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VOL. 39, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2006

Badger #2 and the Fish Car Era

The Mid-Continent Railway Gazette is published by the Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society, Inc., P.O. Box 358, North Freedom, WI 539510358, phone 608-522-4261, email [email protected] and is distributed free to members and friends of the Society. Gazette Editorial Board: Paul Swanson, Don Meyer, and Jeffrey B. Bloohm. Gazette Production Manager: Paul Swanson. Readers are encouraged to submit photographs (especially of recent events at the museum) and feature articles. Digital photos must be at least 1600x1200 pixels. If jpg format, they must be saved at highest quality setting. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without written consent of Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society. Mid-Continent is a member of the Tourist Railway Association, Association of Railway Museums, American Association of Museums, and American Association for State & Local History. and Volume 39, Number 4, December 2006.


©2006 Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society, Inc.

2 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

Special Gazette No. 4

The story of the Badger #2 is the fourth in our series of special edition Gazettes, each featuring a specific topic in railroad history. The decision to start publishing these expanded versions of our members' magazine was motivated by a desire to report on subjects in greater depth than was possible within the pages of a regular issue. Plus we wanted to give our members something of added value for their support of the museum. It admittedly proved to be cheaper and less time consuming to use an existing publication than to create a separate one for telling these stories. Selection of the topics was driven by two simple criteria. It had to be something relevant to the mission of our organization and there had to be someone we could compel to do the research and draft a readable manuscript that our editor could illustrate with our collection of photos. The first edition had the added goal of seeking to honor the many years of volunteer service of our curator, Don Ginter, by publishing his extensive research on the iron mines of LaRue, Wisconsin. That first attempt proved to be popular enough to inspire a second special edition. The topic was the Copper Range Railroad that operated on Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The choice was prompted by the restoration of our own Copper Range coach #60 and the recent acquisition of Copper Range steam locomotive #29. We had a wealth of material on hand and a willing author in George Forero. Sales of the Copper Range Gazette were surprising. We discovered that we had an audience outside of the organization as more and more copies were purchased by nonmembers. Several Michigan residents purchased the magazine through our web page. And some even became members, an unforeseen bonus for the museum. We were

also faced with the challenge of how to handle bulk orders as independently owned book and gift stores in Michigan purchased sizeable quantities of the magazine. Their participation spurred our first sell-out of a single issue. The Copper Range Gazette is now a collector's item. The content of last year's edition on the Great Northern A-22 was originally compiled as part of an oral presentation to the descendents of Louis W. Hill, for whom the car was originally built. Our goal was to solicit the family's financial support to restore the A-22. As a result the content of the magazine was a balance between the car's history, its current condition, and the basic plan for its eventual restoration. The success of the A-22 project was in its research. For the first time Mid-Continent had the luxury of hiring a researcher, as a summer intern, whose work accelerated the pace at which we were able to assemble the amount of information needed to compile an adequate restoration plan. This process was so successful that we hired our intern, Leah Rosenow, as our archivist following the completion of her graduate degree at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Which brings us to the publication of this, our fourth special edition Gazette, featuring the Badger #2. Leah's research once again forms the basis of the information presented in our magazine. And this time she has the added responsibility of being the sole author of the text. But the timing of the Gazette, its content, and distribution is part of a larger effort than simply publishing a quarterly magazine. And we are racking up a number of firsts for our historical society, which is now more than forty-five years old. For the first time the Gazette itself has become an essential component in a fund raising campaign. You will see evidence of that

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A panoramic photo--enlarged portions of which appear on the FRONT COVER, OPPOSITE PAGE, and FOLLOWING PAGE--shows the State of Wisconsin's Fish Car Badger #2 as it delivered Pike Fry to Woodruff, Wisconsin on May 30, 1916. #2 served in this capacity some thirty years for the state. Its career at Mid-Continent has exceeded that by ten years, having arrived at North Freedom in our first year there (1963). Today, it awaits a $950,000 restoration to bring it full-circle: back to its original Fish Car configuration. See pp. 22-23 for the entire photograph. E. Custiss photo, courtesy of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. December 2006 · 3

in the business reply envelope included with this publication. We are soliciting gifts to help us match the challenge grant issued by the Jeffris Family Foundation of Janesville, Wisconsin for the Badger #2's restoration. Their $475,000 challenge grant represents the largest single gift ever received by our organization. And now we face the challenge of matching that amount by March 31, 2008. This issue of the Gazette is being used to help carry that fund raising message and encourage your participation through the use of the return envelope to make your donation. For the first time we have received outside assistance for simply staging the campaign. Wells Fargo Bank is supplying us with a drop box service for easier handling of contributions. You can see that the return envelope is addressed to the "Badger Fund" with the bank's post office box. Contributions can go directly to the bank instead of being routed through the museum's office. Mid-Continent will continue to receipt all gifts. And all contributions will remain fully tax-deductible. Another first is the endorsement we have received from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Initially, DNR staff, principally Stephen Gilbert and John Komassa, helped with the research. We were then fortunate to have Mike Staggs, head of the Bureau of Fisheries Management, with us for the presentation of our grant application to the Jeffris Family Foundation. He was able to speak to the support the DNR is willing to give this project, a point which had a positive influence on the trustees' decision to award Mid-Continent the grant. Within just a few days of receiving word that we had the challenge grant, we staged a news conference, another first for the museum, at the Nevin Fish Hatchery in Fitchburg, Wisconsin. This seemed a fitting location to announce the start of a campaign to restore a car that once carried fry and fingerling from this same hatchery to various lakes, rivers, and streams around the state. Regional Director Lloyd Eagan and her staff were gracious hosts for the event. Greg Matthews, the South Central Region's publicist, took on the task of organizing the news conference with great results. And since we could not bring the Badger #2 to the hatchery, we did the next best thing by providing a video tour of the car. This was provided in two formats and comprised part of the media kit assembled by Leah for Greg to distribute at the news conference. The story appeared that day on all of Madison's TV stations, several radio stations, the local newspapers, and on the internet. 4 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

Our special guest at the news conference was Scott Hassett, Secretary of the Department of Natural Resources. Scott spoke of the historical significance of the Badger #2 as part of the development of a major industry benefiting the people of Wisconsin. His comments were followed by those of Tom Jeffris, president of the Jeffris Family Foundation, who shared his interest in the car's unique design as well as its historic significance as a Wisconsin artifact. He also reflected on the Foundation's prior participation with Mid-Continent in the restoration of the 1888 Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western first class coach #63, and the quality of our organization, with which he was pleased to assist in another major restoration project. Mid-Continent is well known for its woodencar collection, but for the first time a major restoration will take place off the property. Built into the restoration plan was the commitment to take the Badger #2 to the shops of Avalon Rail, Inc. in Milwaukee to do the actual work. June Garland and other members of the staff have already played a pivotal role in this project by helping us to formulate the plan and budget contained in the grant application submitted to the Foundation. When the fund raising campaign is complete, the car will be trucked to Avalon's facilities for its eventual restoration and return to the museum for display to the public. Until then, the best way to enjoy the Badger #2 is through the content found in the pages of this special edition Gazette. Once again I am indebted to the commitment of Mid-Continent member Paul Swanson, the magazine's managing editor. The quality of his work continues to strengthen the museum's role as an educational entity. I also wish to thank the other members whose counsel has helped shape both the design of the restoration project and the content of the magazine. These include Bill Buhrmaster, who serves as our Restorations Manager, his father and my source for all railroad knowledge Ray Buhrmaster, and our Curator Emeritus Don Ginter. You can see that this project has required the services of several people just to get to this point in making this presentation available to you. And it will take the services of many, many more through their financial support of the campaign before the car itself is restored to its original appearance and ready to take center stage at the Mid-Continent Railway Museum. We hope you will join us in making that presentation a reality. Don Meyer, General Manager

By Leah Rosenow, Collections Manager

How It All Began Just one year after the United States Fish Commission was formally established, Dr. Livingston Stone embarked on a journey across the nation in June 1873 with an unlikely group of companions. On board a modified Central Pacific Railroad fruit car, joining Dr. Stone were nearly 300,000 black bass, perch, bullhead, and trout fry, tautogs, saltwater eels, a supply of breeding lobsters, and a barrel of oysters from a hatchery near Charleston, New Jersey. En route to California, Dr. Stone was joined by an additional 40,000 freshwater eels at a stop in Albany, New York and 20,000 shad and shad eggs after a stop in Chicago, Illinois. The Central Pacific Railroad fruit car was equipped with a tank capable of holding 10,000 pounds of water, a large ice box, a variety of additional equipment, and berths. The fish traveled in dozens of milk cans and were manually aerated by Dr. Stone around the clock. Unfortunately, this first experimentation in the mass transit of live fish was ill fated. On June 8, 1873, the train wrecked due to a flooded trestle at the Elkhorn River, near Omaha, Nebraska, resulting in the release of Dr. Stone's aquatic companions into the river. Undeterred, Dr. Stone attempted another journey that same summer, this time successfully traveling from Charleston, New Jersey to San Francisco, California. On this journey, Dr. Stone traveled in a baggage car with 40,000 shad fry in open milk cans, kept cool with ice. Dr. Stone also recruited and hired fellow passengers to assist him with the aerating and changing of water in the cans. Dr. Stone would continue to make successful journeys with large cargoes of live fish, ultimately proving that fish could effectively be transported by rail. With each journey, advancements were made both in the technology and science used to care for fish. The importance of keeping the water in the cans cool with ice was immediately recognized. Colder water both absorbed more oxygen and reduced the oxygen needs of the fish. The significance of keeping the water free of impurities was also recognized and it was found helpful to confine the fish without food a few days prior to shipment. Immediate improvements in aeration were also made. For instance, within a few years of his first journey, Dr. Stone was no longer aerating cans by hand but instead was using a new device. This device consisted of a cylinder with tiny holes in the bottom and was filled with water and held over the cans, releasing a fine spray of airenriched water, not unlike a gardener's watering can. For the next seventy-five years, railroads would play a significant role in the transportation of fish species across the nation. The federal government and nearly every state in the union would utilize some form of fish car to supply fish stock to lakes and rivers throughout the country. December 2006 · 5

Federal Fish Car No. 2 was depicted with these line drawings in the 1883 "Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries of the United States Fish Commission." At LEFT can be seen the tank room with the car's fish tanks in use. BELOW is an exterior view of the car, lettered for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the builder of the car in 1882.

Federal Fish Cars Between 1881 and 1947, the United States government commissioned and operated at least ten different wood and steel constructed fish cars. American Car and Foundry is known to have built at least six of these cars. Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation built at least one of the cars, while the Pullman Company supplied trucks for cars in 1892 and 1906. These federal cars generally operated from April through November, pulled by a variety of railroad operators throughout the country. When not in use, the cars were housed for the winter in either Washington D.C. or La Crosse, Wisconsin, where they would undergo any necessary maintenance or repairs. Fish delivery service was provided free of charge to approved applicants. Applicants included members of fishing clubs, private hatcheries, and individuals wishing to stock the ponds, streams, and lakes on or near their property. A shipment of fish would be picked up by recipients at the rail station closest to the actual location where the fish would be stocked. If no rail terminus was nearby, a fish car crew member would unload the required number of fish cans and transport the shipment by horse and wagon and later by truck, to a more convenient pick up point. The applicants receiving the 6 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

fish would be notified ahead of time by telegraph. Given the occasional delays of rail travel, there sometimes were missed shipments. However the majority of fish shipments were successfully planted. Applicants were required to return the empty fish cans to the train station for pick up. Railroads generally welcomed the fish cars on their lines. Though fees varied, the U.S. government was usually charged approximately 20 cents per mile by the railroads to haul the cars and their crews. In fact, most railroads so appreciated the benefits of having the waters along their routes stocked that they levied no charge for up to 50 percent of the annual federal fish car mileage. Crew members accompanying "detached" shipments rode for reduced rates and even sometimes for free. The emptied cans and pails used to haul the fish were shipped back to the U.S. Fish Commission for free. There were times however when the addition of a fish car to the train consist was less than appreciated. With their unusual cargoes, the fish cars were much heavier than normal passenger coaches. Despite the precautions that were taken to ensure safety, fish cars were involved and often blamed for accidents. Each federal car was also typically operated by a uniformed crew of five men,

including a car "Captain," a cook, and three "Messengers" whose primary occupation was ensuring the survival of the fish on board and ferrying the fish from train depot to stocking point when necessary. The crews traveled, ate, and slept in relative comfort on board the cars and were often on the road anywhere from one to ten days. On board amenities included small fully-equipped kitchens, office space, several berths, salons, and lounge areas, in addition to the fish tanks and equipment storage areas. Some of the cars were so well equipped that it was noted dryly in the media at the time that "federally raised fish traveled first class in railroad cars designed for their health and comfort--along with their human attendants." It is known that the federal cars were also stocked with specially designed railroad china. The Buffalo China Company manufactured extensive sets of china marked for the U.S. Fish Commission, which was later known as the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. The china pieces had thin red and blue stripes circling the rims. The stripes were stopped in one spot to allow room for the logo, which consisted of the top of a flag pole flying the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries flag. The flag was a dark blue with a rust red triangle in the center. Inside the triangle was a white silhouette of a fish. The letters "U.S.B.F." were printed under the flag. It is apparent that the china pattern was reissued for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries at different times and possibly by different companies, since slight variations in the pattern exist. In some cases, the white silhouettes of fish on the logo include details, like eyes, gills, and stripes on the dorsal fins. The letters "U.S.B.F." also occasionally vary in color. The manufacturer's stamp on the back of the china also varies. While some are marked solely by the Buffalo China Company, others have an additional mark identifying various hotel supply companies as well. The pure novelty of these cars also made them attractions. Federal fish cars were popular sites at festivals and exhibitions, including the 1885 New Orleans Exhibition, the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, and the 1901 Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. These cars were also used for more than just transporting fish. One federal fish car actually served as a honeymoon coach for an employee and his new bride. As the fish car traveled toward the Valley City Hatch-

ery in North Dakota, the crew's cook was able to provide a wedding feast for the couple from his little galley. Following Dr. Stone's successful experiments, the volume of fish being transported by rail skyrocketed. Finally in 1881, seven years after Dr. Stone's first successful journey, the U.S. Fish Commission decided to purchase its first official fish car. Former Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore baggage car No. 4 was modified by American Car and Foundry to carry fish and simply rechristened No. 1. Eventually the car was rebuilt and lengthened to sixty feet. A second federal car, Car No. 2, followed soon after on May 23, 1882. Built by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad for $7,334, it was fitted with special compartments to hold ice. The car was also reinforced so it could carry as much as 20,000 pounds of fish, water, and equipment at passenger car speeds. Fish cans were placed in refrigerated chambers along each side at the center of the car, with portable canebacked seats above the chambers for the crew. The car was capable of carrying 92 milk cans, or approximately 9,200 3-inch fish. A folding table was often set in the center aisle to serve as dining space. The ice storage boxes were installed at each end of the car, above the trucks. An office compartment was provided at one end of the car, with space at the opposite end equipped with galley and pantry facilities, as well as a pump and blower room for the refrigerator equipment. Car No. 3 was added to the federal fleet in 1884. This car was capable of carrying fish, as well as hatching eggs in transit. The refrigerator compartments of this car were placed below the floor with doors opening from above through the floor. The compartments could also be reached by doors opening from the outside, which permitted a clear floor space. It was found however that this arrangement prevented the car from passing over short curves and the compartments were therefore eventually placed above the floor. In 1885, the first hatching outfit was placed on Car No. 3 and was used en route to the New Orleans Exposition. The next intransit major hatching experiment on board Car No. 3 was performed in 1886 when 600,000 shad eggs were sent from the Battery Station on the Susquehanna River in Maryland to Portland, Oregon. The eggs were hatched en route and were thriving shad fry by the time they reached their December 2006 · 7

Federal Car No. 3 was recreated from a former passenger car by the D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery. Courtesy of the D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery in Spearfish, South Dakota.

This hand drawn diagram of the new pail designed by Edgar Fearnow, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Superintendent appeared in Fearnow's 1922 publication "A New and Practical Device for Transporting Live Fish" in Transactions from the American Fisheries Society. destination for stocking in the Columbia and Willamette Rivers. The hatching of eggs on Car No. 3 and other fish cars was carried on for several years, but as the number of regular hatcheries increased, it was found unnecessary to maintain hatching apparatus on the cars and the equipment was eventually eliminated from the cars. Car No. 3 would not be taken out of service until 1930. Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad's dispatching of a telegram to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries citing the extreme danger of continuing to operate a wood car forced Car No. 3 out of service. The car was moved to a siding at Union Station in Washington D.C. that year. The original Car No. 3 is presumed to have been destroyed. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery, located in Spearfish, South Dakota, has recreated Car No. 3 from a former passenger car and it is on exhibit on the hatchery grounds for visitors to experience. The car referred to as "Old Car No. 4" was a combination baggage car and mail car 8 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette built for a railroad in Mexico. It was purchased by the U.S. Fish Commission to transport saltwater fish to the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago. It had no refrigerator compartments being merely a baggage car equipped with berths. An act of Congress approved March 3, 1899, appropriated $8,000 for building a new fish car to replace "Old Car No. 4." This new car was then designated Car No. 4 and "Old Car No. 4" became Car No. 5. The new Car No. 4 was equipped with cedar tanks, an air pump to aerate the water, and other special equipment. At 42,780 pounds, the new Car No. 4 was considered heavier than most railroad cars in the country and as a result, the car was blamed for a variety of incidents throughout its career. In 1911, Car No. 4 was faulted for a wreck near Bridgeport, Connecticut, which killed thirteen people and injured forty-eight others. Attached to the Federal Limited, the excessive weight of the car was said to have delayed the train one hour. The engineer, anxious to make up lost time, was reportedly speeding at the time of the

accident. According to a newspaper account, Car No. 4 had also been involved in at least one other near-accident and so was labeled as a curse by railroaders. Later investigation showed that Car No. 4's unlucky past was more fiction than fact. The "new" Car No. 4 was removed from service after 1928. Placed on a siding at Lakeland, Maryland, Car No. 4 was used as a home for the employees who operated the Lakeland Pond station. Unfortunately it is not known how long Car No. 4 served as a residence, but it never returned to service as a fish car. With the turn of the century, the U.S. Fish Commission had evolved into the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries in 1903. By this time, fish cars were crisscrossing the country, often traveling ten days at a time, with fish losses held down to only one percent. The next year, Car No. 6 was purchased for use in connection with the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. At the close of the exposition, the car was turned over to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. The modern "Fish Car Era" was ushered in with the delivery of the first steel federal fish car in 1916, from the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Ltd., Wilmington, Delaware. Car No. 7 had 50 percent more fish-carrying capacity than the existing wooden models in the federal fleet. Two more steel cars, Car No. 8 and Car No. 9, would arrive shortly thereafter. Car No. 7 was still in service in 1937, traveling 23,761 miles, primarily in the far northwest United States. In addition to covering thousands of miles, the car was repaired by both the Chicago, Burlintgon & Quincy and Chicago & North Western railroads at different times during the year. In the 1920s a number of railroads were becoming reluctant, for safety reasons, to carry the older wooden fish cars on their high-speed passenger trains. For this reason, four of the wooden federal cars were replaced by new steel cars, with more advanced equipment and twice the fish carrying capacity of their wooden predecessors. With the arrival of Cars No. 7, 8, and 9, the older wood Cars No. 1, 2, 5, and 6 were disposed of by 1923. The only cars still operating in that year were Cars No. 3, 4, 7, 8, and 9. As mentioned earlier, the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries would finally remove its last wood car, Car No. 3, from service in 1930. During this same time, the technology of fish transportation was again advancing dramatically. In the 1920s, the traditional

10-gallon milk can containers used to carry fish were being replaced by new lighter weight containers called "Fearnow" pails. Patented in 1922 by their inventor, long time Bureau of Fisheries Superintendent Edgar C. Fearnow, the new pails only weighed five pounds, in contrast to the milk cans, which could weigh up to twenty-three pounds without their lids. A fish car crew member could easily carry the Fearnow pails by himself, while it would often take two crew members to carry a fully loaded milk can. The Fearnow pails could also carry twice as many fish as the older milk cans, while taking up half the space on board fish cars. The Fearnow pails also had special built-in compartments for ice to keep the water cool. Also improving were the methods used for aeration. Manual methods were being replaced by modern techniques, including electric or jet aerators that used compressed air. Several of the new steel cars used air from the train lines to aerate the water for the fish. By the 1920s, the federal fish cars had accumulated an impressive record. A 1923 report indicated that between 1900 and 1920, the output of various hatchery activities amounted to 72,281,380,861 fish which were distributed by federal fish cars traveling 2,029,416 miles, with an additional 8,104,799 miles traveled by detached messengers. It was estimated that 10,000 to 15,000 individual applications for fish stock were being filled annually by government hatcheries. Most of the shipments were made up of freshwater fish, such as pike, perch, shad, whitefish, trout, carp, landlocked salmon, and others. Regional resources were commonly exchanged to enrich the aquatic potential of one region or another. Lobsters and blue crabs, for instance, were carried from Woods Hole, Massachusetts to San Francisco, California while Dungeness crabs from San Francisco, were sent back to Chesapeake Bay. Many non-native species, like carp, were introduced in various areas, including Wisconsin. The federal fish cars were also a key link in the distribution of fish to private organizations and local government agencies, as well as to aquariums and for public exhibitions. Information about Cars No. 8 and No. 9 was gleaned primarily from Fiscal Year reports filed by the cars' managers. What is known about Car No. 8 was that it was equipped with Worthington feather valve air compressor, operated by a 1/2-horseDecember 2006 · 9

The Iowa Fish Commission's Hawkeye, apparently a coach converted for fish car use, is seen here at Monona, Iowa in a Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul passenger train about 1913. It was later replaced with the Hawkeye II, built new. L.L. Cook postcard photo, Paul Swanson collection. power electrically-driven motor connected to the storage batteries used for lighting the car. The device furnished a sufficient amount of free air to aerate 200-300 pails and was capable of being used continuously for fourteen hours without producing any deterioration in the batteries. Car No. 8 was operating in 1922 and was one of the first federal cars to carry Fearnow pails. In 1938, Car No. 8 was operating primarily out of La Crosse, Wisconsin to assist with trout distribution and spent the 1938-1939 winter there for repairs. And as of 1941, Car No. 8 was still in operation and was stored for the 1941-1942 winter at the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific rail yards in La Crosse. Car No. 9 was built around 1919 by the American Car & Foundry Company and was capable of carrying 240 Fearnow pails or approximately 24,000 3-inch fish, having almost three times greater capacity than its predecessor Car No. 2. Car No. 9 traveled a mere 7,096 miles in 1937, mostly on the east coast and it too was in a railroad's shops-- in this case, Norfolk & Western Railway--for repairs. Car No. 9 remained in service through the end of the calendar year in 1944, having traveled 17,396 miles. It was stored the winter of 1944-1945 in La Crosse on track space provided by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. Car No. 10, a $59,000 behemoth built in 1929, would be the last federal fish car constructed. Stretching 81 feet, its insulated compartments could hold 325 cans contain10 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette ing 34,000 3-inch fish or 500,000 1-inch fish. The car even had its own generator to operate all the equipment on board, including the electric aerating devices. In 1930, it was recorded that "fish were sent to virtually every state in the Union, and the (fish) cars were kept busy day and night." The fish cars and messengers together covered 505,853 miles in the 1930 fiscal year alone. In 1937, according to the fiscal year report, Car No. 10 alone traveled 20,504 miles, operating primarily from La Crosse, Wisconsin. Unfortunately, the debut of Car No. 10 coincided with improvements in aviation and automotive technology. The U.S. Bureau of Fisheries latched onto the idea of using airplanes and automobiles for transporting its fish just as quickly as it had once latched onto the idea of using fish cars on the nation's railroads. In 1928, 27,000 brook and rainbow trout were transported by airplane from Northville, Michigan to Dayton, Ohio without a single loss. Experiments were also conducted in stocking fish from the air, dropping the fish cargo as the plane flew over lakes and streams. Successful flights proved that fish could in fact be quickly and safely carried long distances by air. However far more significant was the growing distribution by truck. In 1930, vehicles were limited to a sixty-mile radius of the hatchery. But by 1932, improvements made to the trucks paired with favorable

cost comparisons were making an increasing impact. Approximately 17 percent of hatchery output was hauled by truck in 1933. But four years later, in 1937, budget cutbacks were beginning to seriously restrict fish car operations and modernized tank trucks were equaling the mileage of the federal fish car fleet. The hard reality was that distributing fish by truck was less costly and more efficient than using the traditional fish cars as the 1940s approached. In a 1939 Bureau of Fisheries report it was noted that "the same number of fish can be carried by truck as by distribution (fish) car, to destinations with a radius of approximately 300 miles, at about one-fourth the cost." With federal hatcheries now located in many states throughout the country, most shipments were not required to travel more than 300 miles. By 1940, only three federal cars were still in operation: Cars No. 8, 9, and 10. One of the cars was wrecked in 1944, possibly Car No. 8. The fate of Car No. 9 is currently unknown. The last fish car--the mammoth Car No. 10--was finally taken out of service in 1947, dismantled, and its equipment scattered among the various federal hatcheries. The end of service for the Car No. 10 marked the end of the Fish Car Era for federal fish cars, as well as many state fish cars throughout the country. State Fish Cars Individual states, like the U.S. government, also developed individual hatchery systems to supply fish to the waters of their states. As the demand for fish stocking grew, so did the need for fish cars. Nearly every state in the continental United States utilized at least one "fish car" in one form or another. What follows is a brief discussion of just some of those fish cars used by different states around the country. Additional states that are known to have fish cars include California, Iowa, Kansas, Montana, New York, Ohio, South Dakota, and West Virginia. Illinois Perhaps the most elegant of all fish cars was the Illinois Department of Agriculture Fish Car No. 8-1818, built by McGuireCummings Manufacturing Company of Paris, Illinois. The steel car included a traditional brass-railed observation compartment, complete with a handsome fish logo on the car's rear-end drumhead. The car was later sent to Pullman for maintenance in 1919. This car may have in fact been modeled on

Wisconsin's Badger No. 2. The only difference was that Car No. 8-1818 was made entirely of steel. The window layout for the two cars, for example, is identical. The 1922 Car Builders Cyclopedia has a photo and floor plan of Car No. 8-1818 on page 311. In 1929, a different type of car was built specifically for collecting aquatic species for the John G. Shedd Aquarium in Chicago's Grant Park. Built by the Pullman Company, the 83-foot steel car called Nautilus accommodated sixteen 200-gallon waterproof cypress boxes and twenty 30-gallon metal containers that could be rolled on and off the car. It was fitted with tanks, pumps, air compressors, electric refrigeration coils, and steam heat to support the fish. One end of the car was outfitted with bunks, a bath, and an efficiency kitchen for the crew of six. The Nautilus operated until 1956 when it was replaced by the Nautilus II, a former Chicago & Eastern Illinois steel baggagelounge car. The Nautilus II remained in service until 1972, when it was placed on display at the Monticello Railway Museum in Monticello, Illinois. As of 2003, the Monticello Railway Museum was in the process of restoring the Nautilus II for exhibit. Michigan Like many other states, prior to commissioning its own fish car, the Michigan Fish Commission arranged to carry fry on baggage cars from 1873 to 1887. But by 1887, the Michigan Fish Commission received a legislative appropriation of $6,000 to build a specialized fish car. This car was named Attikumaig, which refers to a species of whitefish. The Attikumaig could carry up to 175 10-gallon cans in specially built lockers, which could hold ice for temperature regulation and reduce the movement of the cans. It also had living quarters, which reduced the expense of transporting workers. In 1904, the Attikumaig was damaged in an accident that "threw both body and trucks down a steep embankment" near Traverse City. It was rebuilt and renamed the Fontinalis. Almost ten years later, the Michigan Fish Commission again received a legislative appropriation, this time for $5,000 to replace the wear worn Fontinalis. Rather than buy a newly constructed fish car, Superintendent Seymour Bower chose to purchase a retired Pullman sleeper car and had it modified into a fish car. He contracted with Hotchkiss, Blue and Company of Chicago to render the transformation. December 2006 · 11

RIGHT: The Nebraska Fish Commission acquired its first state-owned fish car in 1889. Built by Litchfield Car & Machine Company, the car was christened the Antelope. This photo shows the car as it appeared in 1901. ABOVE: Nebraska's second fish car Angler was built in 1918 to replace the Antelope. It was reportedly built of steel construction although in the photograph, it appears to have wooden carsiding. Both photos reproduced from Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #177, Autumn 1997. Christened the Wolverine, it was equipped with can lockers and living quarters. Hotchkiss, Blue and Company removed all the lower berths of the sleeping car, but left in seven of the upper berths for use by the crew. The final run of Wolverine came in 1935, when it was outfitted as a traveling museum of conservation. Shortly thereafter, the car's contents were removed to the Paris Hatchery as an exhibit and the car was scrapped in 1938. The Paris exhibit was dismantled and removed to the State Historical Museum collection in the early 1970s. Within the last few years, the Michigan State University Museum recreated a portion of the Wolverine fish car as part of an interpretive project for the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. The exhibit was installed in a remodeled 1927 Canadian passenger car and can be seen at the Oden Fish Hatchery in Michigan. 12 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette Nebraska Nebraska established its state fish commission in 1879, using wagons to transport fish fry in milk cans to train depots, where they would be loaded aboard baggage cars and sent express to the train station nearest the intended stocking point. Ten years later in 1889, the Nebraska legislature appropriated $2,000 for the purchase of a fish car. The Litchfield Car & Machine Company of Litchfield, Illinois was contracted to build the car. Nebraska's first car, christened the Antelope, was 45 feet long and carried twenty fish tanks. Each tank had a capacity that ranged from 80 to 100 gallons of water. Plainly and substantially constructed, the car was fitted with Westinghouse air brakes and four-wheel passenger coach trucks. Since the Antelope was delivered late in the season in 1889, it did not see much

action. Consequently, Nebraska's Fish Commission did not publish annual reports between 1889 and 1895, so very little is known about the Antelope's early years of service. But the 1896 annual report noted that the Antelope traveled 2,916 miles on the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad, 3,482 miles on the UP, and 3,688 more miles on the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley. The extensive travels resulted in numerous "sundry repairs" and a request was made to upgrade the Antelope with the same type of air pumping apparatus found on Federal Car No. 4. The next year, the Antelope again traveled nearly 10,000 miles, this time on five different railroads. The car was finally "restored to first class" condition at the Burlington & Missouri River shops. But it would not be until 1904 that the Antelope would finally receive the air pumps that had been requested. Over the next ten years, the Antelope would consistently undergo major repairs and restorations while continuing to log more than 10,000 miles annually. Finally in 1917, the Nebraska legislature appropriated $15,000 for a new steel fish car, following the precedent set by the federal government with the debut of the all-steel Car No. 7. This time Nebraska contracted with Hotchkiss, Blue and Company, located in Harvey, Illinois to build the new car. Sneaking in under budget at $14,891, the new 78-foot car was christened the Angler. This car carried twenty 80-gallon tanks with additional room for 100 8-gallon shipping cans. There was a dual air system, one from the train line and the other from a battery operated pump. The interior was also fully equipped for the comfort of the crew, including a cooking range, sleeping quarters, steam heat, hot and cold running water, a dining room, and an office. With the arrival of the Angler, the Antelope was apparently removed from its trucks and was turned into a home or tool shed. Unfortunately like the Antelope, very little documentation exists to shed light on the Angler's activities while in service. By 1928, the Angler underwent extensive modifications and was renamed the Waltonian. This same year, the Nebraska Fish Commission also invested in a specially-built fish truck. In the 1932-1933 report, the Waltonian was listed as nothing more than an "asset with a value of $20,000." The Waltonian would be mentioned for the last time in the 1934-1935 report as being located at the Nebraska State Fair grounds. The Waltonian was dismantled in 1941, ending Nebraska's use of fish cars.

Pennsylvania As early as 1887, the need to purchase a railcar was identified by hatcheries in Pennsylvania. After convincing the Pennsylvania Board of Fish Commissioners of the need, funds were requested and the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1891 appropriated $5,000 (nearly one third of that year's entire Commission budget) for a "fish car." In December 1891, four members of the board met with USF&WS officials in Washington, D.C. to get ideas and tour one of their cars. Specifications for the fish car were soon finalized, a manufacturer was found, and on June 5, 1892, the brand new fish car Susquehanna rolled into Harrisburg for the first time. The car was built by Jackson and Sharp of Wilmington, Delaware, one of the world's leading railcar manufacturers of that era. The olive-green wooden car was 64 feet long and 10 feet wide. It could transport up to 84 10-gallon fish cans. The June 7, 1892 edition of Harrisburg's newspaper The Patriot described the car as "well constructed and very attractive." The article went on to detail the interior: "On either side of the main portion of the car are tanks filled with water in which the cans containing the fish are placed. The water in these tanks is kept cool by means of cold air from a refrigerator on each side at one end of the car. It is fitted up with a kitchen, sleeping apartment, wardrobe, and office, and is a model of convenience." The Patriot further proclaimed it to be "superior to the car of the United States Fish Commission in the way of better tanks and more commodious sleeping compartments." The car was on display for several days in Harrisburg, and according to The Patriot, was "admired by large crowds since its arrival in the city." After its short stint in Harrisburg, the Susquehanna was delivered to the Corry hatchery on June 9. Although it was used by all of the Commission's hatcheries of that era, Corry became its home base. Black bass, known today as smallmouth bass, had the honor of being the first species of fish stocked from the Susquehanna. When the car was not occupied with delivering fish for stocking, it was put to good use transferring fish between hatcheries. As it turned out, stocking and transferring fish were not the only duties of the new railcar. The Susquehanna was used in two world's fairs, the Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1893 and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis in 1904. During both December 2006 · 13

fairs, the Susquehanna was instrumental in transporting the Pennsylvania Fish Commission's exhibits, including live fish. The exhibits won awards and accolades, and in 1904 won "grand prize" for its live fish display. The car was originally to be part of the Commission's exhibit in St. Louis, but proved to be more valuable as a means of keeping the display replenished with live and healthy fish for the duration of the fair. Operating and maintaining a wooden railcar was an expensive proposition, and after only a few years problems began to surface. In preparation for the Chicago World's Fair, an overhaul of the car cost over $1,500. Sometimes, when the car was returned from a stocking trip, a bill from the railroad was also presented for repairs made along the way. They deemed the repairs necessary to bring the car up to safety codes. To compound the problem, as early as 1895, some railroads began charging a fee of $0.20 per mile. Money was tight in the 1890s and it was difficult to get funds appropriated for routine maintenance, much less any extra for these unanticipated charges. The car was used less and less until it was practically not used at all. In 1896 it was removed from under cover at the railroad yard in Kane, where it was stored while not in use, further exposing it to the elements. Its condition continued to deteriorate. In the 1899 Report of the Commissioners, William Buller said, "It is in a deplorable state, and exposed constantly to the weather. Twice tramps have broken in, and used it as a roosting place until driven out." Buller's pleas for additional money during the waning years of the 19th century went unheeded. Through no fault of its own, the beginning of the end was underway for the Susquehanna. The Fish Commission again began to rely on the messenger system to transport and stock fish. Things had gone full circle. Ironically, the Susquehanna was succeeded by the system that it had replaced just a few short years earlier. The car was used so infrequently that a barn was erected specifically to house the now derailed Susquehanna at the new Bellefonte hatchery. In 1905, the Susquehanna was delivered to the "car barn," its final resting place while owned by the Commission. The next nine years were filled with contradiction and indecision. As the car continued to see little use because of insufficient funds, commissioners paradoxically considered purchasing one, or even two, additional cars. At the same time, the messenger 14 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

system was still used extensively. Plans for additional cars were ultimately abandoned. After seeing two world's fairs, and crisscrossing the Commonwealth to stock hundreds of waterways with literally millions of fish, the fate of the Susquehanna was sealed. In 1913, the Commission requested permission from the Legislature to dispose of the car. One year later, the car was turned over to the Board of Buildings and Grounds and sold. The final disposition of the Susquehanna is unknown. Wisconsin Prior to the use of rail to transport fish from hatcheries, horse and wagon teams were hired by the state to haul fish, eggs, equipment, freight, and people between hatcheries. But by the 1870s, Dr. Stone had proven the benefits of using rail travel for transporting fish. Messengers began traveling by rail with individual milk cans filled with fish as soon as hatcheries became established. As with the federal system, individuals could apply to the state for fish to stock their private streams and ponds. Recipients would meet the train, pick up the fry, plant the fish, and return the empty cans to the train station. Attached to the cans were tags, noting which hatchery the cans were to be returned to. Unfortunately, since the cans so closely resembled milk cans, many empty fish cans never made their way back to the hatcheries. Though utilizing baggage cars provided a more efficient and in most cases, a free method of transporting fry, it was far from perfect. In his portion of the 1892 Annual Report, then Superintendent James Nevin remarked on the difficulty of keeping the fish at an appropriate temperature on board the baggage cars in May and June without an abundance of ice. He also commented on the enormous inconveniences endured by employees who were often forced to switch baggage cars three or four times on one trip, transferring all the cans and paraphernalia each time. Another problem was the fact that there was usually only enough room on the baggage cars for twenty or less cans at a time, resulting in either smaller shipments or more messengers on multiple cars. Wisconsin utilized a number of baggage cars through the fish car era. At least two baggage cars were furnished by the Chicago & North Western Railway, free of

ABOVE: A Wisconsin Conservation Commission Fish Can similar to those used on Badger #2. Leah Rosenow photo. RIGHT: Fish Can Tags from a variety of Wisconsin hatcheries, courtesy of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the Stephen Gilbert collection. charge, to the Wisconsin Fish Commission for its exclusive use and were still in use through the 1930s. The Nevin Fish Hatchery journals vaguely refer to "baggage cars" for several years, but occasionally the specific car numbers were mentioned, such as C&NW baggage car #8660. Badger #1 As early as 1891, the Wisconsin Conservation Commission began campaigning to acquire a specially-built fish car. In the 1892 Annual Report, the Fisheries Commissioner complained that "no matter how carefully the employee of the hatchery may be in taking the fish from the hatchery to the water in which they are to find a permanent home, many things conspire at times to make the journey hazardous to the welfare of the fry. Sometimes the men are unable to give the fish the care they demand in transit owing to the crowded condition of the baggage car.... It can be readily seen that the [fish] car will, in the saving of fry alone, repay to the state its investment in a few years." The Fisheries Commissioner also noted that "the transfer of fish from the state to the exposition at Chicago will be a problem which must be considered, and yet it is easily solved if the car is purchased." In 1893, the Wisconsin Conservation Commission was appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of a fully furnished fish car from the Litchfield Car and Machine Company of Litchfield, Illinois. Appropriately christened the Badger #1, this car was fifty-five feet long with an aisle down the center. At one end was the kitchen with a stove and adequate utensils for providing meals for the crew employed on the car. The other end contained a "Pullman section" with upper and lower berths on one side and on the other side, a lavatory, clothes room and closet. The interior was done in oak. In the main body of the car were twelve fish tanks, each three feet square and eighteen inches deep, lined with thick galvanized iron and having drain pipes. Under the center of the car was a reservoir capable of holding eight barrels of water and an ice tank that could hold two tons. In one end of the main room, where the tanks were located was a six-horsepower engine and boiler connected with the reservoir. Iron pipes connected with the pump to enable circulation and aeration of the water in the twelve fish tanks. In these pipes there were jets made with coupling and rubber hoses attached, with glass nozzles, that came within one inch of the surface water in each tank. When the pump was in operation, the water was forced into the bottom of the tank. Six of those jets December 2006 · 15

ABOVE: View of the fish tanks on board Wisconsin's Badger #1. The simple finish wood interior is well seen here. Note the drawn window shade at right. BELOW: Moving a bit farther back in the car, the photographer's vantage point is now from the lounge area, looking toward the fish tanks room. Both photographs by E.W. Curtiss, from the MidContinent Railway Historical Society collection.

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This exterior view of Badger #1 shows two crew members posing at the center door. It may have been taken just prior to the Badger #1's visit to the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. Courtesy of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and Wisconsin Historical Society WHi(X3)33291. could be used in one tank, if desired. The water then ran back through the standpipe into the reservoir and was recycled into the tanks. The ice was used to keep the water in the tank at a consistent temperature. During the winter months, when the Badger #1 was not in service, it was stored in Madison, where a shed was provided for its accommodation. The Badger #1 was operated by a much smaller crew than that which normally ran federal fish cars. Though the Badger #1 was equipped to accommodate several individuals on board, typically only one to three people traveled with the car. The use of mechanical aeration equipment helped alleviate the need for extra manpower. The crew members were almost always hatchery employees, who often took turns traveling on board to various destinations. Understandably most trips made by the Badger #1 were also shorter than those made by federal fish cars. Typically the Badger #1 was out on the road only a day or two before returning to Madison, though it sometimes did embark on more extended journeys around the state. The hatchery crew was ultimately responsible for every aspect of Badger #1, from cleaning the car to maintenance to arranging the spotting and scheduling of the car. A variety of railroads are noted in the Nevin hatchery journals as having carried the Badger #1 throughout the state. In many cases, this required switching Badger #1 from one railroad to another, based on the car's destination and schedule. For example, on January 22, 1900 it was noted that "Suthers had car transferred from Milwaukee Road to CNW.... Also filled with water and got ready to haul fish from Madison to Bayfield hatchery." In addition to the Milwaukee Road and the Chicago & North Western, other railroads known to have pulled the Badger #1 included the Omaha Railroad (CStPM&O), the Green Bay & Western Railroad, the Ahnapee & Western Railway, and the Wisconsin Central Railway. Badger #1 served not only to deliver fish stock between different hatcheries and to waterways in Wisconsin, but it also collected fish to bring back to the hatcheries for breeding. In 1903, the Madison Democrat newspaper noted that Badger #1's "last trip was to Minocqua and points north for the purpose of securing black bass for the breeders at the hatchery." In addition, the Badger #1 often served as transportation for commission administrators and other distinguished guests. For instance, in May of 1902, the car carried the president of the Board of Fish Commissioners Edward E. Bryant, Commissioners Spensley and Birge, and Wisconsin Governor La Follete to Portage, where they picked up Commissioner Hogan and met Commissioners Starr and Superintendent Nevin in Minocqua. The Badger #1 served as an office space and meeting room, as they inspected hatching stations and waterways. Other Wisconsin Governors also took advantage of the Badger #1 for hunting and fishing excursions. Like the federal cars, state cars also were special attractions at festivals and exhibitions. Badger #1 made an appearance December 2006 · 17

ABOVE: Badger #2 was at Antigo, Wisconsin in 1921, delivering trout fry. Note the internal combustion vehicles waiting to load fish cans to deliver to area streams. This mode of transportation would ultimately force Badger #2 into obsolescence. Also note the letterboard lettering "Wisconsin Conservation Commission" reflecting the name change in the agency that eventually became the Department of Natural Resources. A.J. Kingsbury photograph, Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society collection.

LEFT: Pullman photographed the interior of brand-new Badger #2 on July 20, 1912. This view is of the observation room, looking out toward the end of the car. The floor is a utilitarian linoleum, most certainly the most spartan finish in the entire car interior. Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution, Pullman Photograph Collection. 18 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, as well the Wisconsin State Fair and innumerable county fairs. Throughout its service, the Badger #1 regularly logged more than 20,000 miles annually as it traveled throughout the state. Unlike the federal cars, which generally traveled only from April to November, state fish cars tended to travel year round, based on the weather and seasonal availability. In 1896, Badger #1 was in service on February 1st and traveled regularly to northern Wisconsin, totaling 1,842 miles that month alone. In fact, winter travel was not unusual for Badger #1, depending on the needs of the commission and hatcheries. With the arrival of the Badger #2 in 1912, the use of Badger #1 dropped off dramatically. Badger #1 was eventually sold to the Canadian Government for $3,500 in 1914 and unfortunately, its whereabouts are unknown today. There are no known records of its final disposition. Badger #2 When the Badger #2 debuted in 1912, improvements in technology were advantageous for both the fish fry and the crews that cared for them. Built by the Pullman Company, the Badger #2 was considerably larger than its predecessor Badger #1. At 72 feet, it was eighteen feet longer and featured wood and steel composite structure where the steel truss plank construc-

tion extended up to the window sills (also known as a belt rail). This was a rather unusual construction technique. The additional strength provided by the steel enabled the Badger #2 to travel safely at passenger car speeds, with a heavier cargo. Badger #2 was equipped with fifteen fish tanks. And like the Badger #1, the tanks were located in the middle of the car, lined up along the side walls, leaving enough room for a center aisle. The size and number of Badger #2's tanks made it possible to carry more fish fry than the Badger #1. Unique to the Badger #2 was the fact that five of the tanks were removable if desired. One known use of this feature allowed the crew to add a long dining table in this section of the car (see photo, p. 21). Surprisingly, there is very little documentary evidence for a water aeration system for the tanks on board Badger #2, other than brief mentions in the Wisconsin Fish Commission annual reports. In the 1928, it was noted that "similar aerating devices are used on the railroad fish cars, three of which were used by the commission during the past biennium." The three "fish cars" mentioned in the report would have been the Badger #2 and two Chicago & North Western baggage cars. The next reference to Badger #2's aeration system came in the 1930 report, which states "each summer the baggage cars are transformed into fish distribution cars with aeration systems

(continued on p. 25)

This 1912 Hatchery Journal entry noted that the Wisconsin Fisheries Commissioner was traveling on board the Badger #2. Courtesy of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Nevin Fish Hatchery.

December 2006 · 19

ABOVE: This interior view of Badger #2's Salon was taken while at the Pullman Co. plant on July 20, 1912. Just beyond the wicker chair is a Baker or similar-type coal-fired heater. Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution, Pullman Photograph Collection. OPPOSITE PAGE TOP: Another view of the Salon and Observation Room was made not long after the car was in service, c.1912. OPPOSITE PAGE BOTTOM: This view shows the fish tank room shortly after the car was placed in service, c.1912. The table in the foreground was a portable dining table for on board staff. Note the continued use of linoleum flooring throughout the car. Photos courtesy of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Nevin Fish Hatchery. 20 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

December 2006 · 21

The Pullman Company made this exterior view builder's photo of Badger #2 in 1912. Note the Wisconsin State Coat of Arms painted on the car side to the right. Finalized in 1881, the Coat of Arms contains symbols that represent the diversity, wealth, and abundance of resources in Wisconsin. Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution, Pullman Photograph Collection.

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Badger #2 delivered Pike Fry to Woodruff, Wisconsin on May 30, 1916. E. Custiss photograph. Courtesy of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

December 2006 · 23

Badger #2 near Oshkosh, Wisconsin in 1938. John Sacho photograph, Ray Buhrmaster collection.

ABOVE: After acquisition by Walter H. Knapp, Inc. in 1945, Badger #2 simply became #104. It served as a traveling field office for the contractor's various jobs. Here it is at Manitowoc, Wisconsin, "located on the site of Rahr Malting Co. job," October 1946. Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society collection. BELOW: Later in its Walter H. Knapp career, #104 spent its days perched atop this trestle in Milwaukee. It was here that Mid-Continent members made their first inspection of the car. Note the more elaborate letter and paint scheme. Paul Swanson collection.

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similar to the one in the Badger #2." The most detailed reference to the aeration system on Badger #2 appeared in the 1936 report where it was stated that the car was "specially equipped...with an air compressor unit for aerating the water in each can." Similarly, the historic photo documentation of the Badger #2's interior does not reveal visible evidence of a functioning aeration system. There is also no mention of the aeration system, its design, maintenance, or use in any of the journals kept by the Nevin Fish Hatchery. Finally, there appears to be no indication in the Pullman specifications or in the car's blueprints to suggest that the Pullman Company installed an aeration system. While the car obviously utilized some form of aeration system, the glaring lack of details has had a significant impact on the restoration plan for Badger #2. On board Badger #2, the crew had what were described by local newspapers as "comfortable and sophisticated living quarters." On one end of the car was a full service kitchen, with an icebox, range, and ample cupboard space. On the other observation end of the car was a lounge and dining area with chairs, tables, two sofas, and two upper sleeping berths. An additional six upper berths were located above the fish tanks in the center of the car. Like the Badger #1, the Badger #2 often traveled with a sparse crew when in operation. However, Badger #2 sometimes hosted larger groups of guests than it did crew members, since it often served as a venue for Wisconsin Fish Commission meetings and hosted administrators and politicians as guests as it toured the state. The car's eight bunks and two sofa berths were certainly put to good use on several occasions. The first specific mention of the Badger #2 in the Nevin Fish Hatchery Journals actually coincides with the preparation of the car for use by the Commissioner. The added technology and comfort came at a cost however. Badger #2, with a final price tag of $13,500.00, cost more than double that of Badger #1. Though Badger #2 was introduced at the height of the Fish Car Era, its services eventually became obsolete with the advent of another method of transportation: the automobile. By the 1930s, hatcheries became more evenly spread throughout Wisconsin and the use of trucks for distribution became a more efficient way to cover

short distances. By 1935, Badger #2 was no longer the primary vehicle used for Wisconsin fish distribution and was subsequently contracted to haul fish to the east coast, though it remained Wisconsin property. It was photographed in 1935 in Dane County by a photographer named Sanborn. The caption for the photo was "Loading car at McFarland--to be shipped to Eastern markets. Contract fishing." Unfortunately, the original photograph, once held in the Wisconsin Historical Society collection, could not be found for reproduction for Mid-Continent's research. The Badger #2 was last photographed in the state's possession near Winnebago State Hospital in Winnebago County in 1945. The interior and exterior were photographed and unfortunately, these photos too are missing from the Wisconsin Historical Society collections. The existence of these photographs is known only from photocopies. Later that same year, the Badger #2 was finally decommissioned as a fish car by the state and sold to Milwaukee-based private railroad contractor Walter H. Knapp, Inc. Badger #2 was converted to a field office and renumbered #104. As a field office, the tanks, six of the upper berths, and portions of the kitchen were removed from the car. While other fish cars had all literally disappeared from the scene, the Badger #2 was spared destruction by being adapted for this new purpose. In 1947, when the last federal fish car, Fish Car No. 10, was retired by the U.S. Government, Badger #2 became the last original fish car still in some form of active rail service. Badger #2's Mid-Continent Years Mid-Continent was fortunate enough to purchase the Badger #2 for its collection from Walter H. Knapp, Inc. in 1960. Once in the museum's collections, Badger #2 was renovated for passenger service and the car maintained the number #104 previously used by Walter H. Knapp, Inc. While Mid-Continent was aware that the Badger #2 was indeed a fish car when it was acquired, it was reconfigured for passenger service, since it was the goal of the organization to provide train rides. The modifications previously made by the Walter H. Knapp, Inc. consequently allowed for an easy transition to passenger service. Though passenger service was not the purpose for which Badger #2 was originally built, the steps taken to make the car December 2006 · 25

Photos on this page were taken of Badger #2 while under restoration by volunteers of Mid-Continent while parked on Milwaukee Road tracks in Milwaukee. Badger #2 was the first piece of passenger equipment for the group. Ron Jones and Pete Gorman photos, MCRHS collection.

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Badger #2 made its operational debut for Mid-Continent at Hillsboro, Wisconsin on the H&NE in the summer of 1962. As such, it was the first car to carry passengers for the museum. Brightly decorated in yellow paint with maroon trim, the car had a circus-like look to it--a far cry from its more utilitarian past. Photos ABOVE are by Jim Neubauer. Photo BELOW is by Ron Jones, Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society collection.

suitable for passenger service did in fact help ensure the continued structural survival of the car. This work was performed at the Milwaukee Road North Avenue freight house, in Milwaukee during the summer of 1961. Many members, including Richard Hinebaugh, John Ford, Carl Ulrich, Don Ginter, Stu Kurth, Ron Jones, and Pete Gorman spent many weekends rebuilding and refurnishing the car. When completed the car was painted yellow and trimmed with maroon windows and letterboard. The interior featured varnished woodwork, brass chandeliers, and walkover seats that came from the Milwaukee Road shops.

The Badger #2 first saw passenger service in 1962, when Mid-Continent moved its collection from Milwaukee to Hillsboro, Wisconsin and offered rides to the public on the Hillsboro & Northeastern Railroad. The Badger #2 was in service with Milwaukee Road Caboose #01524. During the 1963-1964 season, Badger #2 was joined by the East Jordan & Southern #2 combine at MidContinent's new home in North Freedom, Wisconsin. For the 1965 season, the Copper Range combine #25 joined the operating fleet and the train consist typically involved #25, the East Jordan & Southern #2 combine, and the Milwaukee Road caboose. In 1966, the Rock December 2006 · 27

Ron Jones took more photos of Badger #2 while in service at Hillsboro, Wisconsin in 1962. Milwaukee Road caboose #01524 and a H&NE flatcar outfitted with benches and railings joined #2. A H&NE engine was used for power. The operation lasted only a year before moving to North Freedom.

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Jim Neubauer a beautiful summer day to photograph MCRM #104 (Badger #2) during the first year of operations (1963) at #104's new home of North Freedom, Wisconsin. Museum train crews referred to the car as the "fish car" or simply "104." Island coach #799 joined the operating fleet. With each addition, Badger #2 was relegated to overflow service, being put into service only when extra capacity was required. Use of the Badger #2 further declined with the addition of the all-steel Lackawanna coaches in daily use beginning in 1972. Badger #2 was removed from service in 1985 due to a leaking roof and an overall deteriorated condition. Badger #2 was first housed in the Mid-Continent Coach Shed, where the initial steps toward restoration took place. These steps included installing a new canvas roof and rebuilding the wood framing and siding on the west side of the car. At that time, the intention was to keep Badger #2 in passenger service form. The Badger #2's central double doors were ideal for providing accessibility to passengers in wheelchairs. When the museum's Car Shop was built, the Badger #2 was moved into storage there and eventually moved outside, covered with a tarp. The survival of Badger #2 can be directly credited to the fact that throughout its life, new uses for the car were developed when its service in other areas had run out. These new uses however required many changes to the car's interior and exterior structure, resulting in the loss of many 1912-era characteristics. December 2006 · 29

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ABOVE: This is #104's observation room interior as it appeared while in service at North Freedom in 1963. Note that carpeting now adorns the floor. The lounge chairs were added by the museum. From the appearance of buildings outside the windows, #104 is sitting uptown, next to coach/depot EJ&S #2. Ron Jones photo, MCRHS collection. RIGHT: #104 carries the markers for a passenger train beginning the climb from South Bessemer during the summer of 1973. The rear platform was a popular spot for passengers to enjoy the passing scenery. Jim Neubauer photo. Photos on the OPPOSITE PAGE show #104 during its first year at North Freedom--1963. TOP: This was the loading platform arrangement uptown at North Freedom. The small building at left was the museum's new depot. EJ&S combine #2 at right served that function as well. Ron Jones photo. MIDDLE: C&NW R-1 #1385 shuffles #104 during a switch move at North Freedom, back when there were no buildings, and only one siding. Badger #2 may very well have traveled behind many a Class R-1 C&NW locomotive during its fish career. Pete Gorman photo. BOTTOM: Russ Porter made this nice portrait of #104 and the typical train consist for the year 1963. Collection of Jim Neubauer. December 2006 · 31

#104 adds to the passenger capacity of a museum train at Bluff, near Quartzite Lake. Date: c.1970. Philip R. Hastings photo.

An eastbound train backs onto Seeley Creek trestle on July 28, 1963. #104's platform was a convenient perch for protecting backup moves in the early days. Philip R. Hastings photo.

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Current Condition of Badger #2 The Badger #2, as it exists today, exhibits less than 50% of its original form. The exterior platform ends and the interior observation room of Badger #2 are considered to be the "most original" portions of the car, with these areas having withstood minimal changes and limited deterioration over time. However, a thorough inspection of the exterior and interior of Badger #2 reveals that other original elements have in fact endured. Today, the exterior components are the most visually deteriorated aspect of Badger #2. The car was used almost continuously on the road in active operation for seventy-five years. It has also endured the seasonal extremes of Wisconsin weather for most of the last ten years while being stored outdoors, and more recently under a tarp. These factors, along with age, have endangered the structural integrity of the car body and undercarriage. Though the exterior deterioration of the wood siding and framing is extensive, there is still a great deal of information about the Badger #2's original 1912 structure and exterior appearance that can be gained by analyzing the components that remain. The car siding was painted numerous times during the course of its career. Documentary evidence indicates that the car was originally painted Pullman "Standard Color" by the Pullman Car Company in 1912, presumed to be the dark green. Historic paint analysis will confirm the correct color and hue to be used in the Badger #2's restoration. The trucks and underframe of Badger #2 also provide clues to the car's early history. The trucks and underframe were stenciled multiple times, representing the different phases of the car's career. In at least two places, an original stencil "No 2" can still be seen on the trucks of the car. Other stencils include "104" from Badger #2's service with Walter H. Knapp, Inc. and Mid-Continent Railway Museum. Although the exterior of the Badger #2 has sustained damage and deterioration, there are components that remain intact and in relatively good condition. The steel underframe, draft gear, and trucks are all intact and in very good condition. The original end doors, side doors and end platforms also remain intact and in good condition. In the time since the Badger #2 left active service at the museum, critical steps have

been taken by Mid-Continent volunteers to stabilize and preserve the car. As mentioned earlier, a new canvas roof was installed. The majority of one side of the car was reframed and new siding has since been installed. Replacement window frames and siding were made and are currently on hand for the balance of the car. These will be used in the upcoming restoration project to help keep costs down. The Badger #2's interior structure and woodwork have faired better over time than the car's exterior. Still, it is in no less critical condition. As a result of changing hands over the years, dramatic changes were made to the interior configuration of the car to fulfill different services. In 1945, when Walter H. Knapp, Inc. purchased Badger #2, partitions, fish tanks, and upper berths were removed and the interior space reconfigured to create a more appropriate office environment. After Mid-Continent Railway Museum acquired the car in 1960, it was remodeled for passenger service the following year. Mid-Continent refinished the interior woodwork, installed new partitions, passenger seats, kerosene lamps, and modified some of the windows. The Wisconsin climate has also played a role in the Badger #2's interior condition. While in use and in storage, fluctuating temperatures, humidity, and the perpetual presence of rain and ice have caused the interior woodwork and paint to discolor, warp, and pull away from the supporting framework of the car body. Existing interior flooring, hardware, and upholstery have also succumbed to similar conditions. The interior continues to retain historic clues to Badger #2's original appearance despite the many changes it has endured. The most definitive evidence for Badger #2's original interior décor are illustrated in the name of the car and the Pullman lot number "4015" found impressed on the inside edge of door and window frames. Thus far, the car name has been found impressed into the current bathroom door, one section of a central car door, and multiple window frames. The impressions include "Fish Car 2," "Badger," and "4015." The door and window frames that contain these impressions are representative of the original components installed in the car by the Pullman Company in 1912. They can then be used as templates to accurately recreate missing door and window frames in the car. Since many of these original doors December 2006 · 33

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and windows have maintained their authentic 1912-era hardware, such as doorknobs and hinges, these too can be used to find matches and create reproductions for the restoration project. Additional original hardware also exists elsewhere in the car, including coat hooks, window lifts, berths, berth mechanisms, and curtain rods. There are also examples of the many different types of window glass used in various parts of Badger #2, including amber colored clerestory window glass and clear diamond patterned pressed glass. Badger #2 Restoration Options The long career and multiple services performed by the Badger #2 enable a wide variety of restoration options that span multiple time periods and functions. The Badger #2 has a place in Milwaukee's industrial heritage through Walter H. Knapp, Inc. and is a sentimental favorite from Mid-Continent's passenger service. However, Badger #2's most significant legacy certainly lies in its service as a fish car and its status as the sole survivor of the Fish Car Era, not only in Wisconsin, but in the nation as well. Therefore, it is the recommendation of Mid-Continent that the most appropriate and desirable restoration option is to return Badger #2 to its original 1912 "as built" appearance. For the purposes of this project, it is important to stress the difference between "as built" and "as used." To restore the Badger #2 to its "as built" condition requires that the car's physical appearance and operation be identical to the day it was delivered to the State of Wisconsin by the Pullman Car Company. In "as built" form, the Badger #2 also would illustrate the climax of the Fish Car Era and be an appropriate representation of the majority of fish cars built and used in this country. It is in this form that Mid-Continent has been able to compile the largest amount of detail and documentation that will govern an accurate restoration. And it is the form that best represents the original intention of the artifact. To restore Badger #2 to any "as used" form during its career presents innumerable exhibition scenarios for which there is inadequate information available to perform an accurate restoration. The earlier discussion on the aeration system is a major case in point. To simply suggest that the Badger #2 be restored to "fish car form" still requires a decision as to what point during

its nearly thitry-three years of active service and innumerable fish transport functions to represent. Also, in "as used" form, the Badger #2 would only have been representative of the decline of the Fish Car Era, when most fish cars were being retired and destroyed. An "as used" restoration strategy would result in logistical complications that would dramatically alter the interpretive value and historical integrity of the artifact. Rarely does an institution have the opportunity to restore an artifact to its original, pristine condition. In most cases, parts and materials are missing and irreplaceable. Data and documentation pertaining to the artifact commonly do not exist. But in the case of the Badger #2, there are not these obstacles. An additional incentive to restore the Badger #2 to its 1912 "as built" form is that in addition to being the only survivor of Wisconsin's Fish Car Era, it may also be the only original survivor of the Fish Car Era in the entire nation. Mid-Continent was also motivated by Jeffris Family Foundation president Tom Jeffris who pledged to assist the restoration efforts if Badger #2 indeed was a one of a kind survivor of that era. The "Fish Car Era" began in 1873 with Dr. Stone's first experiments in fish travel and ended with the dismantling of federal Car No. 10 in 1947. Mentioned in the first half of this article were three fish cars that can be seen in person: Michigan's Wolverine at the Oden Fish Hatchery, Federal Car No. 3 at South Dakota's D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery, and the Shedd Aquarium's Nautilus II at the Monticello Railway Museum in Illinois. Both the Wolverine and Car No. 3 were recreated from former passenger cars, since the original cars were impossible to locate and are believed to have been destroyed at some point in the past. The Shedd Aquarium's Nautilus II was built after the Fish Car Era and unlike other fish cars used in the past, this car was built for the specific purpose of collecting specimens for the John G. Shedd Aquarium in Chicago, Illinois. It was not used to stock fish, nor did it work in conjunction with any private, state, or federal fish hatcheries. Instead, the Nautilus II served as a scientific research station on wheels, traveling throughout the country collecting primarily salt water aquatic life. All other fish cars described in this article are known to have been destroyed December 2006 · 35

LEFT: Badger #2's fish tank room today--the tanks have long been removed. The museum had seating for passengers in this area until 1985. ABOVE: "FISH CAR 2" imprint on the edge of a wooden interior door. BELOW: Faint "No. 2" stencil on a truck harks back to Badger #2's fish career before 1945.

PREVIOUS OPPOSITE PAGE: These photos show various views of the current condition of Badger #2 as stored at Mid-Continent Railway Museum. The car is normally covered with a tarp to protect it from the weather. All current condition photos were taken by Leah Rosenow. More photos may be viewed at Mid-Continent's website: restorations/badger2.html.

ABOVE: Roofing on the car was replaced in recent years. This has helped protect it from the elements. RIGHT: This view looking toward the observation room was made from the area formerly occupied by the Salon, which was removed in 1945 by Knapp. The seat frames are from the museum's conversion in 1961-62. 36 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

or otherwise disposed of. When research began on Badger #2, museums, fish hatcheries, and state and federal conservation departments throughout the United States and Canada were contacted in search of other original surviving fish cars, but none were known to exist. In most cases, all of these resources confirmed that MidContinent in fact had the only surviving original car. To be sure, an appeal for information and tips about fish cars was made to Mid-Continent members, railfan groups, and railroad historians throughout the country, but again the consensus was that the Badger #2 is the only existing original car. While we continue to conduct research to ensure all facts, Mid-Continent is certain beyond reasonable doubt that the Badger #2 is in fact, a one of a kind. Restoration Plan In August of 2006, Tom Jeffris and the Jeffris Family Foundation rewarded Mid-Continent for their research efforts with the single largest grant ever received by the organization. A news conference, another first for MidContinent, was held at the Nevin Fish Hatchery to announce that Mid-Continent would be the recipient of $475,000 from the Jeffris Family Foundation for the Badger #2 restoration project. Joining Jeffris in his enthusiasm and generosity towards the project were DNR Secretary Scott Hassett and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, who have supported the project from the outset through research and continue to provide assistance through public relations and media support, fund raising, and public outreach. In addition to all the primary document research, there is a wealth of information still contained within the Badger #2 as it exists today. Original elements have survived despite the many transformations the car has undergone. These characteristics are invaluable to the accurate restoration of the car. But aiding the physical evidence is extensive documentation pertaining to Badger #2's original 1912 construction, including blueprints, specifications, correspondence, historic media coverage, literature, and photographs. Badger #2, as noted earlier, was constructed by the Pullman Car Company. The Pullman Car Company records are one of the most complete and most widely preserved collections of corporate railroad documents in the country. The responsibility of caring for the meticulous documenta-

tion of each railcar built by the Pullman Car Company is shared by countless private individuals, historical societies, museums, and research institutions. Fortunately, the majority of the Pullman documentation pertaining to Badger #2 has been located and consulted. Nearly all the original Badger #2 specifications and blueprints were acquired from the Illinois Railroad Museum at Union, Illinois. The original contract and correspondence between the State of Wisconsin and the Pullman Company were acquired from the Newberry Library's Pullman Collections in Chicago, Illinois. The Pullman builder's photos--the earliest existing images of Badger #2--were reproduced for MidContinent by the Smithsonian Institution's Pullman Photograph Collection. Due to the thoroughness to which Pullman documented the Badger #2, it was possible to cross reference the Pullman builder's notes with historic railroad supplies catalogs. Many of Badger #2 appliances, fixtures, and hardware were located and identified, providing additional details and often images. This information too will be essential in accurately restoring Badger #2, right down to the last detail. Additional information on the cultural history surrounding the Badger #2 was collected from institutions and individuals based in Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Historical Society provided access to the annual reports and images produced by the Wisconsin Fish Commission in which the Badger #2 was documented between 1912 and 1945. Various historical societies throughout the state provided copies of old newspaper accounts of Badger #2's brief stops in Wisconsin towns. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources also aided the Badger #2 research effort with both documentation and physical artifacts. The Nevin Fish Hatchery in Fitchburg, Wisconsin and the Woodruff Fish Hatchery in Woodruff, Wisconsin in particular provided access to historic hatchery journals, fish can tags, and the only known images of Badger #2's interior fish tanks. The research and existing artifacts related to Badger #2 represent the most complete background history Mid-Continent has ever been able to compile in preparation for the complete restoration of an artifact to original form. Restoring the Badger #2 to its 1912 "as-built" status allows Mid-Continent to take advantage of the December 2006 · 37

information, technology, and enthusiasm at hand to preserve this last-of-its-kind artifact indefinitely for history and the future. To restore Badger #2 to its "as built" form, the following list illustrates the types of tasks that will be performed: Exterior -- Replace remaining car siding -- Replace window frames and glass -- Repair platform end railings -- Repair wood boxes underneath car -- Clean and repaint undercarriage -- Repaint and re-letter car body Interior -- Rebuild and replace walls and partitions to recreate kitchen and salon -- Acquire and install kitchen range, sink, cabinets, and overhead tanks -- Install water coolers and car heater -- Refinish and replace, as necessary, interior woodwork -- Install replacement ceiling and headlining panels, paint and re-stencil -- Replicate original hardware and furnishings -- Replicate original linoleum flooring -- Build and install fish tanks -- Build six upper berths and repair two upper berths -- Replicate car furniture, including wicker chairs, wood desk, and tables -- Reupholster and repair observation end sofas -- Install kerosene lamps, hardware, and reproduce glass lamp shades -- Reproduce draperies and linens -- Recreate wood window blinds and cloth window shades Avalon Rail, Inc. has been chosen as the professional contractor for the restoration of the Badger #2. Located in West Allis, Wisconsin, Avalon Rail, Inc. is one of the only professional railroad restoration companies in the state of Wisconsin and among the best in the country. Though the company itself is rather young, there is more than a century of experience among the staff and crew members at Avalon Rail, Inc. The staff leaders include veteran David Bertsch who heads up truck and structural work. Interior construction and finish work is directed by Avalon Rail, Inc. president June Garland. Everett Klapperich is an experienced mechanical engineer whose 38 · Mid-Continent Railway Gazette

CAD (computer aided design) capabilities coordinate the complexity of railcar systems design. Finally, Donnie Goeldner is Avalon Rail, Inc.'s resident bodywork and paint expert. In addition to these individuals, Avalon Rail, Inc. employs a full crew whose craftsmanship make restoration projects possible. Allowing Avalon Rail, Inc. to perform the restoration of Badger #2 is advantageous for MidContinent for several reasons. Avalon Rail, Inc. has vast indoor facilities and sufficient crew members to allow them to restore as many as twelve railcars simultaneously, year round. Because of these amenities, Avalon Rail, Inc. has the ability to produce quality restorations in a relatively short amount of time. The Badger #2 project, for instance, is anticipated to be complete within twelve to eighteen months from the start date of the restoration. Having the restoration performed at Avalon Rail, Inc. also enables Mid-Continent volunteers to focus their energies on the many other restoration projects that require attention on the Mid-Continent property. More information about Avalon Rail, Inc. is available on their website at Acknowledgements The search for information pertaining to the Wisconsin Fish Cars and other fish cars that operated throughout the United States, led Mid-Continent on a nationwide adventure through archives, museums, libraries, and private collections. Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society and the author would like to extend their most sincere appreciation to the following Mid-Continent members, private collectors, and institutions who generously shared their time, expertise, and enthusiasm for this project. We are deeply indebted to Mr. Tom Jeffris and the Jeffris Family Foundation, whose generous $475,000 challenge grant made the initiation of the Badger #2 restoration project possible. Mr. Jeffris' consistent enthusiasm for the history and details continue to motivate and inspire continued progress towards the restoration of the Badger #2. Mid-Continent is also eternally grateful to all the individuals wishing to remain anonymous, who have supported the

Ron Jones photo, MCRHS collection

fund raising efforts for the Badger #2 project. A special thanks is due to those MidContinent members, including Don Ginter and Ray Burhmaster, who painstakingly researched and gathered information about Badger #2 and other fish cars over the years. The information provided by these individuals provided the foundation for the current research project and provided invaluable insight into the construction and use of these cars. Bill Buhrmaster also provided his assistance in evaluating the current condition of Badger #2 and in developing the restoration plan for the car. Innumerable others have also contributed their time, energy, and knowledge and their input has significantly contributed to the success of this project as a whole. MidContinent is most grateful to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Stephen Gilbert, Dennis Kobes, John Komassa, and the entire Nevin Fish Hatchery crew; the D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery and Randi Sue Smith; the Illinois Railway Museum and Ted Anderson; and Jim Zamrazil and Bill Fuller. The author is especially grateful to Pat Weeden, Rad Becker, and all the Mid-Continent members who have and continue to provide research leads for the Badger #2. Finally, this project would not even be possible had it not been for the MidContinent members who worked to acquire Badger #2 for the museum's collection more than forty years ago. Had these individuals

not been dedicated to saving this unique piece of Wisconsin and railroad history, the Badger #2 would not exist today. Thank you. A Note from the Author There continues to exist today a surprising wealth of information about the fish cars that traversed the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The documentation is in fact so vast that it was not possible, within the scope of this publication, to thoroughly describe each individual car that is known to have existed. While the information provided here has been relayed accurately to the best of the author's knowledge to date, the publication itself is not intended to represent a comprehensive nor authoritative history on any particular car. Researching the construction, use, and eventual retirement of these cars, particularly Wisconsin's Badger #1 and Badger #2, is an ongoing process that will allow the story of these cars to evolve as more information is found. It is the hope of the author that this publication motivates further discussion about the use of fish cars in the United States, so that the gaps, inconsistencies, and mysteries of fish car history may eventually be rectified. If you have questions or additional information regarding Wisconsin's fish cars or fish cars in other parts of the United States, please feel free to contact MidContinent's Collections Manager Leah Rosenow at [email protected]

December 2006 · 39


"A Pioneer in West Virginia Conservation." The Morgan Messenger. April 25, 1979, p. 3. "Accident on the Union Pacific." Omaha Weekly Bee, June 11, 1873. Buhrmaster, Ray. Personal Communication, Letter, February-March 2005. "Coach 104 [Badger No. 2 Fish Car] Major Maintenance Project." 1986 Request for Funds, Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society, Inc., North Freedom, WI. Eastman, Frank S. "Chapter 3, Description of the United States Fish Commission Car No. 2, Designed for the Distribution of Young Fish." Report of the United States Fish Commission 1882. Washington, D.C. Fearnow, Edgar C. "A New and Practical Device for Transporting Live Fish." Transactions from the American Fisheries Society, 1922, pp. 98-117. Fearnow, Edgar C. "Fish Distribution by the Federal Government." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 1923, pp. 160-170. Fearnow, Edgar C. and M. C. James. "Stocking Interior Waters of the United States." Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries, Economic Circular No. 65, December 1928. "Fish Car Laid Up." Madison Democrat, October 20, 1903. "Fish Hatcheries & Rail Transportation in Michigan." The Steam Railroading Institute, (Michigan Trust for Railway Preservation, Inc.), June 2002. Fuller, Bill. Personal Communication, email. February 1998. Gilbert, Stephen J. "The Badger Fish Cars." Wisconsin Natural Resources, June 1998, p. 13. Gilbert, Stephen J. "The Badger Fish Cars." Inside Track, Winter 1998, p. 13. Gilbert, Stephen J. Lee Meyers, ed. "Look Back at 125 Years of Fisheries Management in Wisconsin." Wisconsin Chapter American Fisheries Society Newsletter, April 1998, pp. 6-7. Ginter, Don. "Fish Fry Travel by Rail." MidContinent Railway Gazette, July-October 1984, pp. 6-7. Kinsey, Darin. "The Fish Car Era in Nebraska." Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #177, Autumn 1977, pp. 43-67. Leonard, John R. The Fish Car Era: Department of the Interior--U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979). Middleton, William D. "First Class for Fish." Railroad History, Spring-Summer 2005, 192:5663. The Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, University of Illinois, Illinois. Nevin Fish Hatchery Daily Activity Journal. 1896, 1900-1902, 1905, 1908, 1912, 1924-1925. "New Fish Car Is Ready For Tour." De Pere News, July 31, 1912. "Where Steam Lives." Mid-Continent display ad, Trains, Vol. 22 No. 6, April 1962 p. 4. Oehmcke, Arthur A. The Woodruff Hatchery

Story. (unknown publisher, 1989). Osman, Jay and Tim Klinger. Susquehanna: Pride of the Fish Commission. (publisher unknown, no date). Poff, Ron. From Milk Can to Ecosystem Management: A Historical Perspective on Wisconsin's Fisheries Management Program 1830s-1990s. (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Fisheries Management and Habitat Protection, Madison, Wisconsin, 1996). Pullman Company. "Lot 4015 Specifications." 1912. Pullman Company. Correspondence between the Pullman Company and the Wisconsin Fish Commission, April 1912, June 1912, August 1912, August 1913, November 1913. Stone, Livingston. "C ­ California Aquarium Car." 1873 Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. (Washington D.C.), pp. 385-391. Stone, Livingston. "The First California Aquarium Car." The Overland Monthly, Vol. 13, September 1874, pp. 228-233. Stone, Livingston. "The First California Aquarium Car: Part 2". In The Overland Monthly, Vol. 13, October 1874, pp. 311-315. United States Department of Commerce. Reports of the Department of Commerce 1918. Washington D.C. United States Department of Commerce. U. S. Department of Commerce, Fisheries Service Bulletin. No. 198. November 2, 1931. Washington D.C. United States Fish Commission. United States Fish Commission, Report of Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1883. Washington D.C. United States Fish Commission. United States Fish Commission, Report of Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1898. Washington D.C. United States Fish Commission. United States Fish Commission, Report of Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1899. Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 7. (no date) United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1927. Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1928. Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 1930. Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 7 [1934]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 7 [1936]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C.

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United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 7 [1937]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 7 [1938]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 8 [1932]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 8 [1934]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 8 [1938]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 8 [1939]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 8 [1940]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 8 [1941]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 8 [1941]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1932]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1934]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1937]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1938]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1939]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1940]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1941]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1942]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 9 [1944]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [no date]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [1937]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. [1938]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year

Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [1939]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [1940]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [1941]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Fiscal Year Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [1941]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [1942]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. United States Bureau of Fisheries. Annual Report, Fisheries Car No. 10 [1944]. United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington D.C. Wisconsin Conservation Commission. Wisconsin Conservation Commission, Commissioners of Fisheries Report 1891-1892. State of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation Commission. Wisconsin Conservation Commission, Commissioners of Fisheries Report 1894. State of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation Commission. Contract for the construction of a fish car between the Commissioner of Fisheries and the Pullman Company, 1912. Wisconsin Conservation Commission. Wisconsin Conservation Commission, Commissioners of Fisheries Report 1918. State of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation Commission. Application for shipment of wall-eyed Pike fry from the State of Wisconsin. c.1920. Wisconsin Conservation Commission. Fifteenth Biennial Report of the Wisconsin Conservation Commission. 1936. State of Wisconsin. "Wreck of the Celebrated California Aquarin Car." Omaha Daily Herald, June 10, 1873. Websites Federal Car No. 3 and the D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery: Michigan Fish Car "Wolverine":,1607,7-15310364_28277-22423--,00.html. Montana Fish Car "Thymallus": introducedfish.html. Ohio Fish Car "Buckeye": ohio-state-parks/buckeyelake/. Oregon Fish Car "Rainbow": education/oregonhistory/historical_records/ dspDocument.cfm?doc_ID=0008CE5D-238E1E23-A17880B05272006C. Pennsylvania Fish Car "Susquehanna": sepoct98/traincar.htm. Wisconsin Fish Car "Badger #2": http:// wfc2.html.

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Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society, Inc.

E8948 Diamond Hill Road, P.O. Box 358, North Freedom, WI 53951-0358

BOARD OF DIRECTORS term expires 2008 Doug Crary, P.O. Box 303, Sun Prairie, WI 53590 Edwin E. Ellis, P.O. Box 618181, Chicago, IL 60661 Roth Schleck, 3504 Blackhawk Dr., Madison, WI 53705 Dave Schumacher, 101 North Clear Lake Ave., Milton, WI 53563-1005 term expires 2007 Steven Brist, 4210 Wanetah Trail, Madison, WI 53711 Bob Anderson, 701 Deming Way, Suite 100, Madison, WI 53717 Judy Gasser, 7 S. Newman Road, Racine, WI 53406 Mike Smul, W184 S8615 Darcy Circle, Muskego, WI 53150 term expires 2006 M.L. Pete Deets, E13453 Tower Rd., Baraboo, WI 53913 Kevin Keefe, 2955 N. Summit Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211-3441 Paul Swanson, 625 Sutherland Ave., Janesville, WI 53545-2449 Pat Weeden, 3911 Wilnor Drive, Oregon, WI 53575

STAFF/DEPARTMENT HEADS Manager--Don Meyer, P.O. 358, N. Freedom, WI 53951 Curator Emeritus--Don Ginter, 6529 W. Finley Rd., Beloit, WI 53511-8734 Collections Manager--Leah Rosenow, P.O. 358, N. Freedom, WI 53951-0358 Restorations Manager--Bill Buhrmaster, 5104 S. Lawn Ave., Western Springs, IL 60558 Museum Store Administrator--Jeff Haertlein, P.O. Box 328, North Freedom, WI 53951-0328 General Foreman of Boilers--Mike Wahl, N-10477 Hwy. 149, New Holstein, WI 53061 General Foreman of Diesels--Jeffrey Bloohm Road Foreman of Engines--Bill Raia Roadmaster--Dave Bierman, 914 Van Buren Street, Sauk City, WI 53583-1348 Supt. of Operations--Kelly R. Bauman, 832 8th Ave., Baraboo, WI 52913 Supt. of First Class Services--Roger Hugg, 205 Grove Ave., Elroy, WI 53929 Supt. of Member Services--Sharon Crary, P.O. Box 303, Sun Prairie, WI 53590 Gazette Production Manager--Paul Swanson Steamer Editor--Pat Weeden Webmasters--Pat Weeden, Paul Swanson Educator--Stan Searing, 703 North Cherry Street, Paulding, OH 45879-1002

OFFICERS President--Jeffrey B. Bloohm, P.O. Box 86, Brownsville, WI 53006-0086 Vice-President--Doug Crary Secretary--Paul Swanson Treasurer--Steve Brist


The Mid-Continent Railway Museum is dedicated to preserving and interpreting the railroad legacy for the educational benefit of the general public. Its primary focus shall be on railroading of the Upper Midwest during the Golden Age of Railroading, 1880-1916. The Museum adheres to the following principles: 1. To collect and preserve rolling stock, structures, and other artifacts that meet the Museum's focus. 2. To restore the equipment based upon sound scholarship. 3. To operate a demonstration steam passenger train in an historically accurate environment of a turn-of-the-century rural railroad. 4. To interpret, through Museum display and educational programs, the history, equipment, skills, and the human facets of the rail industry. 5. To maintain a library and archival collections in the interest of promoting historical studies of the industry. 6. To hold the Museum's collection in the public trust, ensuring long term care of historic objects entrusted to its collections.

John Gruber photo

December 2006 · 43


Schedules on the Internet: February 16-18; Snow TrainTM March 24; Board Meeting, 12:00 noon April 14; Members' Meeting and Spring Banquet April 28-29; Spring Fling May 12; Weekend Operation Begins May 28; Daily Operation Begins May 28; Members Picnic after last train, Members Run June 23; Board Meeting, 12:00 noon


Call 608-522-4261 for information or e-mail: [email protected]

Non-Profit Organization U.S. Postage

Mid-Continent Railway Historical Society P.O. Box 358 North Freedom, WI 53951-0358

North Freedom, Wis. Permit #2


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