Read Plants used as herbal medicines text version

Plants and herbal substances that are exclusively used as herbal medicines i.e. they have no food use and may not be added to food supplements

Synonyms Pinus canadensis Linné, Picea canadensis Link, Abies canadensis Michaux. Tsuga canadensis Carrière Abies spectabillis (D.Don.) Abies webbiana Lindl., Spach. Pinus spectabilis D.Don. Glycine abrus L., Abrus Abrus precatorius L. abrus (L.) W. Wight Eleutherococcus senticosus Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim, (Rupr. & Maxim.) Harms Hedera senticosa Rupr. & Acokanthera schimperi Acokanthera ouabaio Cath. (A.DC.) Schweinf Acokanthera abyssinica Acokanthera schimperi Benth K.Schum., Acokanthera oiabaio Cath., Carissa Et Hook Aconitum pseudanthora Blocki ex Pacz., Aconitum eulophum Rchb., Aconitum Aconitum anthora L. jacquinii Rchb., Aconitum Aconitum chasmanthum Aconitum ferox Wall. Aconitum virorum Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Aconitum napellus L. Aconitum variegatum L. Acorus calamus L. Actaea spicata L. Adonis aestivalis L Latin Name Common Names Plant Part Hemlock spruce, Tsuga, Pinus bark bark Himalayan silver fir leaves

Indian liquorice seeds Kan jang, devil's root, touchme-not, Siberian ginseng (it is not a type of ginseng) South African arrow poison, Ouabai, Wabai wood, seeds

fruit, wood Aconite, Anthora, Yellow Monkshood, Healing Wolfsbane Aconite Indian Aconite, monkshood Aconites, Indian Atees, atis Aconite, Wolf's Bane, Monk's Blood, Monk's Hood Aconite, Monkshood, Manchurian monkshood Sweet Flag, calamus Baneberry, Eurasian Baneberry, Herb Christopher Summer pheasant's-eye

flower, herb, roots roots roots herb, roots leaf, herb, roots, tuber roots oil, rhizome fruit, herb, rhizome herb

Adonis annua L.

Peasant's-eye, Adonis' Flower, Autumn Adonis, Autumn Pheasant's-eye, Blooddrops, Adonis autumnalis L., Flos Adonis, Red Chamomile, Adonis phoenicea Bercht. & Red Morocco, Rose-a-ruby, J.Presl. Soldiers-in-green herb pheasant's eye, spring pheasant's eye, yellow pheasant's eye, false hellebore herb, herb tops Horse-chestnut, Conker tree seeds

Adonis vernalis L. Aesculus hippocastanum L.

Aethusa cynapium L. Agrostemma githago L. Ailanthus altissima Swi. Githago segetum Link., Lychnis githago (L.)Scop.

Fool's Parsley, Fool's Cicely, Poison Parsley, Garden Hemlock Cockle, common corncockle, corn cockle, purple cockle tree of heaven, ailanthus Yellow allamanda, golden trumpet, yellow bell, angel's trumpet, buttercup flower, bunga akar kuning, wilkensbita, llamarada, brownbud. Fever Bark, Australian Quinine, Quinine Bush, Bitterbark Blackboard tree, Indian devil tree, Dita bark, Milkwood pine, White cheesewood Bishopsweed, Bishop's weed, Bullwort, Greater ammi, Lady's lace, Laceflower bisnaga, toothpick weed, khella

leaf, fruit, herb seeds root cortex, flower, leaf, fruit

Allamanda cathartica L.

bark (cortex), leaf, seeds

Alstonia constricta Muel. Echites scholaris L. Mant., Pala scholaris L. Roberty

bark (cortex)

Alstonia scholaris R. Br.

bark (cortex) fruit, herb with fruit fruit, herb with fruit, leaf juice

Ammi majus L. Ammi visnaga Lamk

Anacardium occidentale L.

Anagallis arvensis L. Anagyris foetida L. Anamirta paniculata Colebr. Anchusa italica Retz. Anchusa officinalis L.

Andira araroba Aguiar

Andira inermis (Sw) Kunth

Anacardium curatellifolium A.St.-Hil.; Acajuba occidentalis, Anacardium cashew Scarlet pimpernel, red pimpernel, red chickweed, poorman's barometer, shepherd's weather glass, shepherd's clock Stinking bean trefoil, Mediterranean Stinkbush Anamirta cocculus WIGHT & ARN. , Menispermum Levant Nut, Fish Berry Anchusa azurea Miller golden anchusa Common Bugloss, Alkanet Goa powder, Bahia powder, Brazil powder, Ringworm powder, Chrysarobine, Acidum Chrysophanicum Chrysarobin Andira grandiflora, Andira bastard cabbage tree, jamaicensis, Geoffroea cabbage angelin, Jamaica inermis, Geoffroea cabbage tree, partridge wood, jamaicensis Wright Var. worm bark, yellow cabbage inermis tree.

pericarp

herb leaf fruit, seeds flower, leaf flower, leaf, herb

powdered wood

bark (cortex)

Anemone nemorosa L.

wood anemone, windflower, thimbleweed, smell fox

flower, leaf

Annona tripetala Ait. Apocynum ambigens Greene, Apocynum Apocynum androsaemifolium pumilum (A. Gray) Greene, L. Apocynum scopulorum Apocynum angustifolium Wooton, Apocynum hypericifolium Aiton, Apocynum laurinum Greene, Apocynum sibericum Jacquin var. salignum (Greene) Fernald, Apocynum suksdorfii Apocynum cannabinum L. Apocynum venetum L. Trachomitum venetum -

Annona cherimolia Mill.

cherimoya, custard-apple, chirimoyo, momona, kelemoio fruit, roots, seeds

Milkweed, Dogsbane, Fly-Trap roots

Aquilegia vulgaris L. Areca catechu L. Argemone mexicana L. Aristolochia clematitis L. Aristolochia cymbifera M.-Z. Aristolochia debilis Sieb-Z Aristolochia indica L. Aristolochia longa L. Aristolochia pistolochia L. Aristolochia reticulata Nutt. Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf., Pistolochia

Dogbane, Amy Root, Hemp Dogbane, Indian hemp, Rheumatism Root, Wild Cotton Dogbane, Indian Hemp European Columbine, Common Columbine, Granny's Nightcap areca palm, areca nut palm Mexican Poppy, Mexican Prickly Poppy, Cardosanto Birthwort Jarrinha, Birthwort Dutchman's pipe vine birthworts, pipevines, Dutchman's pipes Long Aristolochia, Sarrasine Dutchman's pipes Texas Dutchman's Pipe Smearwort , Round-leaved Birthwort, English Mercury, Mercury Goosefoot, Allgood, Tola Bona Virginia serpentaria, Virginia serpentary, Virginia snakerootAristolochia clematitis, birthwort leopard's bane, wolf's bane, mountain tobacco and mountain arnica

bark (cortex), roots, seeds roots herb, roots, seeds, herb tops seeds flower, leaf, oil, roots, seeds herb, roots, leaf, roots roots, rhizome roots roots, rhizome rhizome rhizome

Aristolochia rotunda L.

rhizome

Aristolochia serpentaria L.

roots, rhizome

Arnica montana L.

oil

Artemisia absinthium L. Artemisia affra

absinthium, absinthe wormwood, wormwood, common wormwood, grand wormwood) Wilde als, Wild wormwood, African wormwood

oil leaves flowerhead, oil flowerhead herb, rhizome, herb, rhizome, seeds roots, rhizome

Seriphidium cinum (Berg ex Artemisia cina Berg. Poljakov) Poljakov Wormseed Artemisia herba-alba Asso. White wormwood Arum italicum Mill. Arum neglectum Italian Lords-and-ladies common cuckoo-pint, Lordsand-ladies, parson-in-thepulpit Arum maculatum L. Arundo donax L. Giant Cane, Giant Reed Canada wild ginger, Canadian snakeroot, broad-leaved asarabaccais Asarum canadense L. Asarabacca, European Wild Ginger, Haselwort, Wild Asarum europaeum L. Spikenard Common Milkweed, Butterfly flower, Silkweed, Silky Swallow-wort, Virginia Asclepias syriaca L. Silkweed Butterfly Weed, Canada Root, Chigger Flower, Chiggerflower, Fluxroot, Indian Paintbrush, Indian Posy, Orange Milkweed, Orange Swallow-wort, Pleurisy Root, Silky Swallowwort, Tuber Root, Yellow Milkweed, White-root, Asclepias tuberosa L. Windroot Aspidosperma quebrachaMacaglia quebracho-blanco blanc B. Sc. (Schltdl.) A.Lyons, quebracha Athyrium filix-femina Polypodium filix-femina L. Lady fern, Common Lady-fern Indian belladonna, Deadly Atropa acuminata Royle-Lindl. nightshade. Belladonna, deadly nightshade, Devil's Cherries. Naughty Man's Cherries. Divale. Black Cherry. Devil's Atropa belladonna L. Herb. Great Morel. Dwayberry

herb, rhizome leaf, herb, roots, rhizome

rhizome

rhizome bark (cortex), wood rhizome with root leaf , herb with flowers, roots

flower, leaf, fruit, herb, roots

Bacopa monnieri Bettonica officinalis

Bacopa monniera, Bramia monnieri (L.) Pennell, Gratiola monnieria L., Herpestes monnieria (L.) Kunth, Herpestis fauriei H.Lev., Herpestis monniera, Herpestris monnieria, Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan, Betonica purpurea

Coastal Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water hyssop

Bidens tripartita Blepharis capensis Pers. Boerhavia glabrata Blume, Boerhaavia diffusa

Wood betony herb, basal leaves Three-lobe Beggarticks, Threepart Beggarticks, Leafybracted Beggarticks, Trifid Burmarigold plant Blepharis leaf, roots Red spiderling, Red Hogweed, Spreading Hogweed Starflower, Borage Black-berried White Bryony, European White Bryony Cretan Bryony Common Box, European Box, Boxwood, Dudgeon Greater bindweed, Larger Bindweed, Hedge Bindweed, Rutland Beauty Sea bindweed, sarsaparilla Crown flower Roostertree, Sodom's Apple, auricula tree, king's crown, madar, mudar, rubber bush, small crownflower, Sodom apple, Sodom's milkweed, swallowwort Common Sweetshrub, Carolina Allspice, Strawberry Shrub Larger Bindweed, Hedge Bindweed, Rutland beauty, hedge false bindweed Blume Galip, Canarium-Nut, Galip, Galipnut, Java Almond, Java-Olive, Kanari, Nangai Nut, Ngali Nut flower, leaf, herb with flowers roots roots bark (cortex), leaf, roots

Boerhavia diffusa Borago officinalis L. Bryonia alba L. Bryonia cretica Ssp Dioica Buxus sempervirens L.

Calistegia sepium Calistegia soldanella R. Br. Calotropis gigantea (L) R. Br.

aerial parts herb, roots, resin root cortex, latex

Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br.

root cortex, latex

Calycanthus floridus L.

bark (cortex)

Calystegia sepium (L) R. Br.

herb, roots

Canarium indicum Cannabis indica Lam. Cannabis sative ssp. indica

Indian hemp, marijuana

seeds, oil resin, flowering top of female

White sapote, custard apple, Mexican apple, cochitzapotl Coffee senna, fedegoso, Cassia occidentalis L. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. coffee weed, balatong aso Southern Catalpa, Indian Bean Catalpa bignonioides Walt. Tree. Catha edulis Forsk. Celastrus edulis Khat, bushman's tea, quat Amocallis rosesa (L.) Small, Vinca, Madagascar Lochnera rosea (L.) periwinkle, Pink periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus G. Don. Reichenb ex. Spach., Vinca rosy periwinkle, Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue cohosh, squaw root, (L.) Mickx. papoose root Bastard cedar, Red cedar, Cedrela toona Roxb. Toona ciliata Indian cedar Cedrus brevifolia, Larix Cedar, atlas cedar, cedar of Cedrus libani cedrus, Pinus cedrus Lebanon Cartagena ipecacuanha, Cephaelis acuminata Karst. Colombian ipecacuanha Black ipecacuanha or Cephaelis emetica Pers. Psychotria emetica Peruvian ipecacuanha Carapichea ipecacuanha, Psychotria ipecacuanha, Cephaelis ipecacuanha Rich. Callicocca ipecacuanha, Ipecacuanha root, ipecac Veratrum luteum (L.), False unicorn root, fairy Helonias lutea, Helonias wand, blazing star, devil's bit, Chamaelirium luteum Gray dioica, Chamelirium starwort Cheiranthus cheiri L. Erysimum cheiri Aegean wallflower greater celandine, Garden Chelidonium majus L. Celandine, tetterwort Chelone chloranta, Chelone Balmony, turtle head, white Chelone glabra Montana, Chelone obliqua turtle head C. ambrosioides var. American Wormseed, anthelminticum, C. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuit's anthelminticum, Dysphania Tea, Mexican Tea, Herba Chenopodium ambrosioides L. ambrosioides Sancti Mariæ Chlorocodon whitei Hook F. Mondia whitei (Hook. f.) liane Chondodendron tomentosum Ruiz Et Pav. Peruvians wild grape Chlorophora tinctoria, Croton tinctoria, Maclura Chrozophora tinctoria A. Juss tinctoria, Morinda tinctoria, Dyer's Croton Cowbane, Northern Water Hemlock, Long-leaved Water Cicuta virosa L. Hemlock. Casimiroa edulis Llave Et L.

seeds seeds bark (cortex), fruit Leaf, stems

leaf, roots rhizome with roots tree cortex oil roots roots

roots

roots, rhizomes flower, herb, herb, latex aerial parts essence, leaf, fruit, herb with flowers roots roots

juice leaf, fruit, herb, roots

Cissampelos pareira L.

Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Citrus aurantium L. ssp. Bergamia Risso Citrus limon Burm. Claviceps purpurea Tul

Clematis recta Clematis vitalba L. Clerodendrum infortunatum Colchicum autumnale Auct. Non L. Colchicum luteum Baker Colchicum neapolitanum Colchicum variegatum L. Colutea arborescens L.

Abuta, pereira root, barbasco, butua, pareira, velvet leaf, barbasco, butua, ice vine, pareira brava, false pareira, trompetero sacha, bofrusiri, gasing gasing, patacon, Abuta grandifolia bejunco de cerca. roots colocynth, bitter apple, bitter Colocynthis vulgaris cucumber, egusi, vine of fruit, fruit pulp Schrad., umis colocynthis L. Sodom Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit. bergamot orange, sour orange essence lemon resin ergot (fungus) sclerotia Erect clematis, ground virginsbower, upright virgin's bower, flammula jovis Flowers, leaves Old man's beard, traveller's joy flower, leaf, herb Clerodendrum viscosum clerodendrum leaves, roots autumn crocus, meadow bulb, flower, saffron, naked lady seeds colchicicum bulb, seeds Colchicum multiflorum Brot bulb, seeds Chequer Flowered Meadow Saffron bulb, seeds bladder senna leaf

Herb bennet, spotted corobane, musquash root, beaver poison, poison hemlock, poison parsley, Conium maculatum L spotted hemlock, kex, kecksies Lily of the Valley, European lily of the valley Convallaria majalis L. Convolvulus scammonia L. Scammony, Syrian Bindweed Copaifera martii Copaifera coriacea Mart. Copai, copaiba Jew's mallow, jute, Nalta jute, Corchorus olitorius L. tossa jute Coronilla scorpioides Koch yellow crownvetch Coronilla varia L. Securigera varia (L.) Lassen Crown Vetch Corydalis bulbosa AUCT.NON Corydalis cava (L.) Corydalis , fumewort, Yan Hu DC. Schweigg.&Körte. So Corydalis cava Sch. Et Korte Bird-in-a-bush, hollowroot Corydalis intermedia Merat Corydalis fabacea (Retz.) Corynanthe yohimbe Schum. Pausinystalia yohimbe Johimbe

leaf, fruit, herb flower, leaf, herb with flowers, roots oil, resin seeds herb with flowers herb with flowers rhizome rhizome rhizome bark (cortex)

Coumarouna odorata Aubl. Coumarouna oppositifolia Aubl. Croton tiglium L. Cyclamen europaeum Auct. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L) Pers Cynoglossum officinale L. Cytisus laburnum L. Cytisus purgans Spach Cytisus scoparius Link Daphne gnidium L.

Daphne laureola L. Daphne mezereum L.

Tonka beans, coumarin, sweet smelling grass Dipteryx oppositifolia opposite taralea, English (Aubl.) Willd. tonka bean Purging croton Sow-bread, Hog's-bread. Vincetoxicum album, Dog Strangling Vine, PoisonVincetoxicum hirundinaria, rope Swallowwort houndstongue, dog's tongue, gypsy flower, rats and mice Laburnum anagyroides Medik. Bean-trefoil, Golden chain Cytisus balansae, Cytisus oromediterraneus Rivas Andorra Broom Sarothamnus scoparius, Scotch Broom, English Common Broom Flax-leaved daphne Spurge-laurel, Daphne-laurel, laurel-leaved daphne, olivespurge, wood laurel, copse laurel Mezereon Thorn-apple, downy thornapple, Indian-apple, moonflower, sacred datura, nacazcul, toloatzin, toloache angel's trumpet, devil's Datura fastuosa (L.), Datura trumpet, metel, downy thornalba (Nees.) apple Brugmansia sanguinea Angel's Trumpet, Eagle Tree Jimson weed, angel's trumpet, devil's weed, thorn apple, tolguacha, apple of Peru, Jamestown weed, stinkweed, datura, moonflower Consolida ambigua, Delphinium ambiguum Larkspur, Annual Delphinium Consolida regalis Gray larkspur larkspur Derris, oiltree Paraderris montana tubaroot, tuba rabut, tuba (Benth.) Adema merah Amor seco, back relax, strong back, tick-trefoil, tick clover, beggar lice

seeds seeds oil, seeds tuber rhizome herb, roots flower, roots, branches with flower flower, branches with flowers, bark (cortex)

bark (cortex), fruit bark (cortex), fruit, roots, seeds

Datura innoxia Mill.

leaf, seeds, herb tops leaf, seeds, herb tops leaf, herb tops

Datura metel Auct. Non L. Datura sanguinea R. Et P.

Datura stramonium L. Delphinium ajacis L. Delphinium consolida L. Delphinium slaphysagria L. Derris elliptica Benth. Derris malaccensis Prain

leaf, seeds, herb tops seeds flower, seeds seeds roots roots leaves, whole plants

Desmodium spp.

Dicoma anomala L.Sond. Dictamnus fraxinella, Dictamnus caucasicus, Dictamnus fraxinellus var.

fever bush, stomach bush

Burning-bush, false dittany, white dittany, gas plant Rusty foxglove Digitalis orientalis, Digitalis Yellow foxglove Woolly Foxglove, Grecian Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Foxglove Yellow foxglove, small Digitalis lutea L. Digitalis eriostachya foxglove, straw foxglove Common foxglove, purple foxglove, lady's glove Digitalis purpurea L. Dorema ammoniacum Gum ammoniac Dryopteris filix-mas Schott Common male fern, malefern Marginal wood fern, marginal Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray shield fern Duboisia leichhardtii F. Muel. corkwood Dictamnus albus L. Digitalis ferruginea L. Digitalis grandiflora Mill. Corkwood, corkwood tree, corkwood elm, duboisia, pituri Squirting cucumber, exploding cucumber Viper's Bugloss Embelia, false black pepper, false pepper, vidanga Viranga Ephedra vulgaris Rich., Great shrubby, Horse tail, Ma Ephedra helvetica C.A. Mey huang

roots bark (cortex), herb, roots, rhizome, herb flower, leaf, seeds flower, leaf, seeds flower, leaf, seeds flower, leaf, seeds flower, leaf, seeds resin rhizome rhizome leaf

Duboisia myoporoides R. Br. Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Echium vulgare L. Embelia ribes Burm. F. Embelia robusta Roxb. Ephedra distachya L.

leaf, herb tops immature fruit, fruit juice herb tops, flower Fruit (berries), seeds, leaves, fruit, seeds twig

Ephedra equisetina Bunge Ephedra shennungiana Tang Ephedra intermedia SchrenkEphedra major Host. Ephedra nebrodensis Tineo Ephedra antisyphilitica Ephedra nevadensis Wats. Watson Ephedra sinica Stapf Epilobium parviflorum Equisetum palustre L. Erythrina variegata L. Erythrophleum suaveolens Bre. Erythroxylon catuaba Erythroxylon coca Lamk. Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. Erythrina indica Lam., Erythrina variegata var. Erythrophleum guineense G Don

Mongolian ephedra, Ma huang twig Ma huang herb, stems Ma huang, Joint fir herb, stems Nevada ephedra, Nevada jointfir leaf, stems ma huang herb, stems Small flowering willow herb, Hoary willow herb Aerial parts Marsh Horsetail herb Tiger's claw, Indian coral tree, sunshine tree bark (cortex) Ordeal tree, red water tree, sassy bark, sasswood tree bark (cortex) Catuaba bark Coca, cocaine leaf Wahoo bark, eastern wahoo, bark (cortex), wahoo, burningbush root cortex, leaf

Euonymus europaeus L. Eupatorium cannabinum L. Eupatorium perfoliatum L.

Euonymus vulgaris Mill.

Eupatorium purpureum L. Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl. Euphorbia amygdaloides L. Euphorbia antiquorum L. Euphorbia canariensis L. Euphorbia cyparissias L. Euphorbia esula L. Euphorbia tortilis, Euphorbia cattimandoo W. Tithymalus quadrangularis Kigg Galarhoeus cyparissias (L.) Small ex Rydb., Tithymalus Eupatorium ayapana Vent.

Common spindle, European spindle, European spindletree Hemp agrimony, holy rope. St. John's herb. Common boneset Kidney-root, sweetscented Joe-Pie weed, sweet Joe-Pye weed, or trumpet weed yapana, ayapana tea Purple wood spurg, Wood Spurge Malayan Spurge Canary Island spurge, Hercules club Cypress spurge Green spurge , leafy spurge

root cortex, leaf, fruit, roots herb with flowers, roots herb with flowers

rhizome leaf, herb, rhizome, herb herb, roots resin resin herb, roots herb, roots, resin

Euphorbia lunulata Bunge., Galarhoeus helioscopius Euphorbia helioscopia L. (L.) Haw., Tithymalus Sun spurge, Madwoman's milk Chamaesyce hirta Euphorbia hirta L. (L.)Millsp., Euphorbia Asthma Weed Euphorbia lathyris L. Euphorbia lathyrus Capers purge, paper spurge Euphorbia palustris L. Marsh spurge Euphorbia peplis L. Tithymalus peplis (L.) Scop. Purple spurge Euphorbia resinifera Berg. Euphorbia sansalvador Resin spurge Gamboge, Hanbury's garcinia, cambodia, camboge, cambogia, gambodia, gummigutta, gutta gamba, Garcinia hanburyi Hook F. Siam gamboge, tom rong Garcinia gaudichaudii Planch. & Triana, batuan, Indian gamboge, Garcinia morella Desr. Hebradendron Ceylon gamboge, gummigutt Eastern teaberry, checkerberry, boxberry, American wintergreen Gaultheria procumbens L. Geissospermum vellosii Allem. Pao pereira, bergibita Bignonia sempervirens L., Yellow jasmine root, false Gelsemium lucidum Poir., jasmine, Carolina jasmine or Gelsemium nitidum Michx., jessamine, evening Gelsemium sempervirens Ait. Jeffersonia sempervirens trumpetflower, gelsemium, F. (L.) Brickell, Lisianthus woodbine

roots herb herb, roots, resin, roots roots resin

gum, resin

gum

oil bark (cortex)

roots, rhizome

Genista tinctoria L. Glaucium flavum Crantz Glechoma hederacea L. Globularia alypum L. Nepeta glechoma Benth., Nepeta hederacea (L.)

Dyer's greenweed, Dyer's Weed, Woad Waxen Yellow hornpoppy

flower, herb herb, roots herb with flowers leaf, roots seeds, tuber

Ground-ivy Globularia Glory Lily, Climbing Lily, Gloriosa superba L. Gloriosa Lily Gambhari, Beechwood, Gmelina, Goomar teak, Kashmir tree, Malay beechwood, White teak, Gmelina arborea Vemane Gossypium arboreum L. tree cotton Pima cotton, Extra Long Staple, South American, Creole, Sea Island cotton Gossypium barbadense L. Gossypium herbaceum L. Levant cotton, cotton plant Common Hedgehyssop, Herb Gratiola officinalis L. of Grace, Hedge Hyssop Guarea rusbyi (Britton) Rusby Grape bark, cocillana chaulmoogra, false gynocardia oil, chaulmogra, Gynocardia odorata R. Br. Chaulmoogra odorata Roxb. chaulmugra Banksia abyssinica Bruce ex Steud., Brayera abyssinica African redwood, brayera, Hagenia abyssinica Gmel. Moq.-Tand., Brayera cusso, hagenia, kousso Hedera helix L. Common Ivy, English ivy Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Capper tea, Hottentot's tea European Heliotrope, Heliotropium europaeum L. European Turnsole Stinking hellebore, dungwort, Helleborus foetidus L. bBear's foot Helleborus niger Christmas Rose Helleborus orientalis Lamk Lenten rose Green Hellebore, Bear's Foot, American Hellebore. Swamp Hellebore. Indian Poke. ItchHelleborus viridis L. S. L. weed Anemone hepatica L., Hepatica nobilis Mill. Hepatica triloba Gilib Common Hepatica Kurchi tree, Conessi tree, Bitter Oleander, Connessi Holarrhena antidysenterica Bark, Kurchi Bark, , Dysentery Wall. Rose Bay, Tellicherry Bark Hydnocarpus anthelmintica chaulmoogra

Rott, bark, fruit, leaves root cortex, seeds

root cortex, seeds root cortex, seeds herb with flowers, roots bark (cortex)

seeds

flower bark (cortex),

leaf, herb rhizome with roots rhizome with rhizome with

rhizome with roots leaf, herb

root cortex, seeds, leaves oil, seeds

Hydnocarpus kurzii Warb. Hydnocarpus laurifolia Sleum.

Taraktagenos kurzii, Taraktogenos kurzii,

Hydrangea arborescens L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Hyoscyamus albus L. Scopolia mutica (L.) Dunal, Scopolia datora (Forssk.) Dunal, Hyoscyamus datora

chaulmoogra, chaulmoogra tree, chaulmugra Suranti, surti, toratti, Chaulmoogra Hydrangea, seven barks, Smooth Hydrangea, Wild Hydrangea Goldenseal, Orange-root, Orangeroot White Henbane, Russian henbane

oil, seeds oil, seeds

roots rhizome with roots leaf, herb, seeds

Hyoscyamus muticus L. Hyoscyamus niger L.

henbane, Egyptian henbane leaf, herb, seeds stinking nightshade, henbane, Hyoscyamus biennis Kreyer. Black Henbane leaf, herb, seeds European Holly, English Holly, Oregon Holly, Sparked Holly, Christmas Holly, Crocodile Holly, Prick Holly, Holly, bark (cortex), Common Holly, Holly Green leaf, fruit leaf, fruit

Ilex aquifolium L. Ilex vomitoria Ait.

Ilex balearica Desf.

Illicium anisatum L.

Ionidium ipecacuanha Vent. Ipomoea jalapa Hayne

Ipomoea nil Roth

Ipomoea orizabensis Led.

Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne Ipomoea simulans Hanbury Ipomoea turpethum R. Br.

Yaupon Holly, Yaupon, Cassina Star Anise, Japanese anise tree, Japanese star anise, shikimi Fruit white ipecacuanha, false ipecacuanha, white ligneous ipecacuanha Jalap Convolvulus hederaceus L., white-edge morning glory, ivy Ipomoea githaginea morning glory, Japanese Hochst. ex A.Rich., morning glory Convolvulus superbus, Mexican Scammony Root, Ipomoea collina, Ipomoea Fusiform, Light, or Woody superba, Ipomoea Jalap Exogonium jalapa Baill., Exogonium purga (Wender.) Benth., Ipomoea Jalap, fusiform jalap, jalap jalapa Nutt. ex Cox, bindweed, Tampico jalap, Ipomoea jalapa Schiede & true jalap, tuberous jalap Tampico jalap Turpeth Root, Indian Jalap, Operculina turpethum L. Trivrit, Nisoth Illicium japonicum Sieb., Illicium lanceolatum AC Smith, Illicium religiosum Hybanthus ipecacuanha (L.) Oken, Ionidium ipecacuanha (L.) Vent.,

bark (cortex), fruit

roots roots

seeds

roots, resin

leaf, roots, resin, tuber roots roots

Ipomoea violacea L.

Calonyction tuba (Schltdl.) Colla, Ipomoea macrantha Roem. & Schult., Ipomoea tuba (Schltdl.) G. Don

Iris foetidissima L. Iris pseudoacorus L.

Iris foetida Thunb.

Iris versicolor L.

Jateorhiza palmata Jatropha curcas L. Joannesia princeps Vell

Jateorhiza columba Anda brasiliensis Rad., Anda gomesii Juss.

Beach Moonflower, Sea Moonflower, Morning Glory, Heavenly Blue Morning Glory, Tlilitzin Stinking Iris, Gladdon, Gladwin Iris, Roast-beef Plant, Stinking Gladwin Yellow Flag, Yellowflag Iris Harlequin Blueflag, Larger Blue Flag, blue flag (Source: Herbs Commerce ), variedcolor iris , water flag Calumba root, Calumba, calumba root, columba, colombo, kalumba, kalumb, jateorhiza, guvercin koku otu Barbados nut, Physic nut arara nut-tree, anda-assu Prickly Juniper, Prickly Cedar, Cade Juniper, Spanish Cedar, Cade, Sharp Cedar Phoenicean Juniper, Arâr

seeds

rhizome rhizome

rhizome

root seeds fruit, seeds

Juniperus oxycedrus L. Juniperus phoenicea L.

oil, pece herb tops

Juniperus procera Hochster Juniperus sabina L. Juniperus thurifera L.

Juniperus virginiana L. Justicia adhatoda Lactuca scariola L.

Lactuca virosa L. Larix deciduas Leonurus cardiaca L. Levisticum officinale Koch Ligustrum vulgare L.

African Juniper or East African Juniperus hochstetteri Ant. Juniper, African pencil cedar Savin Juniper, Savin, savine Spanish Juniper Eastern Redcedarc, Red Cedar, Eastern Juniper, Red Juniper, Pencil Ceda Adhatoda, Adhatoda zelanica, Adhatoda vasica Nees vasica Mountain Sow-Thistle, Prickly Lettuce Lactuca serriola L. Wild Lettuce, Bitter lettuce, Laitue vireuse, Opium Lettuce, Poisonous Lettuce, Rakutu-Karyumu-So Larch, common larch, Larix europaea DC. European Larch Motherwort, Throw-wort, Lion's Ear, Lion's TaiL Lovage Common Privet, European Privet

wood leaf, herb tops herb tops

wood Roots, leaves, flowers herb

herb, juice concentrate bark, resin whole plant latex bark (cortex), leaf

Lobelia inflata L.

Lobelia nicotianaefolia Hey. Lobelia syphilitica L. Lolium temulentum L. Lomatium dissectum Lonchocarpus nicou A. Lonicera caprifolium L. Lupinus albus L.

Indian tobacco, wild tobacco, asthma weed, gagroot, vomitroot, pulseweed, emetic herb, bladder pod, low belia Adlabong, Indian tobacco, wild tobacco, asthma weed, gagroot, vomitroot, pulseweed, emetic herb, bladder pod, low belia Blue Cardinal Flower, Blue Lobelia, Great Lobelia Darnel ryegrass, darnel, cockle, Bearded Darnel Leptotaenia dissecta Nutt., Leptotaenia multifida Nutt. Osha root, fernleaf biscuitroot Deguelia utilis (A. C. Sm.) A. M. G. Azevedo barbasco Italian Honeysuckle white lupin Lycium europaeum non L., Lycium halimifolium Mill., Lycium lanceolatum Veillard., Lycium Box Thorn, matrimony vine Club moss, Common club moss Gypsywort, bugleweed Garden Loosestrife, Yellow Loosestrife, Garden Yellow Loosestrife Barbados cherry mandrake, Witches Drink, Thieves Root, Mad Apple, Love Apple and Satans Apple Mango, manako, meneke Tapioca, Tapioca meal, Brazilian arrow-root Persian Lilac, White Cedar, Chinaberry or Bead Tree, Lunumidella, Ceylon Cedar pennyroyal annual mercury Dog's Mercury Squaw vine, Partridge berry horse-radish tree

leaf, herb with flowers, seeds

leaf roots seeds Root roots flower fresh seeds

Lycium barbarum L. Lycopodium saururus Lamk Lycopus

herb herb whole plant

Lysimachia vulgaris Mallotus philippinensis M.-A. Malpighia punicifolia L. Malpighia emarginata,

aerial parts acorn, powder bark (cortex)

Mandragora officinarum L. Mangifera indica L. Manihot utilissima Pohl. Jatropha Manihot L.; Janipha Manihot Kunth Melia australis Sweet, Melia candollei Sw., Melia japonica G. Don, Melia

leaf, herb, roots bark (cortex) juice bark (cortex), flower, leaf, seeds leaf, herb with leaf, herb with herb whole plant immature fruit

Melia azedarach L. Mentha pulegium L. Mercurialis annua L. Mercurialis perennis L. Mitchella repens L. Moringa aptera Gaertn.

Moringa oleifera Lamk. Moringa pterygosperma Narcissus pseudo-narcissus L. Narcissus pseudonarcissus Naregamia alata W. Et A. Nectandra coto Rusby Nectandra puchury-major N.M. Nectandra rodioei Hook. Nerium oleander L.

Horseradish-tree, Ben-oil tree, Drumstick-tree, Moringo Wild daffodil Goanese Ipecac, Goanese ipecacuanha Coto tree Pichurum beans, sassafras nuts Bebeeru tree, Bibiru tree, Greenheart tree

wood, roots bulb, flower, leaf herb, roots, juice tree cortex seeds bark (cortex) bark (cortex), flower, leaf, roots

Nicotiana rustica L. Nicotiana tabacum L.

Nigella sativa L. Nilgirianthus ciliatus (Nees) Bremek.

Spatterdock, yellow water-lily, Nuphar lutea (L.) S. Et S. cow lily, yellow pond-lily European White Waterlily, Nymphaea alba L. White Lotus, Nenuphar Tiger Lotus, White lotus, Egyptian White Water-lily Nymphaea lotus L. Oenanthe phellandrium Water Dropwort, fineleaf Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poiret Lam., Phellandrium waterdropwort Midnight horror, phanaphania, Broken bones plant, Indian calosanthes, Indian Trumpet, Indian Bignonia indica L., Oroxylon trumpet flower, oroxylum, Oroxylum indicum indicum Vent. tree of Damocles Palicourea densiflora Mart. Rudgea viburnoides coto-coto Iranian poppy, great scarlet Papaver bracteatum Lindl. poppy Opium Poppy, Plant of Joy, Papaver somniferum L. Mawseed Harmal, Syrian Rue, harmal Peganum harmala L. peganum

Strobilanthes ciliatus Nees Nuphar luteum (L.) Sibth. & Sm., Nuphar advena Ait., Nuphar variegata Durand Castalia alba (L.)Wood., Castalia speciosa Salisb.

Oleander , Rose-bay Mapacho, wild tobacco, Aztec tobacco, fumo-brasileiro, native tobacco, nicotine tobacco, small tobacco leaf cultivated tobacco leaf fennel flower, nutmeg flower, Roman coriander, blackseed, black caraway, or black onion seed seeds Roots, leaves, Sahachara, Karimkurinji bark

flower, roots flower, roots flower, roots fruit, roots

Root bark, stem bark, fruit, seeds bark (cortex) immature fruit leaf, immature fruit, latex herb, seeds

Petasites officinalis Moench., Petasites ovatus Hill., Petasites vulgaris L., Petasites hybridus Gaertn. Tussilago hybrida L., Apium petroselinum L., Carum petroselinum (L.) Benth. & Hook. F.,Petroselinum hortense Petroselinum crispum A.W.Hill Hoffm., Petroselinum Physostigma venenosum Balf.

butterbur, Common Butterbur, Bog rhubarb, Devil's hat, Pestilence wort

leaf, roots

Parsley Ordeal Bean., chop Nut. American Pokeweed, Pokeweed, pokeberry, poke, inkberry, pigeonberry Phytolacca americana L. Phytolacca decandra L. Jaborandi, indian hemp, Pilocarpus cearensis, jaborandi-do-norte, cataiPilocarpus jaborandi Holmes Pilocarpus officinalis guacu, ibiratai Jaborandi, Maranham Jaborandi Pilocarpus microphyllus Stap. Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. Paraguay Jaborandi Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. Guadeloupe Jaborandi Piper methysticum G.Forst. Kava-Kava Ichthyomethia piscipula (L.) Florida fishpoison tree, Hitchc. ex Sarg., Piscidia Jamaican dogwood, Piscidia piscipula Sarg. erythrina L. Fishfuddle, dogwood bark Platycodon grandiflorum (JACQ.) A. DC. balloon flower, Jie Geng Podophyllum emodi Wall. Podophyllum hexandrum Himalayan May Apple Mayapple, may-apple, Podophyllum peltatum L. American mandrake Polygala senega L. var. Polygala senega L. latifolia Torr. & A. Gray Seneca snakeroot Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Chinese Senega, Yuan Zhi Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) Solomon's-seal, David's-harp, All Convallaria multiflora L. Ladder-to-heaven Polygonatum anceps Moench., Polygonatum King Solomon's-seal, Polygonatum odoratum Druce officinale All., Polygonatum Solomon's Seal Polypodium vulgare L. Common polypody Prunus africana Kalkman Pygeum africanum Hook.f. Red Stinkwood Prunus amygdalus Batsch Var. Amygdalus communis var. Amara amara Bitter almond Cerasus laurocerasus (L.)Loisel., Laurocerasus Prunus laurocerasus L. officinalis M.Roem., Padus Cherry laurel, English laurel Prunus macrophyllus Sieb-Zuc Prunus persica Batsch. peach Psoralea corylifera L.

oil seeds

leaf, fruit, roots

leaf leaf, roots leaf leaf Leaves, stems,

root cortex flower, herb, roots roots, resin, roots, resin, rhizome roots, rhizome roots rhizome

rhizome rhizome bark (cortex) seeds

leaf leaf seeds seeds

Psoralea pentaphylla L. Pteridium aquilinum Kuhn. Pulsatilla pratensis (L.) Mill. Pulsatilla vulgaris Mill. Punica granatum L. Putranjiva roxburghii

Pygeum africanum

Pediomelum pentaphyllum (L.) Rydb., Psoralea trinervata (Rydberg) Standley; Pediomelum Three-nerved Scurf-pea; trinervatum Rydberg, Chihuahua scurf pea Western brackenfern, Bracken, Common Bracken Small Pasque Flower Pasque flower, anemone pulsatilla Punica malus Pomegranate Drypetes roxburghii, Nageia Putra-jiva, jiva, Putranjiva, putranjiva Lucky Bean Tree African cherry, African plum tree, African prune tree, African stinkwood

roots rhizome herb with flowers flowering plant, leaf, herb with tree cortex, root leaves, seeds bark from trunks and bran

Ranunculus acris L.

Ranunculus bulbosus L. Ranunculus ficaria L. Ranunculus flammulus L. Ranunculus sceleratus L. Rauvolfia canescens L., Rauvolfia heterophylla Roem. & Schult., Rauvolfia

Meadow buttercup, Tall buttercup, Tall Field Buttercup herb, roots St Anthony's turnip, bulbous buttercup, blister flower, bulbous crowfoot, gowan, yellow weed herb, roots fig buttercup, lesser celandine fruit, herb, roots herb, roots Celery-leaved Buttercup, cursed buttercup herb, roots devil-pepper, four-leaf devilpepper, milkbush poison devil's-pepper Serpentina, Indian snakewood, serpentwood Sweet sumach, Fragrant sumac, Aromatic sumac, Lemon sumac, Polecat bush

Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. Rauvolfia vomitoria Afz. Rauwolfia serpentina Benth.

root cortex, roots root cortex, roots roots

Rauvolfia serpentina

Rhus aromatica Aiton Toxicodendron radicans (L.)Kuntze, Rhus toxicodendron non L., Ricinus sanguineus

root, bark

Rhus radicans L. Ricinus communis L. Robinia pseudacacia L. Rubia tinctorum L. Rumex acquaticus Salvia divinorum

Rumex occidentalis

Poison Ivy, eastern poison ivy castorbean, castor oil plant Black Locust dyer's madder Water dock, western dock Diviner's Sage, Sage of the Seers

bark (cortex), leaf oil, seeds leaf, seeds roots Root, leaves herb, leaves

Sambucus ebulus L.

Sanguinaria canadensis L. Santolina chamaecyparissus Auct.Non L. Schoenocaulon officinale Gr.

Dwarf Elder Bloodroot, bloodwort, red puccoon root, pauson, tetterwort Santolina incana Lam. Lavender Cotton Sabadilla. Cevadilla Channa, Kanna, Mesembryanthemym, kougoed, kaugoed

bark (cortex), fruit, herb, roots

roots, rhizome flowerhead, herb with flowers seeds

Scilitium tortuosum Asplenium scolopendrium L., Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.)Newman., Hyoscyamus scopolia L., Belladonna scopolia

whole plant

Scolopendrium vulgare Sm. Scopolia carniolica Jacq. Scopolia japonica Maxim Scrophularia nodosa L. Scrophularia umbrosa Dumort.

Hart's tongue fern , Scopolia, European scopolia, Russian belladonna Japanese scopolia figwort, woodland figwort, common figwort Water Betony Queen of the Night, Nightblooming Cereus, Largeflowering Cactus, Sweetscented Cactus, Vanilla Cactus, Large Blooming Cereus, Large flowered torch thistle, Large-flowered Night Cactus Marking-nut tree Golden Ragwort

Scrophularia alata Gilib., Scrophularia aquatica L.,

plant leaf, roots, rhizome rhizome herb with flowers, roots herb with flowers, roots

Selenicereus grandiflorus Semescarpus anacardium L. F. Senecio aureus L.

Cereus donkelaarii, Cereus grandiflorus (L.) Mill. , Cereus scandens minor Boerhaave, Cereus schmidtii, Cereus uranos, Selenicereus hondurensis Packera aurea (L.) A. & D. Löve, Senecio gracilis Pursh Cineraria bicolor Willd., Othonna maritima L., Cineraria maritima (L.) L., Senecio maritimus (L.) Rchb., Cineraria gibbosa Guss., Cineraria nebrodensis Guss, Cineraria Jacobaea vulgaris Senecio stabianus Lacaita, Senecio saracenicus auct. ex Nym., Senecio Senecio dunensis Dumort, Senecio radiatus W.D.J.Koch

flowers, stems fruit leaf, herb

Senecio cineraria Dc Senecio jacobaea L.

Dusty miller, Silver ragwort Ragwort, stinking willie Wood Ragwort, alpine ragwort, Common groundsel

herb, juice leaf, herb,

Senecio nemorensis Senecio vulgaris L.

leaf, herb leaf, herb

Solanum carolinense L.

Solanum dulcamara L.

Solanum nigrum L. Solanum tuberosum POEPP EX WALP Solenostemma argel Hayne

Solanum pumilum, Solanum floridanum Raf. , Carolina Horsenettle, Radical Solanum godfreyi Shinners, Weed, Sand Brier Fruit bittersweet, bittersweet nightshade, bitter nightshade, blue bindweed, climbing nightshade, fellenwort, felonwood, poisonberry, poisonflower, scarlet berry, snakeberry, trailing bittersweet, trailing nightshade, violet bloom, or woody nightshade fruit, stems European Black Nightshade, Duscle, Garden Nightshade, Hound's Berry, Petty Morel, Wonder Berry, Small-fruited black nightshade, popolo leaf, fruit, herb potato Cynanchum argel Delile, Cynanchum oleaefolium Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, Sophora korolkowii Dieck, Sophora Argel leaf, fruit Leaf

Sophora japonica L. Soymida febrifuga Juss. Spartium junceum L.

Spigelia anthelmia L. Stephania tetranda Moore Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Stillingia sylvatica L.

Strophanthus gratus Franch. Strophanthus hispidus Dc. Strophanthus kombe Oliv. Strychnos colubrina L.

Pagoda Tree, Chinese Scholar, Japanese pagodatree Indian-redwood, rohun tree, Swietenia febrifuga Roxb. rohuna tree Spanish Broom, Weaver's Genista juncea Broom Pinkroot, wormbush, Indian pink, worm grass, erva lombrigueira, Demerara pinkroot, pink root, Anthelmia quadriphylla kromantikankan, kromanti Fangji (Chinese) Eupatorium rebaudianum sweetleaf, sweet leaf, Bertoni sugarleaf, simply stevia Stillingia angustifolia (Torr.) Queen's Root, Queen's Engelm. ex S. Watson. Delight, Yawroot, Silver-leaf Climbing Oleander, ClimbingOleander, Cream Fruit, Roupellia grata Wallich & Ouabain, Rose Allamanda, Hooker Strophantus Hispid Ouabain kombe, kombe arrow-poison Snakewood, trumpetwood, letterwood

Flower tree cortex flower, seeds

Herb Roots Leaves Roots

Seeds Seeds Seeds Wood

Ignatia amara Linné filius, Ignatiana philippinica Loureiro, Strychnos hainanensis Merrill & Chun, Strychnos ignatii Berg. Strychnos ovalifolia Wallich Ignatius bean, St. Ignatius be Seeds Strychnos gaultheriana Strychnos malaccensis Benth. Pierre ex Clarke tropical bindweed, Hoang-nan bark (cortex) Strychnine, nux-vomica, bark (cortex), Strychnos nux-vomica L. poison nut seeds curare, strychnine, curari, ourari, urari, woorara, woorari, wourali bark (cortex) Strychnos toxifera Schomb. Consolida majoris, Symphytum officinale L. Symphitum officinale Comphrey, comfrey, knitbone herb, roots Tabernanthe iboga Baill. Iboga root cortex, leaf Tamus communis L. Black Bryony fruit, roots European, English, or branch with Taxus baccata L. common yew leaves, seeds Gemander, wall germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. Teucrium officinale Lam. common germander herb with flowers Thapsia garganica L. Thapsia decussata Lag. Drias plant root cortex, sap Thevetia nerifolia, Cascabela thevetia, Lucky Nut, Yellow Oleander, Thevetia peruviana Merr. Cascabela nerifolia, Cerbera Mexican Oleander, Be-still tree seeds Eastern Arborvitae, Northern bark (cortex), Thuja occidentalis L. Whitecedar, swamp-cedar leaf, herb, wood, Western or giant redcedar, giant arborvitae, Thuja plicata D. Don. Thuja gigantea shinglewood, canoe cedar wood Tinospora cordifolia Miers Guduchi rhizome Torilis japonica (Houtt.)DC., Torilis anthriscus Gmel Caucalis anthriscus (L.)Huds. Upright Hedge Parsley fruit Tussilago farfara L. Coltsfoot flowerhead, leaf, Emetic Swallow-wory, Indian Tylophora indica Merrill Tylophora asthmatica Ipecac leaf, roots Drimia indica (Roxb.) Urginea indica Kunth. Jessop., Scilla indica Roxb. Indian Squill, white squill bulb Scilla maritima, Urginea scilla Steinh., Drimia Urginea maritima Bak. maritima (L.)Stearn, red squill, sea squill, sea onion bulb False Helleborine, White Veratrum lobelianum Hellebore, European White herb, roots, Veratrum album L. Bernh. Hellebore, White Veratrum rhizome

Veratrum viride Aiton Vernonia nigritiana Oliv-Hie. Veronicastrum virginicum Viburnum lantana L.

Veratrum eschscholtzianum (Schult. & Schult. f.) Rydb. ex A. Heller, Veratrum eschscholtzii A. Gray, Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt., Veronica virginica L. Viburnum opulus L. ssp. trilobum (Marsh.) R.T. Clausen , Viburnum trilobum Marsh. Viburnum bushii Ashe, Viburnum pyrifolium Poir.

Viburnum opulus L.

Indian Poke, Indian Hellebore, False Hellebore, Green False Hellebore, Bear Corn, Big Hellebore, Corn Lily, Devils Bite, Duck Retten, Indian Hellebore, Itch-weed, Itchweed, Poor Annie, Blue Hellebore, and Tickleweed. herb, rhizome roots Blackfoot, black root, culver's root, Bowman's Root Rhizome, root Wayfaring Tree fruit Guelder Rose, Water Elder, European Cranberrybush, Cramp Bark, Snowball Tree, tree cortex, root Mooseberry, Viburnum cortex Blackhaw, Black haw, Blackhaw Viburnum, Stag Bush Large Periwinkle, Greater Periwinkle, Blue Periwinkle, Bigleaf Periwinkle Lesser periwinkle, common periwinkle Swallow-wort, German ipecac, swallowwort, white swallowwort European Mistletoe, Common Mistletoe Nirgundi, Chinese caste tree, Five-leaved chaste tree Voacanga Wild frangipani Rough Cocklebur, Clotbur, Common Cocklebur, Large Cocklebur, Woolgarie Bur milkweed, Uzara tree cortex, root cortex

Viburnum prunifolium L.

Vinca major L. Vinca minor L. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L.) Pers., Asclepias Vincetoxicum hirundinaria M. vincetoxicum L., Viscum album L. Vitex negundo Voacanga africana Stapf. Voacanga thouarsii RoemVitex incisa Lam. Voacanga dregei Xanthium canadense Mill., Xanthium chinense, Xanthium glabratum Asclepias undulata L.

leaf, herb leaf, herb

roots, rhizome fruit Leaves, stem, roots, fruit and oil seeds seeds leaf, fruit, herb, roots roots

Xanthium strumarium L. Xysmalobium undulatum

This list is not exhaustive and may change as more information becomes available

Information

Plants used as herbal medicines

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Plants used as herbal medicines