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Proposed Senior Projects 20112012 Academic Year Team #1: Biochar Marketability 1. Contact Information Contact Name: Russell McGee, Dr. Calvin B. Parnell Company Name: Texas A&M University Contact Address: 313 Scoates Hall Contact Phone Numbers: (979)8453659 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description: Biomass Gasification is a technology that has been around for many years, and is one that converts biomass (wood shavings, cotton gin trash, manure, etc.) into a Low Calorific Value gas (LCV). The gas is then used to fuel an internal combustion engine, which then powers a generator for the purpose of electrical generation. Gasification is preferred over combustion due to combustion slagging and initial investment costs. Slagging is a term used to describe the melting of the ash from burning various biomasses. When the ash melts, it will lead to periodic exhaust system failures and will have to be cleaned out on a regular basis. The down times generated from the slagging effect often times renders the incineration of the biomass as noneconomical means of energy generation. Utilization of the gasifier, through research from Texas A&M Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering provide conclusive evidence that the TAMU gasifier has the potential to be a means of revenue generation when colocated at a cotton gin in west Texas. In the west Texas, and the Lubbock, Texas region, a majority of the cotton is harvested via a cotton stripper, which yields 400 pounds of cotton gin trash (CGT) per bale of ginned lint. A typical gin and the one used for our economic analysis is one that has an output capacity of 40 bales per hour (BPH), operates at 150% utilization rate, and at an efficiency level of 80%. To calculate the total pounds of CGT produced per season, a simple calculation is required: [40 bales/hour * 1,500 hours/season * 400 lbs. CGT/bale * 80% eff.] / 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,600 tons/season With the abundant amount of CGT available, and with a Btu content of 7,000 Btu/lb of CGT, it is a feasible assumption to use this biomass to fuel a biomass fueled power plant (BFPP), which can provide energy independence for a cotton gin. The gasifier operates based on a biomass entering the main chamber of the gasifier with the oxygen content of the incoming air being regulated and kept at low levels. The reaction takes place as the biomass enters the gasifier and the temperature is controlled at approximately 1,400 degrees Fahrenheit. As previously mentioned, an LCV gas is produced which is then passed through a series cyclone that contains two cyclones to remove the remaining particles from the LCV gas before it enters the internal combustion engine that powers the generator. The remaining particles that

are in the LCV gas are a biochar, a combination of ash and pure carbon which is removed at a rate of 20% of the incoming fuel. For our specific project, the char will be produced at a rate of 2,000 lbs. an hour. The char is exiting the cyclones at a temperature in the range of 8001,000 degrees Fahrenheit, which poses as a possible fire hazard. Samples of the char have been analyzed and the iodine number, which is a common means of measuring the absorptive capabilities of activated carbon, is 300 for the exiting char. The common range of industrially used activated carbon has an iodine number between the ranges of 9001,200. TAMU and the research that has been conducted under the supervision of Dr. Parnell are in need of further marketing of the char and its potential uses. There are markets in the agriculture industry where it can be used as a soil amendment, and in the industrial industry where it has a use as a filtration medium for either air or water treatment. 3. Constraints The budget for this project is based off of the selling price of the total amount of char produced each season. Therefore a profit will have to be generated over a period of twenty years from selling the char to account for the investment and operating cost that are associated with the project. A market analysis of low grade activated carbon and its iodine number will have to be conducted in order to establish a conservative selling price of the char. Proper safety measures will have to be taken into consideration and consultation with safety regulatory agencies such as OSHA will have to be considered. 4. Desired Deliverables: A feasible means of storing and handling the char and an economic and market analysis will need to be provided for a means of generating a profit from the copious amount of char that is produced. 5. Estimate of time required: With a team of three to four students per team, an average of eight hours per week per team member will be sufficient if the time is spent wisely in order to successfully complete the task in a professional manner.

Team #2: Safe and Cost-Effective Systems for Handling Bio-char

1. Contact Information: Contact Name: Russell McGee, Dr. Calvin B. Parnell Company Name: Texas A&M University Contact Address: 313 Scoates Hall Contact Phone Numbers: (979)8453659 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description: Biomass gasification is a technology that has been around for many years, and is one that converts biomass (wood shavings, cotton gin trash, manure, etc.) into a Low Calorific Value gas (LCV). The gas is then used to fuel an internal combustion engine, which then powers a generator for the purpose of electrical generation. Gasification is preferable to combustion due to combustion slagging and higher initial investment costs. Slagging is a term used to describe the melting of the ash from burning various biomasses. When the ash melts, it will lead to periodic exhaust system failures and will have to be cleaned out on a regular basis. The down times generated from the slagging effect often times renders the incineration of the biomass as noneconomical means of energy generation. Utilization of the gasifier, through research from Texas A&M Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering provide conclusive evidence that the TAMU gasifier has the potential to be a means of revenue generation when colocated at a cotton gin in west Texas. In the west Texas, and the Lubbock, Texas region, a majority of the cotton is harvested via a cotton stripper, which yields 400 pounds of cotton gin trash (CGT) per bale of ginned lint. A typical gin and the one used for our economic analysis is one that has an output capacity of 40 bales per hour (BPH), operates at 150% utilization rate, and at an efficiency level of 80%. To calculate the total pounds of CGT produced per season, a simple calculation is required: [40 bales/hour * 1,500 hours/season * 400 lbs. CGT/bale * 80% eff.] / 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,600 tons/season With the abundant amount of CGT available, and with a Btu content of 7,000 Btu/lb of CGT, it is a feasible assumption to use this biomass to fuel a biomass fueled power plant (BFPP), which can provide energy independence for a cotton gin. The gasifier operates based on a biomass entering the main chamber of the gasifier with the oxygen content of the incoming air being regulated and kept at rather low levels. The reaction takes place as the biomass enters the gasifier and the temperature is controlled at approximately 1,400 degrees Fahrenheit. As previously mentioned, and LCV gas is produced which is then passed through a series cyclone that contains two cyclones to remove the remaining particles from the LCV before it enters the internal combustion engine that powers the generator. The remaining particles that

are in the LCV gas are a biochar, which is removed at a rate of 20% of the incoming fuel. For the scope of our specific project, the char will be produced at a rate of 2,000 lbs. an hour. The char is exiting the cyclones at a temperature in the range of 800 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit, which poses as a possible fire hazard. Samples of the char have been analyzed and the iodine number, which is a common means a measuring the absorptive capability of activated carbon, is 300 for the char exiting the cyclones. The common range of industrially used activated carbon has an iodine number between the ranges of 9001,200. TAMU and the research that has been conducted under the supervision of Dr. Parnell are in need of further analyzing of the char that is produced. Handling of the char is another area of concern due to the temperature and rate at which it is removed and accumulated. A system focusing on safety will need to be configured to prevent fire hazards and the combustion of the char. Means of safely storing and cooling the char as it is being removed by the cyclones, increasing the char's iodine number by either chemical treatment or steam treatment, removing the ash from the char to increase the overall carbon content of the char, and an economical way to test the aforementioned properties of the char before and or after the treatment methods have been applied. 3. Constraints: The budget for this project is based off of the selling price combined with the total amount of char produced each season after it has been treated. Therefore a profit will have to be generated over a period of ten years from selling the treated char to account for the investment and operating cost that are associated with the project. If the iodine number of the char remains at 300, the char has the potential to receive $20.00/ton, as opposed to the iodine number being increased to 800 plus, where the selling price can be in the range of $13/lb. A market analysis of activated carbon and its iodine number will have to be conducted in order to establish a conservative selling price of the treated char. For the safe handling of the char that is being removed by the cyclones, a budget will be established based on the lowest investment cost available, and not based on the selling price of the char. Proper safety measures will have to be taken into consideration and consultation with safety regulatory agencies such as OSHA, will have to be considered. 4. Desired Deliverables: Analysis of systems for safely handling hot biochar. Basic diagram of the handling and storing of the char that is removed by the cyclones will need to be provided along with a safety plan in order to protect both the facility and the employees from potential fire/burn hazards. The treatment of the char for increasing the iodine number will also need various drawings of a treatment system, or an explanation of preexisting commercially produced treatment system. Once a treatment technology is designed or chosen, a financial analysis based off of the

budget constraints previously mentioned will need to be provided for a period of ten years (annual budgeting and loan payments is sufficient for the analysis). 5. Estimate of time required: The project may seem as if it will take an unreasonable amount of time for the students to complete in a time period of two semester; with a team of three to four students per team, an average of eight hours per week per team member will be sufficient if the time is spent wisely in order to prevent last minute procrastination.

Team #3: Web Based Program to Assist Cotton Gins in SPCC Plans 1. Contact Information Contact Name: Company Name: Contact Address: Kelley Green Texas Cotton Ginners' Association 408 West 14th Street, Austin Tx 78701

Contact Phone Numbers: 5126151102 ­ o 5126993355 m Contact Email: 2. Problem Description EPA has promulgated a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Rule. This rule requires all facilities that have over 1,320 gallons of oil storage on site to determine whether they are subject to the rule. If they are subject to the rule, they must either develop their own response plan, or hire an engineering firm to develop the plan. 3. Known constraints on the problem. Some facilities will have enough oil on site to require the plan to be developed by an engineering firm. In addition, this rule is in the process of being implemented, so there is not a lot of history on how this plan will be implemented at an individual site. 4. Desired deliverables The 20102011 class developed a web based program to assist the gins in determining whether they need an SPCC plan, and if so, guides them in determining which tier they fall into. This program may be used, or a new one developed, at the team's option. The old program will be supplied. The items missing from the current system are detailed instructions and examples that a ginner could use to develop the program. For example, if a tier one program is needed, the program should walk the user step by step through the development of a tier one SPCC program. These instructions are needed for both tier one and tier two programs. In the final product, the web based program should allow a ginner to determine whether they are subject to this rule, and then walk the user step [email protected]

by step through the process of actually putting the program into place. The ginner will perform the work, then print out each item to be assembled according to the instructions provided by this program. 5. Estimate of time required If research into current methods of processing is done thoroughly, and a thorough review of current and projected uses is completed, this project should easily fit into the time frame allotted. It will be important for group to do a thorough job of reviewing current practices to fit into final outcome.

Team #4: Seat belt Usage Initiative for Agricultural Tractors

1. Contact Information John Fisher Vice President Technical Affairs/Safety Alamo Group Seguin, TX 8303729672 [email protected]

2. Problem Description Scope: Agricultural tractors and equipment with RollOver Protective Systems Purpose: 1) The primary purpose is to significantly increase operator usage of seat belts while operating agricultural equipment. 2) The secondary purpose of the initiative is to promote raising the ROPS into the upright position when operating tractors with foldable ROPS. 3) The third purpose of the initiative is to promote the installation of ROPS on those tractors that do not have a factoryinstalled or dealerinstalled ROPS 3. Background & Rational Agriculture ranks fourth among U.S. industries for workrelated fatalities. Tractors are common to all farm operations. They also are the major cause of death in agriculture today. Fatalities associated with agricultural machinery commonly involve farm tractors, and rollover incidents (i.e., the tractor tips sideways or backward and overturns, crushing the operator) account for 46% (Minnesota) to 76% (Georgia) of all farm tractorrelated fatalities.

New equipment with ROPS In 1985, tractor manufacturers adopted a voluntary standard to sell all tractors with ROPS in place. All new tractors are equipped at the factory with ROPS. The ROPS may be part of the cab structure and may not be visible, but the protection will be there. Some models have foldable ROPS to allow a tractor to be stored in a building with a low ceiling. Use seat belts with ROPS All operators of tractors equipped with ROPS must wear seat belts. Without a seat belt, the operator will not be confined to the protective zone created by the ROPS. During an overturn, the operator of a tractor with ROPS could be thrown from the protected area and crushed by the tractor, or even the rollover protective structure itself, if the operator is not wearing a seat belt. 4. Desired Deliverables This project proposal is for the development of a seat belt usage initiative program to influence operators to wear his/her seat belt, raise foldable ROPS in to the upright position, and encourage the installation of ROPS on those machines without ROPS. The proposal shall include a logo, pictorial, or similar noteworthy symbol, and shall contain a marketing strategy for North America, utilizing such logo, pictorial, or symbol. Logo/Symbol Requirements: The logo will be used online, in print, and on agricultural tractors. Flexibility is a key requirement, including the need to resize easily and to look good in black and white as well as color. The final version of the logo will need to be suitable for high quality printing. While the logo needs to be clear and understandable at relatively small sizes, it will not need to be shrunk for use as a Favicon. Because of the potential requirement to register the logo as a Service Mark or Trade Mark, developers should take care to ensure that the logo/symbol is not in any way similar to existing logos or other copyrighted images. Due to the requirements for high quality printing and resizing, the logo/symbol must be submitted in scalable vector graphic format (EPS). ASABE advises against the use of halftones and gradients unless created inside a vector graphics program. Color in this version must be CMYK, with no spot colors.

JPGs 1000 pixels square of the logo are also requested so that entries can be posted on web sites without the need for conversion. Size requirement Symbols Maximum 6" tall x 4" wide Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable WARNING (???)

Pictographs Pictures Color

Signal Words

Text/Wording Discouraged to the extent the information should be understandable to nonEnglish proficient individuals. Current pictograph standards and symbols which should be reviewed and may be integrated into a logo can be found in ASABE S44.3, SAEJ 284, SAE J115, ANSI Z535.4, ISO 11684 standards and on the www.aem.org website under the tab "pictorials". Some of these pictographs are shown below:

An example of logos or symbols for a different issue "Call before you dig" initiative are shown below.

These can be found at http://www.commongroundalliance.com/Template.cfm?Section=811_Progr am&Tem

Team #5: Business Plan for Utilizing Greenhouses 1. Contact Information Contact Name: Lee Mann

Company Name: E.G. Hill Company, Inc. Contact Address: 12801 Conifer Lane, Fort Worth, TX 76040 Contact Phone Numbers: 8172332324 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description We have greenhouse ranges in Richmond Indiana that historically have been used for the production of commercial cut roses. The majority of this production has moved offshore. A small percentage of the greenhouses are used for the research hybridization of new cut rose varieties, and a small percentage of the greenhouses are used to finish off bedding plants that are sold to mass marketers. As a result, there are approximately 750,000 square feet of greenhouse space that is inactive. We are researching ways to employ this space, and with the grow local, eat local movement, we are interested in converting these ranges (or at least a portion of them) for the production of fruits and vegetables. This is a broad problem, because there are many factors to consider. The primary concern for this project is how to retrofit the ranges for the cultivation of produce. We have systems in place, but since they are old, there may be more efficient units on the market. The most important consideration is the business model. How should we market? What is our target customer (grocery stores, mass market, restaurants, farmers' markets)? Should we grow organic, or should we use all available crop enhancers/protectors to maximize yield? What crops should we focus on? There is plenty of space right outside of the greenhouses. Should we consider outdoor production to augment our offering? If produce is not the best crop to employ the facility, what crops would be recommended? 3. Known constraints on the problem. Water and power are not a problem. The greenhouses are supplied by an aquifer that is accessed by a well field that is owned by the company. Power

is provided by a municipal power company. The heating systems burn fuel oil, diesel, and natural gas, and there are primary and secondary heat generating units. The heat delivery system is a closed steam loop. The equipment is in fine working order, but it is dated. There are coolers to store any harvested crops before they are packed and shipped. The initial amount of money available for capital improvements is $250,000 with another $100,000 for the purchase of plant stock, fertilizer, and pesticides (if necessary). 4. Desired deliverables As a result of this project, we would like to see a business plan for a portion of the greenhouses (minimum 100,000 square feet, because this is the smallest of the ranges). This plan would include recommended crops to grow, recommended markets to serve, and recommended methods to market. The plan would also include a short term and long term budget based on market research and cost of materials. We would like to have drawings of any retrofits that are recommended. If production of fruits and vegetables is not feasible, then we would like recommendations for alternate uses of the facilities. 5. Estimate of time required We feel that 400 ­ 600 hours would be a realistic expectation for this project. As you can see, this project has a broad scope, so we would be willing to reduce the scope of the project to one or two areas of the total problem if this is preferable.

Team #6: Economic Analysis of Various Heating/Cooling Systems for Existing Greenhouses 1. Contact Information Contact Name: Lee Mann

Company Name: E.G. Hill Company, Inc. Contact Address: 12801 Conifer Lane, Fort Worth, TX 76040 Contact Phone Numbers: 8172332324 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description We have greenhouse ranges in Richmond Indiana that historically have been used for the production of commercial cut roses. The majority of this production has moved offshore. A small percentage of the greenhouses are used for the research hybridization of new cut rose varieties, and a small percentage of the greenhouses are used to finish off bedding plants that are sold to mass marketers. As a result, there are approximately 750,000 square feet of greenhouse space that is inactive. We are planning to renovate this space, and with the growlocal, eat local movement, we are interested in converting these ranges (or at least a portion of them) for the production of fruits and vegetables. This is a broad problem, because there are many factors to consider. One analysis needed is how to improve the physical plant by renovating the heating and cooling systems. We have systems in place, but since they are old, there may be more efficient units on the market. An economic analysis is needed for comparing the costeffectiveness of various systems. 3. Known constraints on the problem. Water and power are not a problem. Power is provided by a municipal power company. The existing heating systems burn fuel oil, diesel, and natural gas, and there are primary and secondary heat generating units. The heat delivery system is a closed steam loop. The equipment is in fine working order, but it is dated, so there may be more efficient systems on the market. There are coolers to store any harvested crops before they are packed and shipped.

4. Desired deliverables As a result of this project, we would like to see a business analysis for renovating the heating/cooling system for a portion of the greenhouses (minimum 100,000 square feet, because this is the smallest of the ranges). The plan would also include a short term and long term budget based on market research and cost of materials. We would like to have drawings of any retrofits that are recommended. 5. Estimate of time required We feel that 400 ­ 600 hours would be a realistic expectation for this project. As you can see, this project has a broad scope, so we would be willing to reduce the scope of the project to one or two areas of the total problem if this is preferable.

Team #7: Economic Analysis of Various Irrigation Systems for Existing Greenhouses 1. Contact Information Contact Name: Lee Mann

Company Name: E.G. Hill Company, Inc. Contact Address: 12801 Conifer Lane, Fort Worth, TX 76040 Contact Phone Numbers: 8172332324 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description We have greenhouse ranges in Richmond Indiana that historically have been used for the production of commercial cut roses. The majority of this production has moved offshore. A small percentage of the greenhouses are used for the research hybridization of new cut rose varieties, and a small percentage of the greenhouses are used to finish off bedding plants that are sold to mass marketers. As a result, there are approximately 750,000 square feet of greenhouse space that is inactive. We are planning to renovate this space, and with the growlocal, eat local movement, we are interested in converting these ranges (or at least a portion of them) for the production of fruits and vegetables. This is a broad problem, because there are many factors to consider. One analysis needed is how to improve the physical plant by installing irrigation systems. An economic analysis is needed for comparing the cost effectiveness of various systems. 3. Known constraints on the problem. Water and power are not a problem. The greenhouses are supplied by an aquifer that is accessed by a well field that is owned by the company. Power is provided by a municipal power company. 4. Desired deliverables As a result of this project, we would like to see a business analysis for renovating the facilities to have modern, costeffective irrigation systems for a portion of the greenhouses (minimum 100,000 square feet, because this is

the smallest of the ranges). The plan would also include a short term and long term budget based on market research and cost of materials. We would like to have drawings of any retrofits that are recommended. 5. Estimate of time required We feel that 400 ­ 600 hours would be a realistic expectation for this project. As you can see, this project has a broad scope, so we would be willing to reduce the scope of the project to one or two areas of the total problem if this is preferable.

Team #8: Scalable Media Mixing System 1. Contact Information: Contact Name: Phillip Luedecke and Lou Brown Company Name: Texas AgriLife Research Contact Address: 947 West I20, Exit 33, Pecos, TX 79772 Contact Phone Numbers: Office # 4324455527 Contact Email: [email protected] and [email protected]

2. Problem Description: Media for the algae ponds here at the Pecos Algae Facility is made in batches in 2500 gallon cone bottom tanks. Student workers must climb approximately 20 feet up a ladder to load 1015 40 pound bags of salt and other nutrients into the tanks. This is a very tedious and arduous task that must be repeated at least every other day. For a 3 acre facility this is not very efficient and definitely not very efficient as an algae farm increases in scale to 10 acres to 100 acres to 1000 acres. A media mixing station or new way to mix media rapidly and effectively that is scalable is a must. 3. Known Problem Constraints: The media used to grow algae is corrosive in nature to certain materials due to its high salinity content and nitrogen content. Proper material selection is important. The West Texas weather extremes are also an issue that needs to be addressed. So whatever system(s) is used must be able to withstand those conditions and be robust enough not to foul and deteriorate. The bulk media chemicals are also in powder and granular form as well trace metals are in liquid form. Being able to handle both liquids and solids is a must. 4. Desired Deliverables: A working prototype of this system would be ideal and is possible on the current Pecos Algae Facility scale. If a prototype is not possible, engineering drawings and materials lists with associated costs are a minimum.

5. Estimated Time Required: This is a complex project but if no working prototype is to be completed, the estimated 400600 personhours for a team of four students should be about right for this project.

Team #9: Alternative Methods of Loading and Shipping Round Cotton Modules 1. Contact Information Jimmy Schulz Farmers Coop of El Campo El Campo, TX 9796370618 2. Problem Description John Deere's new round bale cotton picker (with the exception of it's cost) has been a boom for cotton pickers throughout the cotton belt. It has streamlined the cotton picker's operation allowing him to do more with less people and less cotton loss compared to the traditional modules which leave some cotton on the ground every time you handle the module. The problem is with transporting the round bale. 3. Constraints Current module trucks require that the farmer line up four bales at a time, end to end with about 6 inches between bales, on the turn rows to be picked up by module trucks. Module trucks are an expensive and specialized piece of equipment, only used for a short period of the year. 4. Desired Deliverables There are many flatbed trailers available throughout the trucking industry. Utilizing existing trailers would expand the pool for local truckers to be used as cotton bale haulers. This mode of transport would also enable truckers to haul more bales per trip allowing higher profits for haulers and additional savings for the gin and the farmer. There are machines for loading large round modules onto flat bed trailer that could pick up modules off the turnrows and load them on the flat bed trailer. Analyze alternative methods of loading and transporting round cotton modules. Report on the cost effectiveness and logistics of possible systems.

Team #10: Business Plan for Expansion of Cold Storage for Potatoes 1. Contact Information Lee Wright, Fresh Pack Manager Black Gold Potato Pearsall, TX 2. Problem Description I manage a red potato packing facility in Pearsall, TX for a company that has 10 farms around the nation. We have limited storage now and wish to expand our cold storage facilities to increase our processing capacity. 3. Constraints The size of the expanded cold storage facilities will depend on the cost effectiveness of different size systems. Analysis will need to be done on different size ranges to help make a decision on the optimum capacity. 4. Desired Deliverables Develop a business plan on costeffectiveness of different systems for expanding our cold storage facilities.

Team #11: Analysis of Systems to Conserve Energy in a 300,000 sq ft Manufacturing Facility 1. Contact Information a. Name: Kevin Ferrell b. Company: Cardinal Health c. Address: 200 McKnight Street, Jacksonville, Texas 75766 d. Phone: (903) 5412921 e. Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description: Cardinal Health operates a 300,000 square foot manufacturing facility utilizing conventional lighting, air conditioning, chilled water and tower water cooling systems. Cardinal Health would like to receive a proposal offering energy efficient (possibly renewable) alternatives to our existing processes. Lowering our energy costs would make us more competitive in the marketplace. 3. Known Constraints: A maximum three (3) year recovery of capital investment is required. 4. Desired Deliverables: A proposal should include equipment requirements, installation specifications, estimated costs and schedule for implementation. 5. Estimate of Time Required: I estimate that a twoman team from my organization would spend roughly 20 hours per week for 3 weeks (120 hours) for any one aspect of this project (more efficient solution for lighting, cost effective means of cooling work space, etc); therefore, I can see a comprehensive proposal requiring the 400600 hours recommended.

Team #12: Analysis of Systems to Utilize Energy from Injection Molding Machines 1. Contact Information a. Name: Kevin Ferrell b. Company: Cardinal Health c. Address: 200 McKnight Street, Jacksonville, Texas 75766 d. Phone: (903) 5412921 e. Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description: The facility operates 5060 plastics injection molding machines that produce heat. That heat is currently removed via conventional air conditioning methods. Cardinal Health would like to receive a proposal offering ways in which that energy source could be put to efficient, costeffective use. 3. Known Constraints: A maximum three (3) year recovery of capital investment is required. 4. Desired Deliverables: A proposal should include equipment requirements, installation specifications, estimated costs and schedule for implementation. 5. Estimate of Time Required: I estimate that a twoman team from my organization would spend roughly 20 hours per week for 3 weeks (120 hours) for any one aspect of this project (more efficient solution for lighting, cost effective means of cooling work space, etc); therefore, I can see a comprehensive proposal requiring the 400600 hours recommended.

Team #13: Business Plan for Bicycle Pool at Texas A&M University 1. Contact Information

Contact Name: Ron Steedly Company Name: Texas A&M University, Transportation Service Manager Contact Address: MS 1250 Contact Phone Numbers: (979) 8472453 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description Howdy Ags! More and more TAMU students, faculty and staff are riding bicycles on campus. However, thousands of bicycles are left abandoned at the end of each academic year. At the end of the spring semester, 2,200 bikes were collected collected as abandoned. Only about 15% were claimed by the owners before they became the property of the state. Currently, TAMU Surplus disposes of the remaining bikes through sale and auction and the proceeds are not put back into the bicycle program. The TAMU Transportation Service department would like to explore various possibilities to reduce the number of abandoned bicycles on campus as well as better ways of disposing of the abandoned bicycles. Bicycle maintenance and education programs need to be explored in addition to ways to change in the bicycle culture at TAMU. A comprehensive plan is needed to develop a self sustaining studentrun operation that would, 1) provide bicycles for share, sale, or rent, 2) provide employment opportunities for students, 3) eliminate or minimize the problem of abandoned bicycles, and 4) address abandoned bicycle disposal practices. Bicycle programs that have been investigated to date are: bike share, bike lease, bike library, and "yellow" bikes. Ideally, a studentrun studentderived solution is preferred since buyin of the student population is necessary to make the bike program work on campus. Depending on how far this project gets in the fall semester, this project may qualify Aggie Greenfund funding. Please take this project seriously since it will likely be executed on campus if it is deemed viable and sustainable. Be a part of a solution to make TAMU a better place.

3. Known constraints on the problem. The bicycle program must be selfsustaining after one year. Disposal of the abandoned bicycles must directly or indirectly benefit the bicycle program at TAMU. The program must bring the university closer to qualifying for Bike Friendly University status. 4. Desired deliverables A comprehensive business and management plan is needed. 5. Estimate of time required Approximately 400 hours.

Team #14: Water Supply for Hydraulic Fracturing 1. Contact Information Contact Name: Philip I. Taucer, PE Company Name: AECOM Contact Address: 5757 Woodway Drive Suite 101 West, Houston, TX 77057 Contact Phone Numbers: 7132672894 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description Water availability in the western and southern portions of Texas have traditionally been limited when compared to the wetter eastern portions of the state. At the same time, certain water demand segments, including industry and particularly petroleum exploration via hydraulic fracturing , have been increasing rapidly. Due to the heavy competition for lease space, many operators are forced to establish a presence in the area and begin exploration activities without having time to fully secure adequate water supplies for longterm operations. As such, there is a strong need once leases are secured to explore all available water supply options and generate a feasible plan for supporting exploration and production activities for a five to ten year window. This assessment is intended to examine this problem in a general sense (that is, no particular lease is to be provided for assessment) and can assume that the lease properties are located across Maverick, Dimmit, and Webb Counties. If a more specific lease location is needed (for example, for economic analysis of transport of water from source to point of use), assume that lease locations are approximately at the center of each county. Assume one lease per county. Each lease will have the following water requirements. For each lease location, it can be assumed that each natural gas well will require 15.3 acrefeet of water with an anticipated drilling / production schedule of 25 wells per year on each lease. However, the schedule for drilling is not uniform and up to three fracturing operations may be carried out in a single day. Solutions will have to have adequate volume to be viable and will likely need to e paired with storage options in order to meet the schedule of field operations. Combinations of different sources can be considered. Since this is a nonClientspecific assessment, there will not be a need to contact the actual water supply sources (surface water right holders, cities, etc) to determine the true availability of a source. The industry contact will coordinate with the project team more on this issue and can provide some of the analysis which may be

beyond the scope of this course, particularly application of the State's Water Availability Models. 3. Known Constraints Solutions will need to be generated with consideration for State and local policy, including but not limited to laws governing water rights and groundwater regulations imposed by Groundwater Conservation Districts. Due to the inherent limitations on available water for the area and increasing demands created by population, industry, and petroleum exploration, finding adequate supplies of water will be quite challenging. In addition, due to the particulars of the need for this project, careful consideration will need to e given to whether or not a particular supply option is economically viable. No options are to be overlooked, but examination of nontraditional sources is encouraged. Because of the nature of the project and the limited supply in the area, any petroleum exploration operation will want to act as a good neighbor in the community, so consideration for the environment and likely public opinion should be taken into account. 4. Desired Deliverables The deliverable for Phase I will be a report containing an assessment of the water supply options considered including the associated technical analysis for each water supply option considered. The first phase should be more focused on identifying all viable supply options for each lease and discussion of the benefits and constrains associated with each source type. This should include a quantitative analysis of likely water availability. Reports should also contain a section providing guidance to the client on the necessary procedural and regulatory steps involved in securing each type of supply (surface water, groundwater, term rights, etc) with associated flowcharting. Water quality should be investigated. The report should also contain exhibits and appendices as necessary to illustrate supply options and summarize availability, reliability, volume, concerns and constraints for supply options. Please note that at this phase a full economic analysis is not necessary, but that the economics of each option should be considered in a general sense. For Phase II, the deliverable should be a welldeveloped project report building from the results of Phase I. Based on the technical assessment from the earlier phase and guidance by the instructor and industry contact, the project team will narrow the supply options to the three options deemed most viable. This phase should examine regulations in even greater detail. Each source should be described in considerable detail. A large portion of Phase II will deal with developing a general operational design for implementing each source (rough volumebased storage design, determining transmission or transport logistics, timing considerations, and more detailed cost estimation)

5. Estimate of Time Required One semester should be adequate time for each project phase. The industry contact will be able to provide some guidance, data, and some of the more specialized technical analysis required, but students should expect the project to be a considerable challenge. While this project is a general view, trying to meet high demands with scarce water resources is a major undertaking for all water users across the State.

Team #15: Utilizing Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration for Agriculture in Texas 1. Contact Information Contact Name: Philip I. Taucer, PE Company Name: AECOM Contact Address: 5757 Woodway Drive Suite 101 West, Houston, TX 77057 Contact Phone Numbers: 7132672894 Contact Email: [email protected] 2. Problem Description Water resources throughout the State of Texas have become heavily utilized over the past several decades and are particularly limited due to the ongoing drought across Texas and adjoining states. One of the water user groups most sensitive to limited availability of water is agriculture, with limited water resources adversely impacting both cropland and ranching. At the same time, it has become increasingly difficult to find supply from traditional sources. Much of the available surface water is already permitted and groundwater resources are increasingly regulated by groundwater districts to alleviate problems of subsidence or overuse. One option that has been explored in other areas of the country but has not seen extensive application in Texas is the use of produced water from oil and gas exploration as a water supply source for agriculture. Many petroleum extraction activities produce substantial amounts of water that is stored underground and brought to the surface along with desired substances. This water can vary widely in quality and presents a challenge for oil and gas companies for storage and disposal. In many cases this water could be rendered usable for other purposes with varying degrees of treatment. Some work to use this water for agriculture has already been done; ranching and irrigation beneficial reuse of produced waters is being performed in Wyoming and Montana, and guidelines were developed through a project with Argonne National Laboratory. The goal of this project is to investigate the potential for utilizing this source of water in Texas, particularly by developing water quality criteria that would be acceptable to ranching and agricultural use from treated produced water. Coordination with ranch owners, commercial and private agricultural operators, regulatory agencies and water treatment experts may be required to identify and address the barriers to making this supply publically acceptable for agriculture.

3. Known Constraints The project team can expect to encounter a complex legislative and regulatory framework that will be associated with any nontraditional supply source. 4. Desired Deliverables A project report summarizing application of this supply in other states, work to date using this supply in Texas, relevant regulatory issues, data collected related to acceptable water quality parameters, a set of water quality criteria acceptable to particular agricultural uses, discussion of barriers to public acceptability of this supply, etc. Phase II of the project should carry the research to the next level, examining specific areas of the state for applicability of this supply, developing a cost assessment for "typical" petroleum exploration and agricultural operations, and integrating this assessment into a feasibility tool for petroleum operators. 5. Estimate of Time Required One semester per phase

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