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The Future of LED Lighting

Dr. Kevin Dowling, PhD

Chair - NEMA SSL Committee Chair - IES TPC SSL Committee Board - Lighting Research Office (LRO) Next Generation Lighting Industry Alliance

VP Innovation, Philips Color Kinetics Burlington, MA Montreal, Sept 15 2009

LED History

· 1962 First visible LED (Holonyak at GE) · 1960's Red LEDs (HP & Monsanto) · 1970's Yellow Green LEDs · 1980's Higher outputs · 1996 Blue LEDs (Nakamura at Nichia) · 2000 White LEDs · 2008-now General Lighting Sources

©2004 Color Kinetics Incorporated

1997

2009

9/16/2009 ©2007 PHILIPS SOLID STATE LIGHTING SOLUTIONS.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL

Page 7

7

Tubes To Transistors All Over Again

Analog Vacuum tube LP records Film Rotary phone VHS Linkages Typewriter Digital Transistor CDs & files CCD Cell phone DVD `Fly by wire' Computer

Lighting is the last refuge of analog

Lighting Sources

Conventional Lighting Sources · Incandescent SSL Source · Light emitting diodes (LEDs) Benefits of SSL · Ultra long source life · Low power consumption · Low maintenance · No moving parts · Vibration resistance · No UV radiation · Cool beam of light · Digitally controllable · Fast Response

· Halogen

· Fluorescent

· Gas-discharge (example: neon)

Performance Trends

200

Luminous Efficiency (lumens / watt)

150

LED

100

Fluorescent

White LED

50

Incandescent Halogen

IR Halogen

0 1920

Source: Lumileds

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

Haitz' Law: LED Output Up/ Cost Down

100000 Red Flux 10000 1000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 1965

Light Output / Package (lumens)

20x Increase/Decade +35% CAGR 10x Decrease/Decade -20% CAGR Cost / Lumen ($ / lumen)

Red $/Lumen White Flux (Projected) White $/Lumen Expon. (Red Flux) Expon. (Red $/Lumen)

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

Source: Roland Haitz & Lumileds

Trend: Falling Cost of LED Light

Cost of Light Incorporates · Lifetime · Source efficacy · Energy cost · Replacement cost · Labor cost

Source: Philips Color Kinetics

Headroom: The Green Valley

Danger of Exaggeration

Uses almost no energy!" "Lasts Forever!" This hurts LED lighting Performance must be realistic Example:

· ...not as bright as the 40 watts claimed

· I paid 6$, and I think it was mislabeled · The color of the light is more blue/white · I had expected a whiter light.

Specification Games

· LED lamp

­ 3 High-Brightness LEDs ­ Specified 120 lumen output

· LED data at nominal 40 lumens

­ Measured for 25msec at 25C ­ 40 x 3 = 120 lumens

· Lamp not actually measured! · The whole = the sum of its parts

2008 - The Year of Standards

· New Standards & Guidelines · Published

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Definitions Chromaticity Lumens Lumen Maintenance CA Title 24 (2008) US EISA 2007 mandates Updated ASHRAE 90.1 Updated LEED Energy Star (Luminaires)

Active Organization Involvement

Why LED Standards?

Industry and LED customers need

­ ­ ­ Uniform language & definitions Uniform test methods Laboratory accreditation

Truth. Consistency. Proof. Compatibility.

California Title 24

· California Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings · Currently using 2005 standards. 2008 standard now available. · Reduces energy by limiting building lighting power · Allows 1W/ft2 energy use

· http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/

Why California Title 24?

LEDs in Title 24 2008 Lighting

Luminaire Power Rating for LED Lighting 15 watts or less 15 watts to 40 watts Over 40 watts Minimum Luminaire Efficacy for LED Lighting 40 lumens per watt 50 lumens per watt 60 lumens per watt

Energy Star for LED Lighting

· US program to promote energy efficient products · Issued in September 2008

­ Many open meetings, calls, drafts for >2 years

· http://www.energystar.gov/ · Requires standards for criteria

Energy Star Criteria

· · · · · · · Luminous Flux Power & Power Factor Efficacy Chromaticity Lumen Maintenance CRI Light Distribution

Standards Update: Photometry

· CIE TC2-45 CIE 127-2007 Measurement of LEDs · IESNA LM-79 IESNA Electrical and Photometric Measurements of SSL Products · IESNA LM-80 Approved Method for Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources · CIE TC2-46 CIE/ISO LED intensity measurements · CIE TC2-50 Optical properties of LED arrays · CIE TC2-58 Luminance and radiance of LEDs

Standards Update: Color

· ANSI C78.377-2008 Chromaticity of SSL Products · CIE TC1-62 177-2007 Colour Rendering of White LED Light Sources · CIE TC1-69 Color Quality Scale (new CRI)

Standards Update: Eye Safety

· IES RP-27 Photobiological Safety · IEC 60825-1-2001 Safety of Laser products

­ To be superseded by new documents.

· CIE S009 Photobiological Safety · IEEE P1789 - Recommended Practices of Modulating Current in High Brightness LEDs for Mitigating Health Risks to Viewers

Standards Update: Safety

· · · · · · ANSI C82.SSl1 Power Supply ANSI C82.77-2002 Harmonic Emission Limits ANSI C78.09 82 Fixture Safety Specification FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Radio Frequency Devices IEC SC 34A 62031:2008 LED modules - Safety IEC SC 34C 61347-2-13:2006 - Lamp Controlgear

­ Part 2-13: DC or AC controlgear for LED modules

· IEC SC 34A IEC 62560 Self-Ballasted LED Lamps · IEC SC 34A <tbd> LED lamps > 50 V - Safety specs · UL 8750 LED Light Sources for Use in Lighting Products

Standards Update: Performance

· IEC SC 34C 62384 - DC or AC supplied electronic control gear for LED modules · IEC SC 34A - Performance Standard for LED Lamps

Standards Update: Nomenclature

· IES RP-16 Nomenclature and Definitions

­ Addendum A: SSL Definitions

· IEC SC 34A - TS 62504

­ Terms and Definitions for LEDs and LED Modules in General Lighting

Chromaticity

· ANSI C78.377-2008 · Defines Color Temperature regions · Being adopted by LED mfgs

Chromaticity Specification

Future Binning Specification?

LM-79 - SSL Photometry

· Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid-State Lighting Products

­ ­ ­ ­ Luminous Flux Power Efficacy Chromaticity, CRI, CCT

Luminous Flux

Problems with Heat Effects

RGB Fixture

520 500 480 460 440 420

15

30 45 60 75 90 Operating Time (Minutes)

120

LM-79 Absolute Photometry

· Traditionally, photometric measurements are separate for lamps and luminaires using different test methods · For many SSL products, LED lamps be separated from luminaires and none of the existing standards for lamps or luminaires are directly applicable to SSL products

LM-80 - Lumen Maintenance

· Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources · LED packages, arrays and modules · Measured under controlled conditions · Does not provide prediction or extrapolation of data · New effort for Predication (TM-21)

Lumen Maintenance of Traditional Sources

Lighting Research Center - Rea 2000; Bullough 2003

Why the Long Testing Time?

· Typical lamp sources do not last this long

­ Incandescent - 1000-1200 hours ­ Halogen - 1000-2000 hours ­ Fluorescent - 8000-20000 hours

· Issue is confidence in extrapolation

Why 70% (L70)?

· IESNA - 30% down becomes a perceptible difference · 30% down is a reasonable basis · Some existing sources exhibit similar L values · L50 can be used for decorative lighting but not for general illumination · Emergency lighting values outside scope

Why L70

· Traditional sources exhibit lumen maintenance issues as well

Color Rendering Index

Quality of Light Measure · · · · · Uses obsolete color space Samples are low saturation Outdated adaptation formula Non-linear in red region Adversely affects LED scores

Images: NIST

CRI Testing

Spectrum Synthesizer or `Equalizer' for Light

Spectrally Tunable Light Source

Spectrally Tunable Light Source

­ 22 wavelengths ­ 2400 HB-LEDs ­ 400 control channels

Legacy

Lighting System Architecture: Old and New

SOLIDSTATE

TRADITIONAL

49

New Generations of Sockets and Bases

In Process

· · · · · · · · · · ·

Lumen Maintenance Prediction CA Title 24 (2011) Binning Light Engines Energy Star (Replacement Lamps) Flicker Dimming Drivers UL 8750 Life Cycle Analysis International harmonization

Future Module & Base Concepts

New generation sockets allow

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Mechanical support Electrical connections Replacements Upgrades Thermal connection Communications & networks Optimized performance New lighting options

Dimming and Compatibility

Lam p Efficacy vs. Electrical Dim m ing Percentage

Incandescent Dimmable CFL eW Par 38 LED 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 100.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0%

El e c t r i c a l D i m m i n g P e r c e n t a g e

DoE Product Testing

DoE Caliper Testing Program

· `Consumer Reports' for LED product testing · Objective product performance · Over 120 Product tests · Supports Energy Star · Guides development of testing procedures · www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/

DoE Caliper Testing Program

Labeling

· Assure product quality · Provide useful information · Mandate standards testing

Life Cycle Analysis

Precursor Gases Materials

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Wafers

Die

Package

Array

Luminaire

Reactors/Epitaxy Energy

Commissioned by NGLIA Started by DoE, 2008

Substrates

Systems

· "The System is the Product"

­ LED Luminaires ­ Control ­ User Experience

System Design Example

· · · · · · · Standard form PAR38 Multi-chip LED Efficient narrow optic 92% efficient power conversion Instant-on and dimmable High power factor Low parts count

Metric Lumens Power Efficacy CRI CCT

Results 800 11.4 W 70 lpw >90 2900K

Efficacy Improvements - Control

· Freezer Applications - 92% savings · Sensing + control = greater benefit than LEDs alone

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Meta Systems

· Not just fixtures & lighting systems · Lighting Interaction · Systems at Scale

­ Buildings, Campuses. Cities, Regions

· Smart Grid

­ Adds monitoring, control and communication to the electricity grid ­ Improve reliability, increase energy efficiency, and allow generation and storage options

Hospitality

Rustic Kitchen

Retail

Clarks/Bostonian

What to Look for in LED Lighting

· · · · · · · · Reputation Support Engineering Systems thinking Portfolio of products Control solutions Dimmable The Light Itself

­ Artifacts? ­ Consistency ­ Color

· Standards Testing

­ Independent Labs ­ NIST Traceable ­ Test Reports

Designer Desires

· Standards · New form factors

­ Well suited for applications ­ Best use of inherent LED properties

· Control

­ ­ ­ ­ Dimming compatibility System compatibility & integration User friendly firmware/software No Flicker

· Better answers on lifetime and reliability

Designers Desires · Attention to sustainability

­ Cradle to cradle initiatives ­ Replacement capability ­ Recycling friendly

· Product families, not single items

­ Full fixture line ­ Accessories

Morgan Residence

S.S. Columbia

No Light is an Island

Dumpling Island

Source: New York Times

Wind Turbine

· 10kW · Subject to the wind

Solar

· Two Arrays

­ Coast Guard ­ Island

Control

· · · · Managing multiple sources Monitoring loads Distribution Networking

The Last of the Old

· Someday....

Northwest Terminal, Detroit, Smith Group

Baker Residence

The Icon May Outlive the Lamp

Information

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