyvisebis dawerilobaSi ki es gansxvaveba SesamCnevia. amitom s. yauxCiSvili Seecada, warmoeCina kidevac es gansxvaveba. sityvas pawinakebi (2,12) Seusatyvisa, xolo paWinakad (35,10) Targmna; sakuTar saxelTa saZiebelSi ki `paWinaki~ kiTxviTi niSniT warmoadgina. g. litavrinis azriT, 35-e TavSi naxsenebi an anTroponimia an iseve, rogorc wina monakveTSi (2,18), kvlav pawanikebis tomi igulisxmeba. am azrs iziareben `petriwonis wesdebis~ bulgareli mkvlevarnic. kvlevisas dadginda: I. gaberZnulebuli formaa Turquli sityvisa Bacanak (bajanak), rac `qvisls~ niSnavs. amaSi moulodneli araferia. axalberZnulSi sityvam sruliad gandevna imave mniSvnelobis tradiciuli . Turqizmebi berZnulSi XI saukunidan Cndeba. Sesabamisad, sadavo monakveTis Cveneuli Targmani aseTia: `sigeli kir mixailisa, qvislis mier aRZrul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT~. II. am gadasaxedidan `wesdebis~ sadavo monakveTi sakmaod saintereso informaciis Semcveli aRmoCnda rogorc saqarTvelos, ise bizantiis istoriis TvalsazrisiT: 1). sityvaSi (`qvisli~) imperator aleqsi I komnenosis ufrosi Zma, sevastokratori isaaki igulisxmeba. 2). dasturdeba is faqti, rom isaak komnenosi imperator mixeil VII dukas winaaRmdeg mowyobili SeTqmulebis erT-erTi iniciatori yofila.

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3). grigol bakurianis Zes Tavisi wvlili Seutania SeTqmulebis CaxSobaSi, rac imperators sagangebo sigeliT aRuniSnavs. III. istoriuli movlenebidan gamomdinare, m. TarxniSvilis mier sofiis xelnaweridan amokiTxuli harbevisaT¢s, romelic man pro incursione -d (`darbevad~) Targmna, ufro marTebuli Cans. IV. bunebrivia, Cndeba kiTxva: ratom moixsenieba isaak komnenosi naTesauri kavSiris mixedviT da ara Tavisi saxeliT? im Semrigebluri politikis fonze, rasac aleqsi komnenosi dukebis mimarT axorcielebda, isaakis SeTqmulebaSi monawileobis gaxseneba, cxadia, imperatoris guliswyromas gamoiwvevda. sadavo winadadeba imaze migvaniSnebs, rom grigol bakurianis Ze kargi diplomatic iyo. V. aseTi sifrTxiliTa da diplomatiiT daweril `wesdebaSi~ eWvqveS dgeba avTenturoba 24-e Tavisa, romelSic berZenTa veragobazea saubari.

urhaelis `JamTaaRmwerlobaSi" da TviT monastris warweraSic, Tumca aris saintereso gansxvavebac. aranakleb mniSvnelovan monacemebs Seicavs agreTve daviTis istorikosis somxuri Targmani. aq aRwerilia qarTvelTa mefisa da somexTa moZRvar ioane sarkavagis urTierTdamokidebuleba. am SemTxvevaSi saWiroa istoriul-wyaroTmcodneobiTi ganxilva ara mxolod arsebuli CanarTis teqstisa, aramed fsalmunis im muxlebisa, romelTa teqsti araa citirebuli, magram nomrebiT miTiTebulia. usafuZvlo da SeTxzulia is debuleba, Tanaxmad romlisa, daviT aRmaSenebeli, garkveuli politikuri mosazrebiT mfarvelobda somxur mosaxleobas. es mfarveloba bunebrivi da kanonzomieri iyo.

irina nacvliSvili

SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

paruir muradiani

aRmosavleTmcodneobis instituti. erevani, somxeTi

biblia ­ xelnawerTa teqstis gamarTvisa da Sesworebis mniSvnelovani wyaro (`aswlovani matianis~ erTi epizodis gagebisaTvis)

B1. biblia medievaluri kulturis ara mxolod ideologiuri, aramed mxatvruli azrovnebis universaluri wyaroa. Sesabamisad, am periodis mwerlobis eTikur-esTetikuri samyaro bibliur saxeobriv sistemas efuZneba. amgvar SemoqmedebiTsaazrovno modelsve emorCileba Sua saukuneebis qarTuli JamTaaRmwerlobac. amasTanave, is qristianuli msoflxedvisaTvis niSandobliv specifikur istorizms avlens. istoriis Teologiuri filosofiis mixedviT, romelic saTaves netari avgustinedan iRebs, kacobriobis cxovrebaSi RvTis Carevis TiToeuli aqti qmnis istoriis konkretul etaps da, amdenad, realuri faqtebi religiur faseulobas iZenen. miwier isto-

daviT aRmaSeneblis istoriis qarTuli redaqciisa da misi somxuri Targmanis CanarTebis gagebisaTvis

saistorio TxzulebaTa teqstebSi arsebuli CanarTebis aRmocenebis droisa da wyaros dadgena sakmaod Zneli wyaroTmcodneobrivi amocanaa. `qarTlis cxovrebis" janaSviliseuli nusxis (d) SemweobiT gamoirkva, rom igi vaxtang mefis swavlul kacTaTvis axali periodis istoriis erT-erTi wyaroTagania. magram TviT am redaqciaSic (e. i. d-Sic) aris istoriuli Sinaarsis CanarTi, kerZod ­ daviT aRmaSeneblis mier 1123 w. qalaq anisis ganTavisuflebisa da mTavarsaydris axlad monaTvlis Sesaxeb. CanarTi gamoZaxils poulobs istorikos maTe

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rias ara aqvs TavisTavadi Rirebuleba. is sakraluri istoriis anareklia da sazrisi mxolod masSi CarTviT eZleva. E2. erovnuli istoriis msoflio istoriis nawilad aRqma sisxlxorceulia Sua saukuneTa qarTuli istoriografiisTvisac, romelic qveynis cxovrebas saRvTismetyvelo tipologiis kvalobaze warmoaCens. XIV saukunis ucnobi JamTaaRmwerlis `aswlovan matianeSic~ qarTveli eris cxovrebis yoveli mniSvnelovani movlena zedroul ganzomilebas iZens da bibliuri kategoriebis saSualebiT aixsneba. konkretuli samyaro simbolurad gaorebulia bibliuri arqetipebis Ziebis xarjze. saqarTvelos istoria mowodebulia, rogorc zedrouli istoriis droSi gamovlena da masTan alegoriuli Sesatyvisoba. Yyovelive es ganapirobebs Txzulebis teqstSi ara mxolod bibliuri citatebis CarTvas, aramed saRvTo werilidan uxvad moxmobil Sedareba-paralelebsac, romelTa safuZvelzedac istorikosi cdilobs ama Tu im movlenis siRrmiseuli aspeqtebis warmoCenasa da monaTxrobSi sakraluri Sinaarsis Setanas. 3. `aswlovani matianis~ erT-erTi amgvari pasaJia mefe demetre II-is mxileba mTawmindidan RvTismSoblis CvenebiT mosuli basili monazvnis mier. es epizodi sakmaod datvirTulia bibliuri saxeebiT, romlebic avtoriseuli saTqmelisa da saazrovno konteqstis amocnobaSi gvexmareba. dasasruls Tavisi moraluri poziciis gasamyareblad basili monazoni ambobs: `ukeTu me CemebiT rasme vity¢, viTarca cru winaswarmetyveli, SemacTunebeli kacisa RmrTisa, romeli miivlina roboamissa, Zisa nabotianissa, da ara yovlad-wmindisa RvTismSobelisa mier warmovlinebul var, viTar crud sjulisa gardamavali SemracxeT~. 4.A `aswlovani matianis~ am pasaJSi yuradRebas iqcevs bibliuri Sedareba, romelic CarTulia basili monazvnis sityvaSi da am konkretul SemTxvevaSi ara msgavsebas, aramed gansxvavebas warmoaCens. pirvelwyaros Ziebam gamoavlina JamTaaRmwerlis Txzulebis erTi mcdari ikiTxvisi. kerZod, `aswlovani matianis~ Tavdapirvel teqstSi roboamis nacvlad unda yofiliyo ieroboami (an ierobuami, ioroboami, ioro110

buami). bibliuri personaJis saxelis amgvari saxecvlileba, albaT, unda aixsnas Zeglis gadamwerTa daukvirveblobiT, radgan sruliad gamoricxulia avtoriseuli Secdoma. JamTaaRmwerels, romelic saRvTo werilis SesaniSnav codnas avlens, ar SeeZlo, miTiTebul konteqstSi roboami moexsenebina. Ees saxeli ocdaaTze metjer gaiJRerebs sxvadasxva bibliur wignSi da yvelgan solomonis vaJs ukavSirdeba. istorikosis mier bibliidan moxmobili Sedarebis wyarod unda miviCnioT mefeTa III wignSi moTxrobili ieroboam israelis mefis cxovrebis erTi epizodi. Ees ieroboami swored nabatis Zea ­ JamTaaRmwerlis mixedviT, nabatiani (-ian sufiqsi, rogorc warmomavlobis saxelTa mawarmoebeli, qarTulSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia, rac dasturdeba `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Semaval ZeglTa magaliTzec). sruliad aSkaraa, rom basili monazvnis sityvebi aRniSnul bibliur epizods exmianeba da Sedarebas, romelic amjerad uaryofiTi Sinaarsisaa, savsebiT logikuri safuZveli aqvs. basili monazoni ki ar emsgavseba, aramed emijneba bibliur personaJs sakuTari simarTlis mis sicruesTan Sepirispirebis kvalobaze. swored amis gaTvaliswinebiT xdeba mematianis saTqmelis ideuri Sinaarsis amocnoba. JamTaaRmwereli, romelic cdilobs, meti damajerebloba Sematos basili monazvnis mxilebasa da swavlas, daJinebiT amtkicebs misi RvTismSoblisagan movlinebis faqts (Sesabamis konteqstSi igi oTxgzis aRniSnavs amas). swored amisTvis dasWirda mas bibliidan beTeleli winaswarmetyvelis saxis moxmobac. 5. aRniSnuli pasaJi cxadyofs, rom qarTuli mwerlobis Zeglebis bibliur-saxismetyvelebiTi TvalsazrisiT Seswavla mxolod literaturaTmcodneobiTi da kulturologiuri rigis amocana rodia. xSir SemTxvevaSi is didad waadgeba dazianebul an gviandeli nusxebiT moRweul xelnawerTa teqstis saTanado gamarTvasa da uzustobaTa Sesworebas, rac metad saWiro da mniSvnelovani saqmea.

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paata nacvliSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

argentinis qarTuli emigraciis saarqivo memkvidreoba

1. argentinaSi qarTvelebi meore msoflio omis Semdeg dasaxldnen. erTi mxriv, eseni iyvnen qarTuli politikuri emigraciis pirveli talRis warmomadgenlebi, meore mxriv ki, tyvedyofili sabWoTa meomrebi, romelTac sxvadasxva mizezis gamo omisSemdgom evropaSi aRar daedgomebodaT. argentinaSi Casuli pirveli qarTvelebi buenos-airesis maxloblad mdebare patara daba lomas-de-samoraSi dasaxldnen. 50-iani wlebis dasawyisSi argentinaSi ukve 100-kaciani qarTuli kolonia arsebobda, 1958 wels ki am qveyanaSi 260 qarTuli ojaxi cxovrobda. argentinis qarTvelobis gamaerTianebel centrad imTaviTve Tamar da akaki papavebis Zlieri ojaxi iqca. 2. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis parlamentis wevri, saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSiris Tavmjdomaris moadgile akaki papava da misi meuRle Tamar gogolaSvili-papavasi ukve saxelmoxveWili moRvaweebi iyvnen, roca saqarTvelos gasabWoebis Semdeg or mcirewlovan gogonasTan erTad emigraciaSi aRmoCndnen da germaniaSi, hamburgSi dasaxldnen. aq maT ufro meti TavdadebiT ganagrZes saqarTveloSi dawyebuli aqtiuri samwerlo Tu sazogado moRvaweoba da raki, emigrantTa didi nawilisagan gansxvavebiT, materialuri Tu finansuri Zlierebac mosdgamdaT, araerT erovnul saqmes daadges Tavi da soliduri qarTvelologiuri biblioTekac Seqmnes, romelic yvelaze mdidaria saqarTvelos farglebs gareT arsebul qarTul biblioTekebs Soris. Tamar da akaki papavebis ojaxi erT-erTi pirveli qarTuli ojaxi iyo, romelmac msoflio omis Semdeg argentinas miaSura. 3. 1950 wels argentinaSi qarTuli saTvistomo Camoyalibda, romlis pirvel Tavmjdomared cnobili qarTveli mecnieri da sazogado moRvawe viqtor nozaZe airCies, sapatio Tavmjdoma112

reoba ki akaki papavas sTxoves. viqtor nozaZis mere saTvistomos saTaveSi Tamar papava edga, mis Semdeg ki am movaleobas gardacvalebamde akaki papava asrulebda. argentinis qarTuli saTvistomos mTeli SemorCenili masala papavebis mdidar arqivSia Tavmoyrili, romlis erTi nawili 1997 wels Tamar da akaki papavebis qaliSvilebma ­ turfa da mzia papava-WeiSvilebma ­ argentinidan saqarTveloSi gamogvatanes da dRes saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnul centrSia daculi, Tamar da akaki papavebis kabinetSi, romelic specialurad am miznisaTvis Seiqmna 2008 wels. 4. Tamar da akaki papavebis saxelebi saqarTvelos farTo sazogadoebam pirvelad gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi gaicno rezo TabukaSvilis filmisa (`SorielTa siaxlove~) da mixeil kakabaZis sagazeTo werilis (`globusis meore mxares~) meSveobiT. swored im xanebSi Tamar da akaki papavebis qaliSvilebma da siZeebma saqarTveloSi gamogzavnes uZvirfasesi ganZi ­ sionis sakurTxevlis gadasafarebeli, romelic Tavis droze germaniaSi SeuZeniaT. saerTod, papavebis ojaxSi mravali qarTuli siZvelea daculi, xolo qarTuli emigraciis kerZo arqivTa Soris Znelad moiZebneba iseTi, Tavisi istoriuli, literaturul-kulturuli Tu zogaderovnuli mniSvnelobiT Tamar da akaki papavebis arqivs rom gautoldes. am siZveleTsacavSi daculia mravali ucnobi dokumenti saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikisa Tu qarTuli emigraciis istoriidan, qarTvel mweralTa gamouqveynebeli nawerebi, ucxoeTSi gamocemuli qarTuli wignebi Tu Jurnal-gazeTebi, argentinaSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa kerZo saarqivo masalebi, qarTuli emigraciis mravali saxelovani warmomadgenlis piradi werilebi Tamar da akaki papavebis saxelze. es masala geografiuli TvalsazrisiT xuTive kontinents moicavs, misi droiTi farglebi ki naxevar saukunes swvdeba ­ gasuli saukunis 20-iani wlebidan 70-ian wlebamde. 5. argentinis qarTuli saarqivo memkvidreobis saqarTveloSi daculi nawili, romelic Cveni specialuri Seswavlis sagania da romelic ramdenime aseul saarqivo erTeuls Seicavs, ukve karga xania, moeqca specialistTa yuradRebis centrSi. am masalis safuZvelze momzadda araerTi samecniero Tu Jurnalistu113

ri publikacia, Seiqmna radio- da telegadacemebi, calke gamoica grigol robaqiZis ucnobi novela da eqvTime TayaiSvilis werilebi, dacul iqna disertacia, momzadebulia gamosacemad grigol robaqiZis, viqtor nozaZis, mixako wereTlis, samson fircxalavas da sxva moRvaweTa werilebi, mimdinareobs muSaoba dokumentur filmze. 2009 wlis maisSi xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi gaimarTa Tamar da akaki papavebis xsovnis dReebi, romlis farglebSi moewyo Tamar da akaki papavebis kabinetisa da ucxoeTis qarTvelTa istoriuli memkvidreobis Semswavleli programa `samSoblos~ prezentaciebi. amasTan dakavSirebiT argentinidan sagangebod Camovidnen Tamar da akaki papavebis SviliSvilebi ­ gulnara, salome, turfa (pusi) da mzia WeiSvilebi, romelTac kidev erTxel daadastures maTi mSoblebis survili, rom Tamar da akaki papavebis arqivi, biblioTeka da qarTuli emigraciis istoriasTan dakavSirebuli araerTi memorialuri nivTi saqarTvelos gadmoeces. am mizniT 2009 wlis noemberSi argentinas gaemgzavreba saqarTvelos xelnawerTa centris mcirericxovani jgufi, romelic aRwers da Caibarebs papavebis ojaxis mTel saarqivo memkvidreobas. saqarTveloSi Camotanili masala saqarTvelos xelnawerTa centrSi daidebs binas da misi mravalmxrivi Seswavlisa da samecniero mimoqcevaSi CarTvis Semdeg saqarTvelos emigraciis istoriis araerT dRemde ucnob furcels mohfens naTels.

nikoloz oTinaSvili

goris universiteti. gori, saqarTvelo

qsnis saerisTavos eTnoistoriidan

1. qsnis saerisTavo erT-erTi uZlieresi safeodalo iyo zemo qarTlSi, romelSic Sedioda qsnis, lexuris, mejudis, patara liaxvis xeobebi, gverdisZiri da Sida qarTlis mTeli rigi soflebi.

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mxare dawinaurebuli iyo ekonomikurad da kulturulad, rasac mowmobs yvela epoqis materialuri kulturis Zeglebi, mTeli rigi saistorio dokumentebi, sigel-gujrebi, davTrebi, romlebic saWiro cnobebs Seicaven mosaxleobis socialuri, wodebrivi, qonebrivi, ojaxuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. 2. saistorio dokumentebidan aRsaniSnavia `1774-1781 wlebis qsnis saerisTavos statistikuri aRwera~, romlis monacemebis Sedarebam dRevandel viTarebasTan bevr saidumlos unda axados farda. `saamilaxvros davTarSi~ CamoTvlilia lexuris xeobaSi da tirifonis mindorze ganlagebuli soflebi da gvar-saxelebi mosaxleobisa, romelsac iaraRiT xelSi gamosvla evaleboda qarTlis mefe giorgi meTerTmetis mxareze meCvidmete saukunis meore naxevarSi. am droisaTvis am soflebSi mosaxleobis absoluturi umravlesoba qarTvelia, Semdgom ki mxare daicala migraciis, ucxotomelTa Semosevebis Sedegad, rac imisi Sedegia, rom mTaSi da mTiswineTSi mosaxleoba eTnikurad Seicvala, Tumca mTaSic aRar aris mosaxleoba, ZiriTadad, Crdilo kavkasiaSi arian gadasulebi. 1822 wlis `Tornike erisTavis Semosavlis davTari~ mniSvnelovani dokumentia mxaris eTnikuri istoriis gasarkvevad. davTarSi aRricxulia ocdaeqvsi sofeli, rogorc patara liaxvis, ise lexuris xeobebSi, romelTa naxevari dRes aRar aris, amotom maTi lokalizacia saSuri saqmea. 3. toponimTa da anTroponimTa gamZleobam Semogvinaxa bevri gamqrali soflisa da gvaris saxeli. maT sawarmoeblad gamoyenebulia ­ian, -anT sufiqsebi, magaliTad: zeviTl-ian-i, eloian-i, pavl-ian-i, maT-ian-i, maTi-anT tye, kalo, vasiko-anT kalo, rusita-anT ubani (rusitaSvilebi). aseve didi intensivobiT gamoirCeva ­eT, -ur, -enT mawarmoeblebi, romlebic aRniSnaven kuTvnilebas, afiqsireben StogvarTa saxelebs, magaliTad: ivr-eT-i, gor-eT-i, wyur-eT-i, qor-eTi, qaSu-eT-i...

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dasturdeba aseve prefiqsuli da prefiqs-sufiqsuri warmoeba: sa-frinavi Rele, sa-fqvil-eT-i axo, sa-wanaq-o saxnavi, sa-maril-e qedi, sa-jol-e tye da sxv. -ur sufiqsma SeiZleba adamianTa sadauroba-warmomavloba aRniSnos, amasTan, gamoyenebulia toponimebis sawarmoebladac; magaliTad: quba-ur-i, xoS-ur-i, goC-ur-i, elia-ur-i, gengi-uri, Cxita-ur-i, gint-ur-i, salaj-ur-i da mravali sxva. vfiqrobT, saistorio sabuTebis momarjvebiT zemo qarTlis xeobebis srul onomastikur viTarebas aRvadgenT.

qeTevan pavliaSvili

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

cnobebi ierusalimis rusul sasuliero misiaSi qarTveli samRvdeloebis monawileobis Sesaxeb (XIX s-is II naxevari)

1. ierusalims ­ `wminda miwas~ gamorCeuli adgili ukavia qristianuli kacobriobis istoriaSi. saukuneebis manZilze wminda miwa msoflios saxelmwifoTa politikur-kulturuli interesebis gadakveTis adgili iyo, ris gamoc gansxvavebuli konfesiis eTnosebi odiTgan cdilobdnen TavianTi sulier-kulturuli wvlilis Setanasa da politikur-kulturuli niadagis Seqmnas ierusalimSi. calkeuli erebis saxelmwifoebriobisa da kulturis saqmeSi wminda miwaze maTi interesebis kvleva friad aqtualuria Tanamedrove msoflio istoriografiisTvisac. 2. winamdebare naSromis kvlevis obieqtia ruseTis imperiis politikur-saeklesio interesebi ierusalimisadmi, romlis kulminaciac XIX s-is II naxevaria. aRniSnul periodSi ruseTma farTod gaSala saeklesio ­ diplomatiuri muSaoba wminda miwaze. imperiis mizani iyo msoflios qveynebis gverdiT marTlmadideblobis niSniT samyaroSi hegemonobisaTvis brZola da politikuri avtoritetis mopoveba axlo aRmosavleTSi.

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3. ruseTis saerTaSoriso asparezze damkvidreba ukavSirdeboda rusuli marTlmadideblobis gamarjvebas wminda miwaze. am mizniT imperiis kuluarebSi muSavdeba politikur-saeklesio kursi ­ `rusuli palestiniana~ ­ da Sesabamisi proeqtebi. winamdebare naSromis kvlevis obieqtia erT-erTi maTgani, e. w. `antonines proeqti~ (XIX s-is 60-70-iani ww.). 4. gamokvlevaSi axsnilia `antonines proeqtis~ winamorbedi proeqtebisgan ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi: daxvewiloba, ostatoba, sasuliero-humanuri da samecniero ­ kvleviTi xasiaTi. aRniSnuli proeqtiT ganxorcielda: palestinaSi rusuli eklesiamonastrebis mSenebloba, miwis nakveTebis Sesyidva, rusuli marTlmadideblobis propaganda, samecniero-arqeologiuri samuSaoebi, rusuli migracia, rusuli axalSenebis damkvidreba da a.S. 5. `antonines proeqtis~ monawileebad gvevlinebian qarTveli samRvdelo pirebi. winamdebare gamokvlevaSi dadgenilia maTi vinaoba, proeqtSi monawileobis mizezebi, maTi wvlili proeqtis muSaobaSi da maTi Semdgomi cxovreba-moRvaweobis fragmentebi. 6. naSromi warmoadgens arqimandrit antonines (kapustini) qarTvel samRvdeloebasTan urTierTobis istoriul eqskurss; dadginda, rom ori qarTveli samRvdelo piri aqtiurad iyo CarTuli `rusul palestinianaSi~. maT Soris ­ beri besarioni, romelic imereTis episkopos gabrielis (qiqoZe) Zmaa, da mama Tevdore, romlis gvari da vinaoba jerjerobiT bundovanebiT aris moculi da Semdgom kvlevas iTxovs. 7. naSromSi gamokvleulia qarTveli berebis moRvaweobis epizodebi: q.aTenis rusul saelCosTan arsebul eklesiaSi, aTonis wminda mTaze `ivironsa~ da `rusikSi~, ierusalimSi; dadgenilia TiToeulis gardacvalebis TariRi da adgili. 8. gamokvelevaSi daxasiaTebulia qarTveli berebis `antonines proeqtSi~ mimdinare mravalmimarTulebiani saqmianoba: saeklesio, diplomatiuri, samecniero-kvleviTi, sameurneoekonomikuri da saorganizacio. 9. winamdebare naSromSi axsnilia qarTveli samRvdeloebis monawileobis mizezebi ruseTis imperiis farTo politikuri

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kursis gatarebaSi. dadginda, rom maTi moRvaweoba rusul sasuliero misiebSi ukavSirdeba ucxoeTis qarTuli sulierebisa da kulturis savaneTa gadarCenis saqmes. 10. naSromSi gamoikveTa, rom qarTveli samRvdeloebis saqmianobis mizezebi `rusul palestinianaSi~ ukavSirdeba ruseTis saeklesio politikas saqarTvelosa da misi eklesiis mimarT. ruseTis saimperatoro kari sazRvargareT arsebul saqarTvelos siwmindeebs iseTive sakuTrebad moiazrebda, rogorc saqarTveloSi moqmedi eklesia-monastrebis qonebas. aqedan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, ruseTi ver Seegueboda ucxoeTis qarTul savaneebze sxva qveynebis mxridan cilobas. ruseTi spekulirebda qarTveli samRvdeloebis represiebiTa da materialuri siduxWiriT da daxmarebis pirobiT cdilobda qarTvelTa Tanadgomis mopovebas berZnebisa da sxva qristianuli konfesiebis samRvdeloebis winaaRmdeg brZolebSi. es vlindeboda aTonis mTaze moRvawe qarTveli berebis finansur daxmarebaSi, `rusikSi~ TavSesafris micemaSi da sxv. bunebrivia, rom aTonis mTidan wminda miwaze gadasul qarTvel berebs ruseTis saero da sasuliero xelisuflebis imedi hqondaT, gadarCenis saqmeSi; miT ufro, rom gausaZlisi politikuri viTarebis gamo, isini saqarTvelodan daxmarebas veRar iRebdnen.

goCa saiTiZe, eTer qavTaraZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

arqivTmcodneoba xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi (xelnawerTa institutSi)

1. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculia gamoCenili Tu sazogadoebis farTo wreebisaTvis SedarebiT naklebad cnobili mwerlebis, mecnierebis, sasuliero pirebis, mxatvrebis, sportsmenebis, politikuri da samxedro moRvaweebis, agreTve, organizaciebis arqivebi. aRniSnuli saarqivo masalis gaTval118

iswinebis gareSe srulyofili ver iqneba qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azris ganviTarebis istoria. TiToeuli arqivi politikuri, socialuri da kulturuli yofis sayuradRebo suraTs iZleva qveynis istoriis calkeuli monakveTis Sesaxeb. amdenad, qarTuli kulturologiiT dainteresebuli mkvlevari mas gverds ver auvlis. 2. saarqivo fondebze zrunva xelnawerTa institutis SeqmnisTanave daiwyo. pirvelad arqivebi gamocalkevda sxvadasxva fondSi daculi dokumentebis mixedviT. Semdeg igi ivseboda SemowirulobebiTa da SeZeniT. dReisaTvis xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi damuSavebuli, damuSavebis procesSi myofi da dasamuSavebeli 149 arqivia daculi, maT Soris, ilia WavWavaZis, akaki wereTlis, vaJa-fSavelas, iakob gogebaSvilis, ivane javaxiSvilis, eqvTime TayaiSvilis, korneli kekeliZis, mixeil TamaraSvilis, grigol robaqiZis, arCil jorjaZis, grigol orbelianis, mose janaSvilis, dimitri baqraZis, sergei mesxis, niko maris, saqarTvelos saistorio-saeTnografio sazogadoebis arqivi da sxv. 3. saarqivo fondebis damuSaveba imTaviTve sami mimarTulebiT daiwyo: a) dokumentebis yovelmxrivi Seswavla, aRwera, klasifikacia, saZieblebis Sedgena; b) arqivis aRwerilobis gamocema; g) saarqivo dokumentebis publikacia monografiuli kvlevis SedegebTan erTad. 4. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi arqivTmcodneobis saerTaSoriso miRwevebis gaTvaliswinebiT intensiurad grZeldeba saarqivo fondebze muSaoba. arqivTmcodneobis departamenti zrunavs axali fondebis moZiebaze da cdilobs, amomwuravi, mobiluri, Tanamedrove moTxovnebis doneze mdgomi sainformacio bazis Seqmnas, rac xels Seuwyobs am umdidresi saarqivo masalis mecnierul mimoqcevaSi srulyofil Sesvlas.

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valeri silogava

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

erTianobis xanis saqarTvelos kaTalikospatriarqebis avtografuli xelrTvebi (XI-XV ss.)

Zvelma qarTulma werilobiTma Zeglebma ­ saistorio sabuTebma, monastris tipikonma da saaRape Canawerebma ­ Semogvinaxes saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqTa avtografuli xelrTvebi. maTi calke, gamoyofilad Seswavla im werilobiTi Zeglebisagan, romelTac isini axlavs, mravalmxriv sainteresoa da mniSvnelovani. maTi Seswavlis am etapze ganvixilavT kaTalikos-patriarqTa xelrTvebs, romlebic erTianobis xanis saqarTvelos, anu XI-XV ss. qronologiur farglebSi Tavsdebian. maT Soris uZvelesia giorgi qarTlis kaTalikosis xelrTva mefe bagrat IV-is 1057 wlis sigelze mRvimis lavrisadmi, xolo yvelaze gviandelia daviT qarTlis kaTalikosis xelrTva maxarebel maRalaZisadmi 1470 wels gacemul wyalobis wignze. kaTalikos-patriarqTa xelrTvebis Seswavlis Sedegad ramdenime tendencia gamoiyofa: adreuli, XI-XIII saukuneebis xelrTvebi ufro vrcelia, moculobiT bevrad aRemateba imave sabuTebze moTavsebul amdroindel mefeTa xelrTvebs da, rogorc wesi, sabuTis mokle Sinaarss Seicaven. samagierod, bevrad ufro moklea XIV-XV saukuneebis kaTalikosTa xelrTvebi ­ zogjer erTi winadadebisagan Sedgeba. kaTalikosebi xels aweren, an Canawerebs akeTeben rogorc mxedruli, ise nusxuri da swori (gardamavali) mxedruli damwerlobiT; am mxriv raime kanonzomiereba ar Cans. kaTalikos-patriarqTa avtografuli xelrTvebi, rogorc mtkiced daTariRebuli werilobiTi Zeglebi, metad mniSvnelovania qarTuli damwerlobis ganviTarebis Sesaswavlad; maT axasiaTebT daxvewili grafika da mkveTrad gamo- xatuli individualuri Taviseburebebi.

am xelrTvebis, rogorc calke aRebuli saistorio wyaros, kidev erTxel Seswavlam da am mizniT maTma erTad Tavmoyram, daazusta zogierTi qronologiuri monacemi _ sabuTis an Canaweris daTariReba. isini erT-erTi utyuari wyaroa saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqTa titulis ­ misi cvlilebebisa da Camoyalibebis Sesaswavlad. am mizniT, garda avtografuli xelrTvebisa, moxmobilia iseTebic,romlebic pirebis saxiT moRweul sabuTebzea moTavsebuli.

mzia surgulaZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

qarTuli wyaroTmcodneoba xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi (1959-2009 ww.)

1959 wels axlad daarsebul xelnawerTa institutSi Tavmoyrili aRmoCnda qarTuli saistorio sabuTebis mdidari fondebi. samecnero sazogadoebisaTvis cnobili iyo am fondebSi daculi dokumenturi masalis mxolod mcire nawili XIX s-Si da XX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi Sesrulebuli ramdenime publikaciis saSualebiT. amdenad, aTasobiT saistorio sabuTSi daculi informacia miuwvdomeli iyo specialistebisaTvis. ucnobi iyo maTi wyaroTmcodneobiTi Rirebuleba. xelnawerTa institutSi saistorio sabuTebis mdidari koleqciebis arsebobam ganapiroba specialuri ganyofilebis Camoyalibeba, romlis samecniero profili ZiriTadad gansazRvruli iyo aq daculi dokumenturi masalis katalogizaciasa da mis wyaroTmcodneobiT SeswavlasTan dakavSirebuli problematikiT. am problematikis farglebSi gamoikveTa ramdenime prioritetuli mimarTuleba, romlebic dRemde inarCuneben TavianT mniSvnelobas. esenia: saistorio sabuTebis, monacemTa bazebisa da eleqtronuli katalogebis, saistorio sabuTebis sruli korpusis gamosacemad momzadeba, genealogiur-qronologiuri da diplomatikuri gamokvlevebi.

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saistorio sabuTebze muSaobis procesSi qarTul masalaze dayrdnobiT pirvelad xelnawerTa institutSi Seiqmna mecnieruli gamokvlevebi istoriul qronologiasa da istoriul genealogiaSi, sfragistikasa da filigranologiaSi; axali Teoriuli da praqtikuli ganzomilebebi SeiZina qarTulma paleografiam da diplomatikam. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos sinamdvleSi pirvelad xelnawerTa institutSi daibada istoriis e. w. damxmare da specialuri disciplinebi, riTac Seivso mravali xarvezi qarTul wyaroTmcodneobaSi. wyaroTmcodneobiTi saqmianoba xelnawerTa institutSi ar Semoifargleboda martooden dokumenturi masalis damuSavebiT. xelnawerTa institutis filologiurma skolam mis mier ganxorcielebuli qarTuli hagiografiis sruli korpusis, Sua saukuneebis dogmatikuri da polemikuri literaturis, sakuTriv istoriografiuli Zeglebis, maT Soris, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ calkeuli Txzulebebis axali mecnieruli publikaciebiT udidesi samsaxuri gauwia Tanamedrove qarTul istoriografias. xelnawerTa institutSi Camoyalibda kompleqsuri meTodologia uaRresad specifikuri masalis ­ e.w. sulTa matianeebisa da saaRape Canawerebis ­ SeswavlisaTvis. am meTodologiis gamoyenebam SesaZlebeli gaxada sruliad sando pirvelxarisxovani istoriuli informaciis mopoveba, ramac mniSvnelovnad Seuwyo xeli qarTuli wyaroTmcodneobiTi bazis gafarToebas. xelnawerTa instituti wlebis ganmavlobaSi gegmavda saeqspedicio muSaobebs. am eqspediciaTa Sedegad aRinusxa da dafiqsirda saqarTvelos calkeul regionebSi (svaneTi, Sida qarTli, javaxeTi, gareja) aseve sazRvargareT (ierusalimi, aToni, sina), arsebuli qarTuli xuroTmoZRvruli da epigrafikuli Zeglebis, Wedurobis, xelnaweri wignebis amJamindeli daculoba da mdgomareoba; am eqspediciaTa Sedegebi aisaxa solidur monografiebsa da mravalricxovan samecniero statiebSi.

tariel futkaraZe

akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

bun Turqni: paleografiuli Secdoma, Turqulenovani xalxis aRmniSvneli erT-erTi uZvelesi eTnonimi, kompaqturad dasaxlebuli ltolvili `~Turqebi~ Tu `sastik warmarTTa~ aRmniSvneli metafora?

1. `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ gviandel xelnawerebSi dadasturebuli Sesityveba `bun Turqni~ zogi mkvlevris mier gamocxadebulia Turquli modgmis uZvelesi xalxis aRmniSvnel eTnonimad; kerZod, termin `bunTurqis~ dausabuTebeli etimologiebis mixedviT varaudoben, rom `bunTurqebi~ arian is winare Turqebi, romlebic iyvnen amierkavkasiis avtoqTonebi. sxva mosazrebis mixedviT, `bunTurqebi~ devnil skviTebs aRniSnavs. Cndeba ramdenime kiTxva: - gvaqvs ki safuZveli damoukidebel eTnonimad gamovacxadoT `bunTurqni~? arsebobda ki es Sesityveba adreul xelnawerebSi? - ratom unda davuSvaT, VIII-IX saukuneebamde qarTvelTaTvis ucnobi termini `Turqi~ qarTveli mematianisTvis Zv.w. pirveli aTaswleulis Sua periodis `skviTebs~ aRniSnavda (Sdr.: politikuri gaerTianebis aRmniSvneli `Turqi~ pirvelad Cndeba V saukunis Cinur wyaroebSi, VI saukuneSi dasturdeba sparsulSic)? - ramdenad argumentirebulia samecniero literaturaSi arsebuli etimologiebi `bun~ formisa? 2. warmodgenil naSromSi SemoTavazebulia `bun~ msazRvrelis axleburi etimologia da gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom `bunTurqi~ ar aris damoukidebeli eTnonimi; amosaval qarTul teqstSi igi velurobis sinonimadaa gamoyenebuli. teqstologiuri kvlevis safuZvelze pirvelwyarod miCneulia `qarTlis cxovreba~ da ara `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡~; kerZod:

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3. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT, `sparsTagan otebulma~ Turqebma qarTvelebs daxmareba aRuTqves sparselebTan brZolaSi, amitom sxvadasxva qalaqis mflobelebma (`yovelTa qarTvelTa~) devnili `Turqebis~ nawili jgufebad dayves da TavianT qalaqebSi Caasaxles. ltolvilTa ZiriTadi nawili mcxeTis mamasaxlisma kompaqturad (`mixveviT~) daasaxla sarkineSi (q.c. 15, 15-17). fraza: Turqebi, rogorc `msxdomareni mdinaresa mas mtkvarsa mixveviT~ zustad meordeba `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ teqstSic, magram frazis semantika naTelia mxolod `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~. savaraudoa, rom `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ `qronikebis~ dasawyisi `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali nawilis adaptirebuli variantia. 4. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ orjer moxseniebuli Sesityveba: bun Turqni ar aris damoukidebeli eTnonimi (zogi mkvlevari am formas paleografiul Secdomad Tvlis; Sdr., varianti: mun Turqni): vfiqrobT, termin Turqis msazRvrelad gamoyenebulia msazRvreli buni (bun), romelic saS. sparsuli nasesxobaa da qarTulad niSnavs `Zirs~, `ZiriTads~; Sesabamisad, Sesityveba bun Turqi unda gaviazroT, rogorc `erTad, kompaqturad dasaxlebuli `Turqebi~ ­ buni (/ZiriTadi) Turqebi, anu migranti `Turqebis~ is ZiriTadi nawili, romelic erTad daasaxles sarkineSi. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ aleqsandres `Semosvlis~ aRwerisas swored sarkines mosaxleobis aRsaniSnavad gvxvdeba kompoziti: bun-Turqni (q.c. 18, 8). niSandoblivia isic, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ somxur TargmanSi, romelic XII saukuneSia Sesrulebuli, `bunTurqis~ nacvlad dasturdeba `Turqi~. 5. cnobilia, rom termini `Turqi~ veluris sinonimad gamoiyeneboda da eTnikuri mniSvneloba gvian miiRo (s. kliaStorni, g. alasania). savaraudoa, rom `qarTlis cxovrebaSic~ qaixosros ambebis Txrobisas `Turqi~ adrindel velur ltolvilebs aRniSnavs. aleqsandres mosvlis ambebis aRwerisas ki erTian cnebad gaazrebuli msazRvrel-sazRvruli: bunTurqni gamoiyeneba rogorc metafora, romelic aRniSnavs urwmuno, warmarT, qristianobamdel qarTvelebs (q.c. 17, 12):

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marTlmadidebeli avtorisTvis qristianobamdeli qarTvelebi (romlebic aleqsandrem naxa) iseTive barbarosebi arian, rogorc sarkineSi jgufurad dasaxlebuli `Turqebi~ ­ kiaxsarisgan (qaixosrosgan) devnili velurebi. Sdr.: `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ avtorma es mxatvruli saxe (`qarTlis cxovrebis~ `bun Turqi~), rogorc velurebis sinonimi, ganazogada qristianobamdeli qarTvelebis aRsaniSnavadac (marTlmadidebeli berisTvis warmarTi qarTvelic `bunTurqia~). Sdr.; am sityvis eTnonimad gaazrebis gamo TiTqmis mTeli saqarTvelos avtoqToni mosaxleoba (mtkvrisa da Woroxis xeobebSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi) yovlad dausabuTeblad araqarTvelebad ­ bunTurqebad gamocxadda. 6. `bunTurqs~, rogorc eTnonims, ar icnobs msoflios arc erTi wyaro (SemTxveviTi ar aris: qarTul xelnawerTa nawilSi `bunTuqis~ nacvlad dasturdeba: `mun Turqi~, `naTurqi~, `Turqi~; q.c. 18, 8). qarTul enobriv velSi sul mcire 11-12 saukunis win arsebobs termini Turqi. bunebrivia, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali nawilis siZvelis Sesabamisad unda ganvixiloT qarTuli wyaroebis `Turqis~ semantika: veluri xalxis aRmniSvneli sityvaa, politikuri gaerTianebis aRmniSvnelia, Tu eTnonimia. Sdr., `qarTlis cxovrebis~ pirveli nawilis erTi epizodi (enebis CamonaTvali) gvavaraudebinebs, rom kiaxsarisgan (qaixosrosgan) gamodevnil `TurqTa~ dedaena da xazarTa ena qarTvel mematianeTaTvis erTi da igivea; Tumca, aqve aRvniSnavT, rom adreuli qarTuli nasesxobani ufro sparsulenovani (indoevropuli) samyaros kuTvnilebaa, vidre Turqulenovanisa. 7. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobebi kiaxsarisgan/qaixosrosgan devnil `TurqTa~ (skviTTa?) Sesaxeb, aseve, bun-msazRvreliani terminis (eTnonimis?) ­ Turqis ­ ganzogadeba `sastiki warmarTis~' aRsaniSnavad, asaxavs axali welTaRricxvis pirveli aTaswleulis dasasrulis qarTvelTa siRrmiseul codnasa da mkafio Tvalsazriss momxvdurTa mimarT.

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Tamar qoriZe

saqarTvelos universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

`mcneba¡ sasjulo¡~ da saqarTvelos sapatriarqos or ­ dasavleT da aRmosavleT nawilebad gayofa (XV s-is 70-iani wlebi)

MXV s-is meore naxevarSi, saqarTvelos feodaluri monarqiis daSlis paralelurad, misi eklesiuri mTlianobac moiSala. sruliad saqarTvelos sapatriarqom SeZlo separatizmis aRkveTa samcxisa da kaxeTis eklesiebSi, dasavleT saqarTveloSi ki ­ vera. XV s-is 70-ian wlebSi saqarTvelos sapatriarqo gaiyo or damoukidebel ­ dasavleT saqarTvelos, anu afxazeTisa, da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, anu qarTlis, saeklesio organizaciad. aRniSnuli gayofa gulisxmobda dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis mcxeTis sapatriarqos daqvemdebarebisagan gaTavisuflebas, ramac asaxva pova qarTuli eklesiis struqturul cvlilebaSi. afxazeTis sakaTalikoso arsebobis bolomde darCa qarTul marTlmadidebel eklesiad, orive eklesiis -- qarTlisa da afxazeTis ­ saWeTmpyrobeli ki Tavis Tavs `sruliad saqarTvelos makurTxevel~ kaTolikosad Tvlida. qarTl-imereTis mefe bagrat VI-isa (1466-1478) da dadiangurieli Samadavlas iniciativiT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi Sesawiravis Sesagroveblad Camosuli antioqiisa da ierusalimis patriarq miqaelis (1470/74-1484) mier afxazeTis kaTolikosad caiSel-bedieli mTavarepiskoposis, iovakimes, kurTxeva saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis mier afxazeTis kaTolikosis kurTxevis manamde arsebuli wesis darRveva iyo. qarTuli eklesiis or nawilad gayofasTan dakavSirebiT Sedgenilma saeklesio samarTlis Zeglma -- `mcneba¡ sasjulo¡m~ iuridiulad ganamtkica dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis damoukidebloba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos umaRlesi saeklesio xelisuflebisagan.

`mcneba¡ sasjulo¡~ Tavad dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiuri gamoyofis iniciatorebs Tavidanve qarTulad unda SeedginaT patriarq miqaelis (masTan erTad an, dasaSvebia, mis gareSe) saxeliT, raTa sabuTisaTvis kanonieri saxe miecaT. dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis gamoyofis kanonierebis damtkicebis mizniT, Mmisi iniciatorebis mier wamoyenebuli argumentebi, rom TiTqos Tavidan afxazeTisa da qarTlis kaTolikosebi antioqiis patriarqTa mier ikurTxebodnen da TiTqos qarTlis (aRmosavleT saqarTvelos) ganmanaTlebeli wm. Nnino iyo, xolo afxazeTis (dasavleT saqarTvelos) ­ wm. andria mociquli, aramarTebuli iyo. afxazeTis arc erTi kaTolikosi XV s-is 70-ian wlebamde antioqiis patriarqis mier ar kurTxeula; wm. andria pirvelwodebuli ki qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis, saistorio wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, Zveli droidanve cnobili iyo, rogorc mTlianad saqarTvelos da ara misi mxolod erTi nawilis ­ dasavleT saqarTvelos ­ ganmanaTlebeli. antioqiis patriarqis mier afxazeTis kaTolikosis xeldasxmiT dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis TviTmwysoba Seilaxa, radgan es yovelive aRniSnuli sapatriarqosadmi daqvemdebarebas niSnavda. Tumca movlenebis Semdgomma ganviTarebam cxadyo, rom patriarq miqaelis mier afxazeTis kaTolikosis kurTxeva mxolod erTi konkretuli SemTxveva iyo. `mcneba¡ sasjulo¡s~ mier dadgenil afxazeTis sakaTalikosos samwyso sazRvrebSi misi aRmosavleTis samwyso sazRvris mouxsenebloba qveyanaSi Seqmnilma politikurma viTarebam, kerZod ki, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mimarT bagrat VI-is politikurma interesebma ganapiroba. Cans, movlenebis Semdgom ganviTarebamde man sakaTalikosos aRmosavleTis samwyso sazRvris sakiTxi sagangebod Riad datova.

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nodar Sengelia

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

saciciano 1728 wlis `Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTris~ mixedviT

1728 wlis `Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTari~ erT-erTi saukeTeso wyaroa aRmosavleT saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikuri istoriis araerTi sakiTxis Sesaswavlad. igi mravalmxrivi Rirebulebis Zeglia istoriisa da lingvistikis, istoriuli geografiis, paleografiisa da sxva sakiTxebis gasaTvaliswineblad. amjerad Cveni amocanaa, SeviswavloT Tbilisis vilaieTis SemadgenlobaSi Sesuli teritoriebis is nawili, romelic moicavs sacicianos, ganvixiloT is sakiTxebi, romlis Sesaxebac saubaria xsenebul davTarSi. saciciano, igive ciciSvilebis samflobelo, sakmaod vrcel teritorias moicavs. masSi gaerTianebulia 130 sofeli. am 130 soflis Sesaxeb Zalian farTodaa msjeloba davTarSi. am davTris mixedviT, vrceli warmodgena iqmneba osmaluri gadasaxadebisa da sagadasaxado sistemaze sacicianoSi. Cven SevexebiT sacicianos regions, mis socialur-ekonomikur viTarebas, mosaxleobis komlTa raodenobas, erovnul Semadgenlobasa da sxva sakiTxebs. osmalTa mier aRwerili teritoriebi srulad asaxavs maTi batonobis simZimes qarTlSi, kerZod, sacicianoSi. osmalebma mTel aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi daamyares osmaluri socialurpolitikuri sistema. osmalebma mTel sacicianoSi gaauqmes qarTuli sagadasaxado sistema da gaabatones mTlianad osmaluri gadasaxadebi, adgilobrivi mwarmoebeli sazogadoeba dabegrili iyo mxolod osmaluri gadasaxadebiTa da valdebulebebiT. osmalo ver arCevda glexs Tavadisa da aznaurisagan. yvela da yvelaferi dabegrili iyo osmaluri gadasaxadebiTa da valdebulebebiT.

Tu 1595 wlis `gurjistanis vilaieTis did davTarSi~ aRwerilia samcxe-saaTabago, 1728 wlis `Tbilisis vilaieTis didi davTari~ moicavs mTel aRmosavleT saqarTvelos. kerZod, am davTarSi aRwerilia mTeli saciciano, saamilaxvro, borjomis xeoba, muxrani, qsnisa da aragvis xeoba, TrialeTi, gomareTi, yaiyuli da sxva regionebi.

Mmariam CxartiSvili, qeTevan mania

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

wm. ninos cxovrebis teqstis istoriisaTvis (epizodi `saswaulebi wyarosTan~)

Grogorc cnobilia, eTnikuri da nacionaluri erTobebi mnemonikuri koleqtivebia. swored istoriuli maxsovrobis meSveobiT xdeba am erTobaTa identobrivi faseulobebis sistemis Camoyalibeba da Cven-jgufis wevrebs Soris maTi kultivireba, koleqtivis sakraluri safuZvlebisa da unikaluri misiis gansazRvra. sazogadod, eTnikur erTobaTa istoriografiul repertuarSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukaviaT saswaulebs, Tumc maTi wili gansakuTrebiT didia religiuri moqcevis amsaxvel narativebSi. moxsenebaSi ganxilulia qarTul saxelmwifoSi qristianobis oficialurad damkvidrebis (IV saukunis 20-iani wlebi) istoria, romelic dafiqsirebulia qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli qalisadmi miZRvnil avTentur ZeglSi `wm. ninos cxovreba~. Aam Zeglis mixedviT irkveva, rom qarTuli erTobis oficialuri moqcevis narativi efuZneboda saswaulTa oTx jgufs. maTze, rogorc koleqtiur maxsovrobaSi aRsabeWd, gansakuTrebuli istoriuli Rirebulebis mqone fenomenebze, qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli Tavad amaxvilebinebs yuradRebas misi

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cxovrebis aRweris mosurneT. esaa saswaulebi, romelTac adgili hqoniaT `mTaTa maT zeda~, `mayulovansa mas Sina~, `suetisa aRmarTebasa~ da `wyarosa mas zeda~. Ppirveli sami jgufis saswaulebis identificireba `wm.ninos cxovrebis~ UuZvelesi redaqciis teqstis saSualebiT SedarebiT iolad xerxdeba. rac Seexeba ukanasknel jgufs, anu saswaulebs `wyarosa mas zeda~, maT Sesaxeb aq, faqtobrivad, araferia Tqmuli. Ees garemoeba axsnas moiTxovs. Ppirveli sakiTxi, romelic moxsenebaSia ganxiluli, swored esaa. wyaroTmcodneobiTi Ziebebis Sedegad aRdgenilia am saswaulis Sinaarsi (wm. nino locviT rZes aniWebda ZuZugamSral dedebs) da miRebulia daskvna, rom Tavdapirvel teqstSi aRniSnuli epizodi, rogorc moqcevis narativis erT-erTi umTavresi istoria, vrclad unda yofiliyo warmodgenili. Aamis Semdeg moxsenebaSi dasmulia sakiTxi aRniSnuli saxis redaqciuli Carevis mizezTan dakavSirebiT. kulturul-anTropologiuri Ziebebis Sedegad SemoTavazebulia am faqtis Semdegi axsna: qristiani misioneri qali xangrZlivad moRvaweobda mcxeTaSi warmarTuli kerpebis ganadgurebis Semdeg. Mmkafiod gamoxatuli religiuri krizisis pirobebSi man miiRo warmarTuli deda RvTaebis atributebi. Mmetic, igi iwodeboda zustad iseve, rogorc es qalRvTaeba, da mefe mirianma mas qurumi qalis, anu mawovnebelis, anu dedis, anu ninos socialurad metad sapatio poziciis dakavebac ki SesTavaza. wm. ninos saxes bevri ram akavSirebs warmarTul kultTan. am rigis faqtebi saTanado sisruliT didi xania aRnusxulia specialur literaturaSi. sainteresoa, rom isini dRemde dasturdeba wm. ninos `cxovrebis~ sxvadasxva redaqciaSi. magram rZis miniWebis unari aris qalRvTaebasTan gansakuTrebulad mkafio asociaciuri bmis mqone niSani. amitom misi maCvenebeli istoria, romelic aucilebeli iyo religiuri moqcevis dros (axlis miReba sxvagvarad warmoudgenelia), mouTmeneli unda gamxdariyo mogvianebiT, roca religiuri transformacia arsebiTad dasrulda. am Strixis moSlis mizniT redaqtorebma Sesabamisi epizodi amoiRes ganmanaTleblis `cxovrebidan~. samagierod, igi Semoinaxa zepirsityvierebam, swored imitom, rom qristi130

ani misioneri qalis gaazreba rZis mimniWeblad warmoadgenda warmarTobidan qristianobaze gardamavali epoqis qarTuli sazogadoebis yvelaze Rrma STabeWdilebas, koleqtiuri maxsovrobis waruSlel primordialur xats. Aamgvarad, epizodis `saswaulebi wyarosTan~ `wm. ninos cxovrebaSi~ amJamad ararsebobis faqti, aris Sebrkolebis lodi, romlis saSualebiT aRdgeba ara marto sakvlevi Txzulebis teqstis, aramed religiuri moqcevis epoqaSi qarTuli sazogadoebis mentaluri transformaciis istoriis TvalsazrisiTac metad niSandoblivi faqti.

marCo giolitto

University of Basle, Basle, Switzerland

a PortraIt of thE GEorGIaN PolItICIaN IraKlI tSItSIShvIlI throUGh hIS lEttErS aNd hIS (UNPUBlIShEd) PaPErS

Our paper has the aim to analyze the profile of a Georgian politician, who was active in the Georgian political scene during the second half of the XX century, Irakli tsitsishvili. this person interests to us under more points of view. First,wewouldliketodescribehismultiplesocialidentity:hewasanaristocratic (and he had therefore a direct connection with the elite who played a role in the Georgian history before the Soviet era), but he was also a part of the Soviet system, as representative in the Supreme Soviet and above all as minister of the culture of the Georgian government. our attention was attracted above all by his actions as responsible for the restoration of a certain amount of churches and historical monuments of medieval Georgia. We don't aim a technical analysis of these restorations, but rather the identificationoftheirsymbolicvalue:whatdidtheyrepresentforGeorgianculture? did they only have an artistic function or rather a function of cultural resistance against the Soviet model?

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Anotherfactoralsoisworthbeinganalyzed:IrakliTsitsishvilireachedaconsiderable popularity level among the people of his time (what is also witnessed by the fact that he was selected among the 100 most famous Georgians in the race for the best Georgian of the history). We would like to examine how this popularityformed,whichelementscontributedtocreatingit:didhisaristocratic origin play a role in this, or perhaps is his military past (he was proclaimed hero of the Soviet Union because of his actions during the II World War) which had more weight, or was the architect and church restorer activity the decisive factor? It's also possible that all these factors together contributed to the formation of this "heroic" image which he had during his life and which he still has, after his death, in the opinion of the people of his generation (every year takes place a conference which bears his name). In order to study his action we based ourselves on witnesses of his friends and colleagues and on the books which he published, but also, and above all, on the unpublished manuscripts which he leaved, on the letters which he wrote to his friends and collaborators during his life, which give to us a more authentic portrait of him.

Temo jojua

ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti, xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

qarTl-kaxeTis sakaTalikoso mamulebis siTarxnis gujris Tavdapirveli teqstis dadgenisaTvis (sabuTis gamcemisa da mimRebis vinaoba; dokumentis Sedgenis TariRi)

saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros erovnuli arqivis centraluri saistorio arqivis 1448-e fondSi 5016-e nomriT daculia etratis gragnilze dawerili vrceli saistorio sabuTi, romelic specialur literaturaSi qarTl-kaxeTis sakaTalikoso mamulebis siTarxnis gujris saxeliT aris cnobili.

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aRniSnuli dokumenti Sedgenilia XV saukunis cnobili qarTveli mdivan-mwignobris elioz eliozisZis mier. sabuTSi warmodgenilia im mravalricxovani yma-mamulis CamonaTvali, romelsac mcxeTis sakaTalikoso saydari qarTlisa da kaxeTis teritoriaze flobda. gujari saqarTvelos Sua saukuneebis istoriis uZvirfases wyaros warmoadgens, ris gamoc misi teqsti XIX-XX saukuneebSi ramdenimejer iyo gamocemuli. dokumentis teqstSi pirdapir aris naTqvami, rom igi gacemulia saqarTvelos mefis, giorgis mier qarTlis kaTalikos daviTisadmi. sabuTSi damatebiT aRniSnulia isic, rom dokumentis gamcemi mefe giorgi iyo vaJi mefe aleqsandresi da Zmis SviliSvili mefe giorgisa, romelic, Tavis mxriv, iyo Tanamedrove `usjulo Temurisa~. sabuTs uzis TariRi: qronikoni rle (1447 w.). aRniSnul monacemebze dayrdnobiT, qarTul istoriografiaSi myarad aris damkvidrebuli mosazreba, rom dokumenti gacemulia saqarTvelos mefis, giorgi VIII-is (1446-1466 ww.) mier, romelic iyo vaJi mefe aleqsandre I-isa (1412-1442 ww.) da Zmis SviliSvili mefe giorgi VII-isa (1393-1407 ww.), romelic qveyanas ganagebda monRoli sardlis, Temurlengis, laSqrobebis xanaSi. amave mosazrebis Tanaxmad, gujari Sedgenilia rle qronikons (1447 w.), anu qristeSobidan 1447 wels, da gacemulia qarTlis kaTalikos daviT IV WavWavasZisadmi (1439, 1443/47-1459 ww.). gujris daTariRebis Taobaze Cven sakmaod gansxvavebuli mosazreba gvaqvs. Tumca vidre am mosazrebaze gadavidodeT, gvsurs, sagangebod SevCerdeT erT saintereso detalze. XX saukunis I meoTxedSi qarTl-kaxeTis sakaTalikoso mamulebis siTarxnis gujris erT-erTma gamomcemelma sargis kakabaZem yuradReba miaqcia im faqts, rom sabuTis teqstSi dokumentis gamcemi mefis saxelis, gi(or)gi-s, marcxniv garkveviT ikiTxeboda amofxekili sityvis pirveli sami grafema vax. kidev ufro mogvianebiT, 1927 wels, dokumentis am adgiliT axla ukve sabuTis sxva gamomcemeli, gabriel CaCaniZe, dainteresda. mkvlevarma sargis kakabaZis mier dawyebuli saqme sagrZnoblad waswia win da daaskvna, rom dokumentis teqstSi sabuTis gamcemi

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mefis saxelis, gi(or)gi-s, qveS Tavdapirvelad Sesrulebuli iyo mogvianebiT amofxekili sityva vaxtang. samwuxarod, arc sargis kakabaZem, arc gabriel CaCaniZem da arc mogviano periodis sxva mkvlevrebma aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT muSaoba aRar ganagrZes da gujarTan dakavSirebuli es uaRresad saintereso sakiTxic aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi gadauwyveteli darCa. 1990-ian wlebSi Cven istoriul-wyaroTmcodneobiTi kuTxiT SeviswavleT qarTl-kaxeTis sakaTalikoso mamulebis siTarxnis gujari. am saqmeSi didi daxmareba gagviwia xelovnebaTmocodne nana kupraSvilma, romelmac ultraiisferi sxivebis daxmarebiT fotoze aRbeWda sabuTis yvela saintereso fragmenti. Tavad gujris Seswavlis procesi sam ZiriTad etapad warimarTa. pirvel etapze davadgineT, rom dokumentis teqstSi, kaligrafiis, melnis ferisa da gankveTilobis niSnebis mixedviT gamoiyofa ramdenime qronologiuri plasti: sabuTis Tavdapirveli teqsti da masSi mogvianebiT Setanili sxvadasxva CanarTi. kvlevis momdevno etapze sabuTis ZiriTadi teqstisagan gamovacalkeveT mogviano xanis CanarTebi da, praqtikulad, sruli saxiT aRvadgineT dokumentis Tavdapirveli teqsti. sabuTis Seswavlis sul bolo, mesame, etapze paraleluri saistorio masalis daxmarebiT met-naklebi sizustiT davaTariReT mogviano xanis TiTqmis yvela CanarTi da, Sesabamisad, ganvsazRvreT isic, Tu rodis da ra TanamimdevrobiT SehqondaT cvlilebebi sabuTis Tavdapirvel teqstSi. winamdebare moxsenebaSi Cven visaubrebT dokumentis mxolod Tavdapirveli teqstis Sesaxeb da samecniero sazogadoebas SevTavazebT Semdeg ZiriTad daskvnebs: 1. qarTl-kaxeTis sakaTalikoso mamulebis siTarxnis gujris Tavdapirvel teqstSi misi Sedgenis TariRad miTiTebuli iyo qronikoni rl, anu 1442 weli. garda amisa, dokumentis Tavdapirvel teqstSi mis gamcemad dasaxelebuli iyo saqarTvelos mefe vaxtangi (vaxtang), xolo sabuTis mimRebad ­ qarTlis kaTalikosi Sio (Sio). aRniSnuli garemoebebidan gamomdinare, savsebiT cxadia, rom gujris Tavdapirveli teqsti elioz eliozisZes Sedgenili hqonda ara qronikon rle-s, anu 1447 wels,

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rogorc es aqamde iyo miRebuli qarTul istoriografiaSi, aramed qronikon rl-s, anu 1442 wels. amasTan, dokumenti gacemuli iyo ara saqarTvelos mefe giorgi VIII-is mier qarTlis kaTalikos daviT IV WavWavasZisadmi, aramed saqarTvelos mefe vaxtang IV-is (1443-1446 ww.) mier qarTlis kaTalikos Siosadmi (1435-1438, 1440-1443/47 ww.). 2. 1447 wels elioz eliozisZem, savaraudod, mefe giorgi VIII-is brZanebiT, gujris teqstSi sakuTari xeliT, oRond mcired gansxvavebuli melniT Seitana ramdenime cvlileba: a) 31-e striqonidan amofxika dokumentis gamcemi mefis saxeli vaxtang da mis nacvlad Cawera saxeli gi(or)gi; b) 124-e striqonidan amofxika sabuTis mimRebi kaTalikosis saxeli Sio da mis nacvlad Cawera saxeli daviT; g) 142-e striqonze qronikoni rl-s (1442 w.) Semdeg dasmul gankveTilobis samwertils zed gadaawera grafema e da miiRo qronikoni rle (1447 w.); d) dokuments, savaraudod, CamoaWra bolo, VII kefi, sadac, rogorc Cans, warmodgenili iyo mefe vaxtang IV-is damtkiceba da mis nacvlad sabuTs miakera sxva, mcire zomis kefi, mefe giorgis xveuli xelrTviT. 3. aRniSnuli cvlilebebis Setanis Sedegad, gujris Tavdapirvelma teqstma mniSvnelovani transformacia ganicada. dokumentidan, praqtikulad, ukvalod gaqra misi gamcemis, mefe vaxtang IV-sa da mimRebis, kaTalikos Sios, saxelebi, agreTve ­ sabuTis Sedgenis TariRi, 1442 weli. samagierod, maT nacvlad teqstSi gaCnda sxva saxelebi da TariRi, romelTa Tanaxmadac, gujari Sedgenili iyo 1447 wels da gacemuli saqarTvelos mefe giorgi VIII-is mier qarTlis kaTalikos daviT IV WavWavasZisadmi.

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RvTismetyveleba/filosofia

TinaTin bolqvaZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

(aRniSnuli proeqti ganxorcielda ssip­qarTvelologiis, humanitaruli da socialuri mecnierebebis fondSi (rusTavelis fondi) mopovebuli grantis meSveobiT (granti N G-02-08). winamdebare publikaciaSi gamoTqmuli nebismieri azri ekuTvnis avtors da, SesaZloa, ar asaxavdes ssip-qarTvelologiis, humanitaruli da socialuri mecnierebebis fondis (rusTavelis fondi) Sexedulebebs).

aRmosavlur-qristianuli enobrivi tradiciis asaxva qarTul hagiografiul mwerlobasa da ilia WavWavaZis `sami RvTaebrivi saunjis~ TeoriaSi

ilia WavWavaZiseuli triadis Zirebi saTaves iRebs aRmosavlur-qristianul samyaroSi Camoyalibebuli tradiciidan, romelic Tavidan erovnuli liturgiis uflebis mopovebisTvis brZoliT daiwyo da Semdeg saxelmwifoebrivi konsolidaciis safuZveli gaxda (am zogadtipologiuri niSnis Sesaxeb ix., magaliTad, r. iakobsoni). Cvens istoriul realobaSi es yvelaze kargad aisaxa giorgi merCuliseul definiciaSi (~qarTlad friadi queyana¡ aRiracxebis...~), romelSic Cans, rom orTodoqsuli qristianobis (sarwmunoeba) liturgiis eniT (ena) xdeba miwebis qarTlad (mamuli) saxeldeba, rac sabolood saqarTvelos CamoyalibebiT sruldeba. amis axleburi gameorebaa iliaseuli `sami RvTaebrivi saunje~, romlis axleburobas ganapirobebs mecxramete saukunis droindeli viTareba, xolo ganmeorebadoba ganpirobebulia imiT, rom im periodSi aRmosavlur-qristianuli tradicia kvlav cocxali da moqmedia. moxsenebaSi ganixileba, rogor aisaxa RvTis winaSe enaTa Tanasworobis idea, erTi mxriv, qarTul hagiografiul teqstebSi da, meore mxriv, ra saxe miiRo man ilia WavWavaZis naazrevSi da ra mniSvneloba hqonda mas qarTuli nacionaluri identobis wrTobisaTvis.

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nestan sulava

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

`samoseli pirveli~ da `tyavisa samoseli~ saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi

saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi samoslis simbolikas konceptualuri mniSvneloba eniWeba, radgan swored mas ukavSirdeba pirvelqmnil adamianTa sulieri arsi da mokvdavi bunebis SeZena. samoslis simboluroba bibliis pirvelsave wignSia miniSnebuli. RmerTis mier naTlis samosliT Semosili pirveli, ucodveli adamianebi, Tavisufali nebisa da Tavisufali arCevanis uflebis gamoyenebis Sedegad, akrZaluli xis nayofis `gemo¡sxilvis~ Semdeg naTlis samoslisagan ganiZarcvnen da fizikuri siSiSvle SeigrZnes. RmerTma isini Tavdapirveli samyoflidan, samoTxidan gamoaZeva da `uqmna ufalman RmerTman adams da colsa missa samoselni tyavisani da Sehmosna maT~ (Ses. 3, 21), ramac maTSi aqamde ganucdeli siSiSvlisa da sircxvilis SegrZneba warmoSva. mas danaSaulis SegrZnebac mohyva; Tavis mxriv, danaSauls sasjeli mosdevs. RmerTis mier edemidan gandevna maTTvis RvTis risxvis Sedegi da sasjelia. swored bibliuri narativis simboluroba gaxda saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi samoslis RvTivsulieri gaazrebis safuZveli.

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1. arsobrivi sazrisiT, tyavis samoseli codvis Cadenis, codviliani bunebis SeZenis simboloa, igi pirvelcodvis Sedegad zesTasofelTan kavSiris dakargvas niSnavs. samoslis simbolikis problemis aqtualoba isaa, rom RmerTma adamisa da evas tyavis samosliT SemosviT kacobriobas gulisTqmaTagan Tavis mozRudvis aucilebloba aswavla. `samoseli naTlisa~, anu `samoseli pirveli~ da `samoselni tyavisani~, rogorc simbolo, erTi mxriv, gare samyarosTan adamianis sulieri mdgomareobis mimarTebas, meore mxriv, adamianis mier gare samyaros siRrmiseul aRqmas miuTiTebs. 2. `tyavis samoslisagan~ ganZarcva aucilebelia adamianis sulieri ganwmendisaTvis, ganRmrTobisaTvis, Sinagani sisrulis misaRwevad. adamianma unda moipovos `samoseli saqorwine~, razedac saubroben maTe maxarebeli (mT. 22, 11-13) da wminda mamebi. `samoseli saqorwine~ aris zesTasofelSi wasatani naTlis samoseli, `samoseli pirveli~, romelic adamianis pirvelsaxesTan, codvadaucemeli pirveli adamianis xatebasTan dabrunebas moaswavebs. wm. ioane oqropiri ganmartavs: `samoslad saqorwined saqmeTa uwess da moqalaqobasa~ (wm. ioane oqropiri 1996: 252), anu `samoseli saqorwine~ hmosavs saRvTo moqalaqobis mompovebels. esaa safuZveli `Zueli igi kacisagan~ ganZarcvisa da `axali kacis~ sulierebiT SemosvisaTvis (ef. 4, 22-24; Sdr.: kolas. 3, 9-10). 3. wm. grigol noselma ganmarta `axali kaciT~ Semosvis mniSvneloba: `ganiZarcueT kaci igi Zueli da SeimoseT kaci igi axali, ganaxlebuli msgavsebiTa dambadebelisa TsisaTa~ (wm. grigol noseli 1964: 230). qristes gankacebam adamians Teozisis SesaZlebloba misca, sulier saidumlos aziara: Zveli kacisagan, e. i. adamiani adamis codvaTagan, pirvelcodvisagan ganZarcva da axali kaciT Semosa, Sedegi isaa, rom igi sulierad ganaxlda. 4. areopagituli moZRvrebiT, `samoseli pirveliT~ Semosva sulierebiT aRWurvilTa xvedria; RvTismetyveli svams kiTxvas: `romelsa emosa wmida igi samoseli?~ da Tavadve ganmartavs, rom `samosliTa pirveliTa~ Semosva adamianis mier amqveynad ga138

tarebuli drois `usrulesad cvalebazea~ damokidebuli (petre iberi 1961: 206). 5. saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi samoselma naTlisRebis meoxebiT qristeSemosilobis mniSvneloba SeiZina: `raodenTa qristes mier naTelviReT, qriste Segvimosies~, rac sulier gardasaxvad, RvTisagan qmnili arqetipis, pirvelsaxis ukumoRebad aRiqmeba. naTlis samoslisagan ganZarcvasa da tyavis samosliT Semosvas arsobrivad xsnis wm. andria kriteli `did kanonSi~: `ganvbZare me samoseli pirveli, romeli pirveliTgan miqsova RmerTman, da vZe me SiSueli... mmosies me xeneSi kuarTi, romeli moqsova guelman edems ganzraxviTa... Semikerna tyavisa samoselni codvaman Cemman da RvTivqsovili samoseli ganmZarcua~. aq erTmaneTs upirispirdebian opoziciuri wyvilebi: 1. RvTivqsovili `samoseli pirveli~ da `samoselni tyavisani~; 2. `ganZarcva~ da `Semikerna~; isini samoslis RvTivsulier arss warmoaCenen. 6. samoslis amgvari gaazrebaa safuZveli imisa, rom qristianuli religia tyavis samosliT Semosil sasuliero pirs sakurTxevelSi Sesvlas ukrZalavda, ris Sesaxebac cnoba daculia giorgi merCulis hagiografiul TxzulebaSi (Zeglebi I, 1963/1964: 266). samoslis bibliuri ipodigmur-paradigmuli gaazrebis kvalobaze ganvixilavT hagiografiul da himnografiul Txzulebebs, romlebSic `qristeSemosili~ da `RmerTSemosili~ adamianis srulyofilebasa da RmerTTan miaxlebas adasturebs; igi personaJis sulier saxes warmoaCens. 7. samoslis bibliuri ipodigmis kvalobaze ikiTxeba saero literaturul TxzulebebSic samoslis mxatvruli funqcia, rac gansakuTrebul aqtualobas iZens SoTa rusTvelis poemis saTauris gasaazreblad. yovelive zemoTqmuli mowmobs samoslis RvTivsulier simbolur funqcias saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi, saidanac gadavida misi simboluri sazrisi saero mwerlobaSic personaJis sulieri gardasaxvis, sulieri ganviTarebis Cvenebis mizniT.

139

merab RaRaniZe

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

dava aTonisaTvis: qarTul-berZnuli dapirispireba (XIX-XX ss.) sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis TvalsawierSi

1. aTonis monasteri bizantiuri samyaros sulieri cxovrebis mniSvnelovani centri iyo, sadac am samyaros sxvadasxva xalxis warmomadgenlebi qristianuli samonazvno cxovrebis idealebs axorcielebdnen da amkvidrebdnen. maSin, rodesac iq pirvelma qarTvelma monazvnebma daiwyes moRvaweoba, aTonze, aRmosavluri wesis savaneTa garda, romelTa Soris iyo ivironic, imyofeboda dasavlur-laTinuri monasteri, sadac benediqteli moweseni mkvidrobdnen. qarTveli aTonelebi imTaviTve dapirispirebuli aRmoCndnen berZnebTan, Tumca, roca SemTxveva miecemodaT, megobrobas gamoxatavdnen dasavlel TanamoZmeTa mimarT. 2. gviandel Sua saukuneebamde qarTul sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi aSkarad iyo gaazrebuli aTonis samonastro centris sulieri Rirebuleba da iq moRvawe qarTvel berTa sulieri da inteleqtualuri Rvawli, magram, amave dros, nel-nela fermkrTaldeba imis istoriuli da aqtualuri gancda, Tu ra mniSvneloba hqonda ivironSi gaRvivebul samwignobro-kulturul saqmianobas. Tumca imJamadac ar cxreboda qarTul-berZnuli dapirispirebis simwvave, rac daufaravad gamoixateboda rogorc cxovrebiseul, ise sityvier asparezze. 3. XIX-XX saukuneebis saqarTveloSi sazogadoebis sekularizaciam da sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi sekularuli faseulobebis myarma damkvidrebam ganapiroba aToniseuli sulieri mowodebis gacnobierebis daCrdilva. am garemoSi nel-nela Cndeba Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac, aTonis qarTvelTa monasteri, upirveles yovlisa, warmodgenilia, rogorc qarTuli erovnuli TviTSegnebis damkvidrebisa da gamoxatulebis adgili. amgvari aRqma bunebrivad upirispirdeba aTonuri samonazvno cxovrebis

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mizandasaxulobis mimarT berZnul da, zogadad, bizantiur Tu postbizantiur damokidebulebas. 5. Tu XIX saukunis sazogado TvalTaxedviTac, ivironi mniSvnelovanwilad `mecnierebisa da mwignobrobis lampris~ gasaRviveblad dafuZnda, komunisturi ideologiis pirobebSi kidev ufro metad ugulebelyofdnen monastris sulier mniSvnelobas, Tumca xazgasmiT gamoikveTeboda ivironis saganmanaTleblo daniSnuleba, isic, iseve rogorc nebismieri qarTuli monasteri saqarTveloSi Tu sazRvargareT, upirveles yovlisa, erovnuli mwignobrobisa da kulturuli saqmianobis kerad cxaddeboda. 6. imis warmosaCenad, Tu rogor aisaxa epoqis sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi XIX saukunis meore naxevrisa da XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTul-berZnuli dava ivironisaTvis an Tundac qarTvelTa xelaxla dasamkvidreblad aTonze, upriani Cans, ganxiluli iqnes da erTmaneTs Seupirispirdes ori istoriul-publicisturi narkvevi: ilia WavWavaZis `aTonis qarTuli savanis Sesaxeb~ da akaki baqraZis `qarTuli eklesiis istoriis erTi furceli~. 6. ilia WavWavaZe, romelic `iveriis~ furclebze gamoexmaura wminda miwisa da aTonis qarTul savaneTa sakuTrebis sakiTxs, miiCnevs, rom upirvelesad mniSvnelovania maTi sulieri daniSnuleba ­ `qristes aRsarebis ganmtkicebisa da gaZlierebis saqmeSi~. ilias azriT, aTonze qarTvel moweseTa yofna iqneba sawindari, raTa SenarCunebuli iqnes `simtkice qristianulis grZnobisa~ `saxelovan sasuliero saqmeTaTvis~. ruseTis saxelmwifo Tu sulieri mmarTveloba ki am SemTxvevaSi, berZnebTan davaSi, qarTul interesTa damcveladaa danaxuli. 7. akaki baqraZe, romelic dawvrilebiT mimoixilavs aTonel qarTvelTa da berZenTa dapirispirebas (rus moxeleTa meTvalyureobiT), miiCnevs, rom gadamwyveti iyo aTonis mniSvneloba `qarTuli kulturisa da erovnuli TviTmyofobisaTvis~, misi azriT, esaa `umTavresi da umniSvnelovanesi~. misTvis ueWvelia, rom qarTvelTa satkivris mimarT mtrulad arian ganwyobilni bizantiis sulieri memkvidreni: rogorc berZnebi, ise rusebi. Tundac am SemTxvevaSi erTni sastikad ewinaaRmdegebodnen qarTvel moweseebs, meoreni ki mfarvelobdnen maT. es rusuli

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mzrunvelobac, istorikosisa da publicistis azriT, mxolod da mxolod imperiis saxelmwifo interesebs emyareboda.

eka WyoiZe

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xelisuflebasa da eklesias Soris brZolis anarekli qarTul da bizantiur hagiografiaSi

`mieciT keisrisa¡ keisarsa da RmrTisa¡ RmerTsa~ (mark. 12,17) ­ saxarebiseuli es debuleba erTmniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs adamianebis damokidebulebas ori, saero da sasuliero, xelisuflebis mimarT. garda amisa, am debulebaSi es ori instituti erTmaneTisgan mkveTrad gamijnulia, magram maTdami adamianis damokidebuleba erTnairad aris gansazRvruli da pasuxismgeblobac Tanabradaa gadanawilebuli. raoden paradoqsulic ar unda gveCvenos, saeklesio xelisuflebas ara Tu araviTari privilegia ara aqvs miniWebuli, aramed formulirebaSi meore adgilze, anu saero xelisflebis mere, dgas. es, bunebrivia, ar aris SemTxveviTi. am debulebis sicxadidan gamomdinare, sakamaTo aRarc unda yofiliyo saero da sasuliero xelisuflebis rolis garkveva qristianul sazogadoebaSi; magram faqtia, rom am sakiTxis irgvliv dRidan qristianobis Casaxvisa dRemde mwvave kamaTi mimdinareobs. aqedan gamomdinare, gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria da saintereso, gavaanalizoT xelisuflebisa da eklesiis urTierTdamokidebuleba Sua saukuneebis aRmosavleTis or mniSvnelovan samyaroSi: zesaxelmwifo bizantiasa da mis uSualo mezobel saqarTveloSi. wyaroTa simravlisa da geografiuli arealis sididis gamo am sakiTxis amowurva SeuZlebelia araTu erTi moxsenebis an Tundac statiis, aramed monografiis farglebSic ki. amitom gansaxilvel pirvelwyarod erTi periodis ori umniSvne142

lovanesi, qarTuli da berZnuli, teqsti avirCieT: giorgi merCulis `grigol xanZTelis cxovreba~ da anonimi avtoris `eqvTime patriarqis cxovreba~. Sua saukuneebis qarTul da berZnul mwerlobaSi arc erTi teqsti ar gamoxatavs saero da sasuliero xelisuflebas Soris dapirispirebas ise mZafrad, rogorc ­ es ori. `grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis~ detalebi kargad aris cnobili qarTul samecniero wreebSi, magram misi analizi bizantiur hagiografiul TxzulebasTan mimarTebaSi gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs. `eqvTime patriarqis cxovreba~ unikaluri teqstia, radgan is iseTi moRvawis cxovrebas aRwers, romelic wmindanad arasdros Seracxila. TxzulebaSi leon brZenis (886-912) mefobis dros momxdari ambebia moTxrobili. patriarqi eqvTime konstantinopolis eklesiis saWeTmpyrobeli sul raRac xuTi weli iyo (907-912). is bizantiis imperatoris, zemoT moxseniebuli leonis, moZRvari gaxldaT. aqedan gamomdinare, mas mWidro kavSiri hqonda saimperatoro karTan da im periodis mmarTvel politikur elitasTan. amasTanave, eqvTime iyo beri, anu Savi samRvdeloebis warmomadgeneli, rac imas niSnavs, rom ideologiurad upirispirdeboda saero xelisuflebas. am urTierTdapirispirebis analizi, am faqtebis `grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis~ monacemebTan Sedareba dagvanaxvebs im realur situacias, romelic im periodis marTlmadideblur samyaroSi arsebobda. ra mizezebi iwvevda eklesiis gaRizianebas, rogor axerxebda xelisufleba eklesiis Sida politikur saqmeebSi Carevisgan Tavis dacvas, ra formebiT gamoxatavda eklesia Tavis ukmayofilebas, TviTon xelisufleba ratom da rogor cdilobda eklesiis kontrols, rogor inarCunebda es ori mxare gavlenas sazogadoebaSi ­ am konkretul sakiTxebze TiToeuli teqsti araCveulebriv faqtobriv masalas iZleva, risi analizic bevri sagulisxmo daskvnis gakeTebis saSualebas gvaZlevs im problematikasTan mimarTebaSi, rac dResac aqtualuria mraval qveyanaSi da maT Soris CvenTanac.

143

ramaz xalvaSi

SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

wm. andria pirvelwodebulis misioneruli mogzaurobebi saqarTveloSi

1. nikita-daviT paflaRonielis (890) `andria pirvelwodebulis mimosvla~ qarTulad eqvTime aTonelma Targmna. `mimosvlis~ eqvTimeseuli Targmani m. kobiaSvilma Seiswavla monografiulad da manve gamosca akademiurad dadgenili teqsti. am Txzulebis mixedviT, mociqulma ierusalimidan samjer imogzaura SavizRvispira qveynebsa da saqarTveloSi: pirveli mogzaurobis dros wm. andriam `mravalni qalaqni da dabnebi pontoisani gananaTlna~, movida trapezundSi (`sofelsa megrelTasa~), Semdeg ­ `queyanasa qarTlisasa~ da bolos parTiis gziT dabrunda ierusalimSi. meore mogzaurobis dros mociqulma moinaxula trapezundi (megrelTa qveyana) da `maTca Seiwynares qadageba¡ mociqulisa¡~. bolo, mesame mogzaurobis dros wm. andria simon kananelsa da mataTasTan erTad Semovida saqarTveloSi, mdinare Woroxis auzamde, sosangeTSi moaqcia dedakaci mTavari, iq mataTa datova da simon kananelTan erTad gadavida oseTSi, fostaforsa da afxazeTSi. sevastiaSi (soxumSi) is daSorda simonsac da gadavida jiqeTSi, sadac saswaulebrivad gadaurCa sikvdils. 2. Semdgomi drois qarTuli literaturuli wyaroebi ufro akonkreteben wm. andrias saqarTveloSi qadagebis marSruts. SedarebiTma analizma daadastura, rom XI-XVIII saukuneebis qarTveli avtorebisTvis amosavalia `mimosvlis~ eqvTimeseuli Targmanis monacemebi. 3. `mimosvlis~ mixedviT, andria pirvelwodebuli saqarTveloSi mesamed mogzaurobis dros moadga `queyanasa qarTlisasa da vidre mdinaredmde Woroxisa~ (gv. 189). leonti mrov-

elma kargad icis, rom klarjeTi Woroxis xeobaSi mdebareobs, amitom akonkretebs: wm. andria `warvida gzasa klarjeTisasa~. 4. arsen berma mociqulis misionerul marSrutSi amave logikiT Seitana Woroxis xeobis kidev erTi provincia ­ nigali. 5. ioane anCelma leonti mrovelis cnoba ufro daakonkreta da aRniSna, rom mociqulma klarjeTSi Rados mTebi gadaiara da ierapolidan wamoyvanili macxovris xati anCis taZarSi daabrZana. amgvari tradiciis Camoyalibebas `mimosvlis~ teqstTan erTad xeli Seuwyo `avgarozis epistolis~ qarTulma redaqciebma. 6. ufro met konkretikas Seicavs `mimosvlis~ qarTuli redaqcia (XVI s.), romelic eqvTimeseul TargmanSi geografiuli glosebis Setanis Sedegad Camoyalibda (geografiuli glosebis nawili ukavSirdeba leonti mrovelis, arsen berisa da ioane anCelis dasaxelebul Txzulebebs). `mimosvlis~ qarTuli redaqciis mixedviT, wm. andriam iqadaga: taoSi, klarjeTSi, nigalis xeobasa (samive provincia Woroxis xeobaSi mdebareobs) da kola-artaanSi (mtkvris saTaveebi). `mimosvlis~ qarTuli redaqciis nusxebSi parTia SecdomiT aris gaigivebuli somxiTTan, sosangeTis (`sosangelTa soflis~) nacvlad ki masSi, fonetikuri msgavsebis niadagze, Cndeba `sivneTis queyana~ (a-161, 1738 w.) da `svaneTis queyana~ (qca I: 42). 7. 1466-1553 wlebSia literaturulad gaformebuli mesxuri gadmocema, romelsac mociqulis misionerul marSrutSi Seaqvs samcxis adgilebi: didaWara, rkinis jvari, oZrxis xevi, zaden-gora, awyveri da saqrisi. mesxuri gadmocema, `mimosvlis~ qarTuli redaqciisagan gansxvavebiT, sosangeTs awyurTan aigivebs. masSi SeiniSneba mesxuri separatizmis kvali: RvTismSoblis wilxvdomilad samcxea gamocxadebuli (saqarTvelos nacvlad), awyuris eparqiis daarseba da mawyvereli episkoposis xeldasxma ki dakavSirebulia andria pirvelwodebulis saxelTan (amgvar faqts `andria pirvelwodebulis mimosvla~ ar icnobs. awyuris eparqiis samociqulo xasiaTis aRiarebas safuZveli unda Seeqmna samcxis saeklesio damoukideblobisTvis, riTac mesx mTavrebs ­ yvaryvare aTabagsa (1445-1500) da mzeWabuks

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(1500-1515), ganzraxuli hqondaT samcxe-saaTabagos sruli CamoSoreba erTiani saqarTvelosagan). 8. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTSi `swavlul kacTa~ komisiam mogvca `mimosvlis~ qarTuli redaqciisa da mesxuri gadmocemis kompilacia, amitom masSi andria pirvelwodebulis saqarTveloSi qadageba ukavSirdeba rogorc Woroxis, ise mtkvris auzis qarTul provinciebs (tao-klarjeTi, nigali, aWara, kola-artaani, samcxe). 9. `axal qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ sosangeTis lokalizaciaze erTdroulad ori Tvalsazrisia ganviTarebuli: mesxuri gadmocemidan momdinare plastSi sosangeTi `ewodeboda~ awyurs, `mimosvlis~ qarTuli redaqciidan momdinare plastSi ki sosangeTi igive svaneTia. es faqti erTxel kidev miuTiTebs, rom aRniSnuli plastebi erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad viTardeboda.

kulturis kvlevebi

nino abakelia

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

zogierTi vegetaciuri da zoomorfuli gamosaxulebisa da simbolos mniSvnelobisaTvis qarTul uZveles xelnawerebSi

ornamentuli motivebis ulevi replikebi, romlebiTac, zogadad, religiuri xasiaTis xelnawerebia Sekazmuli, tradiciulad daqvemdebarebul xelovnebad da ara arsebiTad iTvleboda. qarTul xelnawerebSi fragmentulad SemorCenil ornamentul xelovnebaSi (ramdenadac sruli suraTi ar gvaqvs ornamentuli xelovnebis ganviTarebisa) Cveni yuradReba miipyro garkveuli saxis yvavilebisa da frinvelebis monawileobam saxarebebisa da sxva religiuri xelnawerebis SekazmvaSi. religiur simbolikaSi mcenareebi da frinvelebi farTod gamoiyeneba da mraval tradiciaSi dasturdeba. vegetaciuri da zoomorfuli simbolika rTulia, ramdenadac mas mniSvneloba ecvleba, erTi mxriv, arCeuli saxeobis mixedviT da aseve religiuri struqturis Sesabamisad, romelSic is xvdeba. simboloTa simravleSi arCeulia yvavili da farSavangi, romlebic xSirad meordeba qarTul uZveles xelnawerebSi. ramdenadac Sekazmul xelnawerebSi (da aramarto xelnawerebSi) mcenareebs, dekoratiulisa da simboluris garda, realisturi ganzomilebac aqvT, imis amosacnobad, Tu ra gzavnils unda gulisxmobdes esa Tu is mcenare, upirvelesad is unda identificirebul iqnes.

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amgvarad, naSromis erT-erT mizans mcenaris identifikacia warmoadgens. multivalenturi yvavilis simbolo, erTi mxriv, dakavSirebulia qalur (mdedrul) sawyisTan, anu pasiur sawyisTan da, Sesabamisad, TasTan, rogorc saTavsTan, da amitom yvavilze xSirad msjeloben, rogorc `barZimze~ an Tasze. aRniSnuli msgavseba TasTan, TavisTavad graalis asociacias iwvevs dasavleTis tradiciebSi. meore mxriv, gaSlili yvavili TviTon aris gamovlena, Cena. es ormagi azri gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa lotosis SemTxvevaSi aRmosavleTSi, vardisa da SroSanis SemTxvevebSi ­ dasavleTSi. qarTul xelnawerebSi yvavilebi TiTqmis yvela dResaswaulis Tanamdevi atributia da sxvadasxva mimarTebaSi sxvadasxva mniSvnelobas iZens. mag.: ucvleli monawile xarebis scenisa is xan buCqiT Tu xiTaa warmodgenili, xan ­ larnakSi moTavsebuli yvavilebis saxiT da sxv. magram sainteresoa, maTi ganmeorebadi monawileoba SemTxveviTi xasiaTisaa da, ubralod, dekoratiuli, Tu maT raime funqcia aqvT. is, rom maTi monawileoba SemTxveviTi xasiaTis ar aris, amaze migviTiTebs bibliuri wignis esaias pasaJi, romelSic metaforuladaa aRwerili mxsnelis miwieri warmomavloba: `da gamovides kuerTxi Zirisagan iesessa da yuavili Zirisagan aRmoxdes~( esaia: 11.1) qristianebi aRniSnul pasaJs ieso qristesTan akavSireben da igi Sua saukuneebis xelovnebaSi xSirad gvxvdeba. magram mainc ras unda niSnavdes es pasaJi qristianisTvis? maTes saxareba iwyeba ieso qristes genealogiiT: igi aris RmerTis rCeuli xalxidan, abraamis STamomavali, ieses yvavili. xelovnebaSi is `ieses xiTaa~ wamodgenili. am xis mniSvneloba XII saukuneSi berma herveusma vulgatas teqstze dayrdnobiT Semdegnairad axsna: `patriarqi iese miekuTvneba samefo ojaxs. amitomacaa, rom ieses Ziri // fesvi aRniSnavs mefeebis warmomavlobas, Sto ­ mariams, xolo yvavili ­ ieso qristes (mogvianebiT aqedan ganviTarda sagvareulo genealogiuri xec).

148

xelovnebaSi da (es ufro damaxasiaTebelia da ganviTarebulia Crdilo evropaSi) iese warmodgenilia mZinare an daxrili, romlis fexebTan (an sxva gamosaxulebebSi ­ gverdidan an Wipidan) izrdeba xe, romlis xviara pwkalebiT xis orive mxares medalionebSi iesedan qristemde 43 Taobaa warmodgenili srulad (an SerCeviT). sainteresoa, rom xe, romelic qarTul tradiciaSi ZiriTadad moiazreboda, rogorc vazi, alvis xe, kviparosi, broweulis xe, vaSlis xe da sxv., Cveni azriT, xelnawerebSi (da aseve xelovnebis sxva nimuSebSi) daculi piqtografiuli gamosaxulebebi aRniSnul vegetaciur mwkrivSi kidev erT saxeobas amatebs, kerZod, vazisebrTa ojaxSi Semaval xviara mcenares ­ vnebis yvavils, pasifloras, romelic qristes vnebis, da jvarcmis mistikis ideebTan aris dakavSirebuli yvavilis formis gamo (mravalsarTuliani yvavilis calkeul elements adareben Solts, Subs, lursmnebs, eklian gvirgvins, Saravandeds da sxv.). Cveni dakvirvebiT, xelnawerebSi vazs xSirad Caenacvleba pasiflora (igive vnebis yvavili), romelTanac jvarcmisa da aRdgomis simbolika asocirdeba. aRniSnuli identifikaciis safuZvels gvaZlevs yvavilis forma, Seferiloba da kompozicia, romelSic is monawileobs (am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa alaverdis oTxTavi (a-484), yvavilebiani TaRebiTa da jvriT, romelic farSavangebiTaa flankirebuli; oTxTavi (a-496), romelSic luka maxarebeli gamosaxulia yvavilebiT Sekazmul CarCoSi da farSavangiT, romelic wiwknis yvavilebs; xelnaweri a 496 markoz maxarebliT gamosaxuli yvavilebis moCarCoebaSi. aq vnebis yvavili ukve ori farSavangiTaa flankirebuli. aRsaniSnavia xarebis scenis gamosaxvis tradicia qarTul xelnawerebSi (Q-104, XVII, gurianTuli gulani, romelSic vnebis yvavili isev figurirebs da gamosaxulia mTavarangelozis mxares). rogorc zemoT naTqvamidan Cans, pasiflora qarTul xelnawerebSi xSirad warmodgenilia farSavangebTan erTad, romlebic warmodgenili arian simetriaSi pasifloras orive mxares da kenkaven sakvebs mis ZirSi. an ufro rTul kompoziciaSi, rogoric aris zurgSeqceviT mdgomi farSavangebi, romlebic gada149

jaWvuli arian kisrebiT dominantur kverTxTan, am SemTxvevaSi ­ pasiflorasTan, romelic amave dros samyaros RerZsac ganasaxierebs (Sdr.: a-922 ioane oqropiris Jamiswirva, XIII, teqstis gverdiT arSiaze gadajaWvuli farSavangebi; a-496 markoz maxarebeli. vnebis yvavili flankirebuli ori farSavangiT; h-1667 jruWis oTxTavi (XII-XIII) kisrebiT gadaxlarTuli, gadajaWvuli zurgSeqceviT mdgomi farSavangebi, romelTac niskartebiT samyurebi (samebis simbolo) uWiravT. jruWis oTxTavSi, SesaZlebelia, ornamentis ganviTarebasac mivadevnoT Tvali: aq Mme80 gverdze yvavilebi da farSavangebi erTmaneTs erwymian da stilizebuli farSavangebidan, romelTa identifikacia TavebiT, niskartebiTa da yvavilis Reros formiTaa mxolod SesaZlebeli, vnebis yvavilis formaa miRebuli). gadajaWvuloba//Sekvra ki maTes sityvebiT SeiZleba aixsnas: `da migcne Sen kliteni sasufevelisa caTisani, da romeli Sehkra queyanasa zeda, krul iyos igi caTa Sina; da romeli gahxsna queyanasa zeda, xsnil iyos igi caTa Sina~ (maTe, 16:19). jruWis saxareba CvenTvis kidev imiTaa saintereso, rom xarebis scena uCveulod aris warmodgenili. miniatiuris marcxena mxares gamosaxulia mjdomare mariami doqisa da gobis Tu Tasis (evqaristiuli simboloebis) win, romelTa ukan wiTelfurclebiani (qristes sisxlis wveTebis simboloebi) vnebis yvavilia. xelnawerebSi gameorebuli elementebi ­ xe da farSavangebi qristianul xelovnebaSi sxvadasxva religiur kompleqsTan asocirdeba: `farSavangi keknkavs yurZens~, `farSavangi wiwknis pasifloras yvavilebs~, `kurdReli tkvers yurZens~, `irmebi ewafebian wyaros~, `farSavangebi ewafebian Sadrevnis wyals~ (romelSic zoomorfuli personaJebi ganasaxiereben marTlmorwmuneebs, romelnic eziarebian umaRles sibrZnes da gaerTianebuli arian aRmdgar qristesTan). es ori simbolo ­ farSavangi da vnebis yvavili ­ jruWis oTxTavSi sxvadasxva kompoziciaSi gvxvdeba. aRniSnul oTxTavSi (gv.9 ix.gv. 198) isev meordeba farSavangebi gadaxlarTuli (Tu gadajaWvuli) kisrebiT, romelTac niskartebSi samyurebi uWiravT. maT qvemoT vnebis yvavilia, ufro qvemoT ­ saidumlo se150

roba. Amgvarad, kompozicia Sekrulia da elementebis ganlageba sruliad gaazrebuli. amrigad, ganxiluli ganmeorebadi mcire zomis gamosaxulebebi qarTul xelnawerebSi garkveuli logikiTaa dalagebuli da ufro didi erTianobis nawils warmoadgenen ( isini erTad unda iqnan wakiTxulni). yvavilis forma, feri da misi monawileoba garkveul scenebSi SesaZlebels xdis mis identifikacias pasiflorasTan, romelic saqarTveloSic iyo da aris kultivirebuli. farSavangebi, rogorc simboloebi, TviTon asocirdebian aRdgomis ideasTan da, Sesabamisad, pasiflorasTan, romelTanac vnebisa da aRdgomis mistikaa dakavSirebuli. garda amisa, xelnawerebi saSualebas iZleva, Tvali mivadevnoT am ori simbolos ganviTarebas, Serwymasa da gaerTianebas erTi ideis ­ aRdgomis ideis ­ gamosaxatavad.

Mmaka elbaqiZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

Sua saukuneebis rainduli romani, rogorc kulturologiuri fenomeni

Sua saukuneebis rainduli romani (romance), rogorc kulturologiuri fenomeni, yovelTvis asocirdeba kurtuazuli sazogadoebis ideologiasa da cxovrebis wesTan, vinaidan masSi, gansxvavebiT eposisa da alegoriisagan, dominirebs romantikul-heroikuli da avantiuruli elementebi. omi, siyvaruli da Tavgadasavali aq warmodgenilia, rogorc qcevis ritualizebuli kodi, romelic sayovelTaod aRiarebs iracionalur impulsebsa da gauTvaliswinebel qmedebebs da uSurvelad sTavazobs mkiTxvels rogorc faseulobaTa sakuTar sistemas,

151

ise kompleqsur fsiqoanalizs, gadauSlis Tvalwin usasrulobas, romelic, rogorc wesi, esazRvreba Sua saukuneebis alegoriis oTxsafexurian (bukvaluri, alegoriuli, tropologiuri da anagogiuri) sistemaze Zaldautaneblad warmosaxul samyaros. Sua saukuneebis raindulma romanma Tavis literaturul wyarod antikuri literatura da folklori airCia, Sesabamisad, mis siuJetebSi organulad Seerwya erTmaneTs berZnul-romauli stilistika da keltur-anglosaqsuri Tu franguli kulturuli tradiciebi, magram Tu Janris ganviTarebis adreul etapze aqtualuri iyo istoriuli Tematikis gadamuSaveba, mogviano periodSi (XII saukunis 70-90-iani ww.) Camoyalibda mxatvruli sinamdvilis asaxvis axali koncefcia, romelic gulisxmobda narativis maqsimalur daSorebas realobasTan da amiT `axali (idealuri) realobis~ Seqmnas. nebismieri literaturuli Janri, maT Soris, cxadia, Sua saukuneebis rainduli romanic, unda ganvixiloT, rogorc formis TaviseburebaTa konkretuli erTianoba, romelic gulisxmobs garkveul Taviseburebebs kompoziciis, saxeTa sistemis Tu mxatvruli enis TvalsazrisiT, Tanac misi specifikis gansazRvra unda moxdes gradaciis principis gaTvaliswinebiT, vinaidan ganviTarebis yovel calkeul etapze (msoflmxedvelobriv-ideologiuri Tu mxatvrul-esTetikuri Sexedulebebis cvlilebis kvaldakval) transformirdeboda romanis siuJetur-kompoziciuri principebi, gamomsaxvelobiTi formebi Tu xerxebi. specifikuroba, upirveles yovlisa, vlindeba: 1. romanis struqturul-kompoziciur organizebaSi (kompoziciis wriuloba; moqmedebis metad farTo sivrculi areali; specifikuri qronotopi; xetialis/Ziebis (avantiuris) mxatvruli funqcia); 2. personaJTa xatvis maneraSi (istorizmis principis uaryofa; aqtantTa, anu moqmed pirTa, 6 funqciuri kategoria; harmoniulobisken swrafva da a.S); 3. siyvarulis koncefciaSi, romelic, rasakvirvelia, kurtuazulia (aq gasaTvaliswinebelia siyvarulis wodebrivi xasiaTi; siyvarulis kodeqsis ori umTavresi principi ­ dumili da moTmineba; siyvarulis miCneva vasalur samsaxurad da sxv.) da 4. konvenciur mo152

tivebSi (siSmage-sixele, sisxlis cremlebis Rvra, sasiyvarulo tanjva, sikvdilis natvra, velad gaWra da a.S). EzemoT moyvanili principebi niSandoblivia rogorc evropuli rainduli romanebisTvis, ise vefxistyaosnisTvis, romelic, Cveni azriT, imave kulturologiur fenomens miekuTvneba, romelsac, vTqvaT, kretien de truasa Tu volfram fon eSenbaxis romanebi. Tumca am SemTxvevaSi konvergenciulTan erTad gasaTvaliswinebelia sakiTxis divergenciuli mxarec: vefxistyaosani ar aris Sua saukuneebis rainduli romanis (miT ufro, kurtuazuli literaturis) tipuri nimuSi, aramed mTeli rigi specifikuri faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT (struqturul-kompoziciuri Taviseburebani; romanis mTavar personaJTa urTierTobis ganmsazRvreli esTetikur-emociuri faqtori; inovacia siyvarulis koncefciis kurtuazul modelSi; konvenciebSi fsiqologiuri motivaciis Setana da tropis funqciamde maTi dayvana; alegoriuli planis realuri planiT Secvla; personaJTa individualizacia tradiciul masalaSi novatoruli elementebis Setanis gziT da a.S) Janris ganviTarebis gacilebiT maRal safexurze migvaniSnebs.

malxaz Toria

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo uniersiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

istoriuli narativis tipebi da Sua saukuneebis qarTuli istoriuli azrovneba (paralelebi bizantiasa da medievalur evropasTan)

warsulis movlenaTa dasamaxsovreblad aucilebelia maTi gadmocema sxvadasxva Janris moTxrobebis/narativebis saxiT, romelTa meSveobiT adamianebi aRiqvamen warsulis movlenebs da axdenen maT interpretacias. Sua saukuneebis qristianul samyaroSi istoriuli narativebi bibliuri SinaarsiTa da provi153

dencializmiT iyo gamsWvaluli da, ZiriTadad, droisa da istoriis iudeur-qristianul koncefcias Seesabameboda. Sua saukuneebis qarTul saistorio teqstebSi, iseve rogorc bizantiur da evropul istoriografiaSi, movlenebi SeiZleba davinaxoT garkveuli universaluri narativebis Suqze, romelic gaanalizebuli aqvs amerikel sociologs, e. zerubavels. naSromis siaxle da aqtualuroba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Sua saukuneebis qarTul teqstebSi am universaluri narativebis dafiqsireba maSindel qarTul kulturaSi drois aRqmisa da istoriis gaazrebis Taviseburebebs gamoavlens. drois aRqma da istoriis gageba ki kulturis fundamenturi maxasiaTeblebia. misi analizi, sxva kulturul tradicebTan (Sua saukuneebis evropa da bizantia) Sedareba saintereso iqneba qarTuli kulturis raobisa da civilizaciuri kuTvnilebis dadgenis TvalsazrisiT. e. zerubavelis mier SemoTavazebuli modelebis farglebSi `qarTlis cxovrebis~ teqstebi Zalian saintereso kuTxiT gamoCnda. maTSi mkafiod fiqsirdeba Semdegi tipis istoriuli narativebi: · aRmasvlis/progresi~ narativi ­ gamoxatavs progresis, ganviTarebis, srulyofis process. · daRmasvlis narativi ­ warsuli im didebul realobad aris warmoCenili, romelic, `saubedurod, samudamod gavida~. daRmasvlis narativis mixedviT, droTa ganmavlobaSi mdgomareoba uaresobisaken midis. · zigzagis narativi ­ progressa da daRmasvlas erTad gamoxatavs. am konteqstSi moiazreba aRmasvlisa da daRmasvlis, da daRmasvlisa da aRmasvlis narativebi. es narativebi istoriuli procesis dramatul cvlilebas, misi mimarTulebis kritikul Semobrunebas zemoT an qvemoT, xSirad mTlianad ukumiqcevasac gulisxmobs. es xdeba gardatexis, Semobrunebis momentidan. · mnemonikuri sisavsis narativi ­ istoria iyofa movlenebiT datvirTul da movlenebiT Rarib istoriul periodebad. warsulis aseTi `optikuri~ xedva istoriuli fokusirebis garkveuli normebis produqtia, romelic gvikarnaxebs, ra davimaxsovroT da ra ­ ara. · legato narativi ­ istoria aris uwyveti procesi.

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· stakato narativi ­ istoriuli procesis wyveta, araTanamimdevruloba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Sua saukuneebis qarTuli istoriuli azrovneba organulad Tavsdeba zogadqristianul konteqstSi. maSindeli qarTveli istorikosi acnobierebda, rom drois meufe RmerTi iyo da istoriac RvTis Canafiqris droSi realizaciis process warmoadgenda. yvela qristians Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi, bizantiasa Tu evropaSi, istoriis erT dinebaSi rTavda saerTo sawyisis ­ adamis droisa da sasrulis ­ RvTis samsjavros gancda. es Segneba ki ganapirobebda istoriuli narativebis standartizacias Sua saukuneebis qristianul samyaroSi.

qeTevan kakitelaSvili

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

kulturis politika Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi: identobis formireba

Tanamedrove kulturis mecnierebebSi kvlevis erT-erTi saintereso sfero kulturis politikaa. is mniSvnelovania rogorc Teoriuli, ise praqtikuli TvalsazrisiTac. kulturis politika xorcieldeba mmarTveli institutebis mier da moicavs kulturis ufarToesi sferos marTvis principebs. politika aris saboloo Sedegebis, praqtikuli miznebisa da xerxebis sistema, romelsac SeimuSavebs jgufi da axorcielebs mmarTveli Zala. `politika moicavs saboloo (grZelvadian) Sedegebs, saSualovadian da gazomvad miznebs, da saSualebebisa da xerxebis erTobliobas, romlebic urTierTdakavSirebulia eqspliciturad mTlian sistemaSi~ (Augustin Girard). ramdenadac kultura yovlismomcvelia da aerTianebs yvelafers,

155

dawyebuli genderuli da damTavrebuli religiuri sakiTxebiT, kulturis politikac moicavs yvela im aspeqtis regulacias, romelic dakavSirebulia am sferosTan. maT Soris erT-erTi yvelaze aqtualuri centraluri problema kulturuli identobis sakiTxia. winamdebare naSroms ori mizani aqvs: 1. aCvenos kulturis kvlevis Tanamedrove koncefciebis (kerZod, kulturis politikis) gamoyenebis efeqturoba saistorio kvlevaSi da 2. konkretuli magaliTis saxiT aCvenos, rogor mimdinareobda kulturis politika Sua saukuneebis qarTul sazogadoebaSi, kulturuli identobis formirebis TvalsazrisiT. kulturuli identoba aris jgufis wevrebis mier konkretul kulturul erTobasTan mikuTvnebulobis TviTgancda, romelsac ganapirobebs saziaro RirebulebaTa sistema, cxovrebis stili, ena, religia, koleqtiuli mexsiereba. naSromis mizania, V-XI saukuneebis zogierTi hagiografiuli wyaros safuZvelze warmoaCinos, Tu rogor xdeboda am periodis qarTul sazogadoebaSi kulturuli identobis Camoyalibebis mizanmimarTuli politika. unda aRiniSnos, rom `identobis formirebas Tavisi istoria aqvs~ (Paul Gilroy), Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva periodSi gansxvavebulia identobis formirebisaTvis gezis micemis, anu kulturis politikis, miznebi, meTodebi da xerxebi. zog SemTxvevaSi identoba, misi formireba damokidebulia mis miRma arsebulze, kerZod, sxva identobaze, romelic erTsa da imave dros gansxvavdeba am identobisagan da qmnis wina pirobas misi arsebobisaTvis. zemoxsenebuli periodis qarTuli kulturuli erTobisaTvis aseTi `sxva~ identoba, romelTan opoziciaSic gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri iyo qarTuli `unikaluri~ kulturuli identobis arsebobis Cveneba, bizantiuri samyaro iyo. aseTi kulturuli `opoziciis~ Seqmna gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri iyo gamomdinare iqidan, rom qarTuli kulturuli saxis formireba mZlavri bizantiuri politikuri da kulturuli gavlenis pirobebSi mimdinareobda.

marine cincabaZe

g. wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis instituti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi wm. qeTevan dedoflis saxelze Seqmnili miniatiurebi, Teimuraz pirvelis `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~ da qeTevan dedoflis `anbanTqeba~.

1) qarTulma marTlmadidebelma eklesiam XVII saukunis dasawyisSi qeTevan dedofali qristianuli sarwmunoebis didmowamed Seracxa. qristiani xalxis 11 enaze qeTevan dedofalTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnilia literaturuli Txzulebebi, xelovnebis nimuSebi da dokumenturi wyaroebi. 2) xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculia qeTevan dedoflis sami miniatiura: h-2077, S-4978, da a-425. amaTgan h-2077 miRebulia moskovis centrarqividan da warmoadgens alboms, sadac 26 wmindans Soris moTavsebulia wm. qeTevan dedoflisa da wm. SuSanik dedoflis miniatiurebi. S-4978 xelnaweri Seicavs aseve alboms wmindanTa gamosaxulebebiTa da axali aRTqmis siuJetebiT ­ sul 109 miniatiura. mxatvari ­ diakvani aleqsi baqraZe. a-425 nomriT daculi xelnaweri warmoadgens domenti kaTalikosis `sadResaswaulos~, sadac wmindanTa xsenebis dReze Sesrulebuli teqstebi gamSvenebulia miniatiurebiT. maTgan wm. qeTevan dedoflis saxelze Seqmnil miniatiuraSi mxatvari gansakuTrebulobis xazgasasmelad mimarTavs simbolikis metad originalur xelrxs. 3) a-403 xelnaweri Seicavs Teimuraz pirvelis poemas `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~. igi qarTul samecniero literaturaSi dasaxelebulia e. w. dacemis periodis Semdgom pirvel nawarmoebad, romelic asaxavs saqarTvelos realur sinamdviles da exmianeba qristianul kulturaSi danergil siaxleebs. 4) qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiis didmowamem, mnaTobma Sirazis tyveobaSi Seqmna `anbanTqeba~. dRes igi daculia erovnul cenrtSi h-1193 xelnaweris saxiT. domenti kaTalikosi `anbanTqebis~ Sesaxeb wers, rom qeTevan dedofalma `Sirazs pyrobilebaSi mwuxareman hsTqva fistikaurad~.

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wignis xelovneba

. . .

II

I (-, ) . [.. ­ XII . . ­ « . . (14. II.1908-15. X.1990), ., 2002, . 56-61; . . . ­ «Museum », -, 2002, . 76-77], ( - ) . . , . 60- XIX , , . (XII ) : « » (XII , ) ­ «.. -» (XI , ). - «» XII-XIII [ (Q) . ­ . II, , 1958, . 307-308, . .].

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, ­ , . XIX . 60- . 1863 « , ». : . , . , « », « » . [.. XIX . ­ , 1901, .248-249]. « » « » . « » [, 796 « » 1876 ., . 157, 112 « - »], . 1869 ( , 1825-1896) . ( .) . , , «- ». . . , ,

159

. , Q (, ). , , . . , . - ., . [, 892 , . 3, 497, « . . 30 1866; 24 1871»]. . . , , ­ , «» , . . (), 1924 . .. , , 1921 (, ). « », , é (, ). . ­ : 23 ×18 . , , , . (), ­ . . : , , . , ,

160

XIII ( ), - . , . (XIII ), - (XIV ). III ( XVI ). ­ ( III; 1510-1565), , , , . , , ( XVI ). « » é ( XVI ) « « ». XVII ­ XVIII 1869 . 70- XIX . 1921 , 1945 . - . ­ ­ . (XIII ), (XII ), (XII ) .. (XI ), : XIII . () II (1259-1289, (1270-1289). , ( V ) ­ I (1285-1306), ­ , .

161

- . XIX . .. `~ ­ . , I , .

nana burWulaZe

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi. saqarTvelo

XI-XIII saukuneebis qarTul xelnawerTa dasuraTeba da xatwera bizantiuri xelovnebis konteqstSi

saqarTvelos istoriaSi XI-XIII saukuneebi politikuri siZlierisa da kulturuli aRmavlobis xanaa, rasac Tan sdevs saeklesio xelovnebis ayvavebac. am dros saqarTvelos gansakuTrebiT mWidro kavSiri aqvs bizantiasTan. qarTvelebi imperiis samefo karze, samxedro samsaxurSi da sasuliero kerebSic mravlad da aqtiurad Canan. maT moRvaweobas imperiisTvisac da saqarTvelosTvisac mniSvnelovani Sedegebi moaqvs. gansakuTrebuli siaxlove qarTul da bizantiur saeklesio xelovnebas Sorisac swored am periodSi myardeba. es siaxlove yvelaze aSkarad xelnawer wignTa dasuraTebaSi vlindeba. alaverdis, labsyaldis, vanis, gelaTis, jruWi II-is oTxTavebis, zaqaria valaSkertelis svinaqsaris, grigol RvTismetyvelis homiliebis, zatikisa da sxva xelnawerTa miniatiurebis uaxloesi analogebi Tanadroul, komnenosTa periodis bizantiur xelnawerTa ilustraciebSi gvxvdeba.

aRniSnuli qarTuli xelnawerebis nawili samarTlmadideblos wamyvan samxatvro centrebSi da maT Soris, pirvel rigSi, konstantinopolis skriptoriumSia Seqmnili, romelSic komnenosTa xanis saukeTeso berZnuli xelnawerebic mzaddeboda. arsebobs mosazreba, rom konstantinopolis erT-erT, saimperatoro skriptoriums XII saukunis I naxevarSi qarTveli ostati xelmZRvanelobda, romelsac mis Tanamedrove bizantiel mxatvar-miniatiuristebs Soris mowinave adgili ekava. qarTvelebis SemoqmedebiTi kvali imperiis dedaqalaqis samwignobro saxelosnoSi XII-XIII ss-is mijnaze Seqmnil xelnawerebSic moCans. komnenosTa periodis bizantiur xelovnebaSi sruliad garkveviT vlindeba miniatiuruli mxatvrobisa da xatweris dargTa Soris didi stiluri msgavseba. amgvarive urTierTmimarTeba qarTul saeklesio ferweraSic SeiniSneba. amis naTeli magaliTebia gelaTisa da jruWi II-is oTxTavebis ilustraciebis ikonografiul-stiluri siaxlove. erTi mxriv, zemo svaneTSi da, meore mxriv, sinas mTis wm. ekaterines monasterSi dacul qarTveli ber-monazvnebis mier Seqmnil sauflo dResaswaulebis amsaxvel ferwerul xatebTan. am masalis Seswavla gvarwmunebs, rom CvenTvis saintereso xanaSi qarTuli miniatiurisa da xatweris Zeglebs marTlmadidebeli samyaros xelovnebis saganZurSi gamorCeuli adgili ekava. maTi avtorebis SemoqmedebaSi organulad iyo Serwymuli, erTi mxriv, konstantinopolsa Tu imperiis sxva wamyvan sasuliero-samxatvro kerebSi SemuSavebuli uaxlesi stilur-ikonografiuli tendenciebi, meore mxriv ki, erovnuli xelovnebis tradiciuli, TviTmyofadi niSnebi, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, mniSvnelovnad amdidrebda bizantiur xelovnebas.

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marK gusCin

Municipality of la coruna. la Coruna, Spain

thE IMaGE of EdESSa IN MaNUSCrIPtS oN MoUNt athoS

the Image of Edessa, or the Mandylion as it was later known, enjoys a significantstatusinGeorgia,especiallyintheillustrationsintheso-calledAlaverdi gospels. the abgar legend was even taken to canonical status in Georgia. In 2000, 2002 and 2004 I spent various weeks in the archives on Mount athos (Greece) researching the history of the Image of Edessa, especially in the Georgian monastery of Iveron. the results were published in my book the Image of Edessa (Brill, leiden, 2009) and will now be taken to Phd level at the University of london. Previously unpublished texts discovered at Iveron and other monasteries (hosiou Grigoriou, Megistes lavra, Koutloumousiou, vatopediou) and at other archives in Europe (Milan, Madrid, El Escorial, Patmos) reveal new details in the history of the Image and more importantly, in its nature, discovering a belief in a full-body image and bloodstains. the presentation will be complemented by preliminary results from a research trip to Cappadocia and Sanliurfa (the ancient Edessa) in May 2009.

fxistyaosanis~ nusxa, romelic poemis pirvel TariRian xelnawers warmoadgens, 1646 welsaa gadawerili mdivan mamuka TavaqaraSvilis mier, odiSis mTavris, levan (II) dadianis, dakveTiT, misive karze. xelnaweris mxatvrobas gamorCeulobasa da TavisTavadobas gansxvavebul mxatvrul mimarTulebaTa Serwyma-Sejereba aniWebs. aq XVI s-Si gavrcelebul e.w. xalxuri nakadis niSnebTan erTad profesiuli, tradiciuli mxatvrobis maxasiaTeblebi erTiandeba, rasac qarTul xelovnebaSi da gansakuTrebiT ki saero miniatiuraSi moZalebuli aRmosavluri xelovnebis tendenciebi erTvis. miuxedavad imisa, rom TavaqaraSviliseuli `vefxistyaosnis~ mxatvrobis ZiriTadi niSnebi, didi xania, cnobilia qarTul saxelovnebaTmcodneo literaturaSi (i. xuskivaZe, `qarTuli saero miniatiura~, Tb., 1974 w.), miniatiurebis kavSiri gviani Sua saukuneebis saxviT xelovnebasTan, saxeldobr, XVIXVII ss-is mxatvrobis tendenciebTan, dRemde sagangebo kvlevis sagani ar gamxdara. TavaqaraSviliseuli `vefxistyaosnis~ moxatulobis XVI-XVII saukuneebis mxatvrobis tendenciebTan mimarTebis ganxilva gviCvenebs, rom miniatiurebi dasavleT saqarTvelos (samegreloimereTi) saxviTi xelovnebis Zeglebis jgufSi erTiandeba, rac ferweris regionuli skolis arebobas gamokveTs da gviani Sua saukuneebis saxviTi xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs Soris kavSiris sakiTxsac ayenebs.

eTer ediSeraSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, giorgi CubinaSvilis saxelobis qarTuli xelovnebis istoriisa da ZeglTa dacvis kvlevis erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

nana TargamaZe

xelawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

XVI-XVII saukuneebis mxatvrobis tendenciebi TavaqaraSviliseuli `vefxistyaosnis~ miniatiurebSi

`TavaqaraSviliseulis~ saxeliT cnobili `vefxistyaosnis~ (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri; h 599) mxatvroba qarTuli xelnaweri wignis miniatiuris erT-erTi gamorCeuli nimuSia. `ve164

sabiblioTeko saqme xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris samecniero biblioTekis Camoyalibeba ganapiroba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis xelnawerTa ganyofilebis bazaze axali samecniero centris ­ xe165

lnawerTa institutis ­ daarsebam. am institutis samecniero profilis biblioTekis Seqmna imTaviTve institutis erT-erT ZiriTad amocanad daisaxa. biblioTekis fondebis Seqmnisa da Sevsebis procesSi gamoikveTa sxvadasxva gza da wyaro: institutis xarjebiT mimdinare samecniero da sainformacio gamocemebis SeZena, institutis gamocemebis bazaze arsebuli gacvliTi fondis saSualebiT sxvadasxva qveyanaSi arsebuli sabiblioTeko da samecniero centrebidan saWiro literaturis mopoveba; Semowirulobebi ara marto calkeuli gamocemebis, aramed mdidari koleqciebis saxiT (nino da kalistrate saliebis mier institutisaTvis gadmocemuli koleqcia, sakavSiro samecniero akademiis biblioTekis Semowiruloba da sxva). institutisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisaa gamoCenil qarTvel mecnierTa piradi biblioTekebi (iv. javaxiSvilis, k. kekeliZis, il. abulaZis, n. berZeniSvilis, S. amiranaSvilis, al. baramiZis, e. metrevelis), romlebic instituts Semoswires pirad arqivebsa da memorialur nivTebTan erTad. fondebis Sevsebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan wyaros warmoadgens iSviaTi gamocemebis mikro da fotoaslebi. sabiblioTeko fondebis organizacia: biblioTekis saerTo fondi, romelic dReisaTvis 58 700 wignsa da periodul gamocemas iTvlis, dalagebulia Tematurad, rogorc es miRebuli iyo saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis sainstituto biblioTekebSi. amave dros, erTiani fondi gayofilia enobrivi niSniT: ZiriTad nawils Seadgens qarTuli samecniero literatura, cal-calkea rusul, somxur, evropul da aRmosavlur enebze arsebuli literatura. piradi biblioTekebi daculia calke arsebul memorialur kabinetebSi, calkea iSviaT gamocemaTa da kartografiuli kabinetebi. biblioTekis TanamSromlebi wlebis ganmavlobaSi muSaoben qarTuli da ucxouri periodikis analitikuri bibliografiis Sedgenaze. amJamad xelnawerTa erovnuli centris biblioTekis TanamSromlebi emzadebian Zireuli cvlilebebisaTvis, mimdinareobs mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi biblioTekis eleqtronuli katalogis Sesadgenad.

166

darejan kldiaSvili

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

ruseTis imperatrica ekaterine I­is da petre I-is feradi graviura xelnawerTaA erovnuli centris istoriuli dokumentebis fondidan

xelnawerTa erovnuli centris saistorio dokumentebis fondSi daculia manglisis RvTismSoblis eklesiis gujari, romelic yuradRebas sabuTis dasawyisSi wamZRvarebuli ruseTis imperatrica ekaterines da moskovis didi mTavris petre aleqsis Zis portretuli gamosaxulebebiT ipyrobs (ad-505). moyviTalo feris sqel saimperatoro gerbian qaRaldze naweri gragnili, romelic XVIII saukunis mdivanmwignobruli mxedruli xeliTaa naweri, misi Semamkobeli feradi graviurebiT, mxatvruli gaformebiTa da Sinaarsis TvalsazrisiT, sakmaod mokle da uCveuloa; sabuTis teqsti CarCoSia Cawerili, romlis dasasrulsac marcxena zeda kuTxeSi dasmulia grafikuli mcenareuli ornamentiT gaformebul mwvane wriT Semoweril CarCoSi Casmuli orTaviani arwivis gamosaxulebiani saimperatoro mrgvali beWedi, monogramiT ­ MP (Magnus Petrus). sigelis pirvel kefze dawebebul ferad graviuraze (32,5x35,4sm.) ori saimperatoro piria gamosaxuli, romelTa vinaobis garkvevac maTi Tanmxlebi laTinuri (marjvena graviurasTan ­ Catharina imperatrix russorum; marcxenasTan: ­ petrus alexowitz magnus dux moscovice) da sabuTis Sedgenis Tanadrouli qarTuli ganmartebiTi warwerebidanaa SesaZlebeli (marjvena graviurasTan ­ q. dedofalT dedofali ekatirina, asuli aleqsisa; marcxena graviurasTan ­ q. mefeT mefe, Cveni mpyrobeli ruseTisa, petre aleqsis Svili. graviuris marjvena kuTxeSi miTiTebulia graviuris Semsrulebeli mxatvris saxeli ­ rischel exc. halce, xolo petre aleqsis Zis gamosaxulebis qvemoT aRniSnulia graviuris Ses-

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rulebis adgili ­ execut lips (laifcigi?), marcxena kideSi graviuris rigiTi nomeri ­ 43. graviuraze warmodgenili pirebi uSualod arian dakavSirebulni sabuTis teqstTan, romelSic ixseniebian ruseTis saimperatoro ojaxis wevrebi: `mpyrobeli CrdiloveTisa da yovlisa ruseTisa, mefeT mefe, imferadori~ petre aleqsiSvili, dedofalT dedofali ekatirina aleqsini da maTi Zis Ze petre aleqsiSvili; masSi agreTve moxseniebuli arian qarTvelTa mefe vaxtangi, dedofali rusudani, maTi Ze baqari da mangleli aTanase [dolenjiSvili]. sabuTis teqstis Tanaxmad, ruseTis saimperatoro ojaxma sigeliT daamtkica vaxtang mefis mier manglisis RvTismSoblis eklesiisadmi gacemuli sofel vaneTisa da manglisis mTis nasoflarebis Sewirulebis ganaxlebis aqti. manglisis sigeli daTariRebulia 1725 wliT, amdenad, igi vaxtang VI-is ruseTSi emigraciis pirvel wels, misi peterburgSi Casvlisas Cans gacemuli. es is periodia, roca miuxedavad petres moulodneli gardacvalebiT gamowveuli areulobisa, ruseTis saimperatoro kari ruseTSi Casul vaxtangsa da mis mravalricxovan amalas yuradRebas ar aklebda da qarTvel mefes jer kidev hqonda imedi ruseTis mxardaWerisa da samSobloSi dabrunebis. ruseTis saimperatoro karis mier manglisis RvTismSoblisaTvis sigelis gacemis faqts mxolod formaluri, diplomatiuri xasiaTi unda hqonoda. igi erTgvarad xazs usvamda ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris arsebul mWidro kavSirs da imavdroulad saimperatoro karis mxriv ruseTSi myofi qarTveli mefis da saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mimarT yuradRebis erTgvar gamoxatulebasac warmoadgenda. manglisis RvTismSoblis sigelis Semamkobeli feradi graviura saxelovnebaTmcodneo literaturaSi cnobili ar aris. arsebobs eWvis safuZveli, rom petre II-is taxtze asvlis Semdgom, ekaterine I-is intronizaciasTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnili graviuris calebi misi mowinaaRmdegeebis mier ganadgurebul iqna. aseTi SemTxvevebi araerTi iyo ruseTis istoriaSi. savaraudod, xelnawerTa erovnuli centris graviura im erTad168

erT cals unda warmoadgendes, romelic mxolod qarTulma dokumentma Semoinaxa.

elene maWavariani

xelawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

qarTul moxatul xelnawerTa Seswavlis istoria

interesi qarTuli xelnawerebisadmi jer kidev XIX saukuneSi gaCnda. mkvlevarTa da mogzaurTa mier qveyndeboda istoriuli Tu filologiuri xasiaTis cnobebi calkeuli an sxvadasxva wignsacavSi Tavmoyrili xelnawerebis Sesaxeb. pirveli naSromi qarTuli moxatuli xelnawerebis Sesaxeb aris r. Smerlingis mier 1940 wlis gamocemuli albomi, sadac g. CubinaSvilis mier moskovidan Camotanili mxatvar poltorackis SemTxveviT gadarCenili 16 feradi aslis reproduqciaa CarTuli Sesabamisi komentarebiT. 1929 wels s. janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumSi xelnawerTa ganyofilebis, xolo Semdgom 1958 wlis ilia abulaZis TaosnobiT mecnierebaTa akademiasTan xelnawerTa institutis Camoyalibebam dasabami misca qarTuli xelnaweri wignis, saistorio sabuTebisa da piradi arqivebis sistematur Seswavlas. mniSvnelovani iyo fondebSi daculi aTasobiT xelnaweris aRwerilobis gamoqveyneba (amJamad saeklesio ­ Aa fondis aRwerilobis nawilia darCenili), sadac wignis moxatuloba aRnusxuli iyo gverdebis miTiTebiT. qarTuli xelnaweri wignis moxatulobis Sesaxeb mniSvnelovani gamokvlevebi ekuTvniT r. Smerlings, S. amiranaSvils, l. ServaSiZes, g. alibegaSvils, i. xuskivaZes, el. maWavarians, el. amiranaSvils, f. devdarians, i. WiWinaZes, n. qavTarias, l. osefaSvils, m. abuTiZes. kvlevis sagans warmoadgenda calkeuli an gansazRvruli periodisa Tu Tematurad gaerTianebuli xelnawerebis Seswavla. amasTan dakavSirebiT, bevri naSromi calke

169

wignadaa gamocemuli. daculia disertaciebi xelovnebaTmcodneobis samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad. ikiTxeba moxsenebebi saerTaSoriso simpoziumebze. qarTuli xelnaweri wignis moxatulobiT dainteresebuli arian ucxoeli mkvlevrebic. sakuTriv xelnawerTa institutSi dRidan daarsebisa ilia abulaZis iniciativiT warimarTa muSaoba, erTi mxriv, xelnawerTa mxatvrul aRwerilobaze da, meore mxriv, wignis xelovnebis sxvadasxva sakiTxze. institutis periodul gamocemebSi gamoqveynebulia mTeli rigi statiebisa. sadisertacio Temebad SerCeuli iyo qarTul-bizantiuri wignis xelovnebis urTierTmimarTeba da XII-XIII ss. oTxTavTa dasuraTebis principebi, rac manamde Seuswavleli iyo. 1970 wels gamoqveynda 50 feradi tabulis Semcveli albomi Sesavali teqstiT sam enaze (avtori elene maWavariani). xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi muSaoba mimdinareobs ZiriTadad miniatiuruli mxatvrobis sruli saxiT gamoqveynebaze. SerCeulia da feradi slaidebis saxiT gvaqvs 1500-mde saukeTeso nimuSi IX-XVIII ss. dasuraTebuli xelnawerebidan. dasabeWdad gadacemulia IX-XV saukuneebis miniatiuraTa (1270 erTeuli) korpusi (Semdgeneli el. maWavariani). xelovnebaTmcodne n. qavTaria, amJamad xelnawerTa erovnuli centris TanamSromeli, asrulebs korpusis meore nawils (XVI-XVIII ss.). gaTvaliswinebulia enciklopediuri xasiaTis naSromis momzadeba qarTuli xelnaweri wignis momxatvel-ostatTa saxelebis gamosamzeureblad.

lali osefaSvili

SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

galobaTa ilustrirebis sakiTxi jruWis daviTnis miniatiurebSi

1. qristianuli civilizaciis erebisaTvis fsalmunTa wigns mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia. cnobilia aTasamde ilustrirebuli fsalmuni. isini Semkulobis xasiaTiT sxvadasxva jgufad iyofa. qarTuli daviTnic msoflio memkvidreobis nawilia. samwuxarod, Cvenamde erTeulma morTulma fsalmunebma moaRwia da arcaa safuZvlianad Seswavlili. Tumca samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia maT Sesaxeb savaraudo azrebi (i. sonRulaSvili, S. amiranaSvili, l. ServaSiZe). Cveni kvlevis aqtualurobas ganapirobebs is faqti, rom fsalmunTa galobaTa ilustraciebi aqamde Seswavlis sagani ar gamxdara. amasTan, samecniero siaxled unda CavTvaloT is faqti, rom Cven vcdilobT, miniatiurebi sakuTriv erTi dargis farglebSi rodi SeviswavloT, aramed maT viazrebT saxismetyvelebiT, himnografiul, teqstobriv konteqstSi. jruWis daviTnis saxeliT cnobili xelnaweris (xelnawerTa erovnuli centri h-1665) ilustraciebi sveticxovlis kaTedralSi unda iyos Seqmnili. Cveni mizania, sveticxovliseuli siwmindeebis gamoCineba da kvleva. amitom veyrdnobiT a. natroSvilis cnobas, rom sveticxovlis siwmindeebSi 3 daviTni yofila. vvaraudobT, rom, SesaZloa, eseni iyos: a-38 (X s.), h-1665 da h-75; amasTan, TiToeul maTgans, rogorc yvela liturgikul daviTns Sehferis, asergas fsalmuns Tan erTvis galobebi, anu `bibliuri himnebi`. isini nawilobriv ilustrirebulia jruWis fsalmunSi da garkveul paralels povebs sveticxovlis taZris samxreTi kedlis moxatulobasTan, sadac 148-150-e fsalmunebia aRbeWdili, anu `yoveli suli aqebdis ufalsa~. galobebSic uflis didebis, Sesxma-xotbis ideaa gatarebuli.

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2. jruWis fsalmunSi, ise rogorc yvela sxva fsalmunSi, ilustraciebi Tavdeba 151-e fsalmuniT ­ daviTis mier goliaTis damarcxebiT ­ da Semdeg iwyeba galobaTa ilustraciebi. cnobilia, rom galobaTa ricxvi cxraa. gamokvlevisas veyrdnobiT konstantinopolur da misi wris qveynebis ilustrirebul fsalmunTa gamoqveynebul nimuSebs. jruWSi gamotovebulia an dakargulia moses ori galoba. ilustrireba iwyeba samoelis dedis, anas, me-3 galobiT, romelsac safuZvlad udevs I mefeTa 2,1-2,10 teqsti. unda iTqvas, rom jruWis `bibliur himnebs~ ilustrirebisas naratiuloba axasiaTebs. es teqsti mocemulia or miniatiurad: anas locva mRvdlis winaSe da anas mier yrma samoelis taZarSi miyvana, maSin, roca berZnul xludovos fsalmunSi ana warmodgenilia Cvili samoeliT xelSi, viTarca RvTismSobeli. sxva xelnawerebSic TiTo miniatiuraa. ambakum winaswarmetyvelis locvac TxrobiTad, or miniatiuradaa mocemuli. warwerebis mixedviT, angelozs ambakumi mihyavs danielTan, xolo meore miniatiuraze danieli warmodgenilia mRvimeSi or moTvinierebul loms Soris da `ambakumma mRvimesa Sigan daniels saWmeli STaugdo.~ esaia winaswarmetyvelis locva gamotovebulia. aq SecdomiT ori scena fsalmunis teqstidanaa. iona winaswarmetyvelis galoba ramdenime epizodadaa warmodgenili: xis qveS Zili, zRvis Relva, ionas veSapis mier STanTqma da nineves epizodi. Ggaloba samTa yrmaTa ramdenime miniatiuradaa mocemuli: mefe nabuqodonosoris mier kerpis aRmarTva da misi amalis rokva, sami yrmis mowveva nabuqodonosoris mier da sami yrma cecxlis sa£milSi. safuZvlad udevs danielis teqsti (3,26-56; 3,57-88). galoba mariamisa da galoba zaqariasi gamotovebuli, an dakargulia. 3. galobaTa miniatiurebi, ZiriTadad, Zveli aRTqmis scenebs gadmogvcems, rasac ar iyo Cveuli qristianuli dResaswaulebisa da siuJetebis gadmomcemi mxatvari. is qmnis originalur, TxrobiT kompoziciebs. ambakumis scena uCveuloa, radgan is winaswarmetyvelebda qristeze, xludovos berZnul fsalmunSi igi gamosaxulia frontalurad da Tavi zemoTken, qristes mimarT miupyria, misi gamosaxuleba, aq ki danielis epizods ukavSirdeba. rogorc Cans, Zveli xelnaweris miniati172

urebi nawilobriv daikarga da XVII s. Tavidan Sekribes, teqsti gadaweres da SemorCenili miniatiurebi boloSi daurTes. amdenad, jruWis daviTnis galobebi agebulia konstantinopolur rigze. ilustrirebulia 4 galoba ramdenime miniatiurad.

nikoloz JRenti, mixeil darjania

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

Zveli qarTuli xelnaweris SeqmnaSi saWiro iaraR-danadgarebis samganzomilebiani vizualizacia-rekonstruqcia sxvadasxva Zvel qarTul xelnawerze Sesrulebuli maxarebelTa miniatiurebis mixedviT

imis aRsaqmelad Tu ra saxis iaraRebs iyenebdnen Zvelad saqarTveloSi xelnaweris Sesaqmnelad erT-erT wyarod Cven SegviZlia gamoviyenoT Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebis maxarebelTa miniatiurebi, romlebzec gamosaxulia CvenTvis saintereso xelsawyoebi. ufro zusti warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad am iaraR-danadgarebis formisa da maTi funqciis Sesaxeb, Cven mivmarTeT saqarTvelos realobisaTvis am sferoSi jer kidev daunergav meTods, kerZod samganzomilebiani gamosaxulebis Seqmnas, rac metnaklebad zustad gadmogvcems realurad arsebuli iaraRebis formebsa da proporciebs, rac Zalzed saWiroa maTi funqciis dadgenisaTvis. am ideis ganxorcielebaSi, kerZod ki zemoT aRniSnuli sivrculi reproduqciis SeqmnaSi dagvexmara dizainisa da kompiuteruli grafikis studia ,,darjania dijital"-i. samuSao Semdegnairad Sesrulda: 1. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi moviZieT miniaturebi, romlebzec naTlad Cans maxareblebis winaSe samuSao magidaze moTavsebuli iaraRebi.

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2. avRricxeT miniaturebze dafiqsirebuli sxvadasxva tipis iaraRebis raodenoba da kuTvnileba miniaturebis mixediT. 3. Semdeg amocanas warmoadgenda msgavsi tipis iaraRebis gamorCeva urTierTSedarebis safuZvelze da maTi klasificireba. 4. SevimuSaveT msgavsi da savaraudod erTi da imave daniSnulebis iaRaRebis saboloo formebi da proporciebi. 5. kompiuteruli programa `Maya~-s meSveobiT movaxdineT am iaraRebis samganzomilebiani vizualizacia-rekonstruqcia. 6. arsebuli mwiri werilobiTi informaciisa da miRebuli vizualuri Sedegis mixedviT SevecadeT gvemsjela da dagvedgina aRdgenili iaraRebis raobasa da daniSnulebaze.

nino qavTaria

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

aTabagTa karis skriptoriumi XV-XVI saukuneebSi

XV saukunis dasasrulisaTvis samcxis aTabagTa karze xelovnebis sxva dargebis msgavsad miniatiuruli mxatvrobac warmatebiT viTardeboda. XV-XVI saukuneebSi gaformebuli xelnawerebi ­ a-845, KK-375, a-351, Q-920, Q-969 ­ epoqis Sesabamis mxatvrul tendenciebs asaxaven. isini ara mxolod teqsts asuraTeben, aramed warmoadgenen im kulturuli fonisa Tu politikuri garemos anarekls, romlis wiaRSic Seiqmna xelnaweri wigni. moxsenebaSi xelnawerTa gaformebaSi CarTuli miniatiurebis ikonografiul, mxatvrul-stilistur Taviseburebebs ganvixilavT da erTi mxatvruli skolis farglebSi dasuraTebis saerTo princips warmovaCenT. miniatiuraTa ganxilvisas saxezea aTabagTa skriptoriumisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis erToblioba (kamaraTa Taviseburi struqtura, gamokveTili ukve aRmosavluri ornamentuli

174

repertuariT, saxasiaTo koloritiT ­ oqrosa da lurji ferebis siuxve da amas Sepirispirebuli mkacrad daculi qarTuli miniatiuruli mxatvrobis tradiciebi, rac TvalnaTliv gamovlinda maxarebelTa portretebsa Tu siuJetur scenebSi). am xelnawerTa rigSi gansakuTrebul adgils ikavebs quTaisis istoriul-eTnografiul muzeumSi daculi kodeqsi (Sifri #375). xelnaweri 1502 welsaa gadawerili da dasuraTebuli mzeWabukis (aTabagi 1500-1515 ww.) dakveTiT. saxarebis dasawyisSi CarTuli maxarebelTa portretebi gadatvirTuli arqiteqturuli fonebiTa da avejiT postbizantiuri mxatvruli tradiciebiTaa nasazrdoebi. maxarebelTa gamosaxulebebs ewyvileba da win uswrebs saxarebiseuli scenebis srulgverdiani miniatiurebi: maTes ­ Soba (11r), markozs ­ naTlisReba (69r), Llukas ­ xareba (109r), ioanes ­ jojoxeTis warmotyvevna (173r). Tavsamkauli da kamarebi oqroTia naweri da xazgasmulad aRmosavluri warmomavlobisaa. xelnaweris miniatiurebi ramdenime mxatvris xeliTaa Sesrulebuli, rac postpaleologosuri tradiciebisadmi gansxvavebul midgomaSi vlindeba. quTaisSi daculi xelnaweri TiTqmis imeorebs aTonis mTis saganZurSi daculi berZnuli, 1433 wlis xelnaweris miniatiurebis ikonografias da aseve axlo stilistur kavSirs amJRavnebs sankt-peterburgSi dacul berZnul-qarTul kodeqsTan (0. I. 58), romelic, savaraudod, aseve aTonur skolas ganekuTvneba. aRmosavluri tradiciebiT Seqmnili kamarebi da saxarebis dekori aTabagTa karis da, SesaZloa, zogadad, im xanis mxatvruli gemovnebis mimaniSnebelic iyos. 1504 gadawerili xelnaweri (Q-920) ukve mzeWabukis dis, giorgi VIII meuRlis, Tamaris SekveTiTaa Sesrulebuli. xelnaweris miniatiurebi da dekori msgavsia quTaisis xelnawerisa. maT, SesaZloa, saerTo prototipic ki hqondeT. 1504 wlis xelnawerSi imavdroulad ukve naTlad SeiniSneba axali mxatvruli orientirebi: ganzogadeba, daunawevrebeli arqiteqturuli sibrtyeebi, ergvarad pirobiTi, TiTqosda SeboWili

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figurebi. am miniatiurebisTvis ukve saxasiaToa XVI saukunis esTetika Tavisi lakoniurobiTa da gamomsaxvelobiT. aTabagis karze gadawerili da dasuraTebuli xelnawerebi aTonis mTis mxatvrul skolasTan avlenen axlo kavSirs. aTabagTa kavSiri aTonis mTasTan istoriaSi kargadaa cnobili. isic viciT, rom mzeWabukma araerTxel gagzavna Sesawiri aTonis mTaze da misi saxeli aTonis mTis aRapebSic ki moixsenieba. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculia am epoqis 3 xelnaweri (Q-921, Q-84 da a-733). xelnawerebze darTuli minawerebi saSualebas gvaZlevs, vivaraudoT maTi warmomavloba. Q-921 patroni Tamaris mieraa SekveTili da samxreT saqarTveloSia Sesrulebuli, xolo Q-84 da a-733 ambrosis mieraa gadawerili ierusalimis jvris monasterSi. xom ar aris es ambrosi 1495 wels gadawerili fsalmunis (a-351) kaligrafi da mxatvari ambrosi? am or xelnawers Soris stilisturi msgavseba udavoa. aseve savaraudod migvaCnia Q-921 gadamweris, zosimes gaigiveba a-401 gadamwer zosimesTan. miniatiuraTa analizi gamoavlens, rom XV-XVI saukuneebSi am mwignobrul keraSi Seiqmna saukeTeso skolis tradiciebiT nasazrdoebi Zeglebi. mxatvrebi iReben ara zust asls, aramed stilisturi da kompoziciur-ikonografiuli Taviseburebis gaTvaliswinebiT qmnian im droisaTvis maRali mxatvruli donis xelnaweri wignebis moxatul nimuSebs.

tris samuzeumo saqmianobac, rac, ZiriTadad, centris sazogadoebrivi rolis xasiaTsa da masStabze aisaxa. sazogadoebrivi rolis gacnobierebis gazrdam sagamofeno saqmis Seswavlisa da ganviTarebis, misi Tanamedrove standartebTan miaxloebis aucilebloba moitana. xelnawerTa erovnuli centris sagamofeno saqmis Seswavlas misi ganviTarebis istoriiT viwyebT. wlebis manZilze am dargma mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ganicada. arsebul masalaze dakvirvebam misi ganviTrebis sami ZiriTadi etapi gamoyo: 1. 1963-1974 wlebi (sagamofeno saqmianobis dasawyisi ­ gamofenebis mowyobisa da maTSi monawileobis mcdelobebi); 2. 1974-2006 wlebi (cvlilebebis periodi ­ Cndeba droebiTi Tematuri, regionaluri da saerTaSoriso gamofenebi. farTovdeba samizne sazogadoeba. amave monakveTSi Sedis garkveuli cvlilebebi sagamofeno darbazis kuTxiT ­ remonti, sagamofeno avejis gamocvla da a.S.); 3. 2006 wlidan dRemde (mniSvnelovani transformaciis periodi. izrdeba centris socialuri roli da icvleba sakomunikacio xasiaTi). amdenad, warmodgenili moxseneba xelnawerTa erovnuli centris sagamofeno saqmis ganviTarebis suraTis aRdgenis, arsebuli tendenciebis analizisa da maTi meSveobiT centris socialuri rolis gaanalizebis pirveli mcdelobaa.

lela qurdaZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

Nnana Cikvatia

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

sagamofeno saqme xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi (istoriuli aspeqti da Tanamedrove procesebi)

bolo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi xelnawerTa erovnuli centris roli sazogadoebaSi mniSvnelovnad Seicvala. gafarTovda cneba `xelnaweri memkvidreoba~ da, masTan erTad, cen176

Aanastasi sinelis `winamZRuarSi~ daculi erTi ikonografiuli gamosaxulebis Sesaxeb

Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi farTod aris warmodgenili polemikuri nawarmoebebi ucxo religiebisa da qristianuli eresebis winaaRmdeg. sityvieri polemikisa da diskusiis formiT

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orTodoqsuli eklesiis warmomadgenlebi da saeklesio mwerlebi ganmartavdnen da icavdnen marTlmadideblur dogmatebsa da sarwmunoebriv kredos. literaturuli Zeglebisa da werilobiTi dokumentebis paralelurad qristianuli xelovneba, qristianuli ikonografiac marTlmadideblur-sarwmunoebrivi kanonikurobis dacvas isaxavda miznad. Zvel qarTul saRvTismetyvelo-polemikur mwerlobaSi dadasturebulia erTi faqti, roca polemikuri mizandasaxuloba akisria ikonografiul gamosaxulebas. es aris jvarcmis gamosaxuleba anastasi sinelis, VI saukunis bizantieli mwerlis, cnobil nawarmoebSi, romlis saxelwodebaa `winamZRuari~. `winamZRuris~ qarTul enaze mTargmneli arsen iyalToelia, igi Sesulia mis cnobil krebul `dogmatikonSi~. `winamZRuari~ Seicavs marTlmadideblur RvTismetyvelebasa da polemikas sxvadasxva eresTan, ZiriTadad, monofizitobasTan. qristologiuri dogmatebis logikur-cnebiTi da terminologiuri analizis dros anastasi sinelis mier erTgan mocemulia jvarcmis ikonografiuli gamosaxuleba, romlis mizania monofizitebis cTomilebis mxileba. jvarcmaze qristes ganxorcielebis arsis gadmosacemad warwerilia ganxorcielebis cnebasTan dakavSirebuli terminebi. anastasi sinelis mier verbaluri da vizualuri masalis gaerTianeba miznad isaxavs erTi qristologiuri dogmatis orTodoqsuli Sinaarsis dacvas. jvarcmis Kkompozicias axlavs avtoris msjeloba gadamwerebis mier am kompoziciis ucvlelad gadatanis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. qarTuli xelnawerebi garkveuli gansxvavebebiT (oRond ara dogmatis marTlmadidebluri gagebis xarjze) imeorebs jvarcmis gamosaxulebaSi Caqsovil polemikur mizandasaxulobas. Ees faqti uaRresad sainteresoa, vinaidan anastasi sinelis mier Sesrulebuli kompozicia berZnuli xelnawerebiT Cvenamde ar moRweula, xolo `winamZRuris~ berZnul gamocemaSi gamoyenebuli jvarcmis kompozicia mxolod gviandeli, XV-XVIss-is ikonografiis analogiiT aris aRdgenili. Aarsen iyalToelis (XIs.) TargmanSi ki, rogorc Cans, adrindeli viTarebaa warmoCenili. Aarsen iyalToelis cnobiT, jvarcmis kompozicia mas mxolod erT berZnul xelnaw178

erSi unaxavs. cxadia, arsenis mier mowodebuli gamosaxuleba bevrad adrindelia berZnul gamocemasTan SedarebiT da, albaT, miaxloebuli anastasi sinelis arqetipTan.

nestan CxikvaZe, maia karanaZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

uZvelesi qarTuli ydebi svanuri koleqciidan

qarTuli xelnaweri wignis istoriaSi IX-X saukuneebs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba. am epoqidan dawyebuli wigni gascda mxolod religiuri ganaTlebis praqtikul sferos da kulturuli fenomenis mniSvneloba SeiZina, rasac gansazRvravda ramdenime faqtori: Seqmnis motivacia, gavrcelebis sociokulturuli areali, wignis warmoebasTan dakavSirebuli xelosnuri dargebis mxatvrul ­ SemoqmedebiT saqmianobad gardaqmna. wignis kulturul-istoriuli Rirebulebis Sefasebisas sagangebo mniSvneloba eniWeba ydas. wignis Semadgeneli yvela komponentidan ( saweri masala da melani, teqstobriv-redaqciuli Taviseburebebi da mxatvrul-dekoratiuli sistema) igi yvelaze nakleb uZlebs dros da saWiroebs ganaxlebas. swored amitomac yda asaxavs rogorc kodeqsis Seqmnis Tanadrouli, aseve Semdgomi dacva-ganaxlebis epoqebisTvis damaxasiaTebel mxatvrulesTetikur Taviseburebebs. IX-X saukuneebis qarTul xelnawer wignTa ydebi naklebadaa Semonaxuli. bolo dromde cnobili iyo X saukuneebiT daTariRebuli tvifruli tyavis mxolod sami yda, romlebic daculia sinis mTis wm. ekaterines monastris qarTuli koleqciis xelnawerebze: Sin. geo. 32-57-33 (sinuri mravalTavi), Sin.geo. 46 (svimeon mesvetis cxovreba) da Sin, geo.N. 26 (liturgikuli krebuli). Tanadrouli sxva masalis uqonlobisa da ydebze dadasturebuli aRmosavluri tolferda jvris stilizebuli ornamentis

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safuZvelze gamoTqmuli iyo varaudi, rom am tipis tvifruli ydebis warmoeba damaxasiaTebeli iyo mxolod sinuri warmomavlobis X saukunis qarTuli xelnaweri wignebisaTvis. 2008 wels adiSis oTxTavisa (897w.) da adiSis iadgaris (X-XI ss.) saxelwodebiT cnobil xelnawerebze gamovlinda wignebis Seqmnis Tanadrouli, sinuri ydebis analogiuri tyavis ori tvifruli yda. orive es xelnaweri, romlebic daculia svaneTis istoriul-eTnografiul muzeumSi, gadawerilia tao-klarjeTSi, maT aranairi Sexeba ar hqoniaT sinis mTis skriptoriumTan. swored es faqti gvavaraudebinebs, rom aRmosavluri stilizebuli jvris ornamentiT ydis Semkoba-warmoeba damaxasiaTebeli iyo IX-X saukuneebis qarTuli xelnawerebisaTvis. sagulisxmoa isic, rom adiSis oTxTavis ydaze daculia gviandeli ganaxlebis kvali ­ vercxlis samsWvalebiT damagrebuli tolferda jvari. ydis tyaviTa da liToniT kombinireba, liTonis elementebis samsWvalebiT damagreba damaxasiaTebelia XIVXVI ss. qarTuli xelnaweri wignebisaTvis (Q-241, a-505, h-1660, a-499, a-502). adiSis oTxTavi am periodidan ukve daculia svaneTSi. Sesabamisad, ydac swored am kuTxeSi unda iyos ganaxlebuli. am wignis kidev erT Rirsebad unda miviCnioT is faqtic, rom ydis ganmaaxlebels SeunarCunebia xelnaweris gadaweris Tanadrouli yda. adiSis oTxTavis anderZ-minawerebSi tao-klarjeTis samefo saxlisa da samonastro cxovrebis mesveurTa moxsenieba xazgasmiT adasturebs am kuTxis kulturul-istoriul cxovrebaSi saero aristokratiisa da sasuliero wodebis SeTanxmebuli moRvaweobis faqts.

izolda WiWinaZe

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. saqarTvelo

vaSingtonis kongresis biblioTekis oTxTavis Sin.Ms.Gr 165-isa da moqvis saxarebis (Q-902) miniatiurebis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis

statiaSi ganxilulia vaSingtonis kongresis biblioTekis oTxTavis Sin.Ms.Gr 165-isa da TbilisSi, xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi moqvis saxarebis (QQ-902) maxarebelTa portretuli gamosaxulebani. sinuri xelnaweri XV s. II naxevriT TariRdeba, xolo moqvis saxareba ­ 1300 wliT. miuxedavad amisa, orive xelnaweris miniatiurebis ikonografiasa da stilSi aSkarad ikveTeba adrepaleologosuri xanis midgomebi: maxarebelTa fexebgadajvaredinebuli poza, moyurade ioanes tipi, maxarebelTa moklesaxeloiani samoseli da, gansakuTrebiT, arqiteqturuli fonebi, romlebSic droisaTvis uCveulo xasiaTs atarebs: nacvlad paleologosTa wiaRSi gaCenili rTuli arqiteqturuli kompoziciebisa, saxezea martivi kedliT gaerTianebuli koSkis msgavsi nagebobebi. is, rac orive xelnaweris miniatiurebis stilis ufro adreuli xanis originalze miuTiTebs, aris fonebis ,,gameCxreba~, formebs Soris gazrdili intervali, rac anelebs mZafr dinamikasa da Sinagan daZabulobas, amave dros xels uwyobs formaTa avtonomiur wakiTxvas. sinuri oTxTavis maxarebelTa portretebi Soreul gamoZaxils warmoadgens XIII saukunis bolosa da XIV saukunis dasawyisis maxarebelTa bizantiuri portretuli saxeebisa, xolo miniatiurebis kompoziciur-sivrcobrivi gaazreba, masStabebis proporciuli Sefardeba, aseve koloritis wyoba, mas XV s-is nimuSebs miakuTvnebs.

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digitalizacia/ restavracia-konservacia

jost gippert

frankfurt, Germany

NEW ProSPECtS IN thE StUdy of old GEorGIaN PalIMPSEStS

the National Centre of Manuscripts in tbilisi hosts a huge collection of old Georgian manuscripts that are palimpsests (all in all more than 4500 pages). only in very few cases, the lower layers of these invaluable codexes have been accessible for reading so far, and only a handful of editions have been prepared. In the course of an international project concerning the old Georgian palimpsest Codex vindobonensis georg. 2 and the Caucasian albanian palimpsests of Mt. Sinai, new technology has been successfully applied to overcome the bad state of preservation of the lower layers. the present paper addresses the prospects of using the multispectral imaging system (MUSIS) for a thorough investigation of some of the most ancient palimpsests of the tbilisi collection, among them the Khanmeti and haemeti palimpsests S-3902, h-999, a-89, a-844, h-1329. the expected results are illustrated on the basis of test runs undertaken in the National Centre in 2007.

Zdenk Uhlí

National library of the Czech republic. Prague, Czech republic

MANUSCRIPTORIUM DIGITAL LIBRARY:ANAGGREGATOR OF thE EUroPEaN aNd World MaNUSCrIPtS

the global changes have brought challenge for historical and philological disciplines and for manuscript studies since the nineties of the 20th century. It also holds for the National library of the Czech republic. a process of a massive

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digitization of manuscripts and early printed books that started in mid nineties led to joining cultural heritage of different origins. of course, joining documents and materials of various institutions, cities, towns, settlements but also countries of the same cultural region was the first step. National Library of the Czech Republic governs not only Western (latin, Czech, German, french, Italian, Spanish etc.) manuscripts and early printed books but also Slavic (especially Church Slavonic and russian, but also Serbian, Macedonian, and Bulgarian), Jewish (hebraic), oriental (especially turkish, arabic, Persian) and Indian (Sanskrit). Now the challenge is to process digitally also Caucasian/Georgian manuscripts. all these books will/should be integrated into Manuscriptorium which is a digital library provided by the National library of the Czech republic. In this case, gathering Western Caucasian/Georgian, and oriental cultural heritage is of great importance. It would enable cross-cultural understanding between historically and mentally different civilizations based on cooperation and respect to each other. Since there are several thousands manuscripts within the Manuscriptorium, the importance of cooperation between Czechlands and Georgia in this area is clear. digital processing of manuscripts, simply digitization means a global dissemination of historical documents and/or holdings, a challenge for intercultural studies in general and an impulse for manuscript studies in particular. Consequently, digitization is not simply making images; it is and must be much more. Perhaps it is not seeable when digitizing small number of manuscripts, several units or at the utmost several tens. It is however seen after digitizing critical mass of manuscripts, i.e. perhaps a few hundred. then, simple images, i.e. image sequences are unmanageable for the end user as well as for the information system administrator. Compound digital document/s that make relations between data (digital images) and metadata (descriptive catalogue record, structural and technical metadataaswell)mustbecreated.Anditisonlythefirststep,onlythesimplest form of the compound digital document, of course. after overstepping the critical mass of compound digitized documents there must be created a sophisticated information system that enables orientation, e.g. showing both the whole database and partial collections, as well as navigation, e.g. enabling not only standard full textsearchbutalsocombinedsearchusingoperators,expertsearchusingfilters, search implementing graphical variants etc. etc. further, more complex form of the compound digital document may contain also full texts that should be correlated according to the appropriate parts or passages to the digital images. It may contain several full texts (e.g. edition of the original text and its translation) that should

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be correlated to each other and both full texts to the digital images. It may contain also audio documents that should be correlated to the full texts and digital images as well etc. etc. Not only editions of original historical, i.e. primary documents and their translations but also secondary documents, i.e. documents about the primary documents may be integrated into the compound digital documents. and there are possibilities that can be multiplied practically ad infinitum. It is clear that such a digitization of historical documents, or let us say manuscripts, means a complex digital processing of manuscripts and that it is very important for manuscript studies, codicology, bibliography etc. accordingly, digital processing of manuscripts is about a paradigm shift. It can be understood in triple way: firstly in relation to the historical auxiliary sciences (historische Hilfswissenschaften), respectively in relation to the socalled quantitative codigology in opposite to the traditional archeology of book; secondly in relation to the historical methodology of collective, mass, aggregate, wholesale phenomena against the individual ones; and thirdly in relation to the so-called pragmatical edition in opposition to the traditional critical and/or semicritical edition. of course, such a paradigm shift is quite a long run rather than a fastandbriefoccurrence,itis,,scientificrevolution"inKuhneanwords.Therefore digitization of historical documents and/or holdings is currently an activity in advance operations of which are both routine and under research and development at present. traditional ways of representation historical documents and/or holdings consisted of complex and sophisticated descriptions utilizing terminology with very hard semantic reduction that passes by natural language/s and that not always distinguishes between things or objects on one side and ideas, notions, concepts etc. on the other. Paradoxically this traditional terminology is based on vernacular, i.e. substantially natural languages and simultaneously deprecates its own basis, such as translation between linguistic utterances and consequently national discourses issometimesverydifficult.Digitizationbymakingmoreorlessaccuratecopiesof historical documents enables to overstep some of these crucial problems. again, digitization faciliates a goal-directed navigation and control and management of a huge amount of data by preparing electronic full texts. It is impossible through traditional ways. Some technical conditions are necessary for the paradigm shift, namely dividing data from software, standardization of data, and interoperability of tools and systems. firstly, dividing data from software, i.e. mutual independence of data and software is a substantial condition that enables the other two ones. digital, i.e.

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Internet environment is principally heterogeneous, not homogeneous, the tools and systems are various, indeed different, so that sharing data among tools and systems could be a problem if the data were software, i.e. tool and/or system dependent. Such software, tools and/or systems could not import and/or export data from one another and they would not interoperate. Problems could arise also by using communicationprotocolsbecauseofaneedtoimplementprofilesaccordingtothe regular, i.e. open, non proprietary, not software dependent data standards. thus, dividing data from software is conditio sine qua non for the digital representation of historical documents and/or holdings. Secondly, standardization of data is a necessary condition for applying manuscript studies, codicology and bibliography in the digital, i.e. Internet environment. Standardization means to use open, not proprietary standards for data preparation/creation, respectively to use regular, ordinary, conventional formats for data exchange. In other words, standardization means to use various software tools for creating the same data output1 as for the form and for achieving the same result as for the content. thus, for data creator a principle of standardization means on one hand a flexibility in the use of software tools, editors, processors etc., on the other hand a variety of choices in the information depth; and when using markup languages represents an inner structure of document, the principle of standardization means to use various manners of concrete application of markup and consequently to represent various information and information levels from the same primary evidence. thus, standardization of data is the middle of how to make data readable for machines and generally understandable for humans. thirdly, interoperability of tools and systems consists of inter-tool and/or intersystem communication, i.e. in importing and/or exporting data, in data mining, harvesting etc. It is a principal condition for working complex modular systems, for

1

See various XMl editors for creating descriptive catalogue records and fulltexts as well,e.g.jEdit,accessthroughInternet:<http://www.jedit.org/>; Peter´s XMl editor, access through Internet: <http://www.iol.ie/~pxe/>; OpenOffice in combination withSourceForge,accessthroughInternet:<http://www.openoffice.cz/stahnout> and <http://www.openoffice.cz/stahnout>;GNUEmacs,accessthroughInternet:<http:// www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs.html>; NoteTabLight, access through Internet: <http://www.webmasterfree.com/NoteTab_Light__d7660.html>. See also special software tools, e.g. MEdit, access through Internet: <http://www.manuscriptorium. com/Site/ENG/medit_eng.asp>;MTool,accessthroughInternet:<http://www.manuscriptorium.com/Site/ENG/mtool_eng.asp>.

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cooperation of their inner components and for cooperation with external tools as well. It is particularly important to guarantee interoperability between internal tools of the system and the external tools because it oversteps the traditional approach to the information system and/or digital library and comes close to a virtual research environment. In this case a virtual research environment means a possibility to create and process a personal collection of digital documents (in all probability full text editions of original historical, i.e. primary documents) using special tools that enable to get to information from point of view of e.g. computational linguistics etc. or virtual research environment means to create a grid of resources among which one of them is the main and/or (relatively) independent one and other are collateral and/or dependent. thus, interoperability is the most apparent condition for practical work with historical documents and/or holdings. the integration of resources is not simple ­ precisely on the contrary, it is averycomplextask.Asthefirststep,itsupposestheaccumulationofmetadata, i.e. not merely descriptive metadata, that is manuscript catalogue records, but also other kinds of metadata, especially structural metadata, representing the physical structure of the original document (mostly a book-codex), as well as the creation of a compound digital document (the so-called virtual book). as the second step, it assumes the accumulation of data, i.e. usually digital images of manuscripts but also full electronic texts (editions of historical documents) and also electronic representationsofmusicnotationorevenaudioorvideofiles. The identification of documents (both physical manuscripts and their digital copies) is substantial, because it enables any orientation and navigation within the whole digital library and any kind of heuristics within the manuscript collections represented in the digital library. the heart of the Manuscriptorium system is therefore the database of identification records. In other words, every digital copy of a manuscript and/or any full text needs a descriptive record; on the other hand, there may be descriptive records without any digital images and/ or full text. furthermore, one physical item may have multiple descriptive records within the Manuscriptorium system although only one of them is and can be an identification record, because it supports the search utility within the digital library.Consequently,anidentificationrecordisincorrelationtoboththeoriginal document and its digital copy such that there is only one original document, one digitalcopyandoneidentificationrecord.Multiplexdescriptiverecordsreferring to one physical item can be both language variants and/or alternate records, i.e. these records may be translations of the same record or created from the points

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of view of different research interests (e.g. palaeography, codicology, heraldry, literary history, art history, musicology, history of theology and/or philosophy, historyofscience,etc.).However,aslongastheidentificationrecordisjustoneof them, it is an unambiguous record (perhaps better put as ein-eindeutig in German or jedno-jednoznacný in Czech). Theidentificationrecordandthedatabaseofidentificationrecordsenablethe preparation of a compound digital document, i.e. the creation of a virtual book. Since the Manuscriptorium system was launched in 2003, compound digital documents (virtual books) have been created according to the XMl-based standard called MaStEr+, which is an extension of the MaStEr developed in 1999­2001 by a consortium led by the de Monfort University leicester, in which also the National library of the Czech republic participated. In the course of the ENrICh project in 2007­2009, the chapter on the manuscript description and the tEI P5 schema for ENRICH was defined, therefore any document in conformance with the ENrICh schema is also a tEI-conformant document and can be used by any tEI-aware software. this is very important, because when the ENrICh project comes to an end, the Manuscriptorium system will be widely interoperable and that interoperabilityisasignificantsteptowardstheeasyintegrationofnewresources. Interoperability is naturally essential for imports/uploads and/or exports/ downloads of metadata/data. however, it is not only a tool for building centralised resources but also the basic condition for creating distributed resources ­ and work within the virtual distributed digital environment is what the Manuscriptorium is all about. a distributed compound digital document in general means that its parts are distributed anywhere throughout cyberspace. a distributed compound digital document as it is understood for the Manuscriptorium's purposes in particular meansthatthemetadatapartiscentralisedintheidentificationrecordsdatabase of the Manuscriptorium. on the other hand, the data remains at the server of the content partner. that is why not only the descriptive but also the structural metadata are of equal importance; the creation of the distributed compound digital document is impossible without the structural metadata, which mark the subordinated items (usually pages) of the appropriate physical document (usually codex), thus enabling the creation of a virtual book and its browsing as well as searching (when using so-called applied foliation/paginationasthelabelling/namesforindividualfiles). this is of course not enough, because the necessary condition for the successful integration of documents distributed in cyberspace is that the data referred to by hyperlinks from the centralised structural metadata resource must be stored in a

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stable and persistent repository with perpetual and unmistakable names. It is a conditio sine qua non for the creation of any operating distributed resource. thus, the persistent addressing is a fundamental issue. the question may be whether persistent identification is possible when understood absolutely, i.e. regardless of a concrete resource and/or information system. on the other hand, such an absolutely understood question (i.e. the question of a universal persistence) has little sense ­ if any ­ for the practical process of building a digital manuscript library, although it has a deep meaning in theory. thus, only a question of a relative (system-related) persistence, i.e. the solution of persistent addressing and identification regarding the Manuscriptorium system, is connected with a topic that concerns digital palaeography and codicology. the way of creating persistent identificationwithintheManuscriptoriumisquitesimple,consistingof: · theidentificationoftheownerofthephysicalobject(thatrelatestothe appropriatedigitalobject,ofcourse),theidentificationofthephysicalobject(shelf mark, call number etc.) · theidentificationof apartof thephysicalobject(typicallyapage,but also an open book, i.e. the back page of a preceding leaf and the front page of the next leaf altogether) · theidentificationofthequalityleveloftheimages(e.g.gallerythumbnail, preview, normal size, black and white optimisation, etc.). Such a kind of persistent addressing makes it possible both to ascertain and find an individual digital object (i.e. page) as well as to create an appropriate sequence of objects (i.e. sequence of images of the appropriate quality level) or complete the whole compound digital document independently of its centralised or distributed form. thus, the use of consistently and logically created names for individualdigitalobjects(files,notjustdocuments)iscrucial. So as to ensure the smooth operation and progress of the Manuscriptorium system, still another condition regarding metadata is necessary. the Manuscriptorium has numerous partners, both current and potential, most of whom do not create their metadata solely for the Manuscriptorium system but for various, even divergent, goals and purposes, therefore using diverse metadata standards. for the partners' results, i.e. data outputs, to be integrated into the Manuscriptorium internal format (as I have said at present this is still MaStEr+, but in the near future within the ENrICh implementation of tEI P5 we will use enrich.dtd, and enrich.xsd and the ENrICh relax NG Scheme), metadata mapping and metadata conversion are needed. It is not an obsessive idea to transform

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heterogeneity into homogeneity but a practical effort to harmonise different metadataformatsforthepurposeofindexingthem,whichisthebasisforefficient, ifnotforany,search.Adigitallibrarywithoutefficientsearch(withnosearchor withmerebrowsingutilities)isnotadvisableforscholarsoranyotherrefineduse. on the basis of a deeper analysis of the particular content resources available within the frame of ENrICh, there are four typical ways of cooperation in integratingresourcesandincreatingdistributedcompounddigitaldocuments: 1. the M-tool (creating structural and descriptive metadata for individualdocuments):theM-Toolisanapplicationservingthepartnersofthe Manuscriptorium who create new metadata for existing image data. It enables the creation of descriptive and structural metadata and consequently also compound digital documents. the M-tool currently exists as a stand-alone application and is going to be created in an online version. It is now (end of april 2009) being tested. In its online version, it has been adapted to the new demands in the area of produced structural and descriptive metadata and to the usage of Utf-8. 2. the offline automated generation of structural metadata and connector forexistingdescriptivemetadata:thismethodissimilartothepreviousoneand suitable for partners who have a greater number of catalogue records which justify the creation of connectors. the use of a connector will make it possible to connect with the partner's source of primary information directly and will not necessitate the creation of duplicate descriptive metadata using the M-tool. the M-tool will beusedtocreatestructuralmetadataanddescriptionsinidentificationrecords,with the detailed description being processed by the connector. In the Manuscriptorium, it is possible to supply the outputs of the M-tool with these brief descriptions through identifiers. These identifiers enable the document to be joined with the descriptive information processed by the connector, which is going to be optimised and adapted to the properties of input metadata to provide, where possible, zeroloss conversions. 3. theofflineconnector(convertingtheexistingstructuralanddescriptive metadata content offline): connector is a tool enabling the conversion of the existing input metadata of compound digital documents depending on the needs of the Manuscriptorium system. It is a part of the input interface of this system and is constructed in such a way that it cannot overreach the managing system of a partner. this approach makes it possible to separate the data production and management from the data presentation as well as optimise both of these tasks. It also ensures that it is not necessary to modify the existing processes at the workplaces of

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individual content partners. the most important parts of the connector are the conversion routines for transferring descriptive and structural metadata. this is suitable for partners who manage existing structural and descriptive metadata for suchanumberofdocumentsthatjustifiesthecreationoftheconnector. 4. the online connector (converting the existing structural and descriptive metadata content using the OAI-PMH interface): it is similar to the offline connector but uses the oaI-PMh for communication. at present, all the partners which have the oaI interface implemented will contribute with a relevant amount of documents justifying the creation of connectors. Not only do information and communication technologies enable the overlapping of space and time by sharing different collections held at different places worldwide in a uniform user interface, but they also make it possible to approach the manuscripts and manuscript collections virtually. they allow for the representation of what has no actual existence but what existed either in the past or exists only at an abstract level. thus, the reconstruction of dispersed historical libraries, the reconstruction of an activity of an individual scriptorium, the reconstruction of a work of an individual scribe, a palaeographic anthology etc. can be accomplished. It is fundamental that all these and other possible reconstructions will be accomplished not by accumulating descriptive records, which would be no difference in comparison with the printed environment, but that it is going to be achieved by collecting digital documents, which is very important as against the method not using information and communication technologies. Some virtual collections, e.g. collections of manuscripts, incunabula, early printed books etc., meet typical end-user requirements and as such should be created beforehand, a priori. on the other hand, some virtual collections should be created not only a posteriori but also for specific purposes and individual tasks. Furthermore, also virtual documents should be created a posteriori for specific purposes and individual tasks. Consequently, personalised research tools for creating virtual documents and virtual collections will be developed in the ENrICh project. a virtual collection can be either static or dynamic. a static virtual collection is a simple selection of documents from those in the Manuscriptorium database at the moment, which requires manual work. a dynamic virtual collection is a selection of documents from the documents in the Manuscriptorium database at that moment or that will be in future. Such a collection is not based on manual work but on a personalised permanent query that is activated after every update of the Manuscriptorium

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database, so that the dynamic virtual collection is continuously growing. Especially this kind of virtual collection could be applied well for scholarly and any other refineduse,becauseitenablespermanentheuristics.Itisveryimportantthatstatic and dynamic virtual collections can be both used individually by their creators and shared with other end users in accord with their creators' consent. on the other hand, a virtual document is a selection of parts of the documents from all the documents currently in the Manuscriptorium database, i.e. manual work is needed for the creation of the virtual document. Practically, it means that a virtual document is a collection of pages or leaves that come from various documents, i.e. manuscriptsand/orbooks.Itisthusaspecificheuristictool,whosedesirabilityand efficiencyshouldbeprovedinthenearfuture. there is a great challenge and mainly three aspects of it are especially important. firstly Caucasian/Georgian manuscript catalogue records can be uploaded to the open catalogue of historical holdings as a part of the Manuscriptorium digital library. there is no need to particularly discuss the principal importance of integration of manuscript resources worldwide because of its apparent selfevidence. Secondly digital copies of Caucasian/Georgian manuscripts can be inserted into the Manuscriptorium digital library. No doubt it could be very important because of possibility of remote access to the eminent constituent of the Caucasian/Georgian national cultural heritage for the worldwide public. on the contrary Czech and European manuscript heritage should be accessible for the Caucasian/Georgian researchers and general public as well. thirdly providing full texts of original historical and literary sources is very important. It is important in a way of traditional printed documents; however it is much more important in a way of sophisticated electronic documents that can be communicated very easily. accordingly, Manuscriptorium digital library offers a possibility for uploading and wider disseminating turkmen historical sources. Thereisanecessitytoidentifythefirststepforstartingcooperationbetween Caucasian/Georgian partners now and the Manuscriptorium or better to say the National library of the Czech republic. according to the saying "all beginning isdifficult"itisnecessarytochoosetherightsolutioninordertobeabletowork effectively. the right solution means the simplest solution at the same time, at least in this case. the National library of the Czech republic have made software tools (and offers them for free) for cataloguing and creating digital document, i.e. bibliographic description of manuscript connected with digital images-copies of the original manuscript as well as for creating a distributed digital document, i.e.

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catalogue record and digital images-copies of the original manuscript can be saved apart in the cyberspace (Mtool). Work with these software tools is very simple but effective, so that they enable to create valid digital documents for immediate processing within the Manuscriptorium digital library and then for instant use on the part of the end user. thus, starting cooperation is from content and technical point of view very easy. Cooperation must consist of further steps to be effective. the National library of the Czech republic offers consultations concerning digitization and creation of compound digital document on one hand as well as provision of access via the Manuscriptorium digital library on the other hand. It is very easy from technical pointofview;howeveritcouldbedifficultfromthatpointofviewthatconcerns negotiations, organization, arrangements etc. this step is of crucial importance if we are oriented to an indeed effective collaboration. on the other hand, presenting together Western, Caucasian and oriental, Czech and Georgiann manuscript is worth the effort. finally, the form of the effective collaboration between Caucasian/ Georgian and Czech parts is clear and self-evident. turkmen partners provide the Manuscriptoriumdigitallibraryfirstlywithmanuscriptcataloguerecord,secondly with digital images-copies of manuscripts and thirdly with full texts of historical documents. of course it is a long perspective and not a task for today, but we must be aware that there is such a challenge and such a possibility. The goal of proposed activity is double: firstly the Caucasian/Georgian manuscripts will be available and accessible via the Manuscriptorium digital library within a global research environment which is worthy of today; and secondly the Czech and Caucasian/Georgian manuscripts will be searchable jointly in a single user interface. I hope that we ­ Georgians as well as Czechs ­ will respond to this challenge and develop our incipient cooperation to an effective collaboration.

vasil TargamaZe

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

digitalizaciis laborataria xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi

xelnawerTa digitalizaciis procesi k.kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa institutSi daiwyo 1999 wlis ivnisidan. Aam wels fondma `Ria sazogadoeba saqarTvelo~ da oSI-m daafinanses saqarTvelos inovaciuri teqnologiebis asociaciis proeqti `kulturuli memkvidreobis digitalizaciisa da kompiuteruli damuSavebis centri~. proeqtis mizani iyo, Seqmniliyo srulad aRWurvili centri vizualuri informaciis kompiuteruli damuSavebisaTvis; informaciisa, romelic arsebobs uZvelesi xelnawerebis, moxatulobis, naxatebis, arqiteqturuli ornamentebis, fotoebisa da dekoratiuli xelovnebis sxva nimuSebis saxiT; centri, romelic SeZlebda efeqturad gamoeyenebina xelmisawvdomi resursebi, saerTaSoriso gamocdileba da teqnologiebi kulturuli memkvidreobis Senaxvis, Seswavlisa da popularizaciis amocanebis gansaxorcieleblad. gamosaxulebebis digitaluri Canaweri saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs gamosaxulebis dazianebis riskis gareSe maTi manipulirebisa da kompiuteruli teqnologiebis gamoyenebisa maTTan muSaobisas; gamosaxulebis Tavdapirveli saxiT rekonstruqcia, momzadeba publikaciisaTvis, yovelgvari statistikuri da opto-geometriuli informaciis moZieba, monacemTa bazebis Seqmna da am masalebis xelmisawvdomoba studentebisaTvis da mTeli msoflios mkvlevarTaTvis. mxolod digitaluri Canaweri iZleva zogierTi Zeglis an misi replikis saukuno Senaxvis garantias. centris SeqmnaSi aqtiurad monawileobda k.kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa institutis maSindeli direqtori batoni zaza aleqsiZe da misi xelSewyobiT centrisaTvis gamoiyo farTobi institutis SenobaSi.

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pirvel etapze yuradReba gamaxvilda xelnawerebis digitalur aslebze maTi Senaxvis mizniT da amitom Ddigitalizaciis procesisaTvis arCeul iqna Semdegi meTodika: jer xdeboda xelnaweris fotografireba slaidze da Semdeg slaidis skanireba. centris xelT arsebuli skaneri da slaidis firis xarisxi saSualebas iZleoda, xelnaweris gverdi Cagvewera 2000 dpi garCevisunarianobiT 16-24 bit feriT daaxloebiT 130 MB moculobis tIff failad (es Seesabameba 41 megapiqseli garCevisunarianobis mqone digitaluri fotoaparatis SesaZleblobas). procesi rTuli, Sromatevadi da, Sesabamisad, neli iyo, magram aseTi xarisxis miRweva im dros sxva meTodiT ar iyo SesaZlebeli. institutis TanamSromlebTan SeTanxmebiT SeirCa ramdenime mniSvnelovani da dazianebuli xelnaweri da moxda maTi digitalizacia. 2000 ­ 2003 wlebSi Caiwera xelnawerebisa da istoriuli arqivebis 12000 gverdamde; amavdroulad daiwyo muSaoba sacavebSi daculi masalis xelmisawvdomobaze. xelnawerTa institutis TanamSromlebTan erTad Sedga monacemTa baza ­ xelnawerTa katalogi, romelic moicavs institutSi arsebuli 42 xelnaweris dawvrilebiT aRweras, avtoris, gadamweris, minawerebis, momxatvelebisa da a.S. miTiTebiT; SevqmeniT veb-gverdi www.manuscript.ge, romelzedac ganTavsda aRniSnuli baza da xelnawerTa gverdebis ilustraciebi. 2007 wels Seiqmna xelnawerTa institutis digitalizaciis laboratoria. Llaboratoria digitalizaciisa da kompiuteruli damuSavebis centrTan SeTanxmebiT, maTi aparaturis gamoyenebiT ganagrZobs xelnawerTa digitalizacias. icvleba prioritetebi. mTel msoflioSi digitalizaciis procesi ganixileba, rogorc kulturuli memkvidreobis farTo sazogadoebisaTvis xelmisawvdomobis saSualeba. laboratoriaSi digitalizaciisaTvis xelnawerTa SerCeva xdeba maTze moTxovnis gaTvaliswinebiT. digitalizaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba cifruli fotoaparati, rac SesamCnevad aCqarebs digitalizaciis process. fotografireba xdeba 14 megapiqseli garCevis unaris mqone aparatiT, rac iZleva 30-40 MB raW da tIff gverds. xarisxi sruliad sakmarisia xelnaweris wasakiTxad, poligrafiisTvisac, magram ar aris sakmarisi ilustrirebuli xelnaweris digitalizaciisaTvis Senax194

vis mizniT. ukve digitalizebulia 120-ze meti xelnaweri (32000 gverdi). amavdroulad xdeba saistorio dokumentebis, saarqivo masalebis digitalizacia. samkiTxvelo darbazSi am aslebze xdeba muSaoba da xelnawerebi aRar gaicema. Senaxvis mizniT mniSvnelovani xelnawerebis digitalizebisTvis SemuSavebulia proeqti amerikelebTan erTad, romlis farglebSic laboratoria aRiWurveba specialuri danadgariT, romlis garCevisunarianoba 120 megapiqselamdea. es danadgari mkveTrad gazrdis laboratoriis SesaZleblobebs. gagrZeldeba kvlevebi palimfsestebis wasakiTxi sistemebis SemuSavebisaTvis.

jaCQues siCre

Bibliothèque Nationale de france. Paris, france

rEStoratIoN of a GEorGIaN MaNUSCrIPt (GEorG. 3) PrESErvEd at thE BIBlIothECE NatIoNalE of fraNCE

Le manuscrit Géorgien 3 appartient à un ensemble cohérent de documents anciensécritsenalphabet(xuwuri/mTavrulietanotéenmkhedrouli)conservésau départementdesmanuscritsdelaBibliothèquenationaledeFrance.Ils'agitd'un recueildeprièresutiliséparlesmembresdel'Eglisegéorgienneordo divinorum officiorum Ecclesiae Iberae orientalis. Les textes rassemblés en volume au XVe siècle ont été écrits entre les Xe et XIe siècles et se composent d'un calendrier exhaustifdessaintsetdesfêtesàcélébrer,debrèvesleçonsextraitesdelaBible, des passages de l'histoire de la vie du Christ, de la sagesse de Salomon, de Zacharie etdeJérémie. Surl'intérieurdelareliure,unenoteenitalienprécisequecemanuscrit«fut envoyédeGéorgie,en1731,parlechefdesmissionnairescapucins»21, Sevin et

1

«Tiflis,14jan1731.Mandounlibroanticogiorgianodilinguascrittaecarattereche noidiremmoOrdoDivinorumofficiorumEcclesiaeIberiaOrientalisseuGiorgianorum. Quale la sua carita favorira presentare da nostra parte a sue Eccellenza procuraremo ancora altri. Questa lettera dal patre prefetto de patri Capuccini Missionarii in

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apportéàlabibliothèqueduroi,tandisqued'autresnotesnousapprennentquels ontétésesdifférentspossesseurs:Démétrios,Iohann,David. le support du recueil de prières est en parchemin et compte 54 cahiers hétérogènes,soit387feuillets(365mmx260mm)surlesquelsletextesedéploie endeuxcolonnes.Lareliureserattacheauxreliuresorientalesgaufréesdetype arménien et mesure 370 mm de hauteur par 275 mm de largeur (une partie du dos compris dans cette valeur). N'ayant subi aucune intervention, celle-ci offre auxchercheurs,letémoignageprécieuxd'uneformedecoutureetdetechniquede reliure ancienne du Xve siècle. description de la reliure et étude de la structure la reliureenpleincuirdechèvrebrunsurais(plats)auxtranchesirrégulières avec traces de fermoirs et demi rabat portefeuille en gouttière, montre un fort usage durecueildeprièresdurantlaliturgie;sonétatdeconservationavanttraitement étaitjugémédiocre,cedonttémoignaientlescuirsfrottés,lesaisfendus(mobiles) sansruptureducuir,lesanglesdesplatsémoussésetlacunaires,lesmorsfendus auxcoiffes,lerabatfroissé,lestranchefilesuséesetlespassesdesbâtisdistendus. Enfin, on observe que la reliure a subi une réparation grossière sur la coiffe supérieureainsiquel'ajout,audébutduXXe siècle, de quatre gardes volantes de papieràbasedepâtedeboisendébutetenfindevolume. le cuir des platsetdelagouttièreaétéestampé(pressionsuruncuirhumide d'unoutilchaudenferpourlaisserunmotif)maisdemanièredissymétrique.Sur leplatsupérieur,l'artisanatracéuneétoileàdixbranchesréaliséeavecunjeude filetsetdepetitsfers(amandeetpetitefleur)sertiedansuncarréenfiletsimple; unencadrementdefiletsdoublesà40mmenvironduborddesplats;unjeude double filets simples en double encadrement sur le pourtour du plat ; des petits fersencroix(amande)entouréencarré(petitefleur)quisontaveclarosaceles symboles christiques par excellence. Tandis que sur le plat inférieur, l'artisan a optépouruneiconographiedifférenteavecunerosacecentralecomposéedefilets doubles en arcs et de petits fers en remplissage serties dans un jeu de trois cercles concentriquesdontlepluslargeestdedoublefiletsetpetitsfers(petitefleur)en remplissage;unencadrementdefiletsdoublesavecdanslesanglesunjeudefilets simplesenéventailà40mmenvironduborddesplats;unealternancededeux

petitsfers(amandeetpetitefleur)enencadrementdansl'intervalleentrelesjeux defiletsd'encadrement. sur le rabat, l'artisan a exécuté une croix réalisée au filet double avec un remplissage de petits fers alternés (amande et petite fleur) ; un encadrement au filetdoublesurlepourtour.Surledos,onobserveunesériedetracesverticalesau repoussé(incisions)dansunencadrementd'unfiletsimpleestampéauquels'ajoute unfiletsimplehorizontalestampéà10mmentêteet20mmenqueue.Lerelieur etl'artisanpourl'estampageontutiliséquatreoutilsenfer. les ais Lesaisquicomposentlareliuresontenboisdecèdresoitdetyperésineux. L'aissupérieurmesure370x245x12mmentroispièces;deuxpièces360x45et 360x200mmmaintenuespar4liensdeficellepassantpar8troussansemploide colle;unepièce10x245mmcolléesurlatranchesupérieuredesdeuxprécédentes. la passure en ais et couture Lapassureestlepassagedansleboisdel'âmedelacoutureetquijointla couturedesfondsdecahiersauxplats.Onobservelaprésenced'untrouà20mm du mors dans le prolongement du grecquage pour les 3 doubles ficelles et les 2 chaînettesetunsecondtrouà60mmduprécédentdansladeuxièmeplanchette. Lesfondsdecahierssontgrecqués(ficellesetchaînettes. les bâtis et tranchefiles Unesériede5perforationsalignéesà60mmduborddechaqueaisentêteet enqueuesertdecirculationauxfilsdesbâtis. la couvrure La pièce de cuir est une pleine chèvre brun foncé aux angles coupés. Les remplis de cuir des coiffes sont coupés aux mors, aux débuts et aux arrêts des tranchefiles.Laparuredesremplisdecuirestmodéréeetladécoupeestirrégulière. le rabat Le rabat est composé d'une pièce de cuir collée sur une pièce de tissu et rempliéesur20mmenvironentête,enqueueetengouttière. les fermoirs Troisperforationsà45mmengouttièrecorrespondentauxclousd'attachesur l'aissupérieurettroisperforationsà45mmengouttièrecorrespondentauxlanières defermoir.Desrestesdelanièressonttoujoursvisiblesaucontreplatinférieur.

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Giorgia fu mandata al Patre Custode de fratri capucini di Constantinopoli et ricevuta li 3 7bre 1731 ».

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le corps d'ouvrage les Gardes Des demi-gardes en textile contre collées aux plats et au verso du rabat s'ornent de motifs polychromes imprimés auxquelles on a ajouté dans le but de protéger d'avantage les feuillets de parchemin, quatre gardes volantes en papier acideendébutetenfindevolume.Surlapremièregardeancienneapparaîtoutre l'étiquettederondage,uneétiquettedepapierindiquantd'unepartquelemanuscrit étaitcomposélorsd'uninventaireen1897de387feuilletsetde16feuilletslacérés sansplusdeprécisionsetd'autrepartl'insertionsuivante:«C'estunmanuscrit Georgien dont les carracteres ressemblent aux carracteres armeniens ils ont été faits en 1182 par Isaac et Mesatov ses fameux philosophes qui composerent les carracteres armeniens et georgien ces derniers ressemblent beaucoup aux autres quoy qu'ils soient extremement different ainsy je ne puis pas dire ce que contient ce manuscrit. le Sr Isaye, Georgien, m'a dit que le caractere de ce ms etait Georgien, et que la langue en etait aussi Georgienne, mais particuliere a la liturgie aussi bien que le carractere ». Sur la dernière garde volante on trouve la note manuscrite en italien citée précédemment. etat de conservation L'état de conservation était jugé médiocre pour l'ensemble du volume manuscritàl'exceptiondelacoutureetdusupportdecouturequiontétépréservés. Unconstatprécisapermisderévélercombiencemanuscritàmanquerdesoinau coursdanslessièclesanciensdansdesmanipulationsincessantesetsansprécaution. la consultation du manuscrit en salle de lecture constituait un risque d'accélération de son mauvais état sanitaire et de perte de feuillets, arguments suffisant pour entreprendre la restauration des feuillets de parchemin et de la reliure. L'analyse des matériaux et des techniques associée à l'étude historique dumanuscritGéorgien3délimiteunchampd'actionsappropriéesetlimitésaux élémentsendommagésdemanièreàmettreenvaleurlareliureancienneafinque les chercheurs puissent apprécier l'authenticité de ce précieux témoignage de l'artisanat d'art ancien. synthèse de restauration Enpréalableàtouteintervention,letitulairedestravauxdoits'assurerdela complétude du document, c'est-à-dire l'inventaire appelé collation des feuillets.

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Comptetenudesnombreuseslacunes,levolumeaétécollationnéparlerestaurateur puisconfiéàunconservateurdudépartementdesmanuscritspourunecontrevisite. Lavisiteamontréuneimportantedifférenceentrelenombredefeuilletsindiqués commeétantlacérésen1897(16feuillets)etlenombreconstatéàl'entréedansle service en 2004 (192 feuillets) cependant, le niveau important d'empoussièrement des feuillets jouxtant les lacunes conforte l'hypothèse d'une lacération ancienne maisnéanmoinspostérieuresà1897. Les traitements initiaux ont consisté à retirer les réparations grossières du débutduXXesiècletellesquelecuircollépar-dessuslacoiffesupérieure la restauration des feuillets de parchemin L'évolution physique du manuscrit posait une nouvelle problématique en matière de restauration. Tandis que la couture présentait toujours une bonne résistance,lecorpsd'ouvrageenparcheminoffraitunefortevariationphysique. Ilaétédécidéd'utiliserdupapierjaponaisàlaplaceduparchemind'apportpour rabouterlesfondsfendusentêteetqueue.Dupapierpurkozo40grammesaété teintédansunbaind'eauetdeterresd'Italieafindenepasmodifierlesqualités mécaniquesdecettefourniture. Les sutures dont les fils avait disparu en raison des manipulations sur une longuepériodeontétéremplacéespardufildelinenhumidifiantchaquepointpour nepasrisquerdeprovoquerdedéchirure.Latoiledudosaétérecolléeaucorpsde l'ouvrageavecunamidondepommedeterre.Lesbâtis/tranchefilesontétéfixésde nouveauparune«sur-couture»defildelinenreprenantlesfondsrestaurés,cequi apermisderedresserlestranchefilesentêteetqueue Ducuirdechèvregrainancienautonleplusapprochantaétéutilisépourla restaurationdelacouvrure.Lecuiraététravailléàlamêmeépaisseurquelecuir ancien,puisdespiècesontétéposéesàl'aplombdeszoneslacunairesavecdela colle d'amidon de pomme de terre. une boîte de conservation a été réalisée aux dimensions afin d'augmenter la préservation du document en magasin. Pour l'ensemble des traitements de sauvegarde,283heuresontétémobiliséesauxquellesilfautajouterlestrèslongues périodesdeséchage.

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Jak sikri

safrangeTis nacionaluri biblioTeka. parizi, safrangeTi

370×247×12 mm; ori nawili ­ 360×45 da 360×200 mm. webos gareSe Sekrulia Tokis 4 bmuliT, romlebic gadis 8 xvrelSi, xolo erTi nawili 10×245 mm. dakrulia wina oris zeda kideze. Nnaxvretebi frTaze da kerva safuZvlebi da kaptali 5 Camwkrivebuli naxvretis seria yoveli frTis kididan 60 mm-ze Tavsa da boloSi emsaxureba safuZvlis Zafebis moZraobas. samosi: warmoadgens Txis erTiani muq yavisfer, kuTxeebSi CaWril tyavs. sarCulis tyavis qoba CaWrilia lagamTan, dasawyissa da kaptalis dasasruls. tyavis qobis samkauli zomieria da nakeri ­ usworo. sarqveli damzadebulia qsovilze dakruli tyavisgan; daaxloebiT 20 mm-iTaa Sekecili TavSi, bolosa da RarTan. Sesakravebi sami naxvreti Raridan 45 mm-iT ukavSirdeba samagrebs anu samsWvalebs zeda frTaze da sami naxvreti Raridan 45 mm-iT ukavSirdeba Sesakravis viwro Tasmebs. Sasakravebis danarCeni nawilebi yovelTvis TvalsaCinoa xis dafaze. nakeTobis korpusi forzacebi qsovilis ori Sida sacavi mWidrod dakruli xis dafebsa da sarqvelis versoze mravalferovni ornamentiT moCiTuli, romlebic upirvelesad gakeTebulia etratis furclebis dasacavad, qaRaldis oTxi sacavi furceli krebulis dasawyissa da dasasruls. Ppirvel Zvel sacavze Cans minaweri, romelic erTi mxriv ganmartavs, rom xelnaweri 1897 wels Catarebuli inventarizaciis dros Seicavda 387 furcels da 16 dafleTili furcels yovelgvari dazustebis gareSe; meore mxriv, ikiTxeba Semdegi ganmarteba: `es aris qarTuli xelnaweri, romlis asoebi hgavs somxur asoebs. isini Sedgenilia 1182 wels isaakisa da mesatovis mier, am cnobili filosofosebis mier, romelTac Seadgines somxuri da qarTuli asoebi; es ukanaskneli Zalian

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safrangeTis erovnul biblioTekaSi daculi qarTuli xelnaweris (Georg. 3) restavracia

xelnaweri Georgien 3 warmoadgens mwyobrad Sekruli Zveli dokumentebis erTobliobas, gadawerils nusxuriTa da mTavruliT, mxedruli minawerebis TanxlebiT. igi daculia safrangeTis nacionaluri biblioTekis xelnawerTa ganyofilebaSi. saqme exeba qarTul eklesiaSi dadgenil locvaTa krebuls _ Ordo divinorum officiorum Ecclesiae Iberae orientalis. XV saukuneSi erT kodeqsad Sekruli teqstebi gadawerilia X-XI ss-Ta mijnaze. Yydis Sida mxareze ikiTxeba italiuri minaweri: `gamoigzavna saqarTvelodan 1731 wels kapucin misionerTa moTave~ sevenis mier da gadaeca safrangeTis samefo biblioTekas; sxva minawerebi ki gvamcnoben adrindel mflobelTa saxelebs: demetriosi, ioane, daviTi. locvaTa es krebuli gadawerilia etratze da Seicavs 54 heterogenul rveuls an 387 furcels (365×260 mm.), romlebzec taqsti or svetadaa ganTavsebuli. mogvagonebs aRmosavlur, somxuris tipis, tvifrul ydebs; aqvs 370 mm. simaRle da 257 mm. sigane (yuis nawilic Sedis am zomebSi). erTiani tyavis ydis aRweriloba da frTebis struqturis Seswavla xis dafebis tyavisa da Rarebis dadaRva (sveli tyavis datvifrva rkinis cxeli iaraRiT ornamentis dasasmelad). sarqvelze xelosanma gamosaxa jvari ormagi xazovani tvifrviT, cxeli wesiTa da Semavsebeli tvifrebis (nuSi da mcire yvavili) monacvleobiT. frTebi ydis Semadgeneli frTebi damzadebulia kedaris an sxva wiwvovani xis masalisagan. zeda samnawilia frTis zomebia

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hgavs meores, magram gansxvavebulic aris. Aamitomac ar SemiZlia mogaxsenoT, Tu ra Sedgenilobisaa es xelnaweri. Bb-ma isaim, qarTvelma, miTxra, rom es xelnaweri qarTuli asoebiTaa naweri da enac qarTulia, magram damaxasiaTebeli RvTismsaxurebisaTvis iseve, rogorc asoebi.~ bolo sacavze ikiTxeba adre moxmobili italiuri minaweri. zomieri konservaciis mdgomareoba kervisa da safuZvlis gamoklebiT xelnaweris istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT Mmasalisa da teqnikis analizi gansazRvravs dazianebuli elementebis Sesatyvis da SemosazRvrul moqmedebaTa areals, raTa Zveli yda aRdges im saxiT, rom mkvlevarebma SeZlon daadginon Zveli ostatobis am SesaniSnavi nimuSis avTenturoba. restavraciis Sejameba konservaciis dawyebamde samuSaos SesrulebaSiE uflebamosili pirebi unda darwmundnen dokumentis sisruleSi anu Seamowmon furcelTa Sejerebis nusxa. savaldebulo angariSSi fiqsirebuli iyo mravalricxovani dazianeba. krebuli aRnusxa restavratorma da mis mier uamravi xarvezis dafiqsirebis Semdgom krebuli gadaeca xelnawerTa departamentis konservators dasaTvaliereblad. daTvalierebam gviCvena mniSvnelovani sxvaoba 1897 wels aRnusxul dafleTil (16 f.) da... 2004 wels registrirebul (192 f.)... furcelebs...Soris. aRiniSna axali, mniSvnelovani damtverianeba furcelTa dazianebebis siaxloves, ramac gaamyara hipoTeza, rom xelnawerze aRiniSneba rogorc Zveli, aseve mogviani, kerZos, 1897 wlis Semdeg droindeli dazianebebi. etratis furclebis restavraciis Semdgom wamoWrili problemebi iaponuri qaRaldis, rogorc Txis tyavis, gamoyeneba sakonservacio paketi Sesrulda zomebze, raTa gagvezarda gverdebis profilaqtika sacavSi. dacvis reJimebis gasaerTianeblad 283 s. iyo mobilizebuli, rasac unda daematos gaSrobisTvis saWiro drois didi periodi.

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lia sixaruliZe

Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

xelnaweri wignis aRdgena-restavraciis irgvliv

1. saukuneebis manZilze iqmneboda da ixveweboda xelnaweri wignis Seqmnis xelovneba. xelnaweri wignis Seqmnis teqnologia bevr process Seicavda: etratis Seqmna; sasurveli (anu sxvadasxva) feris melnis damzadeba; ydis, Sesakravi Tasmebis gakeTeba; kaptalis dagrexa; teqstis gadawera; mxatvruli gaformeba: sazedao asoebi, kamarebi, miniatiurebi. 2. xelnaweri wignis restavracia iTvaliswinebs mTeli am rTuli procesis codnas. restavraciis dawyebamde xelnaweris konstruqciuli mxare uxilavia. restavraciis procesSi xelnaweri iZleva unikalur SesaZleblobas, CavixedoT mis `organizmSi~ da davinaxoT is, rac zedapiruli daTvalierebiT ver xerxdeba. Zafebis, Tokebisa da kaptalis mixedviT, romlebiTac iyo SeerTebuli erTmaneTTan xelnaweri rveulebi, dgindeba, ra meTodi gamouyenebiaT kinZvis dros da ra SemTxvevaSi iyenebdnen ama Tu im meTods; yda xelnaweris Tanamedrovea, Tu Secvlilia gviandeli restavraciis Sedegad da sxv. 3. xelnaweris wignad srulyofaSi umniSvnelovanes rols asrulebda kaptali. misi meSveobiT amagrebdnen rveulebs erTmaneTTan damatebiTi simyarisaTvis. kaptali xelnaweris mxatvrulad gaformebis aucilebeli elementic iyo. mravalgvaria kaptali, aseve misi gamoyenebis meTodic. 4. yda mTavari elementia xelnaweri wignis SeqmnaSi. igi ZiriTadad mzaddeboda xis firfitebisa da tyavisagan. xelnaweris gamoyenebisas pirvel rigSi ziandeboda da cvdeboda yda (rogorc tyavi, aseve xis firfitebi). roca ydis dazianeba gvaZlevs saSualebas, xdeba misi calkeuli nawilebis aRdgena-restavracia.

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5. specialurad unda aRiniSnos, rom ydis yuis restavraciisas dauSvebelia SemakavSireblis (webo) gamoyeneba, yua unda `sunTqavdes~ Tavisuflad, rac mas uxangZlivebs sirbilesa da moqnilobas. 6. ydis nawilebs Soris umniSvnelovanesia Sesakravi Tasmebi, romlebic tyavisagan mzaddeboda. Sesakravi Tasmebi aucilebelia gansakuTrebiT sqeltaniani xelnawerebisaTvis furclebisa da ydis deformaciis asacileblad.

standard techniques Image Capture. Narrow-band lEds illuminate a palimpsest in 13 different bands from the near ultraviolet (365 nm) through visible light to the near infrared (1050 nm), and a 39 MP monochrome camera captures images with a 120mm macro lens. LEDilluminationachievesthefollowingadvantages: 1. Selecting the wavelength for image capture at the light source rather than at thelenswithfiltersimprovestheregistrationofimagesindifferentwavelengths, thereby improving the sharpness of the processed images. 2. lEds do not subject a manuscript to excessive heat. 3. New lEds are bright and as a result reduce exposure times for greater efficiency. 4. lEds can be used with a variety of commercially available monochrome cameras, and therefore components of the spectral imaging system can be updated periodically without replacing the entire system. Standard techniques also include imaging with raking illumination. raking illumination can highlight the tiny "channels" where iron gall inks have eaten into the parchment. Unfortunately, cockles in the parchment can cast shadows and obscure data. Image Processing. automated image processing routines produce "pseudocolor" images in which the erased writing is depicted in a false color that contrasts with the overtext. as a result the undertext is highlighted and differentiated from the overtext. Pseudocolor images are normally generated from raw images captured in ultraviolet and red. experimental techniques 1.Colorimagingofultravioletfluorescence. Under Uv and/or blue illumination,parchmentfluoresces(=emitslightatlongerwavelengths). In certain instances,thecaptureofcolorimagesofUVfluorescencehasproveneffectivetorecover the undertext of palimpsests where Standard techniques failed. 2.Ultravioletreflectance. Standard glass lenses do not pass Uv. New Quartz lenses by Coastal optics pass Uv and make possible the capture of images in reflectedUV. UVreflectancehasrecoverederasuresinnon-palimpsestmanuscripts where Standard techniques proved ineffective. 3. transmissive illumination. Capturing images of backlit folios reveal differences in density caused when iron gall inks ate into parchment.

miChael phelps

Early Manuscripts Electronic library. Kalifornya, USa

EMErGING MEthodS for thE dIGItIZatIoN of PalIMPSEStS

the application of multi-spectral imaging to palimpsests is a young and promisingfieldofresearch. Substantial innovation is required to realize the full potential of the technology to recover ancient and medieval texts that remain hidden in the erased layers of palimpsests. I will survey standard and experimental methods used bythescientificteamthatsuccessfullyimagedtheArchimedesPalimpsest(www. archimedespalimpsest.org). on the basis of the survey, I will propose priorities for future technology development. Advanced Imaging Techniques developed for the Archimedes Palimpsest In 1999, a private collector purchased the archimedes Palimpsest at auction and deposited it for conservation and imaging at the Walters art Museum in Baltimore. the owner funded a ten-year project to recover the erased layer of the palimpsest. Thescientificteam(RogerEaston,RochesterInstituteofTechnology; Keith Knox, Boeing; and Bill Christens-Barry, Equipoise Imaging) developed "Standard techniques" for imaging palimpsests and for processing the raw images to elucidate erased layers of writing. recently the team has explored "Experimental techniques" with potential to recover erased writing from more intractable palimpsests.

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4. Polynomial texture Mapping (PtM). PtMs are interactive images that enable the user to see how an object appears if illuminated from different angles. like raking illumination, PtMs can reveal channels where iron gall inks have eaten into parchment, but unlike raking illumination, PtMs are not limited by shadows, because the user can reposition the "virtual" source of illumination. Recommendations for the Future the greatest obstacle to the application of multi-spectral imaging to entire palimpsest codices or more importantly to whole collections of palimpsests is costeffectiveness. Not only are the introductory costs of multi-spectral imaging high, buttheinefficiencyofmulti-spectralimagingmakeslarge-scaleprojectstorecover erasedtextsdifficult. this situation is exacerbated by the fact that no one image capture technique is guaranteed to recover erased text from every page of a palimpsest. Twooptionscanincreasethecost-effectivenessofimagingpalimpsests: 1. all of the image capture techniques I have discussed can be integrated into a singlesequenceandcomputer-controlledforoptimalefficiency. the Early ManuscriptsElectronicLibraryisworkingwiththescientificteamfromtheArchimedes Palimpsest Project toward that end. 2. an institution can undertake a project to apply the Standard technique to a group of palimpsests. folios for which the Standard technique does not return a satisfactory result can be marked for imaging with Experimental techniques in a second phase. Ultimately, substantial advances in the science of palimpsest imaging will require that we understand why particular image capture and image processing techniques work for some palimpsests and not for others. to date scientists cycle through a sequence of techniques in search of positive results for each palimpsest. Understanding the underlying processes will require the compilation and analysis ofdatathatquantifiesthereflectivepropertiesofinksandparchments. Maximally, an independent survey of inks and parchments could be organized. More realistically, this information could be collected from palimpsests as part of the imaging sequence and archived along with sample images in a central database. data would accumulate incrementally and provide a basis for understanding and eventually predicting the results of different image capture and image processing techniques.

sagamomcemlo jgufi ana milaSvili nino siboSvili viola tuRuSi

xelnawerTa erovnuli centri 0193 Tbilisi, merab aleqsiZis 1/3. tel.: 36 41 85, faqsi: 36 32 41.

www.manuscript.ge [email protected] NATIONAL CENTRE OF MANUSCRIPTS 1/3 Merab Alexidze str., 0193 Tbilisi, Georgia. Tel.: (995 22) 36 41 85, fax: (995 22) 36 32 41.

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