Read untitled text version

CORSINI ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES

Preface, v Contributors, xv A ABA and ABAB Designs, 1 Ability Tests (See Aptitude Testing), 1 Abnormal Psychology, 1 Abnormality, 5 Abortion Counseling, 7 Abreaction, 9 Absent-Mindedness (See Attention Lapses), 11 Academic Achievement, 11 Academic Skill Disorder (See Learning Disabilities), 13 Acculturation, 13 Achievement Motivation, 14 Achievement Need, 15 Acquired Drives, 17 Acting Out, 19 Action Selection, 20 Actualization, 22 Actuarial Prediction (See Statistical Prediction), 24 Adaptive Testing (See Computerized Adaptive Testing), 24 Addiction, 24 ADHD (See AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), 26 Adjustment Disorder, 26 Adler, Alfred (1871­1937), 29 Admissibility of Expert Testimony, 30 Adolescent Depression, 32 Adolescent Development, 34 Adult Intellectual Development, 36 Adulthood and Aging, 38 Advertising Psychology, 39 Aesthetics, 42 Affect (See Emotions), 44 Affective Development, 44 Affective Disorder (See Mood Disorders), 45 Affiliation Need, 45 Age Regression, 46 Aggression, 48 Aging and Intelligence, 50 Aging, Physiological and Behavioral Concomitants of, 54 Agoraphobia, 55 Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter (1913­1999), 56 Akathisia, 57 Alcohol Use Disorders, 58 Alexia/Dyslexia, 61 Alexithymia, 63 All-or-None Law, 65 Allport, Gordon Willard (1897­1967), 66 Allport-Vernon Study of Values, 67 Alpha Coefficient (See Coefficient Alpha), 69 Alpha Rhythms, 69 Altruism, 70 Alzheimer's Disease, 71 Ambivalence, 74 Ambulatory Assessment, 76 American Board of Professional Psychology, 77 American Psychological Association, 78 American Psychological Association Code of Ethics, 80 American Psychological Association of Graduate Students, 81 American Psychology-Law Society, 83 American Psychosomatic Society, 84 Amnesia, 84 Amygdala, 87 Anal Stage (See Psychosexual Stages), 89 Analog Research Methods, 89 Analysis of Covariance, 90 Analysis of Variance, 92 Analytical Psychology, 98 Anastasi, Anne (1908­2001), 99 Anger, 100 Anger Management, 101 Animal Cognition, 104 Animal Intelligence, 106 Animal Learning and Behavior, 107 Anomic Aphasia, 110 Anorexia Nervosa, 113 Antabuse and Other Drugs for Treating Alcoholism, 114 Anthropology, 116 Anthropomorphism, 118 Antianxiety Medications, 119 Anticonvulsant Medications, 122 Antidepressant Medications, 123 Antimanic Medications (See Mood Stabilizing Medications), 124 Antipsychotic Medications, 125 Antisocial Behavior, 126 Antisocial Personality Disorder, 129 Anxiety, 131 Anxiety Disorders, 133 Applied Behavior Analysis, 136 Approach-Avoidance Conflict, 138 Aptitude Testing, 139 Archetypes, 141 Argentina, Psychology in, 142 Art Therapy, 144 Asian Psychologies, 148 Asperger Syndrome, 151 Assessment Psychology, 154 Assistive Technology, 158 Association for Behavior Analysis International, 160 Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, 160 Association for Psychological Science, 162 Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers, 164 Asthma, 166 Athletic Coaching, 167 Attachment and Bonding, 169 Attachment Disorders, 171 Attachment Styles, 173 Attachment Theory, 175 Attention (See Selective Attention), 179 Attention Lapses, 179 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 180 Attitudes, 182 Attribution Theory, 184 Auditory Perception, 186 Australia, Psychology in, 189 Authoritarianism, 190 Autistic Disorder, 192 Autonomic Nervous System (See Parasympathetic Nervous System; Sympathetic Nervous System), 195 Autoshaping, 195 Avoidance Learning, 197 Avoidant Personality Disorder, 198 Bibliotherapy, 232 Binet, Alfred (1857­1911), 233 Binge Eating (See Bulimia Nervosa), 234 Bioenergetic Therapy, 234 Biofeedback, 235 Biographical Data, 237 Bipolar Disorder, 238 Birth Order, 241 Bisexuality, 242 Body Dysmorphic Disorder, 244 Bogardus Social Distance Scale, 246 Bonding (See Attachment and Bonding), 246 Borderline Personality Disorder, 246 Boredom and Boredom Proneness, 249 Boring, Edwin G. (1886­1968), 250 Boston Naming Test, 250 Bowlby, John (1907­1990), 251 Brain, 251 Brain Development, 254 Brain Imaging (See Neuroimaging), 257 Brain Injuries, 257 Brain Stem, 258 Brain Surgery (See Psychosurgery), 259 Brainwaves (See Electroencephalography), 259 Brief Psychotherapy (See Short-Term Psychotherapy), 259 Buffering Hypothesis, 259 Bulimia Nervosa, 260 Bullying, 262 Burnout, 264 Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook, 266 Bystander Involvement, 268 C Caffeine-Related Disorders, 271 California Psychological Inventory, 272 Calkins, Mary Whiton (1863­1930), 274 Canadian Psychological Association, 275 Cancer (See Psychooncology), 276 Cannabis-Related Disorders, 276 Career Counseling, 277 Career Development, 279 Catharsis, 281 Cattell, James McKeen (1860­1944), 282 Central Limit Theorem, 283 Central Nervous System, 285 Central Nervous System Disorders, 287 Central Tendency Measures, 289 Character (See Personality Development), 291 Character Disorders (See Personality Disorders), 291

CO

PY R

IG

HT

ED

MA

B Babinski Sign, 201 Bandura, Albert (1925­ ), 202 Barbiturates (See Antianxiety Medications), 203 Barnum Effect, 203 Base Rates, 204 Battered Woman Syndrome, 205 Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 207 Beck, Aaron T. (1921­ ), 208 Beck Depression Inventory-II, 210 Behavior Assessment System for Children, 211 Behavior Modification, 213 Behavior Problems of Childhood and Adolescence, 215 Behavior Therapy (See Behavior Modification), 217 Behavioral Activation, 217 Behavioral Assessment, 220 Behavioral Inhibition, 222 Behavioral Modeling, 223 Behavioral Observation, 225 Behavioral Pediatrics, 227 Behaviorism (See Radical Behaviorism), 229 Bem Sex Role Inventory, 229 Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, 229 Benzodiazapines (See Antianxiety Medications), 231 Bereavement (See Grief), 231 Beta and Gamma Rhythms, 231 Bias (See Assessment Bias; Confirmatory Bias; Cultural Bias; Prejudice and Discrimination), 232

TE

RI

AL

ix

x

Child Abuse, 291 Child Behavior Checklist, 293 Child Custody, 294 Child Guidance Clinics, 296 Child Maltreatment, 297 Child Neglect, 300 Child Psychology, 302 Child Rearing (See Parental Approaches), 303 Child Sexual Abuse, 303 Childhood Psychosis, 306 China, Psychology in, 308 Chi-Square Test, 310 Chomsky, A. Noam (1928­ ), 311 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 312 Chronic Pain, Psychological Factors in, 314 Circadian Rhythms, 317 Civil Competence, 319 Clark, Kenneth B. (1914­2005), 321 Classical Conditioning (See Pavlovian Conditioning), 322 Classroom Behavior, 322 Client-Centered Therapy, 324 Clinical Judgment, 327 Clinical Psychology, 328 Clinical Psychology, Graduate Training in, 332 Clinical Psychology, Historical Roots of, 334 Cluster Analysis, 336 Coaching, 336 Cocaine-Related Disorders, 338 Coefficient Alpha, 339 Coefficient of Agreement (See Kappa Coefficient), 340 Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, 340 Cognitive development, 342 Cognitive Dissonance, 345 Cognitive Maps, 346 Cognitive Neuroscience, 348 Cognitive Theories of Affect, 350 Cognitive Therapy, 353 Cohen's d, 355 Collaborative Assessment (See Therapeutic Assessment), 356 Collective Unconscious, 356 Colombia, Psychology in, 357 Communication Disorders, 358 Communication Skills Training, 360 Community Psychology, 362 Comorbidity, 363 Comparative Neuropsychology, 365 Comparative Psychology, 367 Competency to Stand Trial, 369 Compulsions, 370 Computer-Assisted Psychotherapy, 372 Computer-Based Test Interpretation, 374 Computerized Adaptive Testing, 376 Computerized Behavioral Assessment, 378 Concept Formation, 381 Conditioning (See Instrumental Conditioning; Operant Conditioning; Pavlovian Conditioning), 383 Conduct Disorder, 383 Conduction Aphasia, 385 Confidence Interval, 387 Confidentiality and Legal Privilege, 388 Conflict Resolution, 390 Conformity, 391 Constancy, 393

CORSINI ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES

Constructivist Psychotherapy, 396 Consumer Psychology, 397 Consumer Research, 400 Contextualism, 402 Contingency Tables, 404 Control Therapy, 404 Conversion Disorder, 407 Convulsants, 411 Convulsive Therapy (See Electroconvulsive Therapy), 412 Coping Behavior, 412 Coping Skills Training, 415 Correctional Psychology, 417 Correlation Methods (See Linear Regression; Multiple Correlation; Phi Coefficient; Rank Order Correlation), 420 Counseling, 420 Countertransference, 422 Couples Therapy, 424 Creative Thinking, 426 Creativity, 427 Criminal Profiling, 428 Criminal Responsibility, 430 Criminology, 432 Crisis Intervention, 435 Cronbach, Lee J. (1916­2001), 438 Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Assessment, 438 Cross-Cultural Psychology, 441 Crowd Behavior (See Mob Psychology), 443 Cultural Bias in Psychological Testing, 443 Cultural Sensitivity, 445 Culture and Depression, 447 Culture and Psychotherapy, 449 Current Psychotherapies, 451 Cutaneous Sensation (See Haptic Perception; Tactile Sensation), 455 Cyclothymic Disorder, 455 D Dance/Movement Therapy, 459 Daubert Standard (See Admissibility of Expert Testimony), 460 Deafness and Hearing Loss, 461 Deception, 462 Declarative Memory, 464 Defense Mechanisms, 466 Delinquency (See Juvenile Delinquency), 467 Delusional Disorder, 467 Delusions, 470 Dementia, 472 Dementia Praecox (See Schizophrenia), 474 Denmark, Psychology in, 474 Dependency, 475 Dependent Personality Disorder, 477 Dependent Variables, 479 Depersonalization Disorder, 480 Depression, 483 Depressive Personality Disorder, 485 Depth Perception, 486 Desensitization (See Systematic Desensitization), 487 Deutsch, Morton (1920­ ), 487 Developmental Psychology, 489 Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, 493 Deviancy, 493 Dewey, John (1859­1952), 494 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), 495 Diagnostic Classification, 498 Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV), 500 Dialectical Behavior Therapy, 501 Dialogical Self, 504 Disaster Psychology, 506 Discrimination, 508 Disordered Thinking, 510 Dissociative Disorders, 512 Dissociative Identity Disorder, 513 Divorce, Child and Adolescent Adjustment in, 516 Double Bind, 518 Down Syndrome, 520 Draw-A-Person Test (See Figure Drawing Tests), 522 Dreams, 522 Drug Addiction, 523 Drug Therapy (See Psychopharmacology), 526 DSM (See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), 526 Dual Diagnosis (See Comorbidity), 526 Dual Relationships, 526 Dynamic Psychology, 528 Dyslexia (See Alexia/Dyslexia), 531 Dysthymic Disorder, 531 E Early Childhood Development, 535 Early Childhood Education, 536 Eating Disorders, 540 Ecological Psychology, 541 ECT (See Electroconvulsive Therapy), 544 Educational Mainstreaming, 544 Educational Psychology, 545 Effect Size, 549 Ego Development, 549 Ego Identity (See Identity Formation), 552 Ego Psychology, 552 Elder Abuse and Neglect, 554 Electroconvulsive Therapy, 556 Electroencephalography, 557 EMDR (See Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), 558 Emotion Regulation, 558 Emotional Development, 560 Emotional Disturbances, 562 Emotional Intelligence, 564 Emotions, 566 Empathy (See Interpersonal Perception), 568 Empirically Supported Treatments, 568 Employee Assistance Programs, 570 Encopresis, 572 Engineering Psychology, 573 Enuresis, 576 Environmental Psychology, 578 Envy, 581 Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, 583 Epilepsy, 586 Episodic Memory, 588 Episodic Memory and the Hippocampus, 590 Erikson, Erik Homburger (1902­1994), 592 Eriksonian Developmental Stages, 592 Errors, Type I and Type II, 594 Escape-Avoidance Learning, 596 Ethical Issues in Psychology, 597 Ethical Treatment of Animals, 599 Ethnocultural Psychotherapy, 601 Ethology, 602 Evidence-Based Practice, 603 Evolutionary Psychology, 607 Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses, 609 Exhibitionism, 610 Existential Psychology, 611 Existential Psychotherapy, 613 Experiential Psychotherapy, 615 Experimental Controls, 617 Experimental Psychology, 619 Expert Testimony, 623 Exposure Therapy, 626 Extraversion-Introversion (See Introversion-Extraversion), 628 Extremism, 628 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, 629 Eyewitness Testimony, 632 Eysenck, Hans J. (1916­1997), 634 Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, 635 F F Ratio (See Analysis of Variance), 637 Face Validity, 637 Facial Recognition, 638 Factitious Disorder, 640 Factor Analysis, 641 Factorial Designs, 643 False Memory Syndrome, 645 Family Development, Theories of, 646 Family Therapy, 648 Fear, 651 Fechner's Law, 653 Femininity, 654 Ferster, Charles B. (1922­1981), 656 Festinger, Leon (1919­1989), 656 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, 657 Fibromyalgia, 659 Fight/Flight Reaction, 661 Figure Drawings, 662 Finland, Psychology in, 664 Firesetting, 665 Fitness-for-Duty Evaluations, 667 Fitts's Law, 669 Five-Factor Model of Personality, 670 Flourishing, 671 Flynn Effect, 672 Food Addiction, 674 Forensic Assessment Instruments and Techniques, 676 Forensic Consulting, 678 Forensic Psychologists, Roles and Activities of, 680 Forensic Psychology, 682 Freud, Sigmund (1856­1939), 684 Friendships, 685 Functional Analysis, 687 Fugue (See Amnesia; Dissociative Disorders), 689 G GABA Receptors, 691 Gambling Addiction, 693 Gender Differences, 695 Gender Identity (See Gender Roles), 698 Gender Identity Disorder, 698 Gender Roles, 699

CORSINI ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES

General Adaptation Syndrome, 701 Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 702 Genetic Counseling, 704 Genetics and General Intelligence, 706 Geriatric Psychology, 709 Germany, Psychology in, 713 Gerontology, 715 Geropsychology, 717 Gestalt Psychology, 718 Gestalt Therapy, 721 Giftedness, 723 Greece, Psychology in, 724 Grief, 725 Gross Motor Skill Learning, 727 Group Cohesiveness, 728 Group Therapy, 729 Growth Curve Analysis, 732 Guilt, 734 Guthrie, Edwin R. (1886­1959), 736 H Halfway Houses, 739 Hall, G. Stanley (1844­1924), 741 Hallucinations, 742 Hallucinogen-Related Disorders, 744 Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery, 746 Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 748 Happiness, 749 Haptic Perception, 750 Harlow, Harry F. (1905­1981), 752 Head Start, 753 Health Psychology, 755 Hearing Loss (See Deafness and Hearing Loss), 758 Hebb, Donald Olding (1904­1985), 758 Helplessness (See Learned Helplessness), 759 Heredity (See Nature-Nurture Controversy), 759 Heterosexuality, 759 High-Risk Participant Studies, 762 Hilgard, Ernest R. (1905­2001), 764 Hippocampus, 764 Histrionic Personality Disorder, 766 Hoarding, 769 Homelessness, 770 Homeostasis, 773 Homosexuality, 774 Hope, 777 Hull, Clark L. (1884­1952), 778 Human Development, 779 Human Factors Research, 781 Human Locomotion, 784 Humanistic Psychotherapies, 785 Hyperactivity, 789 Hyperventilation, 791 Hypnosis, 792 Hypochondriasis, 794 Hypomania (See Bipolar Disorder), 795 Hypothesis Testing, 795 Hysteria (See Somatization Disorder), 797 I Iceland, Psychology in, 799 Idealization, 799 Identification with the Aggressor, 800 Identity Formation, 801 Idiot Savant (See Savant Syndrome), 803 Illusions (See Visual Illusions), 803 Implicit Association Test, 803 Impression Management, 804 Imprinting, 806 Impulse Control Disorders (See Firesetting; Gambling Addiction; Intermittent Explosive Disorder; Kleptomania; Trichotillomania), 807 Impulsivity, 807 Incontinence (See Encopresis; Enuresis), 809 India, Psychology in, 809 Individualism, 811 Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 812 Infantile Autism (See Autistic Disorder), 816 Infantile Sexuality (See Psychosexual Stages), 816 Inferiority Feelings (See Self-Esteem), 816 Information Processing, 816 Informed Consent, 818 Inhalant-Related Disorders, 820 Insanity (See Psychotic Disorders), 822 Insight, 822 Insight-Oriented Psychotherapy, 823 Insomnia, 826 Instrumental Conditioning, 829 Integral Psychology, 830 Intellectual Development, 833 Intelligence, 835 Intelligence Quotient, 838 Intelligence Testing, 839 Interamerican Society of Psychology, 843 Interests, 844 Interference, 846 Intermittent Explosive Disorder, 848 Internal Consistency (See Alpha Coefficient), 850 International Association of Applied Psychology, 850 International Council of Psychologists, 851 International Psychology, 852 International Society of Clinical Psychology, 854 International Test Commission, 854 Interpersonal Expectancy Effects (See Pygmalion Effect), 855 Interpersonal Perception, 855 Interpersonal Psychotherapy, 858 Interpersonal Relationships, 861 Interrogation, 863 Intervening Variables, 865 Interview Assessment, 865 Intrinsic Motivation, 868 Introversion-Extraversion, 870 IQ (See Intelligence Quotient), 871 Irrational Beliefs, 871 Irritable Bowel Syndrome, 872 Isomorphism, 874 Israel, Psychology in, 876 Item Analysis, 878 Item Response Theory (See Item Analysis; Psychometrics), 879 J James, William (1842­1910), 881 Japan, Psychology in, 881 Jealousy, 883 Job Stress (See Occupational Stress), 884 Job Stress Survey, 884 Jones, Mary Cover (1896­1987), 885 Jung, Carl (1875­1961), 886 Just Noticeable Difference, 886 Juvenile Delinquency, 888 Juvenile Firesetting (See Firesetting), 891 K Kagan, Jerome (1929­ ), 893 Kappa Coefficient, 894 Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test, 895 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 897 Kinetic Family Drawing Test (See Figure Drawing Tests), 898 Kinsey Institute, 898 Kleptomania, 900 Kohlberg, Lawrence (1927­1987), 902 Korsakoff Syndrome, 902 Kruskal-Wallis Test, 904 L Language Acquisition, 905 Language Comprehension, 906 Language, Intergroup Parameters of, 908 Late-Life Forgetting, 910 Late-Life Psychosis, 910 Latency Stage (See Psychosexual Stages), 912 Latent Class Analysis, 912 Latent Inhibition, 914 Latin Square Design, 915 Law and Psychology (See Psychology and the Law), 917 Learned Helplessness, 917 Learning Curves, 919 Learning Disabilities, 919 Learning Theories, 922 Lesbianism, 924 Lewin, Kurt (1890­1947), 926 Libido, 927 Lie Detection, 928 Lifespan Depression, 930 Likert Scales, 932 Limbic System, 933 Linear Regression, 935 Linguistics (See Psycholinguistics), 938 Loevinger, Jane (1918­2008), 938 Logical Positivism, 939 Logistic Regression, 940 Loneliness, 942 Long-Term Potentiation, 944 Longitudinal Studies, 946 Loose Associations, 947 Love, 948 LSD (See Hallucinogen Related Disorders), 950 Luria, Alexander Romanovich (1902­1977), 950 Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, 951 M Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 953 Mainstreaming, 955 Major Depressive Disorder, 956 Malingering, 958 Mania (See Bipolar Disorder), 960

xi

Manic-Depressive Disorder (See Bipolar Disorder), 960 Mann-Whitney U Test, 960 Mao Inhibitors (See Antidepressant Medications), 961 Marasmus (See Failure to Thrive), 961 Marijuana (See CannabisRelated Disorders), 961 Marital Discord, 961 Marriage Counseling, 963 Masculinity, 964 Maslow, Abraham (1908­1970), 966 Masochism, 967 Masochistic Personality (See Sadomasochistic Personality), 969 Masturbation, 969 Mate Selection, 970 Mathematical Psychology, 971 McNaughton Rule, 974 Meehl, Paul E. (1920­2003), 976 Megalomania, 977 Melancholia (See Major Depressive Disorder), 977 Memory Disorders (See Alzheimer's Disease; Amnesia; Dementia; Late-Life Forgetting), 977 Memory Functions, 977 Menopause, 980 Menstruation, 981 Mental Imagery, 983 Mental Measurements Yearbook (See Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook), 985 Mental Retardation, 985 Mental Status Examination, 988 Meta-Analysis, 990 Mexico, Psychology in, 992 Midlife Crisis, 993 Milgram, Stanley (1933­1984), 994 Military Psychology, 995 Miller, Neal E. (1909­2002), 997 Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, 999 Mindfulness (See Mindlessness-Mindfulness), 1001 Mindlessness-Mindfulness, 1001 Minimal Brain Dysfunction (See Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder), 1003 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 1003 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory­Adolescent, 1006 Missing Data, 1007 Mob Psychology, 1009 Modeling, 1010 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (See Antidepressant Medications), 1012 Mood Disorders, 1012 Mood Stabilizing Medications, 1014 Moods (See Emotions), 1018 Moral Development, 1018 Moral Treatment, 1020 Morality, 1021 Morphology, 1023 Motion Parallax and Structure from Motion, 1025 Motion Perception, 1027 Motivation, 1029 Motivational Interviewing, 1031 Motor Control, 1034 Motor Skill Learning (See Gross Motor Skill Learning), 1035

xii

Mourning (See Grief), 1035 Mowrer, O. Hobart (1907­1982), 1035 Multicultural Assessment, 1036 Multicultural Counseling, 1038 Multiple Correlation, 1040 Multiple Personality (See Dissociative Identity Disorder), 1041 Multiple Regression, 1041 Multivariate Methods, 1041 Munchausen Syndrome (See Factitious Disorder), 1045 Murray, Henry A. (1893­1988), 1045 Muscle Relaxation (See Progressive Muscle Relaxation), 1045 Music Therapy, 1045 Myelin, 1047 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBT), 1048 N Narcissism, 1051 Narcissistic Personality Disorder, 1052 Narcolepsy, 1055 National Academy of Neuropsychology, 1056 National Academy of Sciences, 1057 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1058 National Institute of Mental Health, 1059 National Institute on Aging, 1059 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1060 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1061 National Institutes of Health, 1063 National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology, 1064 Nature-Nurture Controversy, 1064 Near-Death Experiences, 1066 Need For Achievement (See Achievement Need), 1068 Need For Affiliation (See Affiliation Need), 1068 NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), 1068 Neocortex, 1070 Netherlands, Psychology in, 1072 Neurochemistry, 1074 Neuroimaging, 1076 Neuroimaging in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder, 1078 Neuropsychological Assessment (See Neuropsychology), 1080 Neuropsychological Development, 1080 Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 1082 Neuropsychology, 1084 Neuroscience, 1086 Neurosis, 1088 Neurotransmitters, 1090 New Zealand, Psychology in, 1091 Nicotine-Related Disorders, 1093 Nigeria, Psychology in, 1094 Nightmares, 1095 Noise Pollution, 1097 Nondirective Therapy (See Client-Centered Therapy), 1098 Nonparametric Statistical Tests, 1098

CORSINI ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES

Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, 1100 Nonverbal Communication, 1102 Norm-Referenced Testing, 1104 Normality (See Abnormality; Psychological Health), 1105 Null Hypothesis Significance Testing, 1105 O Obesity, 1107 Object Relations Theory, 1110 Object Splitting, 1111 Observational Methods (See Behavioral Observation), 1112 Obsessions, 1112 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 1114 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, 1116 Occupational Health Psychology, 1119 Occupational Interests, 1121 Occupational Stress, 1124 Oedipus Complex, 1125 Operant Conditioning, 1127 Operational Definition, 1128 Oppositional Defiant Disorder, 1129 Optimal Functioning, 1131 Oral Stage (See Psychosexual Stages), 1133 Organizational Psychology (See Industrial-Organizational Psychology), 1133 Osgood, Charles Egerton (1916­1991), 1133 Oxytocin, 1134 P Pain Disorder, 1137 Pain Theories, 1139 Paired Comparisons, 1141 Pakistan, Psychology in, 1142 Panic Disorder, 1144 Paradoxical Intervention, 1146 Paradoxical Sleep, 1150 Parametric Statistical Tests, 1151 Paranoia (See Delusional Disorder), 1152 Paranoid Personality Disorder, 1152 Paraphilias (See Sexual Deviations), 1154 Parasympathetic Nervous System, 1154 Parent Management Training, 1156 Parental Alienation Syndrome, 1157 Parental Approaches, 1159 Participant Observation, 1161 Partner Abuse, 1162 Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder, 1164 Pastoral Counseling, 1166 Patient Adherence, 1168 Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich (1849­1936), 1170 Pavlovian Conditioning, 1171 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 1173 Pediatric Psychology, 1174 Pedophilia, 1177 Peer Influences, 1178 Peer Status, 1181 Peer Tutoring, 1183 Perception, 1184 Perceptual Control Theory, 1187 Perceptual Development, 1188 Perfectionism, 1191 Performance-Based Personality Measures, 1192 Person-Centered Therapy (See Client-Centered Therapy), 1194 Person Perception (See Interpersonal Perception), 1194 Personal Construct Theory, 1194 Personality and Illness, 1196 Personality Assessment, 1198 Personality Assessment Inventory, 1200 Personality, Biological Bases of, 1203 Personality Development, 1205 Personality Disorders, 1209 Personality, Genetic Bases of, 1210 Personality, Interpersonal Theories of, 1213 Personality, Psychodynamic Models of, 1215 Personality Psychology, 1218 Personality Testing (See Personality Assessment), 1222 Personality, Trait Theories of, 1222 Personnel Selection, 1224 Personology, 1227 Pervasive Developmental Disorders (See Asperger Syndrome; Autistic Disorder), 1229 Phallic Stage (See Psychosexual Stages), 1229 Phantom Limb Pain, 1230 Pharmacotherapy (See Psychotropic Medication), 1230 Phenothiazines (See Antipsychotic Medications), 1230 Phenylketonuria, 1231 Pheromones, 1232 Phi Coefficient, 1234 Philosophy and Psychology (See Psychology and Philosophy), 1235 Philosophy of Psychotherapy (See Psychotherapy, Philosophy of), 1235 Phineas Gage, 1235 Phobic Disorder, 1237 Phonemes, 1239 Physical Attractiveness, 1242 Physiological Psychology, 1243 Piaget, Jean (1896­1980), 1246 Piaget's Theory, 1247 Pick's Disease, 1248 Pituitary Gland, 1251 Placebo, 1252 Play, 1254 Play Assessment, 1256 Play Therapy, 1258 Pleasure Principle, 1261 Police Psychology, 1261 Political Psychology, 1263 Polygraph (See Lie Detection), 1265 Portugal, Psychology in, 1265 Positive Psychology, 1266 Positron Emission Tomography (See Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neuroimaging; Neuroscience), 1268 Postconcussion Syndrome, 1268 Postpartum Depression, 1269 Posttraumatic Growth, 1271 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 1273 Power, Statistical (See Statistical Power), 1276 Prejudice and Discrimination, 1276 Premarital Counseling, 1277 Premenstrual Syndrome, 1278 Prescription Privileges, 1280 Prevention of Mental Disorders, 1282 Pride, 1284 Primary Mental Abilities, 1286 Primary Motor Cortex, 1288 Priming, 1290 Principal Component Analysis, 1291 Probability, 1292 Problem Solving, 1293 Profiling (See Criminal Profiling), 1294 Progressive Muscle Relaxation, 1295 Projective Identification, 1296 Projective Tests (See Performance-Based Personality Measures), 1297 Propaganda, 1297 Propensity Scores, 1299 Prosocial Behavior, 1300 Pseudodementia, 1302 Psi Chi, 1304 Psychoanalysis, 1304 Psychoanalytic Theories, 1306 Psychodrama, 1310 Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, 1312 Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, 1315 Psycholinguistics, 1317 Psychological Assessment, 1319 Psychological Autopsy, 1321 Psychological Health, 1323 Psychological Measurement, Bias in, 1325 Psychological Mindedness, 1328 Psychological Science, 1330 Psychological Systems, 1332 Psychological Testing (See Psychological Assessment), 1334 Psychological Trauma (See Disaster Psychology; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Trauma Psychology), 1335 Psychology and Philosophy, 1335 Psychology and Religion (See Religion and Psychology), 1336 Psychology and the Law, 1336 Psychology, History of, 1338 Psychology of Men, 1342 Psychology of Women, 1343 Psychometrics, 1345 Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1349 Psychoneuroimmunology, 1351 Psychonomic Society, 1353 Psychooncology, 1354 Psychopathic Personality, 1355 Psychopathology, 1358 Psychopathy Checklist, 1360 Psychopharmacology, 1361 Psychophysics, 1362 Psychophysiology, 1364 Psychosexual Stages, 1365 Psychosomatic Disorders (See Somatoform Disorders), 1366 Psychostimulant Treatment for Children, 1366 Psychosurgery, 1369 Psychotherapy, 1371 Psychotherapy, Effective Elements of, 1373 Psychotherapy, Effectiveness of, 1375 Psychotherapy, Efficacy of, 1377 Psychotherapy Integration, 1384 Psychotherapy, Philosophy of, 1387

CORSINI ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES

Psychotherapy Research, 1389 Psychotherapy Training, 1392 Psychotic Disorders, 1394 Psychotropic Medications (See Antianxiety Medications; Anticonvulsant Medications; Antidepressant Medications; Antipsychotic Medications; Mood Stabilizing Medications; Psychostimulant Treatment for Children), 1396 PTSD (See Posttraumatic Stress Disorder), 1396 Puberty, 1396 Pygmalion Effect, 1398 Pyromania (See Firesetting), 1399 Q Q-Methodology, 1401 Qualitative Research Methods, 1403 Quality of Life, 1405 Quasi-Experimental Design, 1406 Questionnaires, 1408 R Racial Differences, 1411 Racism, 1413 Radical Behaviorism, 1415 Randomized Control Trials, 1416 Rank Order Correlation, 1418 Rape, 1419 Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, 1422 Rasch Model, 1424 Rater Error, 1424 Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, 1425 Rationality, 1427 Raven's Progressive Matrices, 1428 Reactive Attachment Disorder (See Attachment Disorders), 1430 Reading Disability, 1430 Reading Skill, 1432 Reality Therapy, 1434 Reciprocal Inhibition, 1437 Recovered Memories, 1438 Reflective Listening, 1440 Reframing, 1442 Rehabilitation Psychology, 1444 Relationship Psychotherapy, 1447 Reliability, 1448 Religion and Mental Health, 1449 Religion and Psychology, 1452 Repertory Grid Methods, 1453 Repetition Compulsion, 1455 Repressed Memory (See Recovered Memory), 1456 Residential Treatment, 1456 Resilience, 1458 Response Set, 1461 Rewards and Intrinsic Interest, 1463 Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, 1464 Rey Complex Figure Test, 1465 Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, 1466 Rigidity, 1467 Risk Management, 1469 Risk-Taking Behavior, 1471 Ritual Abuse (See Satanic Ritual Abuse), 1473 Rogers, Carl Ransom (1902­1987), 1473 Rokeach, Milton (1918­1988), 1474 Romantic Competence, 1475 Rorschach, Hermann (1884­1922), 1477 Rorschach Inkblot Method, 1477 Rumor, 1480 Russia, Psychology in, 1481 S Sadism, 1485 Sadistic Personality (See Sadomasochistic Personality), 1486 Sadness, 1486 Sadomasochistic Personality, 1488 Sample Size Planning, 1490 Sampling Error, 1492 Sampling Methods, 1493 Sanity (See Psychological Health), 1494 Satanic Ritual Abuse, 1494 Savant Syndrome, 1497 Scapegoating, 1498 Schizoaffective Disorder, 1499 Schizoid Personality Disorder, 1501 Schizophrenia, 1503 Schizophrenia, Childhood and Adolescent, 1507 Schizophrenia, Functional Outcomes in, 1509 Schizotypal Personality Disorder, 1511 School Adjustment, 1513 School Dropout, 1514 School Learning, 1515 School Refusal Behavior, 1517 Schools of Professional Psychology, 1519 Scientific Method, 1520 Seasonal Affective Disorder, 1522 Seizures (See Epilepsy), 1524 Selective Attention, 1524 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (See Antidepressant Medications), 1526 Self Psychology, 1526 Self-Control, 1528 Self-Determination, 1530 Self-Disclosure, 1532 Self-Efficacy, 1534 Self-Esteem, 1536 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (See Pygmalion Effect), 1538 Self-Help Groups, 1538 Self-Monitoring, 1540 Self-Protection, 1541 Self-Rating, 1542 Self-Report Inventories, 1544 Sensation Seeking, 1545 Sensory Deprivation, 1548 Sentence Completion Tests, 1550 Separation Anxiety Disorder, 1552 Separation-Individuation, 1554 Serotonin, 1555 Sex Differences (See Gender Differences), 1557 Sex Offenders, 1557 Sex Therapy, Female, 1559 Sex Therapy, Male, 1562 Sexism, 1564 Sexual Desire, 1566 Sexual Development, 1567 Sexual Deviations, 1568 Sexual Dysfunction, Female, 1570 Sexual Dysfunction, Male, 1573 Sexual Harassment, 1575 Sexual Identity Disorders (See Gender Identity Disorders), 1577 Sexual Intercourse, Human, 1577 Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, 1578 Sexual Orientation, Roots of, 1579 Sexual Subcultures, 1580 Sexuality, Optimal, 1581 Shakow, David (1901­1981), 1583 Sham Rage, 1583 Shamanism, 1585 Shame, 1587 Shaping (See Autoshaping; Successive Approximation), 1589 Shell Shock (See Postraumatic Stress Disorder), 1589 Sherif, Muzafer (1906­1988), 1589 Shock Therapy (See Electroconvulsive Therapy), 1589 Short-Term Psychotherapy, 1589 Shyness, 1592 Sibling Relationships, 1594 Significance Testing, 1595 Simultaneous Conditioning, 1597 Single Parenthood, 1599 Single-Participant Research Designs, 1601 Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, 1603 Skill Acquisition, 1605 Skinner, Burhus Fredrick (1904­1990), 1606 Sleep Cycle, 1607 Sleep Cycles, 1609 Sleep Disorders, 1611 Sleeper Effect, 1613 Small-Sample Statistics, 1614 Smoking Behavior, 1616 Social Climate Research, 1618 Social Cognitive Development, 1621 Social Competence, 1623 Social Construction, 1625 Social Desirability, 1628 Social Facilitation, 1632 Social Isolation, 1630 Social Learning Theory, 1631 Social Neuroscience, 1635 Social Phobia, 1636 Social Projection, 1639 Social Psychology, 1640 Social Psychophysiology, 1644 Social Self, 1645 Social Skills Training, 1647 Social Support, 1648 Socialization, 1650 Society for Child and Family Policy and Practice, 1651 Society for Community Research and Action, 1652 Society for Consumer Psychology, 1653 Society for General Psychology, 1654 Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1654 Society for Military Psychology, 1656 Society for Neuroscience, 1656 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 1657 Society for Personality Assessment, 1657 Society for Psychotherapy Research, 1658 Society for Research in Child Development, 1659

xiii

Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, 1659 Society for the History of Psychology, 1660 Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, 1662 Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues, 1661 Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, 1662 Society for the Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1663 Society for the Psychology of Women, 1664 Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence, 1664 Society for the Teaching of Psychology, 1665 Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 1666 Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 1666 Society of Clinical Psychology, 1667 Society of Consulting Psychology, 1668 Sociology, 1669 Sociometric Methods, 1672 Somatization Disorder, 1674 Somatoform Disorders, 1676 Somatosensory Function, 1678 Spain, Psychology in, 1680 Spatial Memory, 1682 Speech Perception, 1683 Speech Production, 1685 Spence, Kenneth W. (1907­1967), 1687 Split Personality (See Dissociative Identity Disorder), 1688 Splitting, 1688 Sport Performance Interventions, 1688 Sport Psychology, 1691 Spouse Abuse (See Partner Abuse), 1693 Stalking, 1693 Standard Deviation, 1695 Standard Error of Measurement, 1695 Standard Score (See Z-Score), 1696 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 1696 State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, 1697 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 1698 Statistical Power, 1699 Statistical Prediction, 1700 Statistical Significance, 1702 Stereotype Threat, 1703 Stimulant Medications (See Psychostimulant Treatment for Children), 1704 Stimulation Seeking (See Risk-Taking Behavior; Sensation Seeking), 1704 Stockholm Syndrome (See Identification with the Aggressor), 1704 Stress Consequences, 1704 Striate Cortex, 1707 Strong Interest Inventory, 1709 Stroop Color-Word Test, 1711 Stroop Effect, 1712 Structural Equation Modeling, 1714 Structuralism, 1716

xiv

Structured and Semistructured Interviews, 1717 Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Diagnosis, 1719 Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms, 1721 Student's t Statistic, 1723 Stuttering (See Speech Production), 1724 Sublimation, 1724 Subliminal Perception, 1725 Substance Use Disorders (See Drug Addiction), 1727 Successive Approximation, 1727 Suicidal Behavior among Youth, 1729 Suicidality, 1732 Sullivan's Interpersonal Theory, 1734 Superego, 1736 Superiority Feelings (See Self-Esteem), 1736 Supportive Psychotherapy, 1736 Supportive-Expressive Therapy, 1739 Symbiosis, 1741 Sympathetic Nervous System, 1742 Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, 1743 Synapses (See Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses), 1745 Synesthesia, 1745 Systematic Desensitization, 1745 Systems and Theories, 1748 T Tactile Sensation, 1751 Task Design, 1752 Taste Aversion Learning, 1753 Taxometric Methods, 1755 Telephone Counseling, 1756 Temperament, 1758

CORSINI ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES

Terman, Lewis Madison (1877­1956), 1761 Terror Management Theory, 1761 Terrorism, 1763 Tertiary Prevention, 1764 Test Anxiety, 1766 Test Anxiety Inventory, 1768 Test Standardization, 1769 Testing Bias, 1771 Testing Methods, 1773 Thailand, Psychology in, 1775 Thematic Apperception Test, 1776 Theoretical Constructs, 1779 Therapeutic Alliance, 1780 Therapeutic Assessment, 1782 Thorndike, Edward Lee (1874­1949), 1784 Thurstone, Louis Leon (1887­1955), 1785 Thurstone Scaling, 1786 Tics (See Tourette's Disorder), 1787 Time-Series Analysis, 1787 Thinking Disorder (See Disordered Thinking), 1787 Tobacco Dependence (See Nicotine-Related Disorders; Smoking Behavior), 1787 Toilet Training, 1787 Tolman, Edward Chase (1886­1959), 1788 Torture, 1789 Tourette's Disorder, 1790 Tower of Hanoi Problem, 1792 Trail-Making Test, 1793 Trait Psychology, 1794 Tranquilizers (See Antianxiety Medications), 1795 Transcendental Meditation, 1795 Transference, 1797 Transpersonal Psychology, 1800 Transsexualism, 1802 Trauma Psychology, 1803 Trauma Symptom Inventory, 1805 Traumatic Brain Injury (See Brain Injuries), 1807 Trichotillomania, 1807 Tricyclic Antidepressants, 1808 Trust, 1810 Turkey, Psychology in, 1812 Twin Studies, 1814 Type I Errors (See Errors, Type I and Type II), 1816 Type II Errors (See Errors, Type I and Type II), 1816 U Unconscious Mind, 1817 Underachievement, 1819 Unstructured Clinical Interviews, 1821 V Validity, 1827 Variables in Research, 1828 Video Applications, 1830 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 1833 Violence Risk Assessment, 1833 Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy, 1837 Visual Illusions, 1838 Visual Impairment, 1840 Vocational Counseling, 1841 Vocational Rehabilitation, 1844 Vocational Testing, 1845 Voyeurism, 1847 Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich (1869­1934), 1848 W Watson, John B. (1878­1958), 1849 Weber's Law, 1850 Wechsler, David (1896­1981), 1850 Wechsler Intelligence Tests, 1851 Weight Control, 1854 Wertheimer, Max (1880­1943), 1856 Wide-Range Achievement Test, 1857 Wide-Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 1858 Wisdom, 1860 Witmer, Lightner (1861­1956), 1863 Woodcock-Johnson III: Test of Cognitive Abilities and Achievement, 1863 Woodworth, Robert Sessions (1869­1962), 1865 Workplace Violence, 1866 Wundt, Wilhelm (1832­1920), 1868 Y Yerkes, Robert Mearns (1876­1959), 1869 Z Z-Score, 1871 Zeigarnik Effect, 1873 Brief Biographies, 1875 Author Index, 1901 Subject Index, 1929

Information

untitled

6 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

254247

You might also be interested in

BETA
fp32
Microsoft Word - sue_irm_tp.doc
0072.tif