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KIRK-OTHMER ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

Fifth Edition

VOLUME 10

KIRK-OTHMER ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, FIFTH EDITION EDITORIAL STAFF

Vice President, STM Books: Janet Bailey Editorial Director, STM Encyclopedias: Sean Pidgeon Editor: Arza Seidel Managing Editor: Michalina Bickford Director, Book Production and Manufacturing: Camille P. Carter Production Manager: Shirley Thomas Senior Production Editor: Kellsee Chu Illustration Manager: Dean Gonzalez Editorial Assistant: Stephanie Anderson

KIRK-OTHMER ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

Fifth Edition

VOLUME 10

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology is available Online in full color and with additional content at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/104554789/HOME.

A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication

Copyright # 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print, however, may not be available in electronic format. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. ­ 5th ed. p. cm. Editor-in-chief, Arza Seidel. ``A Wiley-Interscience publication.'' Includes index. ISBN 0-471-48494-6 (set) ­ ISBN 0-471-48513-6 (v. 10) 1. Chemistry, Technical­Encyclopedias. I. Title: Encyclopedia of chemical technology. TP9.K54 2004 6600 .03­dc22 2003021960 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CONTENTS

Embedding Emission Control, Automotive Emission Control, Industrial Emulsions Energy Management Engineering Thermoplastics 1 30 67 113 133 168 Ethylene Ethylene Oxide Ethylene Oxide Polymers Ethylene-Acrylic Elastomers Ethylene-Propylene Polymers Explosives and Propellants Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Fats and Fatty Oils Feeds and Feed Additives, Nonruminant Feeds Feeds and Feed Additives, Pet Foods Feeds and Feed Additives, Ruminant Feeds 593 632 673 696 704 719 744 801 836 848 862

Environmental Impact Assessment 228 Enzyme Applications, Industrial Enzyme Inhibitors Epoxy Resins Esterification Esters, Organic Ethanol Ethers Ethyl Chloride 248 317 347 471 497 527 567 584

v

CONTRIBUTORS

Jacqueline Akhavan, Royal Military College of Science, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, Explosives and Propellants Mohammad Aslam, Hoechst-Celanese Corporation, Corpus Christi, TX, Esterification Darlene M. Back, Dow Chemical Company, Piscataway, NJ, Ethylene Oxide Polymers Malcolm H. I. Baird, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Ronald L. Berglund, HBC/Terracon, Kingwood, TX, Emission Control, Industrial Torben Vedel Borchert, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial James Corbin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, Feeds and Feed Additives, Pet Foods Ture Damhus, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial J. P. Dever, Union Carbide Technical Center, South Charleston, WV, Ethylene Oxide Claus Crone Fuglsang, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial Fabio Garbassi, Eni Chem Research Center, Novara, Italy, Engineering Thermoplastics Kathy F. George, Union Carbide Technical Center, South Charleston, WV, Ethylene Oxide Tomas Tage Hansen, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial Gerard L. Hasenhuettl, Consultant, Port Saint Lucie, FL, Fats and Fatty Oils W. C. Hoffman, Union Carbide Technical Center, South Charleston, WV, Ethylene Oxide Lawrence Karas, ARCO Chemical Company, Newtown Square, PA, Ethers Ole Kirk, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial Ed Kostansek, Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA, Emulsions David P. Lawrence, Lawrence Environmental, B.C., Canada, Environmental Impact Assessment Teh C. Lo, T. C. Lo & Associates, Wayne, NJ, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid John E. Logsdon, Union Carbide Corporation, Texas City, TX, Ethanol Henrik Lund, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial Edward McBride, DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE, Ethylene-Acrylic Elastomers Matt C. Miller, Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX, Ethyl Chloride John J. Mooney, Environmental & Energy Technology & Policy Institute, Wyckoff, NJ, Emission Control, Automotive Lone Kierstein Nielsen, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial Jacques W. M. Noordermeer, DSM Elastomers, R&D, Geleen, The Netherlands, Ethylene-Propylene Polymers Hans Sejr Olsen, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial E. F. Olszewski, ABB Lummus Global, Inc., Bloomfield, NJ, Ethylene Maurice J. Parks, Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX, Epoxy Resins Tilden Wayne Perry, Purdue University (Emeritus), Van Buren, AR, Feeds and Feed Additives, Ruminant Ha Q. Pham, Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX, Epoxy Resins W. J. Piel, ARCO Chemical Company, Newtown Square, PA, Ethers Riccardo Po, Eni Chem Research Center, Novara, Italy, Engineering Thermoplastics Alan Rossiter, Rossiter & Associates, Bellaire, TX, Energy Management Raj Sakamuri, Clariant Corporation, Somerville, NJ, Esters, Organic Hans Erik Schiff, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Enzyme Applications, Industrial Robert L. Schmitt, Dow Chemical Company, Piscataway, NJ, Ethylene Oxide Polymers M. M. Shreehan, ABB Lummus Global, Inc., Bloomfield, NJ, Ethylene Hwiali Soo, Union Carbide Technical Center, South Charleston, WV, Ethylene Oxide K. M. Sundaram, ABB Lummus Global, Inc., Bloomfield, NJ, Ethylene G. Paull Torrence, Hoechst-Celanese Corporation, Corpus Christi, TX, Esterification Park W. Waldroup, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, Feeds and Feed Additives, Nonruminant Chris Whiteley, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, Enzyme Inhibitors

vii

viii

CONTRIBUTORS

Jianwen Xu, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Embedding Edward G. Zey, Hoechst-Celanese Corporation, Corpus Christi, TX, Esterification

C. P. Wong, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Embedding Yun-Tai Wu, DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE, Ethylene-Acrylic Elastomers

CONVERSION FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND UNIT SYMBOLS

SI Units (Adopted 1960)

The International System of Units (abbreviated SI), is implemented throughout the world. This measurement system is a modernized version of the MKSA (meter, kilogram, second, ampere) system, and its details are published and controlled by an international treaty organization (The International Bureau of Weights and Measures) (1). SI units are divided into three classes:

BASE UNITS

length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperaturez amount of substance luminous intensity metery (m) kilogram (kg) second (s) ampere (A) kelvin (K) mole (mol) candela (cd)

SUPPLEMENTARY UNITS

plane angle solid angle radian (rad) steradian (sr)

DERIVED UNITS AND OTHER ACCEPTABLE UNITS

These units are formed by combining base units, suplementary units, and other derived units (2­4). Those derived units having special names and symbols are marked with an asterisk in the list below.

{ The spellings ``metre'' and ``litre'' are preferred by ASTM; however, ``-er'' is used in the Encyclopedia. z Wide use is made of Celsius temperature (t) defined by

t ¼ T À T0 where T is the thermodynamic temperature, expressed in kelvin, and T0 ¼ 273:15 K by definition. A temperature interval may be expressed in degrees Celsius as well as in kelvin.

ix

x

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS Quantity Unit gray meter per second squared becquerel square kilometer square hectometer square meter mole per cubic meter ampere per square meter kilogram per cubic meter coulomb meter sievert farad coulomb coulomb per cubic meter siemens volt per meter coulomb per square meter volt Symbol Gy m/s2 Bq km2 hm2 m2 mol/m3 A/m2 kg/m3 CÁm Sv F C C/m3 S V/m C/m2 V A/V

Vol. 10 Acceptable equivalent J/Kg

*absorbed dose acceleration *activity (of a radionuclide) area

1/s ha (hectare)

concentration (of amount of substance) current density density, mass density dipole moment (quantity) *dose equivalent *electric capacitance *electric charge, quantity of electricity electric charge density *electric conductance electric field strength electric flux density *electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force *electric resistance *energy, work, quantity of heat

g/L; mg/cm3

J/kg C/V AÁs

W/A

ohm megajoule kilojoule joule electronvolt{ kilowatt-hour{ joule per cubic meter kilonewton newton

O MJ kJ J eV{ kW Á h{ J/m3 kN N

V/A

NÁm

energy density *force

kg Á m/s2

{ This non-SI unit is recognized by the CIPM as having to be retained because of practical importance or use in specialized fields (1).

Vol. 10 Quantity *frequency heat capacity, entropy heat capacity (specific), specific entropy heat-transfer coefficient *illuminance *inductance linear density luminance *luminous flux magnetic field strength *magnetic flux *magnetic flux density molar energy molar entropy, molar heat capacity moment of force, torque momentum permeability permittivity *power, heat flow rate, radiant flux power density, heat flux density, irradiance *pressure, stress

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS Unit megahertz hertz joule per kelvin joule per kilogram kelvin watt per square meter kelvin lux henry kilogram per meter candela per square meter lumen ampere per meter weber tesla joule per mole joule per mole kelvin newton meter kilogram meter per second henry per meter farad per meter kilowatt watt watt per square meter megapascal kilopascal pascal decibel joule per kilogram cubic meter per kilogram newton per meter watt per meter kelvin meter per second kilometer per hour pascal second millipascal second square meter per second square millimeter per second Symbol MHz Hz J/K J/(kg Á K) W/(m2 Á K) lx H kg/m cd/m2 lm A/m Wb T J/mol J/(mol Á K) NÁm kg Á m/s H/m F/m kW W W/m2 MPa kPa Pa dB J/kg m3/kg N/m W/(m Á K) m/s km/h Pa Á s mPa Á s m2/s mm2/s lm/m2 Wb/A

xi

Acceptable equivalent 1/s

cd Á sr VÁs Wb/m2

J/s

N/m2

sound level specific energy specific volume surface tension thermal conductivity velocity viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematic

xii

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS

Vol. 10 Acceptable equivalent L (liter) (5) mL

Quantity volume cubic cubic cubic 1 per 1 per

Unit meter diameter centimeter meter centimeter

Symbol m3 dm3 cm3 mÀ1 cmÀ1

wave number

In addition, there are 16 prefixes used to indicate order of magnitude, as follows Multiplication factor 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 10 10À1 10À2 10À3 10À6 10À9 10À12 10À15 10À18

Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto

symbol E P T G M k ha daa da ca m m n p f a

Note

a

Although hecto, deka, deci, and centi are SI prefixes, their use should be avoided except for SI unit-multiples for area and volume and nontechnical use of centimeter, as for body and clothing measurement.

For a complete description of SI and its use the reader is referred to ASTM E380 (4) and the article UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS which appears in Vol. 24. A representative list of conversion factors from non-SI to SI units is presented herewith. Factors are given to four significant figures. Exact relationships are followed by a dagger. A more complete list is given in the latest editions of ASTM E380 (4) and ANSI Z210.1 (6).

Conversion Factors to SI Units

To convert from acre angstrom are astronomical unit

y

To square meter (m ) meter (m) square meter (m2 ) meter (m)

2

Multiply by 4:047 Â 103 1:0 Â 10À10y 1:0 Â 102y 1:496 Â 1011

Exact.

Vol. 10

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS To convert from To pascal (Pa) pascal (Pa) square meter (m2 ) cubic meter (m3 ) J/T joule (J) joule (J) joule (J) cubic meter(m3 ) joule (J) joule (J) joule (J) pascal second (Pa Á s) square millimeter per second (mm2 /s) cubic meter per second (m3 s) cubic meter (m3 ) cubic meter (m3 ) cubic meter (m3 ) becquerel (Bq) coulomb meter (C Á m) radian (rad) kilogram per meter (kg/m) texz kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) cubic meter (m3 ) newton (N) newton per meter (N/m) joule (J) joule (J) meter (m) cubic meter (m3 ) meter (m) lux (lx) meter (m) meter per second squared (m/s2 ) cubic meter (m3 ) cubic meter (m3 ) cubic meter per second (m3 /s) cubic meter per hour (m3 /h)

xiii

Multiply by 1:013 Â 105 1:0 Â 105y 1:0 Â 10À28y 0:1590 9:274 Â 10À24 1:055 Â 103 1:056 Â 103 1:054 Â 103 3:524 Â 10À2 4:187 4:190 4:184y 1:0 Â 10À3y 1:0y 4:72 Â 10À4 1:639 Â 10À5 2:832 Â 10À2 0.7646 3:70 Â 1010y 3:336 Â 10À30 1:745 Â 10À2 1:111 Â 10À7 0.1111 3:888 Â 10À3 1:772 Â 10À3 3:697 Â 10À6 1:0 Â 10À5y 1:0 Â 10À3y 1:602 Â 10À19 1:0 Â 10À7y 1.829 2:957 Â 10À5 0:3048y 10.76 2:012 Â 10À2 1:0 Â 10À2y 4:405 Â 10À3 3:785 Â 10À3 6:309 Â 10À5 0.2271

atmosphere, standard bar barn barrel (42 U.S. liquid gallons) Bohr magneton (B ) Btu (International Table) Btu (mean) Btu (thermochemical) bushel calorie (International Table) calorie (mean) calorie (thermochemical) centipoise centistokes cfm (cubic foot per minute) cubic inch cubic foot cubic yard curie debye degree (angle) denier (international) dram (apothecaries') dram (avoirdupois) dram (U.S. fluid) dyne dyne/cm electronvolt erg fathom fluid ounce (U.S.) foot footcandle furlong gal gallon (U.S. dry) gallon (U.S. liquid) gallon per minute (gpm)

y z

Exact. See footnote on p. x.

xiv

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS To convert from To tesla (T) ampere (A) cubic meter (m3 ) radian kilogram (kg) newton per tex (N/tex) square meter (m2 ) watt (W) watt (W) watt (W) kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) meter (m) pascal (Pa) pascal (Pa) newton (N) megajoule (MJ) newton (N) meter per second (m/S) candela per square meter (cd/m3 ) meter (m) meter (m) meter (m) cubic meter (m3 ) weber (Wb) meter (m) meter (m) meter (m) meter (m) meter per second (m/s) pascal (Pa) pascal (Pa) radian kilogram (Kg) kilometer (Km) ampere per meter (A/m) kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) cubic meter (m3 ) newton (N) cubic meter (m3 ) kilogram (kg) cubic meter (m3 )

Vol. 10 Multiply by 1:0 Â 10À4 0.7958 1:183 Â 10À4 1:571 Â 10À2 6:480 Â 10À5 8:826 Â 10À2 1:0 Â 104y 7:457 Â 102 9:810 Â 103 7:46 Â 102y 50.80 45.36 2:54 Â 10À2y 3:386 Â 103 2:491 Â 102 9.807 3.6y 4:448 Â 103 0.5144 3:183 Â 103 5:559 Â 103 4:828 Â 103 9:461 Â 1015 1:0 Â 10À3y 1:0 Â 10À8y 1:0 Â 10À6y 2:54 Â 10À5y 1:609 Â 103 1:852 Â 103y 0.4470 1:0 Â 102 1:333 Â 102y 2:909 Â 10À4 10 10 79.58 2:835 Â 10À2 3:110 Â 10À2 2:957 Â 10À5 0.2780 8:810 Â 10À3 1:555 Â 10À3 5:506 Â 10À4

gauss gilbert gill (U.S.) grade grain gram force per denier hectare horsepower (550 ft Á lbf/s) horsepower (boiler) horsepower (electric) hundredweight (long) hundredweight (short) inch inch of mercury (328F) inch of water (39.28F) kilogram-force kilowatt hour kip knot (international) lambert league (British nautical) league (statute) light year liter (for fluids only) maxwell micron mil mile (statue) mile (U.S. nautical) mile per hour millibar millimeter of mercury (08C) minute (angular) myriagram myriameter oersted ounce (avoirdupois) ounce (troy) ounce (U.S. fluid) ounce-force peck (U.S.) pennyweight pint (U.S. dry)

y

Exact.

Vol. 10

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS To convert from To cubic meter (m3 ) pascal second (Pa Á s) kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) newton (N) newton (N) pascal (Pa) cubic meter (m3 ) cubic meter (m3 ) kilogram (kg) gray (Gy) meter (m) coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) radian (rad) square meter (m2 ) kilogram (kg) lumen (lm) square meter (m2 ) square meter (m2 ) square meter (m2 ) square meter (m2 ) cubic meter (m3 ) square meter per second (m2 /s) kilogram per meter (kg/m) kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) pascal (Pa) weber (Wb) meter (m)

xv

Multiply by 4:732 Â 10À4 0:10y 0.4536 0.3732 0.1383 4.448 6:895 Â 103 1:101 Â 10À3 9:464 Â 10À4 1:0 Â 10À2y 1:0 Â 10À2y 5.029 2:58 Â 10À4 4:848 Â 10À6y 2:590 Â 106 14.59 12.57 6:452 Â 10À4 9:290 Â 10À2 2:590 Â 106 0.8361 1:0y 1:0 Â 10À4y 1:0 Â 10À6y 1:016 Â 103 1:0 Â 103y 9:072 Â 102 1:333 Â 102 1:257 Â 10À7 0:9144y

pint (U.S. liquid) poise (absolute viscosity) pound (avoirdupois) pound (troy) poundal pound-force pound force per square inch (psi) quart (U.S. dry) quart (U.S. liquid) quintal rad rod roentgen second (angle) section slug spherical candle power square inch square foot square mile square yard stere stokes (kinematic viscosity) tex ton (long, 2240 pounds) ton (metric) (tonne) ton (short, 2000 pounds) torr unit pole yard

y

Exact.

Abbreviations and Unit Symbols

Following is a list of common abbreviations and unit symbols used in the Encyclopedia. In general they agree with those listed in American National Standard Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text (ANSI Y1.1) (6) and American National Standard Letter Symbols for Units in Science and Technology (ANSI Y10) (6). Also included is a list of acronyms for a number of private and

xvi

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS

Vol. 10

government organizations as well as common industrial solvents, polymers, and other chemicals. Rules for Writing Unit Symbols (4): 1. Unit symbols are printed in upright letters (roman) regardless of the type style used in the surrounding text. 2. Unit symbols are unaltered in the plural. 3. Unit symbols are not followed by a period except when used at the end of a sentence. 4. Letter unit symbols are generally printed lower-case (for example, cd for candela) unless the unit name has been derived from a proper name, in which case the first letter of the symbol is capitalized (W, Pa). Prefixes and unit symbols retain their prescribed form regardless of the surrounding typography. 5. In the complete expression for a quantity, a space should be left between the numerical value and the unit symbol. For example, write 2.37 lm, not 2.37 lm, and 35 mm, not 35 mm. When the quantity is used in an adjectival sense, a hyphen is often used, for example, 35-mm film. Exception: No space is left between the numerical value and the symbols of degree, minute, and second of plane angle, degree Celsius, and the percent sign. 6. No space is used between the prefix and unit symbol (for example, kg). 7. Symbols, not abbreviations, should be used for units. For example, use ``A,'' not ``amp,'' for ampere. 8. When multiplying unit symbols, use a raised dot: N Á m for newton meter In the case of W Á h, the dot may be omitted, thus: Wh An exception to this practice is made for computer printouts, automatic typewriter work, etc, where the raised dot is not possible, and a dot on the line may be used. 9. When dividing unit symbols, use one of the following forms: m/s or m Á sÀ1 or m s

In no case should more than one slash be used in the same expression unless parentheses are inserted to avoid ambiguity. For example, write: J=ðmol Á KÞ or but not J/mol/K J Á molÀ1 Á KÀ1 or ðJ=molÞ=K

Vol. 10

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS

xvii

10. Do not mix symbols and unit names in the same expression. Write: joules per kilogram but not joules/kilogram nor Joules/kg nor Joules Á kgÀ1 or J/kg or J Á kgÀ1

ABBREVIATIONS AND UNITS

A A A a AATCC ampere anion (eg, HA) mass number atto (prefix for 10À18 ) American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists acrylonitrile­butadiene­ styrene absolute alternating current, n. alternating current, adj. alicyclic acetylacetonate American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists American Chemical Society American Gas Association ampere hour American Institute of Chemical Engineers American Institute of Mining, metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers American Institute of Physics American Iron and Steel Institute alcohol(ic) alkyl alkaline (not alkali) amount atomic mass unit American National Standards Institute atomic orbital AOAC AOCS APHA API aq Ar arasASHRAE Association of Official Analytical Chemists American Oil Chemists' Society American Public Health Association American Petroleum Institute aqueous aryl aromatic Asymmetric(al) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers American Society for Metals American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society for Testing and Materials atomic number atomic weight average American Welding Society bonding orbital barrel body-centered cubic body-centered tetragonal ´ Baume Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (adsorption equation) twice daily t-butyloxycarbonyl biochemical (biological) oxygen demand boiling point becquerel

ABS abs ac a-c acacac ACGIH

ASM ASME ASTM at no. at wt av(g) AWS

b

ACS AGA Ah AIChE AIME

AIP AISI alc Alk alk amt amu ANSI AO

bbl bcc BCT ´ Be BET bid Boc BOD bp Bq

xviii C 8C Cc c ca cd CFR cgs CI cis-

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS coulomb degree Celsius denoting attachment to carbon centi (prefix for 10À2 ) critical circa (Approximately) candela; current density; circular dichroism Code of Federal Regulations centimeter-gram-second Color Index isomer in which substituted groups are on some side of double bond between C atoms carload centimeter circular mil compound central nervous system coenzyme A chemical oxygen demand commerical(ly) chemically pure close-packed hexagonal Consumer Product Safety Commission crystalline cubic debye denoting configurational relationship differential operator day; deci (prefix for 10À1 ) density dextro-, dextrorotatory deka (prefix for 10À1 ) decibel direct current, n. direct current, adj. decompose determined determination didymium, a mixture of all lanthanons diameter dil DIN dl-; DLDMA DMF DMG DMSO DOD DOE DOT DP dp DPH dstl(d) dta (E) e ECU ed. ED EDTA emf emu en eng EPA epr eq. esca esp esr est(d) estn esu exp ext(d) F F

Vol. 10

cl cm cmil cmpd CNS CoA COD coml cp cph CPSC cryst cub D Dd d d dda dB dc d-c dec detd detn Di dia

dilute Deutsche Industrie Normen racemic dimethylacetamide dimethylformamide dimethyl glyoxime dimethyl sulfoxide Department of Defense Department of Energy Department of Transportation degree of polymerization dew point diamond pyramid hardness distill(ed) differential thermal analysis entgegen; opposed dielectric constant (unitless number) electron electrochemical unit edited, edition, editor effective dose ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid electromotive force electromagnetic unit ethylene diamine engineering Environmental Protection Agency electron paramagnetic resonance equation electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis especially electron-spin resonance estimate(d) estimation electrostatic unit experiment, experimental extract(ed) farad (capacitance) fraday (96,487 C)

Vol. 10 f FAO

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS femto (prefix for 10À15 ) Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations) face-centered cubic Food and Drug Administration Federal Energy Administration Federal Hazardous Substances Act free on board freezing point Federal Power Commission Federal Reserve Board freezing giga (prefix for 109 ) gravitational constant ¼ 6:67 Â 1011 N Á m2 /kg2 gram gas, only as in H2 O(g) gravitational acceleration gas chromatography geminal gas­liquid chromatography gram-molecular weight gross national product gel-permeation chromatography Generally Recognized as Safe ground gray henry hour; hecto (prefix for 102 ) hectare Brinell hardness number hemoglobin hexagonal close-packed hexagonal Knoop hardness number high performance liquid chromatography Rockwell hardness (C scale) Vickers hardness number hyd hyg Hz i (eg, Pri ) iIACS ibp IC ICC ICT ID ip IPS ir IRLG ISO

xix

fcc FDA FEA FHSA fob fp FPC FRB frz G G g (g) g gc gemglc g-mol wt; gmw GNP gpc GRAS grd Gy H h ha HB Hb hcp hex HK hplc HRC HV

ITS-90

IU IUPAC

IV iv J K k kg

L

L l(l) LC50 LCAO lc LCD lcl

hydrated, hydrous hygroscopic hertz iso (eg, isopropyl) inactive (eg, i-methionine) international Annealed Copper Standard initial boiling point integrated circuit Interstate Commerce Commission International Critical Table inside diameter; infective dose intraperitoneal iron pipe size infrared Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group International Organization Standardization International Temperature Scale (NIST) International Unit International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry iodine value intravenous joule kelvin kilo (prefix for 103 ) kilogram denoting configurational relationship liter (for fluids only) (5) levo-, levorotatory liquid, only as in NH3 (l) conc lethal to 50% of the animals tested linear combination of atomic orbitals liquid chromatography liquid crystal display less than carload lots

xx LD50 LED liq lm ln LNG log LOI LPG ltl lx M M Mw Mn m m mmax MCA

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS dose lethal to 50% of the animals tested light-emitting diode liquid lumen logarithm (natural) liquefied natural gas logarithm (common) limiting oxygen index liquefied petroleum gas less than truckload lots lux mega (prefix for 106 ); metal (as in MA) molar; actual mass weight-average mol wt number-average mol wt meter; milli (prefix for 10À3 ) molal meta maximum Chemical Manufacturers' Association (was Manufacturing Chemists Association) methyl ethyl ketone milliequivalent manufactured manufacturing manufacturer methyl isobutyl carbinol methyl isobutyl ketone minimum inhibiting concentration minute; minimum milliliter minimum lethal dose molecular orbital month mole molecular weight melting point molar refraction mass spectrometry material safety data sheet mixture micro (prefix for 10À6 ) N N Nn (as n20 ) D (as Bun ), nn n na NAS NASA nat ndt neg NF NIH NIOSH

n

Vol. 10

MEK meq mfd mfg mfr MIBC MIBK MIC min mL MLD MO mo mol mol wt mp MR ms MSDS mxt

NIST

nmr NND no. NOI-(BN) NOS nqr NRC

NRI NSF NTA

newton (force) normal (concentration); neutron number denoting attachment to nitrogen index of refraction (for 208C and sodium light) normal (straight-chain structure) neutron nano (prefix for 109 ) not available National Academy of Sciences National Aeronautics and Space Administration natural nondestructive testing negative National Formulary National Institutes of Health National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards) nuclear magnetic resonance New and Nonofficial Drugs (AMA) number not otherwise indexed (by name) not otherwise specified nuclear quadruple resonance Nuclear Regulatory Commission; National Research Council New Ring Index National Science Foundation nitrilotriacetic acid

Vol. 10 NTP

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS normal temperature and pressure (258C and 101.3 kPa or 1 atm) National Transportation Safety Board denoting attachment to oxygen ortho outside diameter Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries o-phenanthridine Occupational Safety and Health Administration on weight of fiber ohm peta (prefix for 1015 ) pico (prefix for 10À12 para proton page Pascal (pressure) personal exposure limit based on an 8-h exposure potential difference negative logarithm of the effective hydrogen ion concentration parts per hundred of resin (rubber) positive-intrinsic-negative proton magnetic resonance positive-negative per os (oral) polyoxypropylene positive pages parts per billion (109 ) parts per milion (106 ) parts per million by volume parts per million by weight poly(phenyl oxide) precipitate(d) precipitation foreign prototype (number) point; part poly(vinyl chloride) pwd py qv R (R)r rad RCRA rds ref. rf r-f rh RI rms rpm rps RT RTECS (eg, Bus ); secS (S)SsS (s) SAE SAN sat(d) satn SBS sc SCF Sch sem SFs sl sol sol

s

xxi

NTSB OoOD OPEC o-phen OSHA owf O P p pp p. Pa PEL

pd pH

phr p-i-n pmr p-n po POP pos pp. ppb ppm ppmv ppmwt PPO ppt(d) pptn Pr (no.) pt PVC

powder pyridine quod vide (which see) univalent hydrocarbon radical rectus (clockwise configuration) precision of data radian; radius Resource Conservation and Recovery Act rate-determining step reference radio frequency, n. radio frequency, adj. relative humidity Ring Index root-mean square rotations per minute revolutions per second room temperature Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances secondary (eg, secondary butyl) siemens sinister (counterclockwise configuration) denoting attachment to sulfur symmetric(al) second solid, only as in H2 O(s) Society of Automotive Engineers styrene-acrylonitrile saturate(d) saturation styrene­butadiene­styrene subcutaneous self-consistent field; standard cubic feet Schultz number scanning electron microscope(y) Saybolt Furol seconds slightly soluble soluble

xxii soln soly sp sp gr sr std STP

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS solution solubility specific; species specific gravity steradian standard standard temperature and pressure (08C and 101.3 kPa) sublime(s) Saybolt Universal seconds synthetic tertiary (eg, tertiary butyl) tera (prefix for 1012 ); tesla (magnetic flux density) metric to (tonne) temperature Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Tagliabue closed cup tex (linear density) glass-transition temperature thermogravimetric analysis tetrahydrofuran thin layer chromatography threshold limit value trans-

Vol. 10

TSCA TWA Twad UL USDA USP uv V var vicvol vs v sol W Wb Wh WHO wk yr (Z)-

sub SUs syn t (eg, But ), t-, tertT t t TAPPI

TCC tex Tg tga THF tlc TLV

isomer in which substituted groups are on opposite sides of double bond between C atoms Toxic Substances Control Act time-weighted average Twaddell Underwriters' Laboratory United States Department of Agriculture United States Pharmacopeia ultraviolet volt (emf) variable vicinal volume (not volatile) versus very soluble watt weber watt hour World Health Organization (United Nations) week year zusammen; together; atomic number

Non-SI (Unacceptable and Obsolete) Units ° A at atm b bary bbl bhp Btu bu cal cfm Ci cSt c/s cu angstrom atmosphere, technical atmosphere, standard barn bar barrel brake horsepower British thermal unit bushel calorie cubic foot per minute curie centistokes cycle per second cubic

Use nm Pa Pa cm2 Pa m3 W J m3 ; L J m3 /s Bq mm2 /s Hz exponential form

y Do not use bar (105 Pa) or millibar (102 Pa) because they are not SI units, and are accepted internationally only in special fields because of existing usage.

Vol. 10

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS

Use

xxiii

Non-SI (Unacceptable and Obsolete) Units D den dr dyn dyn/cm erg eu 8F fc fl fl oz ft ft Á lbf gf den G Gal gal Gb gpm gr hp ihp in. in. Hg in. H2 O in.-lbf kcal kgf kilo L lb lbf mho mi MM mm Hg m mph Oe oz ozf P ph psi psia psig qt 8R rd sb SCF sq thm yd debye denier dram dyne dyne per centimeter erg entropy unit degree Fahrenheit footcandle footlambert fluid ounce foot foot pound-force gram-force per denier gauss gal gallon gilbert gallon per minute grain horsepower indicated horsepower inch inch of mercury inch of water inch pound-force kilo-calorie kilogram-force for kilogram lambert pound pound-force mho mile million millimeter of mercury millimicron miles per hour micron oersted ounce ounce-force poise poise phot pounds-force per square inch pounds-force per square inch absolute pounds-force per square inch gage quart degree Rankine rad stilb standard cubic foot square therm yard

CÁm tex kg N mN/m J J/K 8C; K lx lx m3 ; L m J N/tex T m/s2 m3 ; L A (m3 /s); (m3 /h) kg W W m Pa Pa J J N kg lx kg N S m M Pa nm km/h mm A/m kg N Pa Á s Pa Á s lx Pa Pa Pa m3 ; L K Gy lx m3 exponential form J m

xxiv

FACTORS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS

Vol. 10

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM (Parc Saint-Cloud, France) is described in Ref. 4. This bureau operates under the exclusive supervision of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM). 2. Metric Editorial Guide (ANMC-78-1), latest ed., American National Metric Council, 900 Mix Avenue, Suite 1 Hamden CT 06514-5106, 1981. 3. SI Units and Recommendations for the Use of Their Multiples and of Certain Other Units (ISO 1000-1992), American National Standards Institute, 25 W 43rd St., New York, 10036, 1992. 4. Based on IEEE/ASTM-SI-10 Standard for use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System (Replaces ASTM380 and ANSI/IEEE Std 268-1992), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA., 2002. See also www.astm.org 5. Fed. Reg., Dec. 10, 1976 (41 FR 36414). 6. For ANSI address, see Ref. 3. See also www.ansi.org

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doi:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.10.016