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1· Poetry, Grades 1-2

Plant "What Do We Plant When We Plant a Tree?" by Henry Abbey ­ p. 4 Guided Analysis ­ p. 5 Answer Key ­ p. 9

3· Poetry, Grades 3-4

"The Peacock," by Christina Rossetti ­ p. 12 Guided Analysis ­ p. 13 Carpenter," "The Walrus and the Carpenter," by Lewis Carroll ­ p. 16 Guided Analysis ­ p. 20 Answer Key ­ p. 26

Poetry Samples

1Grades 1-12

5· Poetry, Grades 5-8

"The Tiger," by William Blake ­ p. 32 Guided Analysis ­ p. 33 Answer Key ­ p. 36

9· Poetry, Grades 9-12

Lesson 1: The Characteristics and Types of Poetry ­ p. 39 "Success Is Counted Sweetest," by Emily Dickinson ­ p. 52 Guided Analysis ­ p. 53 Answer Key ­ p. 56 Lee, "Annabel Lee," Guided Outline for a Literary Essay, Essay, 60

PUBLISHED BY Rosanne Manus, M.A. 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 (704) 542-6471 (704) 541-2858 fax manuscurriculums.com manusacademy.com © 2010 by Rosanne Manus, M.A. · Publisher

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Rosanne Manus, M.A.: Rosanne is the founder of Manus Academy. She and her staff work with students from kindergarten through college who experience learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder and other neurological and developmental difficulties. Their services include a middle and high school accredited by the Southern Association for Colleges and Schools, after-school tutoring services for K-12 students who attend other schools, testing, consultation and parent and teacher training. In 1979, Rosanne received her master's degree in special education at Columbia University and has been working in the field of special education since then. She has developed, tested and published training programs and curriculums for almost every subject and skill from kindergarten through grade twelve. In addition, she has developed a proprietary business operations model and staff training program that ensure the consistent delivery of high quality services.

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Manus Academy 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 704-542-6471 704-541-2858 (fax)

manus curriculums

PRACTICE PACK

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STUDENTS LEARN TO: read and fully experience lyric and narrative wellpoems written by well-known poets examine the elements of poems, such as the subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, figurative language and sound effects write paragraphs in response to certain poems draw pictures about poems write a poem CONTAINS: a selection of 22 lyric and narrative poems about questions and prompts about the poems that help students learn about the main elements COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

1Grades 1-2

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

answer key How to Teach Reading Comprehension and Comprehension Literature How to Teach Written Expression How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary

practice packs for reading and spelling; echanics; grammar, usage and writing mechanics; and written expression guided guided analyses for selected stories and novels

Student: Student: Teacher: Date started:

______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Date finished: ______________________

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"What Do We Plant When We Plant a Tree?"

by Henry Abbey About this poem: People use the wood from trees to build all kinds of things. Long ago, they built ships from wood. They built houses with wood and church steeples, just as people still do today. Imagine that you just planted a tree. Now, imagine it a hundred years later when it is very big and tall. Then imagine what a person might use the wood from your tree for.

What do we plant when we plant the tree? We plant the ship which will cross the sea. We plant the mast to carry the sails; We plant the planks to withstand the gales. The keel the keelson the beam the knee . . . We plant the ship when we plant the tree. What do we plant when we plant the tree? We plant the houses for you and me. We plant the rafters the shingles the floors We plant the studding the lath the doors the beams and siding all parts that be . . . We plant the house when we plant the tree. What do we plant when we plant the tree? A thousand things that we daily see We plant the spire that out-towers the crag We plant the staff for our country's flag We plant the shade from hot sun free We plant all these when we plant the tree.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"What Do We Plant When We Plant a Tree?"

by Henry Abbey

Guided Analysis

1. What is the subject of this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. All of the reasons we plant trees B. How people build ships C. How we use the wood from trees to build the staffs, or poles, for flags 2. What is the feeling you get from reading this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. Excitement B. Anger C. Wonder and appreciation, or thankfulness 3. A stanza in a poem is like a paragraph in a story. It is a group of lines about one thing. How many stanzas are in this poem? This poem has _____ stanzas. 4. How many lines are in each stanza? There are _____ lines in each stanza. 5. Read the first stanza again. There are three pairs of words that rhyme, or end with the same sounds. Complete these sentences telling which words rhyme. Tree rhymes with the word ________________. Sails rhymes with the word ________________. Knee rhymes with the word ________________. 6. In the first stanza, the poet explains all the parts of a ship that are made from the wood of trees. What specific parts of the ship come from trees? The specific parts of the ship that come from trees are the ________________, ________________, ________________ and ________________. 7. In the second stanza, the poet explains all the parts of a house that are made from the wood of trees. Name three parts of a house that come from the wood of trees. Three parts of a house that come from the wood of trees are: __________________, __________________ and __________________. 8. Read the third line of the third stanza again: "We plant the spire that out-towers the crag." A spire is a church steeple and a crag is a cliff or face of rock. According to this line, what is larger and sticks out more than the crag, or cliff? The church steeple is ________________.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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9. Read the fifth line of the third stanza again. How does a tree protect us from the hot sun? A tree provides us with ________________. 10. Write three sentences that explain why you like trees. For instance, do you like to climb trees? Do you like to hide behind them? Do you like to sit under their shade? Do you like fruit trees that provide you with apples, pears, apricots or some other fruit? Do you like to watch the leaves of the trees change their colors in the fall? Example: I like . . . because . . . Sometimes, I enjoy . . . I also like trees because . . . _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 11. On the next page, draw a picture of a tree near your home.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"What Do We Plant When We Plant a Tree?"

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Manus Academy 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 704-542-6471 704-541-2858 (fax)

manus curriculums

ANSWER KEY

manuscurriculums.com

STUDENTS LEARN TO: read and fully experience lyric and narrative wellpoems written by well-known poets examine the elements of poems, such as the subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, figurative language and sound effects paragraphs write paragraphs in response to certain poems draw pictures about poems write a poem CONTAINS: a selection of 22 lyric and narrative poems answers to the guided analyses questions, which prompt students to examine the main elements of the poems PIECES: COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

Grades 1Grades 1-2

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

answer key How to Teach Reading Comprehension and Literature How to Teach Written Expression How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary

practice packs for reading and spelling; echanics; grammar, usage and writing mechanics; and written expression guided analyses for selected stories and novels Student: Teacher: Date started: ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Date finished: ______________________

8

"What Do We Plant When We Plant a Tree"

by Henry Abbey

Guided Analysis

1. What is the subject of this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. All of the reasons we plant trees B. How people build ships C. How we use the wood from trees to build the staffs, or poles, for flags 2. What is the feeling you get from reading this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. Excitement B. Anger C. Wonder and appreciation, or thankfulness 3. A stanza in a poem is like a paragraph in a story. It is a group of lines about one thing. How many stanzas are in this poem? This poem has 3 stanzas. 4. How many lines are in each stanza? There are 6 lines in each stanza. 5. Read the first stanza again. There are three pairs of words that rhyme, or end with the same sounds. Complete these sentences telling which words rhyme. Tree rhymes with the word sea. Sails rhymes with the word gales. Knee rhymes with the word tree. 6. In the first stanza, the poet explains all the parts of a ship that are made from the wood of trees. What specific parts of the ship come from trees? The specific parts of the ship that come from trees are the masts, planks, keelson and beams. 7. In the second stanza, the poet explains all the parts of a house that are made from the wood of trees. Name three parts of a house that come from the wood of trees. Three parts of a house that come from the wood of trees are: rafters, shingles, floors, studding, lath, beams and siding. (Students may choose any three of these items.) 8. Read the third line of the third stanza again: "We plant the spire that out-towers the crag." A spire is a church steeple and a crag is a cliff or face of rock. According to this line, what is larger and sticks out more than the crag, or cliff? The church steeple is larger. 9. Read the fifth line of the third stanza again. How does a tree protect us from the hot sun? A tree provides us with shade.

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© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

10. Write three sentences that explain why you like trees. For instance, do you like to climb trees? Do you like to hide behind them? Do you like to sit under their shade? Do you like fruit trees that provide you with apples, pears, apricots or some other fruit? Do you like to watch the leaves of the trees change their colors in the fall? Example: I like . . . because . . . Sometimes, I enjoy . . . I also like trees because . . . _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 11. On the next page, draw a picture of a tree near your home.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Manus Academy 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 704-542-6471 704-541-2858 (fax)

manus curriculums

PRACTICE PACK

manuscurriculums.com

STUDENTS LEARN TO: read and fully experience lyric and narrative wellpoems written by well-known poets examine the elements of poems, such as the meaning, subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, figurative language and sound effects write paragraphs in response to certain poems draw pictures about poems write a poem CONTAINS: a selection of 21 lyric and narrative poems about questions and prompts about the poems that learn help students learn about the main elements COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

3Grades 3-4

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

answer key How to Teach Reading Comprehension and Literature How to Teach Written Expression How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary

reading practice packs for reading and spelling; echanics; grammar, usage and writing mechanics; vocabulary; and written expression guided analyses for novels

Student: Teacher: Teacher: Date started:

______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Date finished: ______________________

11

"The Peacock"

by Christina Rossetti

The peacock has a score of eyes, With which he cannot see; The cod-fish has a silent sound, However that may be; No dandelions tell the time, Although they turn to clocks; Cat's cradle does not hold the cat, Nor foxglove fit the fox.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"The Peacock"

by Christina Rossetti

Guided Analysis

1. What is the subject of this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. How many stanzas are in this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How many lines are in each stanza? _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the rhyming pattern in each stanza of this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. The first line rhymes with the second line. B. The second line rhymes with the fourth line. C. The second line rhymes with the third line. 5. Read the first stanza again. The poet talks about a peacock's many eyes that cannot see. What do you think she is talking about? (Hint: look at a picture of a peacock with its tail spread like a fan.) _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. To what does the poet compare a dandelion? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What can a dandelion not do? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Cat's cradle is a game with strings. The player wraps an arrangement of strings around and between two hands. The end result is a basket-like arrangement. What does the poet say about this cat's cradle? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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9. The poet plays on the word "foxglove." A foxglove is a flowering plant; however, what article of clothing does the poet refer to when she says, "foxglove"? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. What does a foxglove not fit in this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What point does the poet make in this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. A cat doesn't fit in a cat's cradle. B. Peacocks are blind. C. We give qualities to animals that have nothing to do with them. 12. There are many animal expressions that people use that may or may not have anything to do with the animals. Examples are: "Hungry as a horse," "As silent as a mouse" and "Clam up." Think of two other animal expressions and write them here. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Draw a picture about this poem on the next page.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"The Peacock"

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"The Walrus and the Carpenter"

by Lewis Carroll Summary of the poem: This silly poem is about a walrus and a carpenter who walk together on a beach. They invite some oysters to join them. The oysters do not know about the trick the walrus and carpenter intend to play on them. Directions: Study these vocabulary words before you read the poem. billows ........... clouds sulkily ............ grumpily, crossly quantities ....... large amounts of maids ............. young women who clean bitter............... angry beseech .......... beg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 briny............... salty eldest.............. oldest frothy ............. foamy, bubbly scrambling ..... hurrying dismal ............ miserable sympathize..... feel sorry or badly for

The sun was shining on the sea, Shining with all his might: He did his very best to make The *billows smooth and bright­ And this was odd, because it was The middle of the night. The moon was shining *sulkily, Because she thought the sun Had got no business to be there After the day was done­ "It's very rude of him," she said, "To come and spoil the fun!" The sea was wet as wet could be, The sands were dry as dry. You could not see a cloud, because No cloud was in the sky: No birds were flying overhead­ There were no birds to fly. The Walrus and the Carpenter Were walking close at hand; They wept like anything to see Such *quantities of sand: "If this were only cleared away," They said, "it would be grand!"

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© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"If seven *maids with seven mops Swept it for half a year. Do you suppose," the Walrus said, "That they could get it clear?" "I doubt it," said the Carpenter, And shed a *bitter tear. "O Oysters, come and walk with us!" The Walrus did *beseech. "A pleasant walk, a pleasant talk, Along the *briny beach: We cannot do with more than four, To give a hand to each." The *eldest Oyster looked at him, But never a word he said: The eldest Oyster winked his eye, And shook his heavy head­ Meaning to say he did not choose To leave the oyster-bed. But four young Oysters hurried up, All eager for the treat: Their coats were brushed, their faces washed, Their shoes were clean and neat­ And this was odd, because, you know, They hadn't any feet. Four other Oysters followed them, And yet another four; And thick and fast they came at last, And more, and more, and more­ All hopping through the *frothy waves, And *scrambling to the shore. The Walrus and the Carpenter Walked on a mile or so, And then they rested on a rock Conveniently low: And all the little Oysters stood And waited in a row. "The time has come," the Walrus said, "To talk of many things:

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© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Of shoes­and ships­and sealing-wax­ Of cabbages­and kings­ And why the sea is boiling hot­ And whether pigs have wings." "But wait a bit," the Oysters cried, "Before we have our chat; For some of us are out of breath, And all of us are fat!" "No hurry!" said the Carpenter. They thanked him much for that. "A loaf of bread," the Walrus said, "Is what we chiefly need: Pepper and vinegar besides Are very good indeed­ Now if you're ready, Oysters dear, We can begin to feed." "But not on us!" the Oysters cried, Turning a little blue. "After such kindness, that would be A *dismal thing to do!" "The night is fine," the Walrus said. "Do you admire the view? "It was so kind of you to come! And you are very nice!" The Carpenter said nothing but "Cut us another slice: I wish you were not quite so deaf­ I've had to ask you twice!" "It seems a shame," the Walrus said, "To play them such a trick, After we've brought them out so far, And made them trot so quick!" The Carpenter said nothing but "The butter's spread too thick." "I weep for you," the Walrus said: "I deeply *sympathize." With sobs and tears he sorted out

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© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

100 Those of the largest size, 101 Holding his pocket-handkerchief 102 Before his streaming eyes. 103 104 105 106 107 108

"O Oysters," said the Carpenter, "You've had a pleasant run! Shall we be trotting home again?' But answer came there none­ And this was scarcely odd, because They'd eaten every one.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"The Walrus and the Carpenter"

By Lewis Carroll

Guided Analysis

1. What are the subjects of this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the purpose of this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. To express an emotion B. To teach a lesson C. To tell a story 3. What is the tone of the poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. Worried B. Light and funny C. Angry 4. How many stanzas are in this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. How many lines are in each stanza? _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What is the rhyming pattern of each stanza in this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. Every other line rhymes. B. Line 2 rhymes with lines 4 and 6. C. Line 1 rhymes with lines 3 and 5. 7. Read the first stanza aloud again, emphasizing the words that are accented. Once you've sensed the rhythm, underline the words or syllables that have strong beats. The first two lines are done for you. The sun was shi/ning on the sea, Shi/ning with all his might: He did his ver/y best to make The bil/lows smooth and bright­ And this was odd, be/cause it was The mid/dle of the night. 8. In the first stanza, what is odd about the sun shining on the sea? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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9. Read the second stanza again. How does the moon feel about the sun being out at night? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Read the third stanza again. Why are there no birds overhead? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Read the fourth stanza again. What is ridiculous about this stanza? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Read the fifth stanza again. What does the walrus ask the carpenter? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Read the sixth stanza again. What does the walrus ask the oysters? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 14. Read the seventh stanza again. How does the eldest oyster respond to the walrus's invitation to walk with them? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Read the eighth stanza again. What is ridiculous about this stanza? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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16. Read the ninth stanza again. How can you tell that the oysters are eager to join the walrus and carpenter on their walk? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 17. Read the tenth stanza again. For how long does the group walk? _________________________________________________________________________________ 18. What do the oysters do when the walrus and carpenter rest? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 19. Read the eleventh stanza again. What are some topics the walrus wants to discuss with the carpenter and oysters? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 20. Read the twelfth stanza again. What do the oysters ask the walrus and why? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 21. Read the thirteenth stanza again. What does the walrus announce that makes the oysters nervous? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 22. Read the fourteenth stanza again. How do the oysters respond to the walrus's announcement? _________________________________________________________________________________ 23. Read the fifteenth stanza again. While the walrus speaks to the oysters, what is the carpenter doing? Why is he annoyed with the walrus? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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24. Read the sixteenth stanza again. How does the walrus feel about playing a trick on the oysters? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 25. Read the seventeenth stanza again. Why is the walrus crying? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 26. Read the eighteenth stanza again. When the carpenter suggests to the oysters that they all trot home again, why don't the oysters respond? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 27. What is your reaction to this poem? Did you enjoy it? Did you laugh? Explain your answer. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 28. On the next page, draw a picture of a scene from "The Walrus and the Carpenter."

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Scene from "The Walrus and the Carpenter"

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Manus Academy 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 704-542-6471 704-541-2858 (fax)

manus curriculums

ANSWER KEY

manuscurriculums.com

STUDENTS LEARN TO: read and fully experience lyric and narrative wellpoems written by well-known poets examine the elements of poems, such as the subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, figurative language and sound effects write paragraphs in response to certain poems draw pictures about poems write a poem CONTAINS: of a selection of 21 lyric and narrative poems answers to the guided analyses questions, which prompt students to examine the main elements of the poems COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

3Grades 3-4

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

answer key How to Teach Reading Comprehension How to Teach Written Expression How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary

practice packs for reading and spelling; echanics; grammar, usage and writing mechanics; vocabulary; and written expression guided analyses for novels

Teacher ____________________________

25

"The Peacock"

by Christina Rossetti

Guided Analysis

1. What is the subject of this poem? The subject is the characteristics of living things. 2. How many stanzas are in this poem? This poem has two stanzas. 3. How many lines are in each stanza? There are 4 lines in each stanza. 4. What is the rhyming pattern in each stanza of this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. The first line rhymes with the second line. B. The second line rhymes with the fourth line. C. The second line rhymes with the third line. 5. Read the first stanza again. The poet talks about a peacock's many eyes that cannot see. What do you think she is talking about? (Hint: look at a picture of a peacock with its tail spread like a fan.) The poet is talking about the many circles on peacock's tail that look like eyes. These eyes cannot see because they are not real eyes, only designs. 6. To what does the poet compare a dandelion? The poet compares a dandelion to a clock. 7. What can a dandelion not do? Although it looks like a clock, a dandelion cannot tell time. 8. Cat's cradle is a game with strings. The player wraps an arrangement of strings around and between two hands. The end result is a basket-like arrangement. What does the poet say about this cat's cradle? The poet says that the cat's cradle does not hold a cat. 9. The poet plays on the word "foxglove." A foxglove is a flowering plant; however, what article of clothing does the poet refer to when she says, "foxglove"? The poet refers to a glove that a fox would wear on its hand. 10. What does a foxglove not fit in this poem? A foxglove does not fit the fox.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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11. What point does the poet make in this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. A cat doesn't fit in a cat's cradle. B. Peacocks are blind. C. We give qualities to animals that have nothing to do with them. 12. There are many animal expressions that people use that may or may not have anything to do with the animals. Examples are: "Hungry as a horse," "As silent as a mouse" and "Clam up." Think of two other animal expressions and write them here. Students' answers will vary. 13. Draw a picture about this poem on the next page.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"The Walrus and the Carpenter"

By Lewis Carroll

Guided Analysis

1. What are the subjects of this poem? The subjects of this poem are a walrus and a carpenter. 2. What is the purpose of this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. To express an emotion B. To teach a lesson C. To tell a story 3. What is the tone of the poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. Worried B. Light and funny C. Angry 4. How many stanzas are in this poem? This poem has eighteen stanzas. 5. How many lines are in each stanza? There are 6 lines in each stanza. 6. What is the rhyming pattern of each stanza in this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. Every other line rhymes. B. Line 2 rhymes with lines 4 and 6. C. Line 1 rhymes with lines 3 and 5. 7. Read the first stanza aloud again, emphasizing the words that are accented. Once you've sensed the rhythm, underline the words or syllables that have strong beats. The first two lines are done for you. The sun was shi/ning on the sea, Shi/ning with all his might: He did his ver/y best to make The bil/lows smooth and bright­ And this was odd, be/cause it was The mid/dle of the night. 8. In the first stanza, what is odd about the sun shining on the sea? The sun shining on the sea is odd because it is nighttime and the moon is out. 9. Read the second stanza again. How does the moon feel about the sun being out at night? The moon is angry with the sun for shining at night. It thinks the sun is very rude.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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10. Read the third stanza again. Why are there no birds overhead? There are no birds overhead because it is nighttime and the birds are asleep. 11. Read the fourth stanza again. What is ridiculous about this stanza? A walrus and carpenter are walking together. This is ridiculous because a walrus doesn't walk and, if it did, it would not be walking with a carpenter. Also ridiculous is the walrus and carpenter crying because there is so much sand on the beach. People and animals don't usually cry over there being too much sand on the beach. 12. Read the fifth stanza again. What does the walrus ask the carpenter? This walrus asks the carpenter if seven maids with seven mops could clear the beach of sand if they swept it for half a year. 13. Read the sixth stanza again. What does the walrus ask the oysters? The walrus asks the oysters to walk with the carpenter and him. 14. Read the seventh stanza again. How does the eldest oyster respond to the walrus's invitation to walk with them? The eldest oyster turns down the walrus's invitation. 15. Read the eighth stanza again. What is ridiculous about this stanza? Four young oysters following the walrus and carpenter is ridiculous because oysters can't walk. Furthermore, they are described as having brushed coats, washed faces and clean and neat shoes. Oysters don't have coats, faces or shoes. Neither do they have feet on which to put the shoes. 16. Read the ninth stanza again. How can you tell that the oysters are eager to join the walrus and carpenter on their walk? You can tell that the oysters are eager to join the walrus and carpenter on their walk because so many join them and they eagerly rush toward the group, hopping through the waves and scrambling to the shore. 17. Read the tenth stanza again. For how long does the group walk? The group walks for a mile or so. 18. What do the oysters do when the walrus and carpenter rest? When the walrus and carpenter rest, the oysters stand in a row. 19. Read the eleventh stanza again. What are some topics the walrus wants to discuss with the carpenter and oysters? The walrus wants to discuss shoes, ships, sealing wax, cabbages, kings, why the sea is boiling hot and whether pigs have wings. 20. Read the twelfth stanza again. What do the oysters ask the walrus and why? The oysters ask the walrus to wait a bit before having a chat because they are out of breath.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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21. Read the thirteenth stanza again. What does the walrus announce that makes the oysters nervous? The walrus announces that, if the oysters are ready, the walrus and carpenter will begin to eat them. 22. Read the fourteenth stanza again. How do the oysters respond to the walrus's announcement? The oysters turn blue and beg the walrus not to eat them. 23. Read the fifteenth stanza again. While the walrus speaks to the oysters, what is the carpenter doing? Why is he annoyed with the walrus? While the walrus speaks to the oysters, the carpenter begins eating. He is annoyed with the walrus because he has had to ask the walrus twice to cut another slice of bread. 24. Read the sixteenth stanza again. How does the walrus feel about playing a trick on the oysters? The walrus feels guilty about playing a trick on the oysters. 25. Read the seventeenth stanza again. Why is the walrus crying? The walrus is crying because he sympathizes with, or feels badly for, the oysters that he and the carpenter plan to eat. 26. Read the eighteenth stanza again. When the carpenter suggests to the oysters that they all trot home again, why don't the oysters respond? When the carpenter suggests to the oysters that they all trot home again, the oysters don't respond because they have all been eaten. 27. What is your reaction to this poem? Did you enjoy it? Did you laugh? Explain your answer. Students' answers will vary. 28. On the next page, draw a picture of a scene from "The Walrus and the Carpenter."

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Manus Academy 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 704-542-6471 704-541-2858 (fax)

manus curriculums

PRACTICE PACK

manuscurriculums.com

STUDENTS LEARN TO: read and understand lyric and narrative poems wellwritten by well-known poets examine the elements of poems, such as the pattern, subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, descriptive language and sound effects write poems CONTAINS: a selection of 38 lyric and narrative poems guided analyses, or questions, about the poems that help students learn about the main elements COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

5Grades 5-8

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

answer key key How to Teach Reading Comprehension and Literature How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary How to Teach Written Expression

practice packs for grammar, usage and writing echanics; written mechanics; vocabulary; and written expression guided analyses for selected novels, nonfiction, folktales folktales and short stories

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31

"The Tiger"

by William Blake 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forest of the night What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire? And what shoulder, and what art, Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand? and what dread feet? What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears, And watered heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the lamb make thee? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

"The Tiger"

by William Blake

Guided Analysis

1. What is the subject of this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the speaker's tone or attitude toward the subject? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Who is the speaker talking to in this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Read the third and fourth lines. What is the big question the speaker wants answered? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The poet uses a long metaphor to describe where the tiger was made. What is this metaphor? Think of these lines and think of an old-fashioned job: "Burnt the fire of thine eyes" "What the hammer? what the chain?" "In what furnace was thy brain?" "What the anvil? what dread grasp" _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Blake was an imagistic poet, concerned with stirring the senses (i.e., sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste). Which of our five senses is the most stimulated when reading this poem? Give examples of phrases in the poem that stir this sense. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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7. What sense is stimulated by the words in line eleven: "And when thy heart began to beat"? What feeling does this evoke from the reader? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Reread line seventeen. Of what does "stars threw down their spears" remind you? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Reread line twenty. What question does the poet ask himself? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. How does the animal to which the poet refers in line twenty compare to the tiger? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Reread lines twenty-one and twenty-two. If you were standing outside of a forest at night and looking into it, what might you see? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Reread line twenty-four. Why is the tiger's symmetry (balance and even proportions) "fearful"? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

34

Manus Academy 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 704-542-6471 704-541-2858 (fax)

manus curriculums

ANSWER KEY

manuscurriculums.com

STUDENTS LEARN TO: understand read and understand lyric and narrative poems wellwritten by well-known poets examine the elements of poems, such as the subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, descriptive language and sound effects write poems CONTAINS: narrative a selection of 38 lyric and narrative poems answers to the guided analyses questions, which prompt students to examine the main elements of the poems COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

5Grades 5-8

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

How to Teach Reading Comprehension and Literature How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary How to Teach Written Expression

practice packs for grammar, usage and writing echanics; mechanics; vocabulary; and written expression guided analyses for selected novels, nonfiction, folktales folktales and short stories

Teacher ____________________________

35

"The Tiger"

by William Blake

Guided Analysis

1. What is the subject of this poem? The subject is a tiger. 2. What is the speaker's tone or attitude toward the subject? The speaker's tone is one of awe, respect and fear. 3. Who is the speaker talking to in this poem? The speaker talks directly to the tiger. 4. Read the third and fourth lines. What is the big question the speaker wants answered? The speaker wants to know who made the tiger and why. 5. The poet uses a long metaphor to describe where the tiger was made. What is this metaphor? Think of these lines and think of an old-fashioned job: "Burnt the fire of thine eyes" "What the hammer? what the chain?" "In what furnace was thy brain?" "What the anvil? what dread grasp" The metaphor sounds like a smelting or blacksmith's workshop, a workshop where one creates strong and lasting things out of molten metals, such as iron and steel. 6. Blake was an imagistic poet, concerned with stirring the senses (i.e., sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste). Which of our five senses is the most stimulated when reading this poem? Give examples of phrases in the poem that stir this sense. The poet's words evoke many images of the tiger; therefore, our sense of sight is the most stimulated. Examples are found in such lines as: "Tyger! Tyger! burning bright," "Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?", "Burnt the fire of thine eyes" and "Could twist the sinews of thy heart?". 7. What sense is stimulated by the words in line eleven: "And when thy heart began to beat"? What feeling does this evoke from the reader? The sense of hearing is stimulated. The reader imagines hearing the strong, powerful beat of the tiger's heart. That a mighty beast has come alive evokes fear and awe. 8. Reread line seventeen. Of what does "stars threw down their spears" remind you? "Stars threw down their spears" reminds of us shooting stars. 9. Reread line twenty. What question does the poet ask himself? The poet asks himself if the creator of the tiger is also the creator of the lamb.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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10. How does the animal to which the poet refers in line twenty compare to the tiger? A lamb is a baby dependent on its mother for food, shelter and protection. It is gentle, small and vulnerable. A tiger, on the other hand, is mighty, strong and fierce. It appears to be all-powerful, whereas a lamb is powerless. 11. Reread lines twenty-one and twenty-two. If you were standing outside of a forest at night and looking into it, what might you see? Students' answers will vary. Some may say they see the two bright eyes of a tiger on the hunt. 12. Reread line twenty-four. Why is the tiger's symmetry (balance and even proportions) "fearful"? The tiger's symmetry represents its incredible muscular strength. Inside this symmetry is the creature's ability to terrify and kill.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

37

Manus Academy 6203 Carmel Road Charlotte, NC 28226 704-542-6471 704-541-2858 (fax)

manus curriculums

PRACTICE PACK

manuscurriculums.com

STUDENTS LEARN TO: read and understand lyric, dramatic and wellnarrative poems written by well-known poets examine the elements of poems, such as the subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, descriptive language and sound effects write poems CONTAINS: CONTAINS: a selection of 48 poems guided analyses, or questions, about the poems that prompt students to examine the main elements COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

9Grades 9-12

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

answer key How to Teach Reading Comprehension and Literature How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary How to Teach Written Expression

practice packs for grammar, usage and writing echanics; mechanics; vocabulary; and written expression guided analyses for novels, dramas, short stories, folktales nonfiction folktales and nonfiction texts

Student: Teacher: Date started:

______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Date finished: ______________________

38

Lesson 1

The Characteristics and Types of Poetry

The Characteristics of Poetry

Poetry is one of the oldest forms of literature and was, for many years, a popular way of telling stories. People wrote and continue to write poetry for such purposes as to entertain, tell a story, convey a message, evoke strong images and other sensations, or create an emotional response within the readers. Whatever their purpose(s), poets speak to us from the heart. Their words are often emotional, imaginative and sensuous. Poetry stirs within us feelings of love, hate, despair, joy and sorrow. Poetry enriches us and increases our awareness of the human experience. When we read poetry, we learn about life as other people might view it. Poetry can be intense and serious or fun and light. It's a concentrated form of writing. Poets use words sparingly; every word is loaded with meaning and none are wasted. Many poems have rhythm and a beat, just as music does. The language of poetry is often graceful. Poets create an impression not just by the words they use, but by how they use these words. The way a poem sounds adds to its meaning. While short stories and novels may have complicated characters and plots, poems are often simple. They frequently deal with a single incident, sensation or image. For example, a poem might describe how birds look when they fly in formation ­ that's all. Another poem may describe a mother's despair for her son who was killed in a war. Another might tell about Grandmother's braided hair. Poets describe ordinary people, objects, animals and ideas in such unusual and imaginative ways that we readers enjoy a fresh look at them. Here's a poem by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930). Have you ever thought of an ostrich in this way? "The Ostrich is a Silly Bird" The ostrich is a silly bird, With scarcely any mind. He often runs so very fast, He leaves himself behind. And when he gets there, has to stand And hang about till night, Without a blessed thing to do Until he comes in sight.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

Notice the descriptive words that help you picture the ostrich: "scarcely any mind" and "runs so very fast, he leaves himself behind." We imagine a silly animal that behaves in ridiculous ways. Also notice how this poem looks. The lines of a poem are not as long as the lines of a story. A poem is set off or indented. You can usually tell that a poem is a poem simply by the way it sounds. It's often musical and rhythmic. Read again "The Ostrich is a Silly Bird," this time aloud. Do you feel the rhythm? Notice how some of the words rhyme to give the poem a stronger beat: "mind/behind" and "night/sight."

The Types of Poetry

Poetry is divided into three major types, or genres: narrative, dramatic and lyrical. A narrative poem tells a story. A dramatic poem has characters that talk. A lyric poem is usually short, has rhythm and covers one specific topic. Each genre, or type, of poetry has its own history, traditions and conventions (ways of being recognized). Narrative Poetry Narrative ­ Fiction is called narrative prose because it tells a story. A narrative poem also tells a story. The story of a narrative poem has a plot, characters, setting and theme, just as narrative fiction does. Unlike narrative fiction, though, narrative poetry is written in verse. This means that it has a regular and definite rhythm. In some narrative poems, the verses rhyme, and in some they do not. The ideas in narrative fiction are organized into paragraphs. The ideas in poetry, however, are organized into units called stanzas. Read the first two stanzas of the narrative poem, "The Raven," by Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849). The speaker of the poem is mourning the loss of his beloved Lenore. Notice how the poem tells a story, has rhythm, is organized by stanzas and has lines that rhyme. "The Raven" Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. ` `T is some visitor,' I muttered, `tapping at my chamber door ­ Only this, and nothing more.' Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December; And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. Eagerly I wished the morrow; ­ vainly I had sought to borrow From my books surcease of sorrow ­ sorrow for the lost Lenore ­ For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore ­ Nameless here for evermore.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Narrative poetry is written in many different styles. Two important styles you're likely to read in school are the epic and the ballad. Epic ­ An epic tells about a hero who has exciting adventures and who brings honor and glory to his nation. He is an important person with physical strength and attractiveness. The setting of an epic is vast, perhaps covering more than one country, or even the universe. An epic may also span many years. The plot has intense action and there are many adventures and deeds requiring bravery. Supernatural forces, often gods and goddesses, are involved in the action. Some of these forces help the hero and some try to harm him or prevent him from fulfilling his duty. The epic poet narrates the story with complete objectivity. He doesn't make personal comments about the characters. Poets use this standard format for the epic poem: They state the theme. They invoke a Muse for inspiration (ask a goddess for inspiring ideas). They open in medeas res, or in the middle of the action. They explain the plot and characters later in the poem. A well-known epic poem is The Odyssey. This poem is about Odysseus, a man who struggles to return home after fighting in a war. Gods and goddesses play important roles in the story; some of them help Odysseus and some try to prevent him from going home. Other epics you're likely to read in high school are The Iliad, by Homer; Beowulf, by an anonymous author; and Paradise Lost, by John Milton. Ballad ­ A ballad is another kind of narrative poem. It's shorter than an epic and usually tells about one incident rather than a series of them. Ballads were written by unknown authors and were handed down through the generations. Ballads often have simple plots that describe ordinary people in tragic situations. They are told impersonally with little description and development of the characters. Common themes deal with the supernatural, courage, love, tragedy and domestic problems. Most ballads have regular rhythm and rhyming patterns and are written in four-line stanzas. A well-known American ballad is "John Henry." This short poem is about an incredibly strong "steel-drivin' man" who became famous for carving out rock tunnels for the railroads to come through. John Henry's heart gives out during his efforts to beat the steel drill in hollowing out a tunnel. Here are two stanzas from the ballad. Read it and practice speaking with rhythm. "John Henry" When John Henry was a little baby Sittin' on his mammy's knee, He picked up a hammer and a piece of steel, Said, "This hammer'll be the death of me. Lord, Lord, this hammer'll be the death of me."

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Well, the Captain said to John Henry, "Gonna bring that steam drill `round. Gonna bring that steam drill out on the job, Gonna whup that steel on down, Gonna whup that steel on down." Other ballads include "Hang Down Your Head, Tom Dooley," "Casey Jones," "Sir Patrick Spens" and "Edward." Dramatic Poetry In dramatic poetry the speaker is usually someone other than the poet. In a dramatic poem, one or more of the characters talk. These characters may think aloud or express an idea. Dramatic poetry tends to be emotionally charged and is often about a conflict. The poem may contain a dramatic monologue in which the speaker addresses the audience about his or her inner conflict, insights or emotions. Or, the poem might have a regular monologue where a character addresses a silent listener. Finally, the poem may contain a dialogue between two or more characters. Read this poem by Robert Browning (1812-1889). It is about a loyal and proud, yet fatally wounded boy who delivers a message to Napoleon. Notice the dialogue in the last two stanzas. Also notice the dramatic action. (You'll study this poem in greater depth later.) "Incident of the French Camp" You know, we French stormed the Ratisbon: A mile or so away On a little mound, Napoleon Stood on our storming-day; With neck out-thrust, you fancy how, Legs wide, arms locked behind, As if to balance the prone brow Oppressive with its mind. Just as perhaps he mused "My plans That soar, to earth may fall, Let once my army-leader Lannes Waver at yonder wall" ­ Out `twixt the battery-smokes there flew A rider, bound on bound Full-galloping; nor bridle drew Until he reached the mound. Then off there flung in smiling joy, And held himself erect By just his horse's mane, a boy; You hardly could suspect ­ (so tight he kept his lips compressed, Scarce any blood came through)

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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You looked twice ere you saw his breast Was all but shot in two. "Well," cried he, "Emperor, by God's grace We've got you Ratisbon! The Marshal's in the market-place, And you'll be there anon To see your flag-bird flap his vans Where I, to heart's desire, Perched him!" The chief's eye flashed; his plans Soared up again like fire. The chief's eye flashed; but presently Softened itself, as sheathes A film the mother-eagle's eye When her bruised eaglet breathes. "You're wounded!" "Nay," the soldier's pride Touched to the quick, he said: "I'm killed, Sire!" And his chief beside, Smiling, the boy fell dead. Lyrical Poetry Lyrical poetry is the broadest group of poetry. It includes many types of poems. A lyric poem is imaginative, emotional, has rhythm and is often short. Because of its definite rhythm, a lyric poem sounds musical. Songs, in fact, are lyric poems set to music. A lyric poem conveys a single impression. It may describe a flower swaying in the breeze, a woman's long, golden hair or a rusty tin can lying in the street. When you read lyric poems, read to get this single impression the poet creates. Don't look for universal themes, such as good versus evil, freedom, despair or justice, as you would in a novel or epic poem. You may read a lyric poem about these subjects, but you'll experience one small part of it. For instance, a novel may carry a broad message that war is bad. A poem about war, though, may tell of a girl's heartache when she learns of her beloved soldier's death. You experience an intense moment of the girl's grief. A lyric poem may or may not rhyme. "Grandma's Lost Balance" by Sidney Dayre is an example of a rhyming lyric. "Grandma's Lost Balance" "What is the matter, Grandmother dear? Come, let me help you. Sit down here And rest, and I'll fan you while you tell How it was that you slipped and fell." "I slipped a bit where the walk was wet and lost my balance, my little pet!" "Lost your balance? Oh, never mind it, You sit still and I'll go find it."

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Here's an example of a lyric poem by Edward Everett Hale (1822-1909) that has rhythm but no rhyme: "Look Up" Look up! And not down; Out! and not in; Forward! and not back; And lend a hand. The main types of lyric poems are: light verse, limerick, ballad, song, hymn, sonnet, ode, elegy and vers de société. Light Verse ­ A light verse is any type of lyric poem that's fun, playful and entertaining, as opposed to serious or sad. "The Ostrich Is a Silly Bird" is a light verse because of its playful, teasing tone. Many people enjoy reading light verses because they're entertaining. Nursery rhymes are examples of light verse, as are limericks and songs. Limerick ­ A limerick is a light verse that's full of nonsense. It often makes little sense and is silly and playful. The limerick has a definite form and rhyme pattern. It usually consists of five lines. Line one rhymes with lines two and five. Line three rhymes with line four. Other limericks may have four lines. Line one rhymes with lines two and four. Here are four limericks written by Edward Lear (1812-1888). There was an Old Man from Peru Who dreamed he was eating his shoe. He woke in a fright In the middle of the night And found it was perfectly true. There was an Old Man on a hill, Who seldom, if ever, stood still. He ran up and down In his Grandmother's gown, Which adorned that Old Man on a hill. There was an Old Man of the Dee, Who was sadly annoyed by a Flea; When he said, "I will scratch it!" They gave him a hatchet Which grieved the Old Man of the Dee. There was an Old Derry down Derry, Who loved to see little folks merry; So he made them a Book, and with laughter they shook At the fun of that Derry down Derry.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Ballad ­ You just learned that a ballad is a narrative poem because it tells a story. A ballad is also musical (often sung, in fact), usually brief and tells about one person or event. Because of these qualities, it's considered a lyric poem, too. Song ­ A song is a lyric poem that's adapted to music. It's spontaneous, usually short and emotional. Songs have been written about almost every subject. Common subjects are love, war, work, dance and play. Here is a song about children's play: Row, row, row your boat, Gently down the stream, Merrily, merrily, merrily merrily, Life is but a dream. Hymn ­ A hymn is a song that expresses a religious feeling and is often sung by a chorus. Here is a church hymn by Charles Wesley (1707-1788): "Rejoice the Lord is King" Rejoice the Lord is King Your Lord and King adore Rejoice give thanks And sing and triumph evermore Lift up your heart Lift up your voice rejoice Again I say rejoice Rejoice in glorious hope Our Lord and Judge shall come And take His servants Up to their eternal home Lift up your voice rejoice Again I say rejoice Sonnet ­ A sonnet is a lyric poem with fourteen lines. Until the 1800s, it had a definite pattern of rhyming. For centuries, there were two main types of sonnets: the Italian form and the English form. In the 1300s, an Italian named Petrarch wrote many sonnets that became popular. For this reason, Italian sonnets are often called Petrarchan sonnets. This sonnet, which you will study in greater depth later, is written by Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1809-1861). "How Do I Love Thee?" How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and ideal Grace. I love thee to the level of everyday's Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. I love thee freely, as men strive for Right; I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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I love thee with the passion put to use In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith. I love thee with a love I seemed to lose With my lost saints, ­ I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears, of all my life! ­ and, if God choose, I shall but love thee after death. Many of the sonnets you'll read are English ones written by the well-known poet and playwright, William Shakespeare. For this reason, many English sonnets are called Shakespearean sonnets. His sonnets, also written in fourteen lines, are divided into two parts. The first three parts are quatrains, or groups of four lines. The last section is a couplet, or group of two lines. The couplet comments on the ideas raised in the three quatrains. Each quatrain has its own pattern of rhyming. Here is a sonnet written by William Shakespeare (1564-1616). Notice the rhyming pattern in this sonnet. In the three quatrains, line one rhymes with line three and line two rhymes with line four. You could write this rhyme scheme as abab. Also note how the first three quatrains reveal the speaker's passionate feelings of love, even though this love is unhealthy. Then note how the couplet comments on this sickly passion. The speaker tells his loved one how he once thought her fair but now realizes she is as dark as night. Sonnet 147 My love is as a fever, longing still For that which longer nurseth the disease; Feeding on that which doth preserve the ill, The uncertain sickly appetite to please. My reason, the physician to my love, Angry that his prescriptions are not kept, Hath left me, and I desperate now approve Desire is death, which physic did except. Past cure I am, now reason is past care, And frantic-mad with evermore unrest; My thoughts and my discourse as madmen's are, At random from the truth vainly express'd; For I have sworn thee fair, and thought thee bright, Who art as black as hell, as dark as night. Ode ­ An ode is a dedication or tribute to someone or something. It is one of the most formal of the lyrics. It uses dignified or exalted language and is imaginative and intellectual in tone. Here is the first stanza of "Ode to Duty" by William Wordsworth (1770-1850). Notice the formal, exalted language.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"Ode to Duty" Stern Daughter of the Voice of God! O Duty! If that name thou love Who art a light to guide, a rod To check the erring, and reprove; Thou, who art victory and law When empty terrors overawe; From vain temptations does set free; And calm'st the weary strife of frail humanity! Elegy ­ An elegy is a lyric poem with a solemn mood that contemplates the theme of death. It might be about the death of a particular person, such as a loved one. An elegy can also be about other subjects, such as love and war, that remind the speaker of tragic endings or lives cut short. Its treatment of these subjects, though, is always serious and somber. Read these selected stanzas from Wordsworth's poem about his brother who drowned in a shipwreck. Note the serious, mournful mood: "Elegiac Stanzas" I was thy neighbor once, thou rugged Pile! Four summer weeks I dwelt in sight of thee: I saw thee every day; and all the while Thy Form was sleeping on a grassy sea. ...So once it would have been, ­ `t is so no more; I have submitted to a new control: A power is gone, which nothing can restore; A deep distress hath humanized my Soul. Not for a moment could I now behold A smiling sea, and be what I have been: The feeling of my loss will ne'er be old; ...But welcome fortitude, and patient cheer, And frequent sights of what is to be borne! Such sights, or worse, as are before me here. ­ Not without hope we suffer and we mourn. Vers de Société ­ In contrast to the sober elegy, a vers de société is a French term for a lyric poem that is light and pleasant. A vers de société sounds polished, graceful and sophisticated. It is often brief. In the next poem, by Edmund Waller (1606-1687), the speaker compares a rose to the woman who has rejected him. As he sends this rose, he urges it to tell the woman to experience love to the fullest. For, like the rose, the woman's beauty exists for a brief time. Then she, too, will wither and die.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"Go Lovely Rose" Go, lovely Rose, Tell her that wastes her time and me, That now she knows, When I resemble her to thee, How sweet and fair she seems to be. Tell her that's young, And shuns to have her graces spied, That hadst though sprung In deserts where no men abide, Thou must have uncommended died. Small is the worth Of beauty from the light retir'd: Bid her come forth, Suffer herself to be admir'd. Then die, that she The common fate of all things rare May read in thee, How small a part of time they share, That are so wondrous sweet and fair. Poetry has a reputation for being the most sensitive of all the literary forms. It is, first and foremost, an art of word choice. This makes studying poetry somewhat challenging. To fully enjoy poetry, we must strike a balance between being vigorous scholars and active imaginers. For instance, we must give each word, line and punctuation mark some attention or we will overlook meaning. On the other hand, we cannot focus too much on these parts or we will lose the overall feel of the poem.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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Check Your Understanding

1. What are the three main types of poetry? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What are the characteristics of an epic poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is the standard format of an epic poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Name two popular epic poems. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What is a dramatic poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What are the characteristics of a lyric poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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7. Name the different kinds of lyric poems. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. What is a limerick? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 9. What is a song? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. What are the characteristics of a sonnet? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What is an ode? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 12. What is a hymn? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 13. What is an elegy? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 14. What is a vers de société? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"Success Is Counted Sweetest"

by Emily Dickinson

Guided Analysis

Success is counted sweetest By those who ne'er succeed. To comprehend a nectar Requires sorest need. Not one of all the purple Host Who took the Flag today Can tell the definition So clear of Victory. As he defeated--dying-- On whose forbidden ear The distant strains of triumph Burst agonized and clear!

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"Success Is Counted Sweetest"

by Emily Dickinson

Guided Analysis

1. What is the poem about? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Who is the speaker? Is she the poet or a person the poet imagines? _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is the speaker's primary purpose? Circle the letter(s) beside the correct answer(s). A. B. C. D. E. F. To entertain To tell a story To express a feeling To convey an impression of a person, place, object or scene To convey a message To reveal something about the human character

4. Read the first stanza again. Who counts success sweetest? Why? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What does the speaker mean when she says, "To comprehend a nectar, Requires sorest need"? Why do you think she uses nectar as a metaphor? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Read the second stanza again. Dickinson uses another metaphor in the first line of this stanza. What is this metaphor and what do you think it is? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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7. Dickinson lived through the American Civil War and occasionally discussed battle scenes in her poems. Who is described in this stanza? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Poets often capitalize words for emphasis or to use personification. Why does the poet capitalize Flag and Victory? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Read the third stanza again. Who is described in it? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Poets sometimes use words with two different meanings. The word "strains" can mean verses, sounds or songs. What other meaning does this word have? Why would the poet use this word to describe the defeated men? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What is the theme of this poem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 12. What kind of stanza does Dickinson use in this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. B. C. D. Tercet Couplet Quatrain Cinquain

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manus curriculums

ANSWER KEY

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STUDENTS LEARN TO: read and understand lyric, dramatic and wellnarrative poems written by well-known poets elements examine the elements of poems, such as the subject, speaker, tone, pattern, meaning, descriptive language and sound effects write poems CONTAINS: a selection of 48 poems answers to the guided analyses questions, which elements prompt students to examine the main elements of the poems COMPANION PIECES:

Poetry

9Grades 9-12

BUILDING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH LITERATURE

answer key How to Teach Reading Comprehension and Literature How to Teach Grammar, Usage and Writing Mechanics How to Teach Vocabulary How to Teach Written Expression

practice packs for grammar, usage and writing echanics; mechanics; vocabulary; and written expression guided analyses for novels, dramas, short stories, folktales folktales and nonfiction texts

Student: Teacher: Date started:

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Date finished: ______________________

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Check Your Understanding

1. What are the three main types of poetry? The three main types of poetry are narrative, dramatic and lyrical. 2. What are the characteristics of an epic poem? An epic tells about a hero who is an attractive, strong and important person. He has adventures and brings honor and glory to his nation. The setting is usually vast and spans many years. The epic contains supernatural forces and the poet narrates the story with complete objectivity. 3. What is the standard format of an epic poem? The poet states the theme of the poem. Next, he or she invokes a Muse to inspire him or her to write well. (A muse is a goddess who inspires writers.) The poet then opens the poem in medeas res, or in the middle of it. He or she then explains the plot and characters in the poem. 4. Name two popular epic poems. Popular epic poems include The Iliad, The Odyssey, The Canterbury Tales, Beowulf and Paradise Lost. 5. What is a dramatic poem? A dramatic poem contains characters who talk. It is often emotionally charged and about a conflict. The characters think aloud and might have a dramatic monologue with the audience, a monologue with a silent listener or a dialogue between one or two characters. 6. What are the characteristics of a lyric poem? A lyric poem is imaginative, emotional, has rhythm and is often short. Because of its definite rhythm, a lyric poem sounds musical. Songs are lyric poems set to music. A lyric poem conveys a single impression. It may describe a feather floating in the wind, a bumblebee buzzing around some flowers or a line of people standing in a subway station. 7. Name the different kinds of lyric poems. The different kinds of lyric poems are light verse, limerick, ballad, song, hymn, sonnet, ode, elegy and vers de société. 8. What is a limerick? A limerick is a light verse that's full of nonsense. It often makes little sense and is silly and playful. The limerick has a definite form and rhyme pattern. It usually consists of five lines. Line one rhymes with lines two and five. Line three rhymes with line four. 9. What is a song? A song is a lyric poem that's adapted to music. It's spontaneous, usually short and emotional. Songs have been written about almost every subject.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

10. What are the characteristics of a sonnet? A sonnet is a lyric poem with fourteen lines. It is often separated into two main sections. The first section might have three parts which are quatrains, or groups of four lines each. The last section is a couplet, or group of two lines. 11. What is an ode? An ode is a dedication or tribute to someone or something. It uses formal, dignified or exalted language and is imaginative and intellectual in tone. 12. What is a hymn? A hymn is a song that expresses a religious feeling and is often sung by a chorus. 13. What is an elegy? An elegy is a lyric poem with a solemn mood that contemplates the theme of death. It might be about the death of a particular person, such as a loved one. An elegy can also be about other subjects, such as love and war, that remind the speaker of tragic endings or lives cut short. Its treatment of these subjects, though, is always serious and somber. 14. What is a vers de société? A vers de société is a French term for a lyric poem that is light and pleasant. It sounds polished, graceful and sophisticated. It is often brief.

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"Success Is Counted Sweetest"

by Emily Dickinson

Guided Analysis

1. What is the poem about? The poem is about success and how those who treasure it most are the ones who never experience it. 2. Who is the speaker? Is she the poet or a person the poet imagines? The speaker is the poet. 3. What is the speaker's primary purpose? Circle the letter(s) beside the correct answer(s). A. B. C. D. E. F. To entertain To tell a story To express a feeling To convey an impression of a person, place, object or scene To convey a message To reveal something about the human character

Students may select other purposes as long as they can defend them. 4. Read the first stanza again. Who counts success sweetest? Why? People who never succeed count success the sweetest. They've never had it and their hunger for it is greater than those who do succeed. 5. What does the speaker mean when she says, "To comprehend a nectar, Requires sorest need"? Why do you think she uses nectar as a metaphor? The speaker means that only those who've never felt the pleasure that comes from experiencing success can truly understand what success is. She probably uses nectar as a metaphor because nectar is sweet, like success, and associated with a flower, which is beautiful. 6. Read the second stanza again. Dickinson uses another metaphor in the first line of this stanza. What is this metaphor and what do you think it is? The metaphor is "purple Host." Students' interpretations of this metaphor will vary. Some may say that it is a purple flower, such as an iris, from which one drinks the nectar. 7. Dickinson lived through the American Civil War and occasionally discussed battle scenes in her poems. Who is described in this stanza? The winner of the battle is described in this stanza, the one who takes the flag.

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8. Poets often capitalize words for emphasis or to use personification. Why does the poet capitalize Flag and Victory? Flag and Victory are two elements important in the battle to which the speaker refers. They are the goals and spoils for the winner. 9. Read the third stanza again. Who is described in it? The losers of the battle are described in this stanza. 10. Poets sometimes use words with two different meanings. The word "strains" can mean verses, sounds or songs. What other meaning does this word have? Why would the poet use this word to describe the defeated men? "Strains" can mean effort or pain. By using this word, the poet shows how hearing the sound of triumph is painful for defeated men. 11. What is the theme of this poem? The theme is about how those who are successful don't appreciate their success as much as the ones who fail. 12. What kind of stanza does Dickinson use in this poem? Circle the letter beside the correct answer. A. B. C. D. Tercet Couplet Quatrain Cinquain

© 2010; Rosanne Manus, M.A.; Manus Academy, Charlotte, NC

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"Annabel Lee"

Edgar Allan Poe

Guided Outline for a Literary Essay

Directions: You will write a five-paragraph literary analysis of "Annabel Lee." Begin by completing this outline. Next, verbally compose your analysis by talking through the outline, speaking in full sentences. Then write your summary and proofread your work. 1. Introductory Paragraph In two or three sentences, speak generally about the poem. Begin by stating the title and poet. Next, tell what kind of poem it is (e.g., lyric, narrative or dramatic), the subject of the poem and the speaker. Example: "Annabel Lee," by Edgar Allan Poe, is a [what kind of?] poem about the speaker's love for [whom?], and the [what kind of emotions?] he feels living without her." Tell the poem's main purpose and the main ways the poet fulfills this purpose. Example: "The poet's main purpose is to tell the story of [whom?] and his lost love, [whom?], and to convey the [whose?] intense feelings of [what?] over the loss of [whom?]. He effectively fulfills this purpose by [what three key methods? . . . by his selection of the poem's speaker? . . . by his figurative language? . . . by his meter and rhyme schemes?]." _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. First Body Paragraph Introduce the first device the poet uses to achieve his purpose then explain it and give examples. Example: "The speaker of the poem is [who?] and is, perhaps, the most qualified to [do what?]. We learn of his and Annabel Lee's [what?] and her death through his grief stricken [what?]. This first person point of view allows us to learn much about [whom?] and how he interprets [what?]. As we read the poem, we realize [what several things about the speaker?]. For example, the speaker [paraphrase or directly quote two or three examples that reveal something about the speaker and how his qualities contribute to the poem's overall effect]." _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Second Body Paragraph In the second body paragraph, describe the second method Poe uses to achieve his purpose. Begin the paragraph with a topic sentence introducing the next method, then follow with examples, direct quotes and explanations. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Third Body Paragraph In the third body paragraph, describe the third method Poe uses to achieve his purpose. Begin the paragraph with a topic sentence introducing the next method, then follow with examples, direct quotes and explanations. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Conclusion Paragraph Summarize the thesis and supporting topics. Example: "The poet successfully achieves [what?] by allowing us to experience [what?] through [whose?] eyes, by his unique [what?] and his [what?]." Raise a new, yet relevant idea leaving your reader with something to consider. Or end with a relevant quote. Example: "By having us experience, first hand, the speaker's intense grief, which takes him to the brink of madness, Poe evokes . . ." _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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