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Developing Critical Reading Skills, 7th Edition Chapter 4 DCRS: Four More Methods of Paragraph Development Desmond Morris, Man Watching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior (p.125) Cause: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Effect: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ "Don't Fence Me In" by Mark Derr (p.127) 1. What cause-and-effect relationship does the chart show? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Look again at the four species of animals listed. What conclusion can you draw about the relationship between animal species and the size of their natural home range? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Which species of animal has the highest infant mortality rate in captivity? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Alex Shounmatoff, "The Emperor Who Ate His People." African Madness (p.129) What is the basis for the author's classification system? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ John Katz, Geeks (p.131) Besides definition and contrast, what other method of development is evident? ______________________________________________________________________________ Now look up the word "geek" in an unabridged dictionary. Explain what Katz's reference to chicken heads in the last sentences means. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Charles Earle Funk, "Fascinate", Thereby Hangs a Tale Besides definition, what are two other methods of development in this passage? ______________________________________________________________________________ Diane Ravitch, The Language Police (p.133) Of the two words, censorship and selection, which one is Ravitch most interested in defining in the passage? ___________________________________________________________________ John Updike, "An Ode to Gold," The New Yorker (p. 136) What, literally, do the "secrets" refer to? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ What does Updike mean when he writes in the last sentence that "I'm just not her type"? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Richard Marius, A Writer's Companion (p. 137) Method of Development: _________________________________________________________ Main idea: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Diane Ravitch, The Language Police (p.137) Method of Development: _________________________________________________________ Main idea: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Matt Ridley, Genome (p. 138) Method of Development: _________________________________________________________ Main idea: ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ Sylvia S. Mader, Biology (p. 138) Method of Development: _________________________________________________________ Main idea: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Tad Friend, "The Harriet-the-Spy-Club." The New Yorker (p. 139) Method of Development: _________________________________________________________ Main idea: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Sissela Bok, Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life (p. 139) Method of Development: _________________________________________________________ Main idea: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Diane Ackerman, The Moon by Whale Light (p. 141) Choose the three predominant methods of development. (a) example (d) analogy (b) definition (e) comparison (c) analysis and classification (f) contrast Main idea: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: Methods of Development and Patterns of Thought (p. 142) 1. You have just moved to a new apartment. In your kitchen are three drawers, one on top of the other. You have a couple of large boxes of kitchen utensils to store in these drawers. __________ 2. Why did the founders of www. google.com--a popular and eminently useful World Wide Web search engine--choose that name? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Your English teacher said in class that the eyes are the windows of the soul. What does that mean? ________________________________________________________________________

4. You are considering quitting school for a year and working full time. What impact would that decision have on your life? ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Your literature instructor has assigned you to write a paper on the unique characteristics of science fiction as a literary genre. ______________________________________________________________________________ Chapter Exercises, Selection 1 Mark Schapiro, "Muddy Waters," Utne Reader (p. 146) A. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the selection, write the dictionary definition most appropriate for the context. 1. infusion [sentence 3]: __________________________________________________________ 2. dissidents [3]: ________________________________________________________________ 3. Ascribed [4]: ________________________________________________________________ 4. sedentary [6]: ________________________________________________________________ 5. bourgeoisie [7]: ______________________________________________________________ 6. egalitarian [8]: _______________________________________________________________ 7. gentry [9]: __________________________________________________________________ 8. intrigue [12]: ________________________________________________________________ B. Content and Structure (p.147) Complete the following questions. 1. Which sentence expresses the main idea of the first paragraph? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. In the sentence you chose, write the topic of the first paragraph. ______________________________________________________________________________ The topic is the same in this paragraph for the first paragraph, but what is the controlling idea? ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Which two methods of development are used in the paragraph? ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. The author evidently sees a connection between the increasing popularity of coffee and (a) the beginning of unions to protect laborers from exploitation. (b) the evils of colonialism. (c) a rigid workday. (d) the increasing importance of democracy and social equality. 5. The writer suggest that Americans drank coffee rather than tea because (a) coffee tastes better. (b) coffee has more caffeine than tea. (c) coffeehouses, not teahouses, became gathering places to discuss politics. (d) drinking coffee was a way of rebelling against British rule. Paul Ewald, Plague Time A. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the selection, choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. 1. get wiped out or at least sequestered [1] (a) imprisoned. (b) isolated, set apart. (c) arranged in a particular sequence. (d) put into chronological order. 2. modifies its telltale features by mutating [4]: (a) disguising itself. (b) going into hiding. (c) adapting to a new environment. (d) transforming itself. B. Content and Structure Complete the following questions. 1. The mode of discourse in the passage is (a) narration. (b) description. (c) exposition. (d) persuasion. 2. Locate the sentence that states the main idea of the passage. Identify the topic and the controlling idea. Topic: ________________________________________________________________________

Controlling idea: ______________________________________________________________ 3. In relation to the main idea of the passage, what is the function of the last sentence of paragraph 1? (a) It offers contrasting information to the information contained in the main idea. (b) It defines a key term contained in the main idea. (c) It restates the main idea in different words. (d) It states the effect of the cause expressed in the main idea. 4. This passage uses a combination of methods of development. Which three predominate? (a) directive process. (b) classification. (c) definition. (d) analogy. (e) facts and statistics. (f) cause and effect. 5. Explain in your own words that reason that sexually transmitted pathogens have to "take on secretive and even sinister strategies.' ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. The reader can logically infer from the passage that (a) an increase in the number of sexual partners has little impact on the transmission of sexual diseases. (b) an increase in the number of sexual partners increases the likelihood of sexual diseases being transmitted (c) sexually transmitted pathogens behave erratically, so whether a person becomes infected or not is largely a matter of chance. (d) sexually transmitted pathogens mutate so frequently that new drugs cannot keep up with them or prevent victims from being infected. "In Praise of the Humble Comma" by Pico Iyer Preview Questions (p. 150) 1. Have you received extensive instruction in grammer and punctuation? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Do you pay attention to punctuation when you read, for example, noting when a writer used a colon or a semicolon? Refer to the Website mentioned at the end of the essay for further help and clarification in the rules for punctuation and for the influence of punctuation on the writer's style. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why are marks of punctuation, aside from periods, so hard to master in writing? Which marks of punctuation are you uncomfortable or unsure about using? What might be some ways to remedy this problem ­assuming that it is one ­and expand your proficiency in this area? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ A. Comprehension (p. 153) Choose the answer that best completes each statement. Do not refer to the selection while doing this exercise. 1. Choose the sentence that best represents the main idea of the essay. (a) Punctuation rules must be consistently applied to make the reader's task easier. (b) Punctuation marks determine both the meaning and rhythms of a writer's words as well as our emotional responses to them (c) Use of punctuation marks in the twentieth century has become more daring and unorthodox. (d) Each culture has a unique system of punctuating to determine meaning. 2. lyer labels the comma a "humble" mark of punctuation because (a) its appearance is so insignificant. (b) there are too many rules governing its use. (c) it should be used only when the reader takes a breath or pauses. (d) it lacks the authority and finality of other marks of punctuation. 3. The writer compares punctuation marks to road signs to emphasize their (a) shape. b) difficult rules. (c) use as controls over our reading. (d) ease of recognition. 4. lyer states that by "establishing the relations between words," punctuation (a) establishes a relationship between the writer and the reader. (b) establishes a relationship between the writer and his or her publisher. (c) serves as an agreed-upon system for distinguishing between important and less important ideas (d) establishes the relations between people using words. 5. lyer characterizes a world with "only periods" as one without

(a) love and affection. (b) inflections and shade. (c) music. (d) interest or enthusiasm. B. Vocabulary (p. 154) For each italicized word from the selection, write the dictionary definition most appropriate for the context. You may refer to the selection to answer the questions in this section and in all the remaining sections. 1. a pedant's tick [paragraph 1]: ______________________________________________________________________________ 2, schoolteachers exalt [2]: __________________________________________________________________________ 3. the first proprieties [3]: ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. his so-called inscrutability [4]: ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. the ignominy of having his faith reduced [6]: ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. double sacrilege [6]: ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. the silent discretion [8]: ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. to hear its nuances [9]: ______________________________________________________________________________

C. Inferences (p. 154) On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph, mark these statements as follows: PA (probably accurate); PI (probably inaccurate); or NP (not in the passage). 1. _____ Good writers would be wise never to break the rules of punctuation. 2. _____ Punctuation marks are more important than the words on the page for determining meaning. 3. _____ Punctuation is closer to music than it is to any other art form. 4. _____ Without punctuation marks, words would be dead and lifeless and lacking rhythm and nuance. 5. _____ lyer teaches grammar and punctuation at a university. D. Structure (p.154) Complete the following questions. 1. Which of these sentences best states the thesis or main idea of the essay? (a) "Punctuation, one is taught, has a point: to keep law and order." (b) "Punctuation, then, is a civic prop, a pillar that holds society upright." (c) "Punctuation thus becomes the signature of culture." (d) "Punctuation, in short, gives us the human voice, and all the meanings that lie between the words." 2. Which three methods of paragraph development are evident in the essay? ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Read paragraph 3 again. Then write a sentence in your own words stating the main point lyer makes in it. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. If you are unsure of its meaning, look up the word "jackboot" (paragraph 8). Then explain why this word is appropriate for this context. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

5. In calling punctuation marks "tiny scratches" (paragraph 8), Lyer emphasizes their (a) apparent lack of purpose. (b) seeming insignificance.

(c) odd appearance. (d) lack of grace and elegance.

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