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MCGRAW-HILL RYERSON CHEMISTRY 11 Correlation to the Chemistry, Grade 11, University Preparation (SCH3U) Curriculum This course focuses on the concepts and theories that form the basis of modern chemistry. Students will study the behaviours of solids, liquids, gases, and solutions; investigate changes and relationships in chemical systems; and explore how chemistry is used in developing new products and processes that affect our lives and our environment. Emphasis will also be placed on the importance of chemistry in other branches of science. Overall Inquiry Expectations

Throughout this course, students will: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] {N.B. The Overall Inquiry Expectations are fundamental to the McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 program. Following are some points in the text where these skills are specifically taught or called upon; it is not an exhaustive list.} [Safety in Your Chemistry Laboratory and Classroom] Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions (Investigation 4-C: From Copper to Copper) Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases (Investigation 10-A: The Effect of Dilution on the pH of an Acid) Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.3 Gas Law Stoichiometry (Investigation 12-B: The Production of Hydrogen Gas) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) Page(s)

SCH V.01 Demonstrate an understanding of safe laboratory practices by selecting and applying appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory materials (e.g. safely disposing of hazardous solutions; correctly interpreting Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System [WHMIS] symbols), and using appropriate personal protection (e.g., wearing safety goggles).

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SCH V.02 Select appropriate instruments and use them effectively and accurately in collecting observations and data (e.g., use a balance to accurately measure the mass of a precipitate).

SCH V.03 Demonstrate the skills required to plan and carry out investigations using laboratory equipment safely, effectively, and accurately (e.g., plan and carry out an investigation to determine the percentage composition of a compound).

SCH V.04 Demonstrate a knowledge of emergency laboratory procedures. SCH V.05 Select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate scientific ideas, plans, and experimental results (e.g., present a detailed experimental report according to specified standards).

SCH V.06 Compile and interpret data or other information gathered from print, laboratory, and electronic sources, including Internet sites, to research a topic, solve a problem, or support an opinion (e.g., research the uses of the most common products of the refining of petroleum).

Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions (Investigation 4-B: Observing Double Displacement Reactions) Unit 2 Design-Your-Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.4 Preparing Solutions (Investigation 8-C: Estimating Concentration of an Unknown Solution) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) Unit 2 Design-Your-Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions (Investigation 8-B: Determining the Concentration of a Solution) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) [Safety in Your Chemistry Laboratory and Classroom] Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule (Investigation 3-A: Crystalline Columns) 3.3 Modelling Molecules (Investigation 3-B: Modelling Molecules) Unit 2 Design-Your-Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons (Investigation 13-B: Comparing the Reactivity of Alkanes and Alkenes) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) Chapter 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.3 Periodic Trends Involving the Sizes and Energy Levels of Atoms (ThoughtLab: Design an Annotated Periodic Table) Unit 1 Project: Developing a Chemistry Newsletter Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions [Careers In Chemistry: Product Development Chemist] Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1)

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SCH V.07 Communicate the procedures and results of investigations for specific purposes by displaying evidence and information, either in writing or using a computer, in various forms, including flow charts, tables, graphs, and laboratory reports (e.g., draw a graph of the relationship between the volume and pressure of a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature).

SCH V.08 Express the result of any calculation involving experimental data to the appropriate number of decimal places or significant figures.

Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of Dissolving (Investigation 8-A: Plotting Solubility Curves) Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume (Investigation 11-A: The Relationship Between the Pressure and the Volume of a Gas) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) Ch. 1 Observing Matter 1.2 Observing Matter in the World Around You [Significant Digits, Certainty, and Measurements] [How Can You Tell Which Digits Are Significant?] (ExpressLab: Significant Digits) [Calculating with Significant Digits] (Practice Problems: Significant Digits) Chapter 1 Observing Matter 1.2 Describing and Measuring Matter [Using Measurements to Describe Matter] Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule [Careers In Chemistry: Metallurgist] Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.3 Percentage Yield [Careers In Chemistry: Chemical Engineer] Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions [Careers In Chemistry: Product Development Chemist] Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.4 Atmospheric Reactions and Pollution [Careers In Chemistry: Environmental Technician] Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.4 Refining and Using Hydrocarbons [Careers In Chemistry: Polymer Chemist] Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.5 The Impact of Petroleum Products [Careers In Chemistry: Oil Spill Advisor]

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SCH V.09 Select and use appropriate SI units (units of the Systëme international d'unités, or International System of Units). SCH V.10 Identify and describe science-and technology-based careers related to the subject area under study (e.g., describe careers in the area of hydrocarbons and energy, such as chemical engineering, or careers in transportation related to the research and development of new fuels.

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Unit 1: Matter and Chemical Bonding

Overall Expectations By the end of this course, students will: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Ch. 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.2 Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table 2.3 Periodic Trends Involving the Sizes and Valence Electrons of Atoms Ch. 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.1 Classifying Chemical Compounds 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.4 Writing Chemical Formulas and Naming Chemical Compounds Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.1 Chemical Equations 4.2 Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions (Investigation 4-A: Creating an Activity Series of Metals) (Investigation 4-B: Observing Double Displacement Reactions) (Investigation 4-C: From Copper to Copper) Chapter 1 Observing Matter 1.1 The Study of Chemistry Chapter 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.3 Periodic Trends Involving the Sizes and Energy Levels of Atoms [Chemistry Bulletin: Manitoba Mine Specializes in Rare Metals] Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule [Careers In Chemistry: Metallurgist] Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.1 Chemical Equations [Careers In Chemistry: Food Chemist] Page(s)

MCB V.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between periodic tendencies, types of chemical bonding, and the properties of ionic and molecular compounds.

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MCB V.02 Carry out laboratory studies of chemical reactions, analyse chemical reactions in terms of the type of reaction and the reactivity of starting materials, and use appropriate symbols and formulae to represent the structure and bonding of chemical substances.

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MCB V.03 Describe how an understanding of matter and its properties can lead to the production of useful substances and new technologies.

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Specific Expectations: Understanding Basic Concepts By the end of this course, students will:

MCB 1.01 Define and describe the relationship among atomic number, mass number, atomic mass, isotope, and radio isotope.

MCB 1.02 Demonstrate an understanding of the periodic law, and describe how electron arrangement and forces in atoms can explain periodic trends such as atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity. MCB 1.03 Demonstrate an understanding of the formation of ionic and covalent bonds and explain the properties of the products. MCB 1.04 Explain how different elements combine to form covalent and ionic bonds using the octet rule. MCB 1.05 Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the type of chemical reaction (e.g., synthesis, decomposition, single and double displacement) and the nature of the reactants. MCB 1.06 Relate the reactivity of a series of elements to their position in the periodic table (e.g., compare the reactivity of metals in a group and metals in the same period; compare the reactivity of non-metals in a group).

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Ch. 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.1 Atoms and Their Composition [Expressing the Mass of Subatomic Particles] [The Nucleus of an Atom] [Using the Atomic Number to Infer the Number of Electrons] [Isotopes and Atomic Mass] Chapter 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.2 Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table 2.3 Periodic Trends Involving the Sizes and Energy Levels of Atoms Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) Ch. 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.1 Classifying Chemical Compounds 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule Ch. 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.2 Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions Ch. 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.2 Atoms, Electrons, and the Periodic Table [Figure 2.6: Basic Features of the Periodic Table] [The Significance of a Full Outer Energy Level] Ch. 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions [Single Displacement Reactions and the Metal Activity Series] (Investigation 4-A: Creating an Activity Series of Metals) [The Metal Activity Series] [Single Displacement Reactions Involving Halogens] Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1)

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Specific Expectations: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication By the end of this course, students will:

MCB 2.01 Use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to chemical reactions (e.g., electronegativity, chemical bond, periodic trend, ionization energy, electron affinity).

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] {N.B. The following is a sample of the scientific vocabulary defined in and used throughout Unit 1; it is not an exhaustive list} activity series alpha particle emission chemical bond dipolar molecules electron affinity electronegativity ionization energy Lewis structures periodic trend radioisotopes stable octet valence electrons Chapter 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.2 Atoms, Electrons, and the Periodic Table (ExpressLab: Observing the Spectra of Elements) 2.3 Periodic Trends Involving the Sizes and Energy Levels of Atoms (Investigation 2-A: Analyzing Atomic Radius Data) (Practice Problems: Atomic Size Trends) (Practice Problems: Ionization Energy Trends) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 1) Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.1 Chemical Compounds and Bonding [Predicting Bond Type Using Electronegativity] (Practice Problems: Predicting Bond Type Using Electronegativity) 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule (Practice Problems: Diagramming Ionic Bonds) (Practice Problems: Predicting Ionic Compounds) (Practice Problems: Diagramming Covalent Bonds) (Practice Problems: Diagramming Covalent Bonds)

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MCB 2.02 Analyse data involving periodic properties such as ionization energy and atomic radius in order to recognize general trends in the periodic table.

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MCB 2.03 Predict the ionic character or polarity of a given bond using electronegativity values, and represent the formation of ionic and covalent bonds using diagrams.

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MCB 2.04 Draw Lewis structures, construct molecular models, and give the structural formulae for compounds containing single and multiple bonds.

MCB 2.05 Write, using IUPAC or traditional systems, the formulae of binary and tertiary compounds, including those containing elements with multiple valences, and recognize the formulae in various contexts. MCB 2.06 Predict the products of, and write chemical equations to represent, synthesis, decomposition, substitution, and double displacement reactions, and test the predictions through experimentation.

Chapter 2 Elements and the Periodic Table 2.2 Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table [Using Lewis Structures to Represent Valence Electrons] (Practice Problems: Drawing Lewis Structures) Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.1 Chemical Compounds and Bonding [Predicting Bond Type Using Electronegativity] (Practice Problems: Predicting Bond Type Using Electronegativity) 3.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding: The Octet Rule (Practice Problems: Diagramming Ionic Bonds) (Practice Problems: Predicting Ionic Compounds) (Practice Problems: Diagramming Covalent Bonds) (Practice Problems: Diagramming Covalent Bonds) 3.3 Modelling Molecules (Investigation 3-B: Modelling Molecules) 3.4 Writing Chemical Formulas and Naming Chemical Compounds [Chemical Formulas] [What a Chemical Formula Represents] [Using Valence Numbers to Describe Bonding Capacity] [Polyatomic Ions] [Writing Chemical Formulas Using Valences] (Practice Problems: Writing Balanced Chemical Formulas) Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.4 Writing Chemical Formulas and Naming Chemical Compounds

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MCB 2.07 Investigate through experimentation the reactions of elements (e.g., metals) to produce an activity series.

Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.1 Chemical Equations [Balanced Chemical Equations] [Steps for Balancing Chemical Equations] (Practice Problems: Balancing Chemical Equations) 4.2 Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions (Investigation 4-A: Creating an Activity Series of Metals) (Investigation 4-B Observing Double Displacement Reactions) (Investigation 4-C: From Copper to Copper) 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions (Investigation 4-A: Creating an Activity Series of Metals)

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Specific Expectations: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment By the end of this course, students will:

MCB 3.01 Identify chemical substances and reactions in everyday use or of environmental significance (e.g., fertilizers, greenhouse gases, photosynthesis).

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] {N.B. This expectation is addressed throughout McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11: the following is a sample of points in the text where this expectation is addressed; it is not an exhaustive list.} Chapter 1 Observing Matter 1.1 The Study of Chemistry 1.3 Classifying Matter and Its Changes Unit 1 Project: Developing a Chemistry Newsletter Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.2 Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions [Combustion Reactions] Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.1 Types of Solutions Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases [Chemistry Bulletin: The Chemistry of Oven Cleaning] Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.4 Atmospheric Reactions and Pollution Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions Unit 5 Project: Consumer Chemistry Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.4 Writing Chemical Formulas and Naming Chemical Compounds [Naming Chemical Compounds] [Naming Binary Compounds Containing a Metal and a Non-metal] [Naming Metals in Chemical Compounds: The Stock System] [Another Method for Naming Metals with Two Valences] [Naming Non-Metals in Chemical Compounds] [Putting it All Together] [Compounds That Contain Hydrogen] [Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions] [Naming Binary Compounds Containing Two NonMetals]

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MCB 3.02 Relate common names of substances to their systematic names (e.g., muriatic acid and hydrochloric acid; baking soda and sodium bicarbonate).

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MCB 3.03 Evaluate and compare the reactivity of metals and alloys (e.g., gold in jewellery, iron and stainless steel), and explain why most metals are found in nature as compounds.

MCB 3.04 Demonstrate an understanding of the need for the safe use of chemicals in everyday life (e.g., cleaners in the home, pesticides in the garden).

Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding 3.1 Classifying Chemical Compounds Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.3 Single Displacement and Double Displacement Reactions [Single Displacement Reactions and the Metal Activity Series] (Investigation 4-A: Creating an Activity Series of Metals) [The Metal Activity Series] {N.B. This expectation is addressed at many points throughout McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11: the following is a sample of points in the text where this expectation is addressed; it is not an exhaustive list.} Unit 1 Project: Developing a Chemistry Newsletter Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases [Chemistry Bulletin: The Chemistry of Oven Cleaning] Unit 5 Project: Consumer Chemistry

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Unit 2: Quantities in Chemical Reactions

Overall Expectations By the end of this course, students will: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 5 Counting Atoms and Molecules: The Mole 5.2 The Avogadro Constant and the Mole 5.3 Molar Mass Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry (Practice Problems: Particle Relationships in Balanced Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Relationships in Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Ratios of Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Products and Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass and Particle Stoichiometry) 7.2 The Limiting Reactant (ThoughtLab: The Limiting Item) (Practice Problems: Identifying Limiting and Excess Reactants) (Investigation 7-A: Limiting and Excess Reactants) (Practice Problems: The Limiting Reactant in a Stoichiometric Problem) 7.3 Percentage Yield (Practice Problems: Calculating Percentage Yield) (Practice Problems: Predicting Actual Yield Based on Percentage Yield) Unit 2 Design-Your Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 2) Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry 7.3 Percentage Yield [Applications of Percentage Yield] [Percentage Purity] Page(s)

QCR V.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the mole concept and its significance in the analysis of chemical systems. QCR V.02 Carry out experiments and complete calculations based on quantitative relationships in balanced chemical reactions.

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QCR V.03 Demonstrate an awareness of the importance of quantitative chemical relationships in the home or in industry.

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Specific Expectations: Understanding Basic Concepts By the end of this course, students will:

QCR 1.01 Demonstrate an understanding of Avogadro's number, the mole concept, and the relationship between the mole and molar mass.

QCR 1.02 Explain the relationship between isotopic abundance and relative atomic mass. QCR 1.03 Distinguish between the empirical formula and the molecular formula of a compound. QCR 1.04 Explain the law of definite proportions.

QCR 1.05 State the quantitative relationships expressed in a chemical equation (e.g., in moles, grams, atoms, ions, or molecules). Specific Expectations: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication By the end of this course, students will:

QCR 2.01 Use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to chemical calculations (e.g., stoichiometry, percentage yield, limiting reagent, mole, atomic mass).

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 5 Counting Atoms and Molecules: The Mole 5.2 The Avogadro Constant and the Mole 5.3 Molar Mass Unit 2 Design-Your Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.2 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law [Molar Mass of a Gas] Chapter 5 Counting Atoms and Molecules: The Mole 5.1 Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds 6.2 The Empirical Formula of a Compound 6.3 The Molecular Formula of a Compound Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds 6.1 Percentage Composition [The Law of Definite Proportions] Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry Unit 2 Design-Your Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] {N.B. The following is a sample of the scientific vocabulary defined in and used throughout Unit 2; it is not an exhaustive list} average atomic mass Avogadro constant competing reaction hydrate isotopic abundance law of definite proportions limiting reactant molar mass mole molecular formula percentage yield stoichiometric coefficients

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stoichiometry theoretical yield

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QCR 2.02 Determine percentage composition of a compound through experimentation, as well as through analysis of the formula and a table of relative atomic masses (e.g., composition of a hydrate).

QCR 2.03 Solve problems involving quantity in moles, number of particles, and mass.

Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds 6.1 Percentage Composition (Practice Problems: Percentage Composition from Mass Data) (ThoughtLab: Percent by Mass and Percent by Number) (Practice Problems: Finding Percentage Composition from a Chemical Formula) 6.2 The Empirical Formula of a Compound (Investigation 6-A: Determining the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide) 6.4 Finding Empirical and Molecular Formulas By Experiment (Investigation 6-B: Determining the Molecular Formula of a Hydrate) Chapter 5 Counting Atoms and Molecules: The Mole 5.2 The Avogadro Constant and the Mole (Practice Problems: Moles to Atoms) (Practice Problems: Molecules to Moles) 5.3 Molar Mass (Practice Problems: Moles to Mass) (Practice Problems: Mass to Moles) (Practice Problems: Converting Between Moles, Mass, and Number of Particles) Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds 6.1 Percentage Composition (Practice Problems: Percentage Composition from Mass Data) (Practice Problems: Percentage Composition from Chemical Formulas) Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry (Practice Problems: Particle Relationships in Balanced Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Relationships in Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Ratios of Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Products and Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass and Particle Stoichiometry) 7.2 The Limiting Reactant (ThoughtLab: The Limiting Item) (Practice Problems: Identifying Limiting and Excess Reactants) (Practice Problems: The Limiting Reactant in a Stoichiometric Problem) 7.3 Percentage Yield (Practice Problems: Calculating Percentage Yield)

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QCR 2.04 Determine empirical formulae and molecular formulae, given molar masses and percentage composition or mass data.

QCR 2.05 Balance chemical equations by inspection.

QCR 2.06 Balance simple nuclear equations.

QCR 2.07 Calculate, for any given reactant or product in a chemical equation, the corresponding mass or quantity in moles or molecules of any other reactant or product.

(Practice Problems: Predicting Actual Yield Based on Percentage Yield) Unit 2 Design-Your Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 2) Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds 6.2 The Empirical Formula of a Compound (Practice Problems: Finding a Compound's Empirical Formula from Percentage Composition: Parts A & B) 6.3 The Molecular Formula of a Compound (Practice Problems: Determining a Molecular Formula) 6.4 Finding Empirical and Molecular Formula By Experiment (Practice Problems: Carbon-Hydrogen Combustion Analyzer Calculations) Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.1 Chemical Equations (Practice Problems: Balancing Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Balancing Chemical Equations) Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions: Chemicals in Balance 4.4 Simple Nuclear Reactions (Practice Problems: Balancing Alpha Emission Nuclear Reactions) (Practice Problems: Balancing Beta Emission Equations) (Practice Problems: Completing and Balancing Nuclear Equations) Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry (ExpressLab: Mole Relationships in a Chemical Reaction) (Practice Problems: Particle Relationships in Balanced Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Relationships in Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Ratios of Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Products and Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass and Particle Stoichiometry) Unit 2 Design-Your Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.3 Gas Law Stoichiometry

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QCR 2.08 Solve problems involving percentage yield and limiting reagents.

QCR 2.09 Compare, using laboratory results, the theoretical yield of a reaction (e.g., of steel wool and copper II sulfate solution) to the actual yield, calculate the percentage yield, and suggest sources of experimental error. Specific Expectations: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment By the end of this course, students will:

QCR 3.01 Give examples of the application of chemical quantities and calculations (e.g., in cooking recipes, in industrial reactions, in prescription drug dosages).

QCR 3.02 Explain how different stoichiometric combinations of elements in compounds can produce substances with different properties (e.g., water and hydrogen peroxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide).

(Practice Problems: Gas as a Reactant) Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.2 The Limiting Reactant (ThoughtLab: The Limiting Item) (Practice Problems: Identifying Limiting and Excess Reactants) (Investigation 7-A: Limiting and Excess Reactants) (Practice Problems: The Limiting Reactant in a Stoichiometric Problem) 7.3 Percentage Yield (Practice Problems: Calculating Percentage Yield) (Practice Problems: Predicting Actual Yield Based on Percentage Yield) Unit 2 Design-Your Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.3 Percentage Yield (Investigation 7-B: Determining the Percentage Yield of a Chemical Reaction) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 2) McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 5 Counting Atoms and Molecules: The Mole 5.3 Molar Mass [Chemistry Bulletin: Chemical Amounts in Vitamin and Mineral Supplements] Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry 7.2 The Limiting Reactant 7.3 Percentage Yield [Applications of Percentage Yield] [Percentage Purity] Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds 6.1 Percentage Composition Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry [Different Ratios of Reactants]

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QCR 3.03 Identify everyday situations and workrelated contexts in which analysis of unknown substances is important (e.g., quality control of composition of products; drug analysis in forensics).

Chapter 5 Counting Atoms and Molecules: The Mole 5.3 Molar Mass [Chemistry Bulletin: Chemical Amounts in Vitamin and Mineral Supplements] Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds 6.3 The Molecular Formula of a Compound 6.4 Finding Empirical and Molecular Formulas by Experiment [The Carbon-Hydrogen Combustion Analyzer] [Chemistry Bulletin: Accident or Arson?] Unit 2 Design-Your Own Investigation: Analyzing a Mixture Using Stoichiometry

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Unit 3: Solutions and Solubility

Overall Expectations McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter By the end of this course, students will: Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] SS V.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations properties of solutions, the concept of 8.1 Types of Solutions concentration, and the importance of water as a 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of solvent. Dissolving [Solubility and Particle Attractions] [Polar and Non-Polar Substances] [Solubility and Intermolecular Forces] [Dipole-Dipole Attractions] [Ion-Dipole Attractions] [Predicting Solubility] [The Solubility of Covalent Compounds] 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions SS V.02 Carry out experiments and other laboratory Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations procedures involving solutions, and solve 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of quantitative problems involving solutions. Dissolving (Investigation 8-A: Plotting Solubility Curves) (ExpressLab: The Effect of Temperature on Soda Water) 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions (Practice Problems: Solving for Mass/Volume Percents) (Practice Problems: Solving for Mass/Mass Percents) (Practice Problems: Solving for Volume/Volume Percents) (Practice Problems: Solving for Parts per Million and Parts per Billion Concentrations) (Practice Problems: Molar Concentration) (Investigation 8-B: Determining the Concentration of a Solution) 8.4 Preparing Solutions (Practice Problems: Preparing Standard Solutions) (Investigation 8-C: Estimating Concentration of an Unknown Solution) Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.1 Making Predictions About Solubility (Investigation 9-A: The Solubility of Ionic Compounds) 9.2 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions (Investigation 9-B: Qualitative Analysis of Solutions) 9.3 Stoichiometry in Solution Chemistry (Practice Problems: Concentrations of Ions,

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Finding Mass Percent of Precipitate, Finding Minimum Volume to Precipitate) (Practice Problems: Finding the Mass of Precipitated Compounds) Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.1 Acid-Base Theories (ExpressLab: Clean a Penny) 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases (Practice Problems: Calculating pH) (Investigation 10-A: The Effect of Dilution on the pH of an Acid) 10.3 Acid-Base Reactions (Practice Problems: Finding Concentration and Volume) (Investigation 10-B: The Concentration of Acetic Acid in Vinegar) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 3) SS V.03 Relate a scientific knowledge of solutions Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations and solubility to everyday applications, and explain 8.1 Types of Solutions how environmental water quality depends on the 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of concentrations of a variety of dissolved Dissolving substances. [Pressure and Solubility] [Chemistry Bulletin: Solvents and Coffee: What's the Connection?] 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions [Careers In Chemistry: Product Development Chemist] Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.4 Aqueous Solutions and Water Quality Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.1 Acid-Base Theories (ExpressLab: Clean a Penny) 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases [Chemistry Bulletin: The Chemistry of Oven Cleaning] Unit 3 Issue: Island at Risk Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 3)

355

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398 402-403 640

284-289

299 300

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Specific Expectations: Understanding Basic Concepts By the end of this course, students will:

SS 1.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of water as a universal solvent and describe the properties of this liquid (e.g., polarity, hydrogen bonding).

SS 1.02 Explain solution formation that involves the dissolving of ionic or non-ionic substances in water (e.g., oxygen in water, salt in water) and the dissolving of non-polar solutes in non-polar solvents (e.g., grease in gasoline).

SS 1.03 Describe the dependence on temperature of solubility in water for solids, liquids, and gases.

SS 1.04 Describe common combinations of aqueous solutions that result in the formation of precipitates.

SS 1.05 Demonstrate an understanding of the Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry theories of acids

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.1 Types of Solutions (ThoughtLab: Matching Solutes and Solvents) 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of Dissolving [Solubility and Particle Attractions] [Polar and Non-Polar Substances] [Solubility and Intermolecular Forces] [Dipole-Dipole Attractions] [Ion-Dipole Attractions] [Predicting Solubility] [The Solubility of Covalent Compounds] Unit 3 Issue: Island at Risk Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.1 Types of Solutions (ThoughtLab: Matching Solutes and Solvents) 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of Dissolving [Solubility and Particle Attractions] [Polar and Non-Polar Substances] [Concept Organizer: Connections Between Solutions of Polar and Non-Polar Substances] [Solubility and Intermolecular Forces] [Dipole-Dipole Attractions] [Ion-Dipole Attractions] [An Exception: Insoluble Ionic Compounds] [Predicting Solubility] [The Solubility of Covalent Compounds] Unit 3 Issue: Island at Risk Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of Dissolving [Temperature and Solubility] Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.1 Making Predictions About Solubility (Investigation 9-A: The Solubility of Ionic Compounds) 9.2 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions [Double Displacement Reactions that Produce a Precipitate] 9.4 Aqueous Solutions and Water Quality [Hard Water and Soft Water] [Treating Water at Home] (ThoughtLab: Testing Hard Water and Soft Water) Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.1 Acid-Base Theories

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and bases.

SS 1.06 Explain qualitatively, in terms of degree of dissociation, the difference between strong and weak acids and bases. SS 1.07 Demonstrate an understanding of the operational definition of pH (i.e., pH = ­log10[H+]).

Specific Expectations: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication By the end of this course, students will:

SS 2.01 Use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to aqueous solutions (e.g., concentration, solubility, conjugate acid, precipitate).

[The Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases] [Limitations of the Arrhenius Theory] [The Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases] [Table 10.3 Comparing the Arrhenius Theory and Brønsted-Lowry Theory] Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases [Strong Acids and Weak Acids] [Strong Bases and Weak Bases] Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases [Describing Acid and Base Strength Quantitatively: pH] [The Power of Hydrogen in Water] [The pH Scale: Measuring By Powers of Ten] [Concept Organizer: pH, [H3O+ ], and the Strength of Acids and Bases] McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] {N.B. The following is a sample of the scientific vocabulary defined in and used throughout Unit 3; it is not an exhaustive list}

373-374 374-375 375-376 379

381-383 383

385 385-386 386-387 388 Page(s)

concentration conjugate acid electrolyte equivalence point hydrogen bonding hydronium ion ion exchange miscible molar concentration total ionic equation oxoacid pH precipitate solubility titration volumetric flask SS 2.02 Solve problems involving concentration of Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations solutions and express the results in various units 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions (e.g., moles per litre, grams per 100 mL, parts per (Practice Problems: Solving for Mass/Volume million [and billion], mass or volume per cent). Percents and Finding Mass for a Mass/Volume Concentration) (Practice Problems: Solving for Mass/Mass Percents) (Practice Problems: Solving for Volume/Volume Percents)

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305

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SS 2.03 Prepare solutions of required concentration by dissolving a solid solute or diluting a concentrated solution. SS 2.04 Determine, through experiments, qualitative and quantitative properties of solutions (e.g., perform a qualitative analysis of ions in a solution; plot solubility curves for some common solutes in water), and solve problems based on such experiments.

(Practice Problems: Solving for Parts per Million and Parts per Billion Concentrations) (Practice Problems: Molar Concentration) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 3) Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.4 Preparing Solutions (Investigation 8-C: Estimating Concentration of an Unknown Solution) Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations 8.2 Factors That Affect Solubility and Rate of Dissolving (Investigation 8-A: Plotting Solubility Curves) (ExpressLab: The Effect of Temperature on Soda Water) 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions (Practice Problems: Solving for Mass/Volume Percents) (Practice Problems: Solving for Mass/Mass Percents) (Practice Problems: Solving for Volume/Volume Percents) (Practice Problems: Solving for Parts per Million and Parts per Billion Concentrations) (Practice Problems: Molar Concentration) (Investigation 8-B: Determining the Concentration of a Solution) 8.4 Preparing Solutions (Practice Problems: Preparing Standard Solutions) (Investigation 8-C: Estimating Concentration of an Unknown Solution) Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.1 Making Predictions About Solubility (Investigation 9-A: The Solubility of Ionic Compounds) (Practice Problems: Solubility) 9.2 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions (Practice Problems: Predicting the Formation of Precipitates) (Investigation 9-B: Qualitative Analysis of Solutions) 9.3 Stoichiometry in Solution Chemistry (Practice Problems: Concentrations of Ions, Finding Mass Percent of Precipitate, Finding Minimum Volume to Precipitate) (Practice Problems: Finding the Mass of Precipitated Compounds) Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 10.1 Acid-Base Theories (ExpressLab: Clean a Penny) 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases (Practice Problems: Calculating pH)

312 316 640

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305 308 310 312 316 317

321 322-323

332-333 335 339 345-346

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(Investigation 10-A: The Effect of Dilution on the pH of an Acid) 10.3 Acid-Base Reactions (Practice Problems: Finding Concentration and Volume) (Investigation 10-B: The Concentration of Acetic Acid in Vinegar) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 3) SS 2.05 Represent precipitation reactions by their Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions net ionic equations. 9.2 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions (Practice Problems: Writing Net Ionic Equations) 9.3 Stoichiometry in Solution Chemistry (Practice Problems: Concentrations of Ions, Finding Mass Percent of Precipitate, Finding Minimum Volume to Precipitate) (Practice Problems: Finding the Mass of Precipitated Compounds) SS 2.06 Determine through experimentation the Chapter 10 Acids and Bases effect of dilution on the pH of an acid or a base. 10.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases (Investigation 10-A: The Effect of Dilution on the pH of an Acid) SS 2.07 Write balanced chemical equations for Chapter 10 Acids and Bases reactions involving acids and bases (e.g., 10.3 Acid-Base Reactions dissociation, displacement, and neutralization (Practice Problems: Finding Concentration and reactions). Finding Volume) SS 2.08 Solve stoichiometry problems involving Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions solutions. 9.3 Stoichiometry in Solution Chemistry (Practice Problems: Concentrations of Ions, Finding Mass Percent of Precipitate, Finding Minimum Volume to Precipitate) (Practice Problems: Finding the Mass of Precipitated Compounds) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 3) SS 2.09 Use a titration procedure to determine the Chapter 10 Acids and Bases concentration of an acid or base in solution (e.g., 10.3 Acid-Base Reactions acetic acid in vinegar). (Investigation 10-B: The Concentration of Acetic Acid in Vinegar) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 3) Specific Expectations: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Chapter Environment Section [Subsection] By the end of this course, students will: (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] SS 3.01 Supply examples from everyday life of Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations solutions involving all three states (e.g., carbonated 8.1 Types of Solutions water, seawater, alloys, air). SS 3.02 Describe examples of solutions for which Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations the concentration must be known and exact (e.g., 8.3 The Concentration of Solutions

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398 402-403 640

343 352

355

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398

352

355 640

402-403 640 Page(s)

284-289

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intravenous solutions, drinking water).

8.4 Preparing Solutions [Section opening text] (Investigation 8-C: Estimating Concentration of an Unknown Solution) Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.4 Aqueous Solutions and Water Quality [Acceptable Concentrations of Substances in Drinking Water]

319 322-323

357

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SS 3.03 Explain the origins of pollutants in natural waters (e.g., landfill leachates, agricultural run-off), and identify the allowable concentrations of metallic and organic pollutants in drinking water.

SS 3.04 Describe the technology and the major steps involved in the purification of drinking water and the treatment of waste water.

SS 3.05 Explain hardness of water, its consequences (e.g., pipe scaling), and watersoftening methods (e.g., ion exchange resins).

Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.4 Aqueous Solutions and Water Quality [Acceptable Concentrations of Substances in Drinking Water] [Table 9.5 Acceptable Concentrations of Selected Ions and Compounds in Drinking Water] {Sources That Compromise Water Quality] Unit 3 Issue: Island at Risk Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.4 Aqueous Solutions and Water Quality [Treating Water for Your Home] [Waste-Water Treatment] [Canadians in Chemistry: Dr. Jiangning Wu: Cleaning the World's Water] Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 3) Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions 9.4 Aqueous Solutions and Water Quality [Hard Water and Soft Water] [Treating Water at Home]

357 357 350 408-409

359 362 363 640

360 361

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Unit 4: Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry

Overall Expectations By the end of this course, students will: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes 11.4 Combined Gas Law Calculations Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume (Investigation 11-A: The Relationship Between the Pressure and Volume of a Gas) (Practice Problems: Boyle's Law) 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes (Investigation 11-B: The Relationship Between Temperature and Volume of a Gas) (ThoughtLab: Charles' Law and Kelvin Temperature) (Practice Problems: Charles' Law) (Practice Problems: Gay-Lussac's Law) 11.4 Combined Gas Law Calculations (Practice Problems: The Combined Gas Law) (Practice Problems: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures) 12.1 The Ideal Gas Law (Practice Problems: Molar Volume of Gases) (Practice Problems: Amount of Substance) (Practice Problems: The Ideal Gas Law) 12.2 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law (Practice Problems: The Ideal Gas Law) (Practice Problems: The Ideal Gas Law) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 4) Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume [Tools & Techniques: High Pressure Injectors] 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes [Chemistry Bulletin: Not a Common Cold­ Cryogenics and Technology] Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.4 Atmospheric Reactions and Pollution Page(s)

GAC V.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the laws that govern the behaviour of gases.

424-435 436-451 452-461

GAC V.02 Investigate through experimentation the relationships among the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas, and solve problems involving quantity of substance in moles, molar masses and volumes, and the gas laws.

430-431 434-435 438-439 441 446 449-450 457 460

477 482 487-488 493 500 641

GAC V.03 Describe how knowledge of gases has helped to advance technology, and how such technological advances have led to a better understanding of environmental phenomena and issues.

427 437

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Specific Expectations: Understanding Basic Concepts By the end of this course, students will:

GAC 1.01 Explain different states of matter in terms of the forces between atoms, molecules, and ions. GAC 1.02 Describe the gaseous state, using kinetic molecular theory, in terms of degree of disorder and types of motion of atoms and molecules.

GAC 1.03 Describe the quantitative relationships that exist among the following variables for an ideal gas: pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of substance.

GAC 1.04 Explain Dalton's law of partial pressures. GAC 1.05 State Avogadro's hypothesis and describe his contribution to our understanding of reactions of gases. GAC 1.05 Identify the major and minor components of the atmosphere.

Specific Expectations: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication By the end of this course, students will:

GAC 2.01 Use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to gases (e.g., standard temperature, standard pressure, molar volume,

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.1 States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.1 States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory [The Gas State] [Forces Between Particles] [Attractions Between Non-polar Particles] [The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases] Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume [The Relationship Between Pressure and Volume] [Boyle's Law] 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes [Temperature and Volume] [The Kelvin Scale and Absolute Zero] [Charles' Law] {Gay-Lussac's Law] 11.4 Combined Gas Law Calculations [The Combined Gas Law] Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.1 The Ideal Gas Law [The Molar Volume of Gases] [Volumes of Real Gases] [Arriving at the Ideal Gas Law] 11.4 Combined Gas Law Calculations [Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures] Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.1 The Ideal Gas Law [The Molar Volume of Gases] Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.4 Combined Gas Law Calculations [Table 11.2: The Components of the Dry Atmosphere] McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] {N.B. The following is a sample of the scientific vocabulary defined in and used throughout Unit 4; it is not an exhaustive list}

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ideal gas). Avogadro's law Boyle's law Charles' law combined gas law Dalton's law of partial pressures fuel cell fusible plugs ideal gas Kelvin scale kinetic molecular theory of gases mm Hg molar volume Montréal Protocol standard pressure standard temperature torr Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume [How is Pressure Calculated?] [Units of Pressure] [Section Review Question 1] 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes [The Kelvin Scale and Absolute Zero] (Practice Problems: Charles' Law (Questions 5 & 6)) Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.1 The Ideal Gas Law [Converting the Units of the Universal Gas Constant] Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume (Investigation 11-A: The Relationship Between the Pressure and Volume of a Gas) 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes (Investigation 11-B: The Relationship Between Temperature and Volume of a Gas) (ThoughtLab: Charles' Law and Kelvin Temperature) 474 432 440 453 459 464 451 421 440 421 428 474 519 452 452 428

GAC 2.02 Use and interconvert appropriate units to express pressure (e.g., pascals, atmospheres, mm Hg) and temperature (e.g., Celsius and Kelvin scales).

424 428 435 440 446

485

GAC 2.03 Determine through experimentation the quantitative and graphical relationships among the pressure, volume, and temperature of an ideal gas.

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GAC 2.04 Solve quantitative problems involving the following gas laws: Charles's law, Boyle's law, the combined gas law, Gay-Lussac's law, Dalton's law of partial pressures, the ideal gas law.

Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume (Practice Problems: Boyle's Law) 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes (Practice Problems: Charles' Law) (Practice Problems: Gay-Lussac's Law) 11.4 Combined Gas Law Calculations (Practice Problems: The Combined Gas Law) (Practice Problems: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures) Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.1 The Ideal Gas Law (Practice Problems: The Ideal Gas Law) 12.2 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law (Practice Problems: The Ideal Gas Law) (Practice Problems: The Ideal Gas Law) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 4)

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GAC 2.05 Perform stoichiometric calculations involving the quantitative relationships among the quantity of substances in moles, the number of atoms, the number of molecules, the mass, and the volume of the substances in a balanced chemical equation.

GAC 2.06 Determine the molar volume of a gas through experimentation (e.g., calculate the molar volume of hydrogen gas from the reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid).

Specific Expectations: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment By the end of this course, students will:

GAC 3.01 Describe natural phenomena (e.g., geysers, volcanic eruptions) and technological products (e.g., rocket engine, carbonated drinks, air bags) associated with gases.

GAC 3.02 Explain Canadian initiatives to improve air quality (e.g., the recycling of

Chapter 7 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 7.1 Stoichiometry (Practice Problems: Particle Relationships in Balanced Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Relationships in Chemical Equations) (Practice Problems: Mole Ratios of Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass to Mass Calculations for Products and Reactants) (Practice Problems: Mass and Particle Stoichiometry) Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.3 Gas Law Stoichiometry (Practice Problems: Calculating Volumes with Gay-Lussac's Law) (Practice Problems: Mass to Volume Stoichiometry) (Practice Problems: Gas as a Reactant) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 4) Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.3 Gas Law Stoichiometry (Investigation 12-B: The Production of Hydrogen Gas) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 4) McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume [Tools & Techniques: High Pressure Injectors] 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes [Chemistry Bulletin: Not a Common Cold­ Cryogenics and Technology] 11.4 Combined Gas Law Calculations [Gases and Natural Phenomena] 11.5 Gas Applications Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.2 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law [Chemistry Bulletin: The Killing Lakes of Cameroon] Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.4 Atmospheric Reactions and Pollution Unit 4 Issue: The Costs of Getting Around Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.4 Atmospheric Reactions and Pollution

237 238 240 244 246 248

503 506 511 641

512-513 641 Page(s)

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458 462-466

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chlorofluorocarbons, the Montréal Protocol).

[Careers In Chemistry: Environmental Technician] [Improving Air Quality] Unit 4 Issue: The Costs of Getting Around

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GAC 3.03 Identify technological products and safety concerns as sociated with compressed gases (e.g., propane tanks, medical oxygen tanks, welders' acetylene tanks).

GAC 3.04 Describe how knowledge of gases is applied in other areas of study (e.g., meteorology, medical anaesthetics, undersea exp loration).

Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume [Tools & Techniques: High Pressure Injectors] 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes [Compressed Gases and Safety Concerns] 11.5 Gas Applications Unit 4 Issue: The Costs of Getting Around Chapter 11 The Behaviour of Gases 11.2 Gas Pressure and Volume [Tools & Techniques: High Pressure Injectors] 11.3 Gases and Temperature Changes [Chemistry Bulletin: Not a Common Cold­ Cryogenics and Technology] 11.5 Gas Applications Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws 12.4 Atmospheric Reactions and Pollution

427 450-451 462-466 526-527

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Unit 5: Hydrocarbons and Energy

Overall Expectations By the end of this course, students will: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.2 Representing Hydrocarbon Compounds 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions 14.2 Thermochemical Equations 14.3 Measuring Energy Changes 14.4 The Technology of Heat Measurement Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.2 Representing Hydrocarbon Compounds (Investigation 13-A: Modelling Organic Compounds) 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons (Investigation 13-B: Comparing the Reactivity of Alkanes and Alkenes) (Investigation 13-C: Structures and Properties of Aliphatic Compounds) Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions (Investigation 14-A: The Formation and Combustion of Acetylene) 14.2 Thermochemical Equations 14.3 Measuring Energy Changes 14.4 The Technology of Heat Measurement (ExpressLab: The Energy of Dissolving) (ThoughtLab: Energy Content in Fat and Carbohydrates) (ThoughtLab: Heat Combustion of Propane and Butane) (Investigation 14-B The Heat of Combustion of a Candle) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 5) Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.1 Introducing Organic Compounds [Canadians in Chemistry: Dr. Raymond Lemieux] 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons [Chemistry Bulletin: Elastomer Technology: Useful or Harmful?] 13.4 Refining and Using Hydrocarbons [Careers in Chemistry: Polymer Chemist] Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions [Chemistry Bulletin: Lamp Oil and the Petroleum Page(s)

HE V.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and properties of hydrocarbons, especially with respect to the energy changes that occur in their combustion.

538-543 544-567 578-587 588-592 593-600 601-618

HE V.02 Describe and investigate the properties of hydrocarbons, and apply calorimetric techniques to the calculation of energy changes.

542

554-555 564

485-486 588-592 593-600 608 613 615 616-617 642

HE V.03 Evaluate the impact of hydrocarbons on our quality of life and the environment through an examination of some of their uses.

536 559

572

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MCGRAW-HILL RYERSON CHEMISTRY 11 Correlation to the Chemistry, Grade 11, University Preparation (SCH3U) Curriculum

Specific Expectations: Understanding Basic Concepts By the end of this course, students will:

HE 1.01 Identify the origins and major sources of organic compounds. HE 1.02 Demonstrate an understanding of the particular characteristics of the carbon atom, especially with respect to bonding in both aliphatic and cyclic alkanes, including structural isomers.

HE 1.03 Describe some of the physical and chemical properties of hydrocarbons (e.g., solubility in water, density, melting point, boiling point, and combustibility of the alkanes).

HE 1.04 Compare the energy changes observed when chemical bonds are formed and when they are broken, and relate these changes to endothermic and exothermic reactions. HE 1.05 Explain how mass, heat capacity, and change in temperature of an object determine the amount of heat it gains or loses. HE 1.06 Identify ways in which reactants, products, and a heat term are combined to form

Age] 14.5 The Impact of Petroleum Products Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 5) McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.1 Introducing Organic Compounds Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.2 Representing Hydrocarbon Compounds [Figure 13.4: Three Key Properties of Carbon] 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons [Alkanes] [Properties of Alkanes] [Alkenes] [Properties of Alkenes] [Cis -Trans (Geometric) Isomers] [Alkynes] [Cyclic Hydrocarbons] Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons [Properties of Alkanes] [Properties of Alkenes] (Investigation 13-B: Comparing the Reactivity of Alkanes and Alkenes) [Cis -Trans (Geometric) Isomers] [Alkynes] [Cyclic Hydrocarbons] (Investigation 13-C: Structures and Properties of Aliphatic Compounds) 13.4 Refining and Using Hydrocarbons Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions 14.4 The Technology of Heat Measurement [Heat of Combustion] [Heat of Solution] [Comparing Fats and Hydrocarbons] [The Combustion of Candles] Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.2 Thermochemical Equations

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Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.3 Measuring Energy Changes Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 5) Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.2 Thermochemical Equations

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MCGRAW-HILL RYERSON CHEMISTRY 11 Correlation to the Chemistry, Grade 11, University Preparation (SCH3U) Curriculum

thermochemical equations representing endothermic and exothermic chemical changes. Specific Expectations: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication By the end of this course, students will:

HE 2.01 Use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to hydrocarbons and the energy changes involved in their combustion (e.g., organic compound, saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons, isomer, heat capacity).

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] {N.B. The following is a sample of the scientific vocabulary defined in and used throughout Unit 5; it is not an exhaustive list} aliphatic hydrocarbons cis -trans isomers (geometric isomers) cyclic hydrocarbons heat of combustion heat of solution homologous series isomers organic compound saturated hydrocarbons specific heat capacity thermal equilibrium unsaturated hydrocarbons Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons [Naming Alkanes] [Naming Straight-Chain Alkanes] [Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes] [Rules for Naming Alkanes] [Additional IUPAC Rules for Naming BranchedChain and Other Aliphatic Compounds] (Practice Problems: Naming Alkanes) [Drawing Alkanes] [Rules for Drawing Condensed Structural Diagrams] (Practice Problems: Naming and Drawing Alkanes) [Naming Alkenes] [Drawing Alkenes] (Practice Problems: Naming and Drawing Alkenes) [Cis -Trans (Geometric) Isomers] (Practice Problems: Naming and Drawing CisTrans Isomers) [Naming and Drawing Alkynes] (Practice Problems: Naming and Drawing Alkynes) [Naming and Drawing Cyclic Hydrocarbons] (Practice Problems: Naming and Drawing Cyclic Hydrocarbons) [Summary: Rules for Naming and Drawing

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HE 2.02 Name, using the IUPAC nomenclature system, and draw structural representations for, aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons containing no more than ten carbon atoms in the main chain, with or without sidechains.

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MCGRAW-HILL RYERSON CHEMISTRY 11 Correlation to the Chemistry, Grade 11, University Preparation (SCH3U) Curriculum

HE 2.03 Use molecular models to demonstrate the arrangement of atoms in isomers of hydrocarbons (e.g., structural and cis -trans isomers). HE 2.04 Determine through experimentation some of the characteristic properties of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g., compare the products obtained when bromine is added to cyclohexane and cyclohexene separately). HE 2.05 Carry out an experiment involving the production or combustion of a hydrocarbon (e.g., formation of acetylene, burning paraffin) and write the corresponding balanced chemical equation.

HE 2.06 Write balanced chemical equations for the complete and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

HE 2.06 Gather and interpret experimental data and solve problems involving calorimetry and the equation Q = mc? T (e.g., calculate the energy liberated in the combustion of paraffin in J/g).

Specific Expectations: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment By the end of this course, students will:

HE 3.01 Describe the steps involved in refining petroleum to obtain gasoline and other useful fractions (e.g., butane, furnace oil, industrial chemicals and solvents).

Aliphatic Compounds] Unit 5 Project: Consumer Chemistry Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.2 Representing Hydrocarbon Compounds (Investigation 13-A: Modelling Organic Compounds) Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.3 Classifying Organic Compounds (Investigation 13-B: Comparing the Reactivity of Alkanes and Alkenes) (Investigation 13-C: Structures and Properties of Aliphatic Compounds) Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions (Investigation 14-A: The Formation and Combustion of Acetylene) 14.4 The Technology of Heat Measurement (Investigation 14-B: The Heat of Combustion of a Candle) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 5) Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions [Complete and Incomplete Combustion] [Balancing Combustion Equations] (Practice Problems: Complete and Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons) (Investigation 14-A: The Formation and Combustion of Acetylene) Chemistry Course Challenge: A Whole New World (Part 5) Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.3 Measuring Energy Changes (Practice Problems: Heat Transfer) (Practice Problems: Solving Problems With Q = mc? T) 14.4 The Technology of Heat Measurement (Practice Problems: Solving Problems With Q = mc? T) (Practice Problems: Calorimetry) (Investigation 14-B: The Heat of Combustion of a Candle) McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11 Chapter Section [Subsection] (Investigation, ExpressLab, or ThoughtLab) (Practice Problem) [Front Matter or Appendix] Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.4 Refining and Using Hydrocarbons

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HE 3.02 Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of hydrocarbons as fuels (e.g., propane for barbecues) and in other applications, such as the manufacture of polymers, and identify the risks and benefits of these uses to society and the environment.

Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Hydrocarbons 13.1 Introducing Organic Compounds [Canadians in Chemistry: Dr. Raymond Lemieux] 13.3 Classifying Hydrocarbons [Chemistry Bulletin: Elastomer Technology: Useful or Harmful?] 13.4 Refining and Using Hydrocarbons [Careers in Chemistry: Polymer Chemist] Chapter 14 Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons 14.1 Formation and Combustion Reactions [Chemistry Bulletin: Lamp Oil and the Petroleum Age] 14.5 The Impact of Petroleum Products Unit 5 Project: Consumer Chemistry

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