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Nanoforum Educational Glossary Tree

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1. Basic slide 2. (home) Introduction Nanotools & Nanofabrication

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Nanostructured Materials 3. Div. 4 different topics Nanoelectronics Nanobiotechnology

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication 1.1 Deposition Methods 1.1.1 Molecular Beam Epitaxy 1.1.2 Vapor Deposition Synthesis & Lithography 1.2.1 RF Plasma Methods 1.2.2 Chemical Methods 1.2.3 Laser etching 1.2.4 E-beam writing 1.2.5 Ion Beam 1.2.6 Dip-pen lithography 1.2.7 Nanoimprinting Microscopy 1.3.1 Electron Microscopy 1.3.2 Scanning Microscopy

1.2

1.3

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 2. Nanostructured Materials 2.1 Carbon Structures 2.1.1 Fullerenes 2.1.2 Nanotubes 2.2 Nanoparticles 2.2.1 Definition 2.2.2 Applications 2.2.3 Images 2.3 Nanocapsules 2.3.1 Definition 2.3.2 Applications 2.3.3 Images 2.4 Quantum dots 2.4.1 Definition 2.4.2 Applications 2.4.3 Images 2.5 Nanocristalline Materials 2.5.1 Definition 2.5.2 Applications 2.5.3 Images 2.6 Nanoporeous Materials 2.6.1 Definition 2.6.2 Applications 2.6.3 Images 2.7 Dendrimers 2.7.1 Definition 2.7.2 Applications 2.7.3 Images

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 3. Nanoelectronics & Devices 3.1 Semiconductors 3.1.1 Background 3.1.2 Evolution 3.1.3 Limitations (Moore´s Law) 3.1.4 Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Nanowires 3.2.1 Definition 3.2.2 Applications 3.2.3 Images NEMS/MEMS 3.3.1 Definitions 3.3.2 Applications 3.3.3 Images Electronics and optoelectronics 3.4.1 Processors 3.4.2 Data storage Quantum computing 3.5.1 Definition 3.5.2 Applications 3.5.3 Images Nanoelectronic Devices 3.6.1 Molecular electronics 3.6.2 Nanotubes

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 4. Nanobiotechnologies 4. Nanobiotechnologies 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Biological building blocks 4.1.2 Cells 4.1.4 Nucleic Acids 4.2.1 Proteins Active compounds in drugs 4.2.1 Micelles 4.2.4 Vesicles 4.2.3 Multilayer Films Biological and Medical research 4.3.1 Diagnostic Systems 4.3.2 Drug Delivery 4.3.3 Implantable Systems 4.3.4 Antimicrobial, antiviral and antifugal agents 4.3.5 Imaging

4.2

4.3

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

Welcome

Nanoforum Education Tree on Nanotechnology The philosophy of this "tree" is a series of pages to educate users by allowing them to follow the branches of different topics. A color code for the topic branches is used to guide the user. We have written this tree in such a way that the further you go up the topic branch the higher the scientific level. The topics start at the High School level. However, in Nanotechnology and Nanoscience many topics overlap, just like tree branches. In these cases a link to an overlapping page topic will be noted & linked for the user. We sincerely hope you will enjoy and learn from the Nanoforum Education Tree on Nanotechnology. Nanoforum Consortia

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

What's Nanotechnology?

Nano + Technology = Nanotechnology Nano + Science = Nanoscience

Nano: Greek prefix which means dwarf. In science this prefix denotes a fraction of 10-9 a given unit. For instance 1nm = 10-9 m. Technology: means the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problem. Science: knowledge or a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena.

(Merriam-Webster's Dictionary- 10th ed.)

"SMALL" SCALE Man: 2 m

Ant : 1 cm = 0.01 m =10-2 m

One red blood cell: 10 µm (1 µm=0.000 001 m =10-6 m)

Nanoscience is the actual "science" or basic study of systems and materials at the nanoscale. Whereas, Nanotechnology is the application of Nanoscience to a broad set of emerging manufacturing technologies, which control and manipulate material at the level of atoms and molecules. In practice, the term Nanotechnology is used in a broad sense also including Nanoscience.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

One Buckyball: 1 nm, Carbon atoms form in a soccerball structure. (1 nm = 10-9 m)

Introduction to Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of atoms and/or molecules to produce materials & devices. Nanotechnology can be defined as: 1. Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range. Creating and using structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. Ability to control or manipulate on the atomic scale.

(According to the NNI, USA (http://www.nano.org))

2. 3.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

Introduction to Nanotechnology

Milestones

3.5 Mrd. Years: First cells with nano machines 400 B.C. Demokrit: Reasoning about atoms and matter 1905 Albert Einstein: Calculate molecular diameter 1931 Max Knoll & Ernst Ruska: Electron microscope 1959 Richard Feynman: There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom 1968 Alfred Y. Cho & John Arthur (Bell Labs): MBE (atomic layer growth) 1974 Norio Taniguchi: Nanotechnology for fabrication methods below 1 um. 1981 Gerd Binning & Heinrich Rohrer: Nobel Prize-Scanning Tunneling Microscope 1985 Robert F. Curl, Harold W. Kroto, Richard Smalley: Buckminster ­ fullerenes (Buckyballs) 1986 K. Eric Drexler: Engines of Creation 1989 M. Eigler: Writing with a STM tool 1991 Sumio Iigima (NEC): Carbon nanotubes 1993 Warren Robinett, R. Stanley Williams: Combination of SEM and VR (virtual reality system) 1998 Cees Dekker et al.: Carbon nano tube transistor 1999 James M. Tour & Mark A. Read: Single Molecule switch 2000 Eigler et al: Construction of Quantum corrals and Quantum mirrors 2001 Florian Bamberg: Soldering of nanotubes with e-beam 2004 Intel launches the Pentium IV "Prescott" processor based on 90 nm technology

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication 1.1 Deposition Methods 1.1.1 Molecular Beam Epitaxy 1.1.2 Vapor Deposition Synthesis Lithography 1.2.1 RF Plasma Methods 1.2.2 Chemical Methods 1.2.3 Laser etching 1.2.4 E-beam writing 1.2.5 Ion Beam 1.2.6 Dip-pen lithography 1.2.7 Nanoimprinting Microscopy 1.3.1 Electron Microscopy 1.3.2 Scanning Microscopy

1.2

1.3

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

(Tools & Instrumentation for Nanotechnology)

Nanotools are methods and techniques intended to work at the nanoscale level (1-100 nm). Many of these methods already existed and are being applied and modified to be used in the new field of nanotechnology.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

The properties and purity of thin films are important for basic science research to help understand certain materials. Thin films are also very important for device fabrication. For these reasons scientists and engineers have developed several ways to make thin films. Some methods are very exact, but time consuming, therefore used more in research. While other methods are not as exact, but much quicker, therefore used in manufacturing (Vapor Deposition).

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Definition: MBE is widely used by both research and industry to produce films of metals, insulators and semiconductors. The MBE principle is to grow single crystals by using chemical reactions to produce thin layers of materials whose lattice structures are identical to the substrate on which they are deposited. Single or clusters of atoms are heated up in an Ultra High Vacuum (UVH) and deposited onto a hot substrate surface. The atoms diffuse across the substrate lattice and eventually grow into a very pure film. Thin films of alternating atomic layers may be grown. However, this technique is limited by its low growth rate (comparing to other Epitaxy methods) and therefore it is not always ideal.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Applications: It is a much used technique to fabricate thin films, normally in a research setting, as the process is relatively slow for industry. MBE is a ultra-high vacuum process used to produce high purity thin films with mono layer control. Some examples: 1. Quantum wells 2. Spintronics (sometimes called magnetoelectronics) 3. Semiconductors 4. Insulators 5. Superconductors 6. Optoelectronics, etc.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Images:

Al

Cu

Mg

Substrate

Simple illustration of MBE deposition of a thin film.

MBE Diagram showing the evaporation of different elements (i.e. Al, Mg ) onto the substrate (sample) rotating in the middle of the chamber. Image source: Wavefunction Engineering http://users.rcn.com/qsa/ waveeng.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) References: 1) 2) 3) Website: Veeco Learning Center: MBE tutorial (High School Level): http://www.veeco.com/learning/learning_molecularbeam.asp PDF article: "Molecular Beam Epixaty- A Simple Introduction" (High School Level) : http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~wagnerr/IntroMBE.pdf PDF article: "Basics of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)" by Fernando Rinaldi (University Level) : http://www-opto.e-technik.uni-ulm.de/forschung/jahresbericht/2002/ar2002_fr.pdf

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.1. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Definition: The basic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process is a dry vacuum deposition method to coat an entire object (or substrate) at once. The PVD reactive processes are a common method for depositing a hard coating of metal. They combine an active gas, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or methane with the plasma bombardment of the substrate. The main difference of PVD methods is the way they produce the metal vapor and the plasma.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.1. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Applications: The primary PVD applications include: · · · · Ion plating Ion implantation Sputtering Laser surface alloying.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.1. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Images:

An illustrative diagram of one type of PVD setup. Source: http://web.mit.edu/.../team2_f02/ Pages/processing.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.1. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) References: 1) 2) Website: Glossary type of page (High School level) at: http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/MetalCoatings/physical.htm "Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition" by Matox, D.M. © 1998 William Andrew Publishing/Noyes.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.2. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Definition: Chemical Vapor Deposition is a chemical reaction which transforms molecules in a gas form called precursor, which react and/or decompose into a solid material in the form of thin film or powder, on the surface of a substrate. Frequently, volatile by-products are also produced, which are removed by gas flow through the reaction chamber. CVD is widely used in the semiconductor industry. This process is used both in the critical "front-end" gate formation and "back-end" in between the metal connecting layers in semiconductor manufacturing.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.2. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Applications: a) Atmospheric Pressure CVD (APCVD) · Process at atmospheric pressure. · Lower film quality compared to other 2 techniques (LPCVD & PECVD). b) Low Pressure CVD (LPCVD) · Process at low pressures in closed furnaces. · high temperatures are needed to break bonds and to release desired species from input gases. · Higher quality deposition. · Used for critical transistor gate oxide in semiconductor industry. c) Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD) · Deposition species (compounds) are generated in plasma. · Plasma generated gas sources at lower temperature than LPCVD. · Slightly lower SiO2 or PolySi film quality than LPCVD. · Used to form dielectric layers in-between metal contacts layers in semiconductor industry.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.2. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Images:

CVD diagram. Image source: http://che.oregonstate.edu/ research/LBUOMEP/

Vertical LPCVD furnaces (*) Image source: http://www.lamel.bo.cnr.it/facilities/ tech/lpcvd.html

(*)Extra Note: LPCVD ­ In the Semiconductor industry there is a transition from horizontal to vertical furnaces, mainly due to clean room space limitations.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.1. Deposition Methods

1.1.2. Vapor Deposition 1.1.2.2. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) References: 1) Website: Fundamentals of Chemical Vapor Deposition, Time Domain CVD. Inc., (High School/Univ Level) at: http://www.timedomaincvd.com/CVD_Fundamentals/Fundamentals_of_CVD.html "Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition - Principles, Technology and Applications" (2nd Edition) by Pierson, H.O. © 1999 William Andrew Publishing/Noyes (University Level).

2)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

The science of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level, is known as nanolithography. The character dimensions are of the order of nanometers (10-9 meter). The lithography methodologies are defined by the different sources used: ions, electrons, plasma, visible or UV light, lasers, etc. In this section we will just discuss a few of the different synthesis and lithography/etch methods used in the Nanotechnology field. The history of Lithography is explained at: http://www.ippaper.com/gettips_pp_l_history.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.1. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Definition: Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) is an important method for structuring large areas with fine features (micron to sub micron resolution possible), due to the capability of simultaneous etching of multiple structures. Most common plasma etching method used in Semiconductor manufacturing. RIE is a variation of plasma etching. The sample or semiconductor wafer is placed on the Radio Frequency* (RF) powered electrode, where it takes on potential, which accelerates etching species extracted from plasma toward the etched surface. The key characteristic of RIE processing is the combination of the selectivity of chemical etching and the anisotropy of physical sputtering, which results in highly anisotropic and fast etching.

(*Radio Frequency plasma is plasma generated at 13.6 MHz)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.1. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Applications: (basically - materials stripping) · Silicon nitride, silicon dioxide and silicon oxynitride · Etching of inter-metal dielectric with profile control · Removal of residual encapsulation materials on ICs for failure analysis · Stripping of photoresist and polyimide · Etching silicon, polysilicon, refractory metals, spin-on-glass, etc. Advantage: The advantage of the RIE over wet chemical methods is to prevent "under cutting etch" or isotropic (all directions). However, it leaves the etched surface damaged and chemical wet etch is more selective. The RIE method is anisotropic (one direction) etching, making the design edges sharper.

Illustrative diagram showing under cutting of chemical wet etch versus the RIE physical etch.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.1. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Images:

RIE illustration diagram: Image source: http://ecl.web.psi.ch/matdev/

Inside the chamber, a plasma shower head over a silicon wafer. Image source: http://www.nanomaster.com/sources/NRE/NRE.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.1. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) References: 1) 2) Excellent reference on all aspects related to semiconductors- Semiconductor Glossary ­ website at: http://semiconductorglossary.com/ Nanostructure fabrication by reactive-ion etching of laser-focused chromium on silicon ­ website: http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div841/Gp3/Projects/Atom/nano_react_ion.html Oxford Instruments, an interactive page with highly technical details (English/Deutsch) on Plasma processes- website at: http://www.oxfordplasma.de/technols/dp_remot.htm

3)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.2. Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) Definition: Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) is common both as an analytical tool to determine chemical compositions in scientific research and as a etching (material removal) process in semiconductor fabrication. The ICP-Mass Spectroscopy or ICP-MS is used in research. The plasma discharge is used to generate a sample discharge of positively charged ions, where they are detected by mass. The main tool components are a plasma torch (produces sample aerosol), a RF coil and a RF* power supply to produce plasma for the torch.

(* ICP uses a plasma generated with a (Radio Frequency (RF)) at 13.56 MHz.)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.2. Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) Applications: Semiconductor Industry · · · Low damage photoresist stripping Low damage isotropic SiN etching Surface cleaning

Research · Mass Spectroscopy-chemical composition analysis

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.2. Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) Images:

Illustrative diagram of ICP tool. Source: Oxford Instruments http://www.oxfordplasma.de/technols/rie_remo.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.1. RF Plasma Methods 1.2.1.2. Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) References: 1) PDF article: "A Beginners Guide to ICP-MS", by Robert Thomas, Spectroscopy 16(6), June 2001 (University Level): http://www.spectroscopymag.com/spectroscopy/data/articlestandard/spectroscop y/452001/1096/article.pdf Website: Excellent reference on all aspects related to semiconductorsSemiconductor Glossary ­ at: http://semiconductorglossary.com/ Website: Oxford Instruments, an interactive page with highly technical details (English/Deutsch) on Plasma processes-at: http://www.oxfordplasma.de/technols/dp_remot.htm

2) 3)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.2. Chemical Methods Chemical methods are normally wet or liquid chemical solutions used to clean and polish surfaces or eliminate materials (etching). However, one dry-chemical method is RIE. The chemical etching process uses a chemical reaction between chemically reactive etching species and etched material. The process is isotropic (etches in both vertical and horizontal directions) and it is selective. The selective etching allows one material to be etched rapidly while the other is etched very slowly or not etched at all. For example, a HF: water solution etches SiO2 very rapidly while not etching silicon. Common chemical etching solutions include: Sulfuric acid (HSO4 ), Peroxide (H2 O2), Di-ionized water (H2O ), Fluoric Acid (HF) etc.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.2. Chemical Methods Applications: There is a wide range of uses: · · · Cleaning surfaces Polishing surfaces Selective Etching

More specifically, in the microelectronics industry chemical methods are commonly used in conjunction with the photolithography masking steps. The are used to remove oxides or photoresist from the surface in select areas of the device pattern.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.2. Chemical Methods Images:

H2SO2 + H2O2

Simplified diagram of selective wet chemical etch using sulfuric acid and peroxide to etch photoresist (red) on a silicon wafer (blue). The photoresist not exposed to radiation (light) is removed by the chemical etch solution.

Wet chemical bath used for etching in semiconductor industry. Source: MicroSystems Technology Laboratory Inc. http://www-mtl.mit.edu/mtlhome/3Mfab/equip/photo_icl.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.2. Chemical Methods References: 1) 2) "Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era: Vol. 1. Process Technology", S.Wolf and R.N. Tauber, Lattice Press, 2000. (For professionals) "Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication", Richard C. Jaeger, Auburn University. Second edition, Prentice Hall.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.3. Laser Etching Definition: Lasers=Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. In contrast to an ordinary light source, a laser produces a narrow beam of very bright light. Laser light is "coherent", which means that all of a laser`s light rays have the same wavelength and are synchronized. The emissions of lasers are in the form of light, and the frequencies can range anywhere from infra-red to ultraviolet. Lasers work through a process called stimulated emission. Laser Etching There are two main ways for Laser sources to be used for lithography processes: 1) The laser radiation is used to physically remove the material or etch, with a mask protecting the others areas, 2) Or a laser is used to radiate or expose certain areas of the surface, with a mask protecting the other areas. Depending on the desired pattern, the chemical or plasma etch processes eliminate the unwanted material. Simply, the laser radiation is used in combination with other processes to remove material or etch. Lasers can also be used for the deposition of materials (i.e. Laser Deposition).

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.3. Laser Etching Applications: The laser can be focused on a surface to either actually physically remove the material or it can expose the material to radiation, so it may later be removed by a chemical or plasma process. Commercially: · · In semiconductor fabrication in UV stepper photolithography steps. As a detection tool to manufacturing.

In research: · · To produce devices. To analyze materials.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.3. Laser Etching Images:

Diagram of the first Ruby Laser: Source: http://www.llnl.gov/nif/library/aboutlasers/how.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.3. Laser Etching References: 1) 2) Tutorial website: "How a Laser works". (High School level). http://www.llnl.gov/nif/library/aboutlasers/how.html Tutorial website: "How a Laser works"(High School level). http://www.laserist.org/Laserist/showbasics_laser.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.4. E-Beam writing Definition: E-Beam writing or Lithography (EBL) is a lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist to make patterns below 100 nm. No mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam. EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography. However, the resolution is limited by the proximity effect.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.4. E-Beam writing Applications: · · · · · · R&D material surface & circuit designs Industrial production of optical surfaces (i.e. grating) Semiconductor chip manufacturing Microcontact printing Microfluidic networks Nanodispensing

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.4. E-Beam writing Images:

SEM image: A stamp made by electron beam lithography and lift off of chromium dots of 50 nm diameter separated by 50 nm spacers. Source: Clivia M Sotomayor Torres et al. (Phantoms)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.4. E-Beam writing References: 1) CEA-Leti PDF article: "Shape E-Beam lithography toward industrial application" by L. Pain, Y. Lapanche, D. Henry, J.Todeschini. http://www-leti.cea.fr/commun/AR-2003/T1-Microelectronic/08-pain.pdf Website: Semiconductor Glossary http://semiconductorglossary.com/default.asp?searchterm=lithography

2)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.5. Ion Beam Definition: Similar to electron beam lithography, ion beam is a serial, mask-less lithography with many of the same advantages and drawbacks. The main difference is that as ions are used instead of electrons, structures can be built up or ions implanted directly into substrates.

Principle beam projection lithography. Source:http://www.diatronic.de/Product%20Implantation%20Service.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.5. Ion Beam Applications: · Electronic devices

Advantages: · · · Sub-100 nm three-dimensional structures Very flexible (etching,deposition, imaging) The beam can be used for imaging

Disadvantages: · · Slow (serial process) Beam damages the surface

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.5. Ion Beam Images:

Image of a ion beam etched image Source: http://www.physnet.uni-hamburg.de/home/vms/group_g/methods.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.5. Ion Beam References: 1) "Focused Ion Beams for Direct Writing", K. Edinger, in Direct Write Technologies for Rapid Prototyping, edited by A. Pique and D. Chrisey. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2002, p. 347-383. 2) "Fabrication, Characterization and Post-Processing of the Cathodic Arc Derived Hydrogen-Free Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon", A. Stanishevsky, in Handbook of Surfaces and Intefaces of Materials, Vol. 4, Chap. 5, edited by H. S. Nalwa. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2001, p. 282-334. "Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication", Richard C. Jaeger, Auburn University. Second edition, Prentice Hall.

3)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.6. Dip-pen lithography Definition: Dip-pen lithography involves the use of a sharp tip which has been coated or dipped into a solution of molecules. The tip is then brought into close proximity with a substrate to be patterned in a humid atmosphere. Ambient humidity causes a tiny water droplet to be formed in the gap which serves as a conduit for the molecules transfer to the surface. The capillary forces leave the molecules on the surface, so the tip can be used to create patterns of self-assembled monolayers.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.6. Dip-pen lithography Applications: · · · Research and prototyping Microarrays, nanoarrays Self-assembling molecules

Advantages: · · Flexibility Programmability

Disadvantages: · · Slow Difficult to control the conditions

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.6. Dip-pen lithography Images:

Dip-pen nanolithography Source: Northwestern University

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.6. Dip-pen lithography References: 1) 2) 3) Website source: http://www.chem.northwestern.edu/~mkngrp/dpn.htm "The art of building small", by George M. Whitesides ans J. Christopher Love. 2001, Scientific American. "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.7. Nanoimprinting Definition: Nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) is a technique to create nanostructures. This nanopatterning method differs from UV lithography and e-beam lithography in that the features are formed onto substrate using a stamp instead of light or electron beam. The minimum feature size is defined by the features on the stamp. Thus, the stamps form an essential part in the NIL technology. With nanoimprinting lithography is possible to produce sub-50-nm structures.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.7. Nanoimprinting Applications: · Microfluidic systems (lab-on-a-chip) · Optical components (diffraction gratings, wave guides,lasers...) Advantages: · High throughput, high resolution, low costs. · No diffraction limit: features as small as 10 nanometers have been fabricated. · Broad range of materials can be used, including polymers, metals, and ceramics. · Easily performed technique - without need of specialized fabrication facility or clean room. Disadvantages: · Extremely difficult to build a 3-D structure - many steps needed for material deposition and removal. Accumulation of defects. · Very high temperatures/pressures are needed to cause the viscosity to drop for the polymer to flow into channels, but, same high temperature causes polymers to degrade.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.7. Nanoimprinting Images:

Left: illustration of Directwriting assembly. Right: SEM image of 3D structure. Source: http://news.nanoapex.com/modu les.php? name=News&file=article&sid= 4398

Robotic deposition process can write the design or pattern on a surface using a capillary tube and "ink". The ink can be made up of colloids or other materials. Recently a group headed by Dr. Jennifer Lewis at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, developed a new ink based solely on polyelectrolyte mixtures rather than colloidal particles. With this new ink they were are able to produce 3D periodic structures with feature sizes that are 100 times smaller than other attempts. The smallest feature achieved by this group is 500 nm. (Nature, March 25, 2004)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.2. Synthesis & Lithography

1.2.7. Nanoimprinting References: 1) Publication: "Microperiodic structures: Direct writing of three-dimensional webs", Gregory M. Gratson, Mingjie Xu & Jennifer A. Lewis, Nature 428, 386 (25 March 2004) Brief Communications (Professional Level). Website: Nanoapex article: http://news.nanoapex.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=4398 Publication: "Nanoimprinting Technology and its Applications", CBIMM Invited Seminar, Feb. 2003, L. Jay Gou, Univ. Michigan Ann Harbor, USA (University/Professional Level).

2) 3)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

Definition: Microscopy is a technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye. In classical light microscopy, this involves either reflecting light off or passing light through the subject by using a series of lenses, to be detected directly by the eye or imaged on a photographic plate. The wavelength of visible light ranges from about 400 to 700 nanometers. The best compound microscopes cannot resolve parts of a specimen that are closer together than about 200 nanometers.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

Images:

Common optical microscope and its principle parts. Image Source: Wikipedia

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

Classical microscopy involves the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of radiation incident (light) upon the subject of study. Two main lines of research microscopy use a different source (not light) to produce images: Electron microscopy and Probe or Force microscopy. Electron Microscopy technique uses an electron beam to create a magnified image. Basically, the beam knocks electrons loose from the surface of the sample, where they are counted by a detector to create an image. Probe or Force Microscopy works with a very small probe and recognizes movement at the end of the probe, due to electrical effects.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.1. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Definition: The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) consists of a column in vacuum with a filament or electron gun (acting as a cathode) at the top to generate electrons, which are accelerated down by an anode and eventually guided to the sample by electromagnetic lenses. The scanning action of the electronic beam is done with an electronic coil and a magnetic field. The electron beam hits the sample, producing both electrons and photons from the sample*. Of these, the secondary and backscatted electrons are collected by specific detectors, converted to a voltage and amplified. In continuation, the signals are used to define an screen image.

*NOTE: The additional X-rays (photons) and Auger Electrons produced by the incident electron beam hitting the sample are used to determine the composition of the sample. Also, Backscatter electrons can be used to determine atomic number or sample composition.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.1. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Most commonly both secondary (energy < 50 eV) and sometimes backscatted electrons (< 1eV) from the sample are used to determine the topography of the sample. The biological samples must be coated with a thin layer of metal- normally gold because it is inert ­ to "release" electrons from its surface. The resolution and magnification of the SEM are less than that of the TEM. Although the SEM is still orders of magnitude above the classical light microscope.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.1. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Applications: · · · Used to determine the size, dimensions, texture and form of material surfaces on a sub-micron scale. Widely used as common R&D tool. Used in normally in the High technology industry sectors for product investigations (off-line for production).

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.1. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Images:

Sample chamber

Photographs of SEM tools. Images sources: SEM Origins and ftianamet.com/ failure.html

SEM image of defects in the gate oxide layer of semiconductor chip in fabrication process. Image courtesy of: Kathleen Terryll, Agere Systems, Spain

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.1. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) References: 1) 2) 3) Website: "How a SEM works"-website (High School level): http://www.mos.org/sln/SEM/works/slideshow/nstour20.html Website: "Understanding how the SEM works and how to use it on a college level." Iowa State University: http://mse.iastate.edu/microscopy/college.html Website: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCELL1.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.2. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Definition: The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is similar to the SEM, as it consists of a vacuum column and an electron gun or filament at the top, which generates an electron beam, which is guided with electromagnetic lenses to the sample surface. However, the TEM differs from the SEM, as its electron beam hits the sample, the electron beam is transmitted or "passes through" the sample and several more lenses to a phosphorus screen. The image is generated. Darker areas represent areas of the sample where fewer electrons where transmitted through and lighter areas represent where more electrons where transmitted through. The increased resolution results from the shorter wavelength of the electron beam, increasing resolution in the to a theoretical limit of 0.2 nm. The magnifications reached by TEMs are commonly over 100,000X. The samples are cut down to thin layers (>100´s nm) thick, sometimes embedded in a material and polished by ion milling. The TEM images are basically crosssections of a sample.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.2. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Applications: Used to determine the size, dimensions and form of material composition on a submicron scale. · Commonly used as a Research and Development (R&D) tool.

Extra Note: High Resolution TEM (HREM) is used to determine the atomic lattice structure of materials on an atomic scale. This technique is used primarily for R&D research on material structure and the atomic interface between different materials.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.2. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Images:

100 nm

50 nm

TEM images of lamellar PS-b-PI samples. Besides single-crystalline-like lamellar microstructure (left), TEM can also reveal the unique grain boundaries/defects in the material (right). Images source: http://people.ccmr.cornell.edu/~uli/Pages/complexfluids-tem.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.1. Electron Microscopy 1.3.1.2. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) References: 1) 2) 3) Website: TEM Basics http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/ (High School Level). "Transmission Electron Microscopy ­ Basics" by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter (University Level). Website: "How the TEM works" (University level). http:bioweb.usu.edu/emlab/TEM-SEM%20Teaching/How%20TEM%20works.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.1. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) The STM technique is a small revolution controlling movements on the atomic scale. This converts it into a "local probe". Under this philosophy there have been appearing other microscopy techniques in general they are called SPM (Scanning Probe Microscopy): · AFM: detects forces on the atomic scale and is used to regulate the separation between the sample and detector. · MFM: A variant of the previous - measures magnetic forces. · FFM: Friction Force Microscopy. · CFM: Chemical Force Microscopy. · SNOM: Uses light intensity as a regulator.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.1. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Applications: · Unlike electron microscopy, SPM can also be used to obtain images in aqueous solutions, allowing, in principle, the investigation of biological systems under nearphysiological conditions. · In semi-conductor technology, sub-micrometer features on integrated circuit-board scan be measured to perform routine product inspection or failure analysis. · Ceramic materials are being developed for a vast array of new applications. The technique is suitable for determining surface phenomenon, such as porosity, fractures, defects, grain size, boundaries and distribution. · In polymer science, information on uniformity, molecular structure, polymer chains, orientation and boundaries can also be obtained, and in metallurgy, characteristics such as corrosion resistance, finish, polish, defects, strain, faults, cracks and fatigue may be routinely investigated.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.1. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Images:

SPM Images. Source: Phantoms report

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1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.1. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) References: 1) 2) 3) Website: http://www.mobot.org/jwcross/spm/

Website: http://www.eng.yale.edu/reedlab/research/spm/spm.html Website: http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/surfaces/scc/scat7_6.htm

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1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) employs quantum mechanics phenomenon ("the tunnel effect") and is a high-resolution non optical microscope. A fine probe is moved over the surface of the material under study, and a voltage is applied between probe and the surface. Electrons will "tunnel" (this is a quantum-mechanical effect) from the probe to the surface (or vice-versa) resulting in a weak electric current. By scanning the probe over the surface and measuring the current, surface structure can be reconstructed. Adjustments of the distance between probe and surface are done using a servo loop and converse piezoelectricity. It is even possible to move and position individual atoms, which makes the scanning tunneling microscope an important tool in nanotechnology.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) STM is a tool based on a quantum phenomenon. Quantum tunnel effect: there exists the possibility of particle flow in between two regions classically permitted separated by a barrier. Classical physics: Particles don't emerge Quantum physics: Particles DO emerge: tunneling current

T=0 signifies that the particles rebound. T=1 means that the barrier is transparent.

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1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Definition: STM Components: i) Piezoelectric Control of Movement ii) Reasonable System of Data Acquisition iii) Good Electronic Control

Images courtesy of Julio Gomez ­ Universidad Automoma de Madrid, Spain

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Applications: Since the creation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope by Gerd Binning & Heinrich Rohrer, which they both received the Physics Noble Prize in 1986, the STM has been an important tool for nanoscience. · · · Analyze conducting surfaces. Determine local electronic properties (spectroscopy). Induce changes on surfaces using voltage pulses. "Move" individual atoms and molecules. Construct structures on the atomic scale.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Images: STM Scan Results - examples

Example of STM "Scanned image" and after treatment. Images courtesy of Julio Gomez ­ Universidad Automoma de Madrid, Spain

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Images: STM ­ A fascinating tool to "see" atoms.

Surface of graphite

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3. Microscopy

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy 1.3.2.2. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) References: 1) 2) 3) 4) "Scanning Probe Microscopy: Basic Concepts and Applications", PHANTOMS Report, September 2003. (Professional Level) Website: Scanning Probe Microscopy (Many Levels ­ University- Professional) http://bama.ua.edu/~hsmithso/class/bsc_656/websites/spm.html Website: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Basics (University level) : http://nanowiz.tripod.com/stmbasic/stmbasic.htm "Scanning Probe Microscopy: The Lab on a Tip" by E. Meyer, Hans Josef Hug, Roland Bennewitz, Ernst Meyer, Hans J. Hug (University level).

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy

1.3.2.3. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Definition: · · · · Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an analysis technique for solid materials and it is derived from the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique. AFM can "see" or detect the surface topography at the atomic level. A mechanical probe scans across the surface to magnify features and the probe is monitored to produce 3-D images. The motion of the probe over the surface is generated by piezoelectric ceramics that move the probe and force sensor across the surface in the X and Y directions. The surface can be magnified up to 100,000,000 times.

Advantages: · · The main difference is that AFM does not require the sample to conduct electricity, whereas the STM does. AFM also works in regular room temperatures.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy

1.3.2.3. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Applications: · AFM is being used to understand materials problems in many areas, including data storage, telecommunications, biomedicine, chemistry, and aerospace. In data storage, it is helping researchers to "force" a disk to have a higher capacity. Today's magnetic storage devices typically have a capacity limit of between 20 and 50 gigabits (billions of bits) per square inch of storage medium. Researchers are looking into AFM to help raise read and write densities to between 40 gigabits and 300 gigabits per square inch. No one has yet commercialized AFM technology for this purpose, but IBM and others are actively pursuing it.

· · ·

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1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy

1.3.2.3. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Images: AFM: detects forces on the atomic scale and is used to regulate the separation between the sample and detector.

3D AFM image, taken in the contact mode of a diamond thin film grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Silicon Si(100). Source: L. Vázquez, ICMM-CSIC, Spain

AFM image taken in the contact mode of a YBa2Cu3O7 (superconductor) thin film with 100 nm thickness, deposited by "sputtering". Source:L. Vázquez, ICMM-CSIC, Spain

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

1. Nanotools & Nanofabrication

1.3.2. Scanning Microscopy

1.3.2.3. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) References: 1) 2) 3) 4) AFM Tutorial at Pacific Nanotechnology at: http://www.pacificnanotech.com/6_Article_A_13.html Website: http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/educmat/chm729/afm/firstpag.htm Website: http://spm.phy.bris.ac.uk/techniques/AFM/ Website: http://www.sst.ph.ic.ac.uk/photonics/intro/AFM.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 2. Nanostructured Materials 2.1 Carbon Structures 2.1.2 Fullerenes 2.1.3 Nanotubes 2.2 Nanoparticles 2.2.1 Definition 2.2.2 Applications 2.2.3 Images 2.3 Nanocapsules 2.3.1 Definition 2.3.2 Applications 2.3.3 Images 2.4 Quantum dots 2.4.1 Definition 2.4.2 Applications 2.4.3 Images 2.5 Nanocristalline Materials 2.5.1 Definition 2.5.2 Applications 2.5.3 Images 2.6 Nanoporeous Materials 2.6.1 Definition 2.6.3 Applications 2.6.3 Images 2.7 Dendrimers 2.7.1 Definition 2.7.2 Applications 2.7.3 Images

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

A nanostructured material can be considered to be any material that has a feature of interest in at least one dimension that is nanoscale (under 100 nm). Materials included in this term are: structures that are nanoscale in all directions, such as some nanoparticles and quantum dots, nanoscale containers such as capsules, crystalline materials such as metals where the crystals are nanoscale,, materials with nanoscale holes, ...

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.1. Introduction Definition: Carbon has 3 forms ­ graphite (atomic sheets), diamond (3D atoms) and fullerenes (ball molecules). Buckminsterfullerenes or Buckyballs are otherwise known as C60 - for the 60 carbon atoms which make up the soccerball shape, arranged as 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. Buckminsterfullerenes are named after the architect Richard Buckminster Fuller, who designed the geometric dome buildings, which the molecular balls resemble.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.1. Introduction Images:

A soccer ball is made up of both hexagons and pentagons. Image source: http://www.msysa.org/images/soccerball.gif

Above: Buckminster Fuller Source: http://www.domegroup.org/ Below: Geometric "Dome" Homes Source: http://www.vitruvius.com.br/drops/005buck.asp Bucky balls or C60s are also made up of only carbon atoms arranged in hexagonal and pentagonal patterns. Image source: http://www.lbl.gov/.../ MSD-C60-molecular-layer.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.1. Introduction References: 1) Book: Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures - New Materials for the Twenty-first Century, by Peter J. F. Harris, Published October 2001, ISBN: 0521005337 (Professional level) Website (short Powerpoint presentation): Carbon Nanotubes: An Overview, http://www.engr.ku.edu/~rhale/ae510/websites_f02/Carbon-Nano-tubes.ppt (Undergraduate Level)

2)

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2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.2. Fullerenes · · · In 1985, the C60 molecule was discovered by Harold Kroto, James Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley (Nature vol. 318, pg.162). In 1996, Curl, Kroto and Smalley received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their C60 (fullerene) discovery. Fullerenes are closed cage carbon structures. The spherical C60 molecules are approximately 7Å in diameter. Each carbon atom is bonded to three others and is sp2 hybridised. Hexagonal rings are present but pentagonal rings are required for the cage to close. There are 120 symmetry operations, like rotations around an axis or reflections in a plane, which map the molecule onto itself. This makes C60 the molecule with the largest number of symmetry operations, the most symmetric molecule.

·

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2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.2. Fullerenes · The C70 molecule is similar to C60 and they have similar properties. They have six reversible, one electron reductions to C606- and C706-, and oxidation is irreversible. The first reduction for both fullerenes is ~1.0 V (Fc/Fc+), indicating they both have electron accepting properties. A 1990 discovery allows C60 to be made in mass quantities by a carbon arc method. The technique is essentially very simple; if a voltage is applied to two carbon rods, (just touching), an arc will develop between them. If the arc is maintained in helium or argon (instead of in air) clouds of black smoke carbon soot are produced. If the temperature and gas pressure is correct, up to 10 % of the black soot is C60. The fullerenes are soluble in common solvents such as benzene, toluene or chloroform. If you shake up some of the fullerene soot with toluene and filter the mixture, one obtains a red solution. As the solvent evaporates, only the small fullerene molecules are left behind.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

·

·

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.3. Nanotubes 2.1.3.1. Definition Carbon nanotubes are extraordinary macromolecules containing only carbon. They are formed by rolling up graphene sheets. They were discovered by the Japanese electron microscopist, Sumio Iijima (1991). Nanotubes can have a single wall (SWNTs) or multiple walls (MWNTs), which consist of several concentric single-wallet nanotubes.

Illustration of a nanotube. Image source: http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~scsharip/tubes.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.3. Nanotubes 2.1.3.1. Definition · Nanotubes can be made by several ways (laser evaporation, carbon arc methods, chemical vapor deposition). Two etching methods are illustrated by the Max Plank Institute of Stuttgart, which give different nanotube shapes.

The illustration shows how nanotubes can be produced by methods using a sacrificial layer. ·In Method II, an extra bilayer of two different materials (materials 1 and 2) is used. The bilayer bends upwards forming a nanotube after one complete revolution and longer etching times result in multiple revolutions. ·The lattice constant of material 1(a1) is greater than material 2 (a2). Once the bilayer is released by selective etching, each material tends to acquire its inherent lattice constant.

Source: http://www.mpi-stuttgart.mpg.de/ mbe/nanorolls_si.html

Image source: http://www.mpi-stuttgart.mpg.de/ mbe/nanorolls_si.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.3. Nanotubes 2.1.3.2. Properties Nanotubes have the following physical, chemical and mechanical properties that make them such an outstanding material: · · · · · · Electrical conductivity- the first polymer with truly metallic conductivity. Carbon nanotubes are metallic or semiconducting, depending on the diameter and chirality of the tube. Thermal conductivity - higher than diamond along the tube axis. Mechanical - the stiffest, strongest, and toughest fibre known. Chemistry of carbon - can be reacted and manipulated with the richness and flexibility of other carbon molecules. Carbon is the basis of most materials we use every day. Molecular perfection - essentially free of defects. Self-assembly - strong van der Waals attraction leads to spontaneous roping of many nanotubes. Important in certain applications.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.3. Nanotubes 2.1.3.3. Structure Spherical curvature at the end of the tube is achieved by atoms arranged in a fullerene-like structure (combining hexagons with pentagons). chiral

(n,m)

For a random chirality distribution,1/3 of the nanotubes are metallic. Metallic: · (n,n) armchair · (n,m) where n-m = 3x; Semiconducting: · (n,0) zigzag · (n,m), where n-m 3x

Armchair

(n,n)

Zigzag

(n,0)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.3. Nanotubes 2.1.3.4. Main types · Singled-walled Carbon Nanotubes - minimum diameter 0.4 nm - average diameter 1.2 nm - variable length - flexible Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes - several concentric cylinders (interlayer 0.34 0.36nm) - average diameter 20 nm - variable length - variable morphology Nanofibers - combination of graphitic and amorphous carbon - average diameter 100 nm - variable length and morphology (hollow or solid)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes

·

Nanofibers

·

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.3. Nanotubes 2.1.3.5. Applications · Structural composites (car tires, structural materials in aircraft/spacecraft, military equipment, fire proof materials...) · Conductive composites (conductive resins in microelectronics, electromagnetic shielding, anti-static and ESD (Electro Static Discharge) materials, transparent conductive coatings for displays) · Cables and fibers (plastic wires for aircraft, power transmission, microelectronics/actuators, elevators, bridges, buildings...) · Fuel cells (electrodes, hydrogen storage...) · Catalyst support · Battery electrodes · Solar cells, Fuel cells · Field emission · Chemical Sensors · Electronic and data storage · Medical and Pharmaceutical · To reinforcing fibers, which make stronger composites

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.1. Carbon Structures

2.1.3. Nanotubes References: 1) 2) Website: http://www.susx.ac.uk/Users/kroto/workshop.html Website: www.mpi-stuttgart.mpg.de/ mbe/nanorolls_si.html 3) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.2. Nanoparticles

2.2.1. Definition Nanoparticles are a well-developed, longstanding technology and represent one of the most established and widely commercialized areas of nanotechnology. The transition from microparticles to nanoparticles can lead to a number of changes in physical properties. Two of the major factors in this are the increase in the ratio of surface area to volume, and the size of the particle moving into the realm where quantum effects predominate.

AFM Image of nanoparticles.

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2. Nanostructured Materials

2.2. Nanoparticles

2.2.1. Definition There is a wide variety of techniques for producing nanoparticles. These essentially fall into three categories: Vapor condensation Chemical synthesis Solid-state processes such as milling.

Particles can be coated with hydrophilic (water-loving) or hydrophobic (water-hating) substances, for example, depending on the desired application.

Water droplets on a wood surface treated with BASFs "Lotus Spray". The coating combines nanoparticles with hydrophobic polymers. Image Courtesy of BASF, Germany.

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2. Nanostructured Materials

2.2. Nanoparticles

2.2.2. Applications The use of nanoparticles can favourably alter catalytic, mechanical, electronic, optical and numerous other material properties. Some application areas for nanoparticles are: · · · · · Composite materials, structural composites (cars, airplanes, domestic products) Packaging materials Coatings (nanopowders) Protective (detect and/or protect against chemical warfare agents) Defense (military equipment)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.2. Nanoparticles

2.2.2. Applications · · · · · · · · Catalysis Cosmetics (nanoparticles offering UV light protection) Computers and electronics (nanoparticles used in polishing slurries for microchips) Fuel and explosive additives Fuel cells and batteries (portable electronics) Lubricants (copper nanoparticles) Medical and pharmaceutical (anti-cancer treatment) Bioanalysis and medical analysis (magnetic resonance)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.2. Nanoparticles

2.2.3. Images

Copper nanoparticles (100 nm x 100 nm field of view) on MgO(100) imaged in vacuum by noncontact atomic force microscopy. Source: http://www.chem.uh.edu/Faculty/Perry/

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.2. Nanoparticles

References 1) 2) 3) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. The information resource for particle resource: http://www.nanoparticles.org/ Website: http://nano.cancer.gov/nanotech_nanoparticles.asp

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.3. Nanocapsules

2.3.1. Definition Nanocapsules have been made for many years following the example of nature, using molecules called phospholipids, which are hydrophobic (waterrepellant) on one end and hydrophilic (water-loving) on the other. When these molecules are placed in an aqueous environment, they can spontaneously form capsules in which the hydrophobic portions are inside, protecting them from contact with paper. Nanocapsules are between 130 to 600 nm in diameter.

Drug Delivery capsules. Source: Capsulation Nanoscience AG.

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2. Nanostructured Materials

2.3. Nanocapsules

2.3.2. Applications · Drug delivery, commercial cosmetic... Example: The capsules act like sponges, soaking up and holding the cream inside until the outer shell dissolves under your skin, rather than sitting on the top layer. Therefore, the nanotechnology enhanced creams are affecting the lower skin layers. Labs at the French National Center for Scientific Research and L'Oreal developed nanocapsules with biodegradable polymeric shells small enough to pass through the first layers of the skin. The skin's natural enzymes dissolve the nanocapsule surface and release the active ingredients to lower layers of the skin. To gain the most benefits, active ingredients (vitamin A, retinol and beta-carotene) should get to the deeper layers of the skin. For normal creams, the active ingredients stay on the skin's outer layers and they are less effective. Cosmetic Companies such as L'Oreal (France), Kose Cosmetics and Shiseido (both of Japan), are using nanotechnology in skin-care powder, eye shadow and sun-screen.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.3. Nanocapsules

2.3.3. Images

Nanocapsules can range between 130 and 600 nm. L'Oreal developed a tiny polymeric shell capable of guiding the active ingredients to the right place in the skin. Source: http://www.smalltimes.com

L'Oreal's Plenitude line of cosmetics contains nanocapsules. Source: http://www.smalltimes.com

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.3. Nanocapsules

References: 1) Website source: http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=5236 2) Website source: http://www.smalltimes.com 3) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.4. Quantum dots

2.4.1. Definition Quantum dots (QD) are small devices that contain a tiny droplet of free electrons. They are fabricated in semiconductor materials and have typical dimensions between nanometers to a few microns. Their size and shape and the number of electrons they contain, can be precisely controlled. A quantum dot can have anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousands.

QDs of different shapes and size. Image source: http://vortex.tn.tudelft.nl/grkouwen/qdotsite.html#intro

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.4. Quantum dots

2.4.2. Applications · · · Lasers of very precise, chosen wavelengths Bioanalysis In the long term, they may be used in quantum computers.

Electron Wavefunction in pyramidal QD. Theoretical modeling of the electron ground state wavefunction in a pyramidal shaped QD structure. Source: http://www.zialasers.com

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.4. Quantum dots

2.4.3. Images

TEM image of a quantum dot. Source: Quantum Dot Corporation Above: bottles of different sized QD/nanoparticles. Below: different light wavelengths related to color.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.4. Quantum dots

References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. Website: http://www.qdots.com/ Website: http://vortex.tn.tudelft.nl/grkouwen/qdotsite.html Website: http://www.llnl.gov/str/Lee.html Website: http://www.evidenttech.com/

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.5. Nanocrystalline Materials

2.5.1. Definition Metals and ceramics, both bulk and in coatings, are generally made up of crystals the size of which are measured in micrometers. Reducing the size of the crystals can have quite dramatic effects on the properties of the bulk material, particularly increasing strength. Metals and ceramics are generally polycrystalline, meaning that they consist of many randomly oriented crystalline regions, or grains. Reducing the size of the grains in existing materials can have a big impact on bulk material properties. Properties of nanocrystalline metals are: increased strength and hardness, higher electrical resistance, increased specific heat capacity, improved thermal expansion properties, lower thermal conductivity and improved magnetic properties. In ceramics, the increase in ductility when they become nanocrystalline is accompanied by improved toughness (the ability to withstand an impact or applied strain), or reduced brittleness, and improved ability to bond to a metal component.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.5. Nanocrystalline Materials

2.5.2. Applications · · · · Structural material and coatings (bulk structural metals as bulk structural components in the automotive, aerospace and construction industries) Medical and biological applications To stimulate light emission To generate electrons for flat panel displays that will not need a vacuum

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.5. Nanocrystalline Materials

2.5.3. Images

TEM image of (hcp) Co nanocrystals (NCs) Colloidal synthetic methods allow Co NCs to be produced in several distinct crystal polymorphs with varying degrees of crystal perfection. Image courtesy IBM

Top image: ordered gold nanocrystal packed inside silica. Electron diffraction pattern (left corner image) and highresolution image (right corner) confirmed the nanostructure and gold nanocrystals. Bottom image: selfassembled, well-shaped gold nanocrystal/silica arrays. Source: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, USA

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.5. Nanocrystalline Materials

References 1) "Nanocrystalline materials" A. I. Gusev and A. A. Rempel Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. May 2004, Cambridge International Science Publishing. "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. Website: http://www.knovel.com/knovel2/Toc.jsp?BookID=469

2) 3)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.6. Nanoporous Materials

2.6.1. Definition Nanoporous are materials all about holes that are less than 100 nm. They abound in the natural world, both in biological systems and in natural minerals. For example, the walls of our cells are nanoporous membranes and the petroleum industry has been using naturally nanoporous materials called zeloites as catalysts for decades, though the majority used now are synthetic. Recent years have seen significant improvements in understanding and making a variety of nanoporous materials.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.6. Nanoporous Materials

2.6.1. Definition It is convenient to divide nanoporous materials into: bulk materials and membranes · Nanoporous membranes:

Some of the most interesting applications for nanoporous membranes come from the ability of nanopores of certain sizes to let some substances pass and others not, or to force molecules like DNA to pass through one at a time. Controlling the size of these pores accurately is one of the technological challenges faced in making these materials.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

Nanoporous membrane. Source: MINT Center and Deparments of Chemistry and Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, the University of Alabama.

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.6. Nanoporous Materials

2.6.1. Definition · Bulk nanoporous materials:

The surface area of a solid increases when it becomes nanoporous, improving catalytic, absorbent, and adsorbent properties. Zeolites are a range of naturally occurring or manufactured minerals with pores on the nanoscale. They have been used as effective catalysts for decades. Surface areas of nanoporous solids are generally in the hundreds of square meters per gram. The size of the pores allows the control of the type of reaction products.

This new zeolite (ITQ-21) is formed by a 3D lattice of pores which have 1.18 nm wide cavities accessible by six circular windows of 0.74 nm in diameter.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.6. Nanoporous Materials

2.6.2. Applications · · · · · · · Chemical (improved catalysts). Filtration and separation (water purification, purification of pharmaceuticals and enzymes, oil/water separation...). Medical and pharmaceutical (drugs and drug deliveries, analysis and detection...). Telecommunications (electronics and electrical, optical...). Aerospace and defense (aerogels). Energy (application in supercacitors, batteries and fuel cells). Environmental.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.6. Nanoporous Materials

2.6.3. Images

Zeolite used to synthesize gasoline.

Nanoporous Image Source: http://www.eas.asu.edu/~picraux/research.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.6. Nanoporous Materials

References 1) 2) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. "Nanoporous Materials: Science and engineering" by G Q Lu & X S Zhao (National University of Singapore). Novemver 2004, World Scientific Publishing Company.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.7. Dendrimers

2.7.1. Definition Dendrimers are large and complex molecules with very well-defined chemical structures. They are nearly perfect monodisperse macromolecules with a regular and highly branched three-dimensional architecture. They consist of three major architectural components: core, branches, and end groups. Dendrimers are versatile molecular structures due to their multifunctionality and specific shape. These unique properties make them attractive molecules for their use as building blocks in larger, organized structures of higher complexity.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.7. Dendrimers

2.7.2. Applications · · · · · Therapeutics (for example, NASA financed a project to develop dendrimerbased florescent particles that monitor human cell damage from radiation) Biological/Chemical detection and Bioanalysis (dendrimers are being used in the manufacture of chemical and biological sensors) Electronics (flat panel displays, electronic tagging technologies, photovoltaic systems...) Decontamination Additives ­ composites, coatings, inks, dyes and lubricants

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.7. Dendrimers

2.7.3. Images

Representation of a tectodendrimers. Source: Center for Biologic Nanotechnology, University of Michigan

A polyvalent interaction between a dendrimer molecule and a biological surface. Source: Starpharma http://www.starpharma.com

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

2. Nanostructured Materials

2.7. Dendrimers

References 1) 2) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. Website: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/Area_of_Interest/Chemistry/Materials_Scien ce/Nanomaterials/Dendrimers.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 3. Nanoelectronics & Devices 3.1 Semiconductors 3.1.1 Background 3.1.2 Evolution 3.1.3 Limitations (Moore´s Law) 3.1.4 Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Nanowires 3.2.1 Definition 3.2.2 Applications 3.2.3 Images NEMS/MEMS 3.3.1 Definitions 3.3.2 Applications 3.3.3 Images Electronics and optoelectronics 3.4.1 Processors 3.4.2 Data storage Quantum computing 3.5.1 Definition 3.5.2 Applications 3.5.3 Images Nanoelectronic Devices 3.6.1 Molecular electronics 3.6.2 Nanotubes

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

Nanoelectronics is concerned with understanding and exploiting the properties of devices which have dimensions at the nanometer scale. The drive for smaller and smaller dimensions in the Semiconductor industry made it one of the leaders going into nanotechnology. In this section we explore the properties on the nanoscale related to devices.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.1. Background Definition: Silicon is the basic material from which chips are made. The basic building block of digital circuits is the transistor. The processing of semiconductor chips involves "doping" the silicon with impurities (i.e. boron or phosphorous) in a particular pattern, etching the transistors, resistors, interconnecting tracks and so forth onto the surface of the silicon. Hundreds of processing steps are involved in making a chip. The 3 main parts of the transistor are Gate (G), Source (S) and Drain (D) otherwise called GASAD. The gate acts like a capacitor or switch. It is binary, as zero and one, mean "on" and "off". A high voltage on the gate attracts charge into the channel. If a voltage exists between the source and drain a current (I) will flow (see images). The most critical part of the transistor is the gate oxide.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.1. Background The dominant manufacturing technology for semiconductors is Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) where both N-type and P-type transistors are used to realize logic functions. The CMOS technology is used for microprocessors, memories and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The ASIC chips are made by connecting existing blocks of circuits in new ways, instead of designing a chip from scratch ­ which is a more difficult task. They are used in cars, for doll voices, PDA's, etc.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.1. Background Hundreds of semiconductors are made on one silicon wafer and are called "chips" or "die". Semiconductor technologies are described by their "line" width, meaning the width of the lines in the circuit design. For example, the 0.35 um technology has line widths of 0.35 um. Silicon wafer diameters are increasing (3 inches - > 12 inches ) to reduce manufacturing times and costs. Currently, the most common design rules are for 0.13 um technology on 200 mm wafers.

Silicon Wafers with chips: (sizes: 6" ­ 12" or 150 mm ­ 300 nm) Image courtesy of Intel http://www.intel.com

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.1. Background Applications: Computer/system chips of all kinds · · · Processors Logic (ASIC, CMOS, Bipolar, etc.) ­ (i.e.voice, sound cards, etc.) Memory (DRAM, SRAM, etc.)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.1. Background Images:

Chip cut from silicon wafer. Image courtesy of Granite Microsystems http://www.granitemicrosystems.com/

SEM cross-section of the PMOS transistor showing the gate width (0.27 um) of the transistor. Image courtesy of Semiconductor Insights

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.1. Background

References: 1) 2) Semiconductor Glossary, website at: http://semiconductorglossary.com/ (University Level) Intel Corporation, website at: http://www.intel.com (Graduate level)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.2. Evolution - Lithography Definition: Device structures are formed by projection lithography using a step and repeat machine (known as a `stepper') to expose with light the chip design pattern with a mask. The stepper exposure process goes die by die or by blocks of die, but never exposing the entire wafer at once. The most important change in manufacturing has been the photolithography processing step going from visible light (750-400 nm) to ultra-violet (UV)(<400 nm) and smaller radiation wavelength sources.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.2. Evolution - Lithography The circuits designs are getting smaller to add more transistors to each chip. Therefore, the lines of the circuit are also are being reduced and manufactures have to come up with new lithography processes as they are at the limitations of visible light use. The semiconductor chips manufacturers are now making the jump from the use of "i-line" or visible light sources (365 nm) to Deep UV (248 nm) photolithography/stepper process steps. Typically, Deep UV (DUV) light 248 nm sources are used for 0.35um or smaller structure technologies.

Size Decrease Steepers Evolution to Future by Source and Wavelength:

Steeper Technology Visible "g-line" Visible "i-line" High Deep UV Deep UV (DUV) Deep UV (DUV) Extreme UV (EUV) Electron Beam Wavelength Source 436 nm 365 nm 248 nm 193 nm 157 nm 13 nm high pressure Hg lamp high pressure Hg lamp KrF Excimer laser ArF Excimer laser F2 Excimer Laser

>0.35 um <0.35 um

Deep UV Stepper

<45 nm

Image courtesy of Nikon Corp.

Source: Nikon Corporation, http://www.ave.nikon.co.jp/pec_e/products/index.htm Tree Nanoforum Education

2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.2. Evolution - Lithography Applications: Define the pattern or circuit structure in combination with photoresists, radiation sources, developers, and etching methods. The Semiconductor industry uses primarily the Positive Photoresist method. For more applications see Synthesis & Lithography section.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.2. Evolution - Lithography Images:

Schematic representation of the lithographic process.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.2. Evolution - Lithography References: 1) Global Consortium of Semiconductor Manufacturers (SEMATECH ) ­ website: www.sematech.org. (Professional level) Source: Nikon Corporation, website: http://www.ave.nikon.co.jp/pec_e/products/index.htm, (Professional level)

2)

3)

Sigma-Aldrich website ­ "Tutorial : Materials for Lithography/Nanopatterning" (University level ­ or Professional Refresher): http//www.sigma-aldrich.com

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.2. Evolution - Lithography Alternatives to Lithography Steps: Self Assembly

An IBM group is working on using polymers and heat treatment on the nanoscale to replace the photoresist and stepper light exposure step, to give pattern structures on silicon "nanopatterning". The diblock polymers used are a mixture of polystyrene (styrofoam) and polymethylmetacrylate (plexiglas or PMMA), which self-assemble on silicon. They act as oil and water tied together with chemical bonds. With heat treatment, they act as the "mask", PMMA concentrates in small cylinders surrounded on all sides by polystyrene, giving honeycomb patterns. The PMMA is later removed with a solvent leaving 20-nm wide pores which can be part of a flash-memory device. Later etching processes leave a "honeycomb" pattern in the silicon dioxide. (Scientific American, 9/2/2004)

Image courtesy of Scientific American 9/2/2004.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.2. Evolution - Lithography Alternatives to Lithography Steps: Self Assembly.

The nanocrystalline cylinders form capacitors where data are stored. (Scientific American, 9/2/2004)

Image courtesy of Scientific American 9/2/2004.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.3. Limitations (Moore's Law) The Intel co-founder, Gordon Moore predicted in 1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months.

Photo of Gordon E. Moore. Courtesy of the University of Washington, USA. Image source: http://www.cs.washington.edu/people/faculty/l azowska/faculty.lecture/chips/

Chip transistor density evolution

*Intel Pentium 8080 chip 1975 4,500 transistors

*Intel Pentium chip 1993 3.1 million transistors

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.3. Limitations (Moore's Law)

Approximately every 18 months the gate density in silicon integrated circuits is doubled, a trend described by Moore's Law. The ultimate feature size achievable (gate density) is limited by the wavelength of the radiation used to illuminate the mask during the photolithography processing step, which in turn projects the desired circuit image onto the silicon wafer. (see Lithography) Moore's Law Examples:

·1997: Pentium II: 7.5 millon transistors ·1997: 250 nm line width (Deep UV steppers) ·2000: Use for lines of 180 nm ·2002: Use for 130 nm sized structures ·2005: Intel introduces in the beta phase of EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) to produce chips with 45 nm technology which fuction at 10 GHz. ·2007 - Enter EVUL steppers into production phase.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.3. Limitations (Moore's Law) The evolution of semiconductors, increasing transistor density by die (left to right)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.3. Limitations (Moore's Law) Road to no-where The use of semiconductors as the primary material to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) has its own phyisical limitations. Typically 10x10x10=1000 nm3 of semiconductors contain one electron (e-).

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.4. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Definition: Chemical Mechanical Polishing or Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is a process that uses an abrasive, corrosive slurry to physically grind flat the microscopic topographic features on a partly processed wafer (planarization) so that subsequent processes can begin from a flat surface. Electrochemical Mechanical Polishing (ECMP) technology planarizes copper at a high rate, with a very low down force that minimizes device pattern sensitivity associated with conventional CMP.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.4. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Applications: Chemical Mechanical Polishing or Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has fast become a crucial processing step in the semiconductor industry. Special nanopowders have been developed to give a finer polish to the silicon wafer layers.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.4. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Images:

Above: Simplified CMP process diagram. Image courtesy of: Dept. Chemistry, Oregon state University. Below: Close up cross-section of CMP process, showing slurry action on pattern of Wafer.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.1. Semiconductors

3.1.4. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) References: 1) "Lab Based Unit Operations in Microelectronics Processing", (University level), Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Oregon. USA. Website: http://www.che.oregonstate.edu/ research/LBUOMEP/ Fraunhofer IPMS website: http://www.ipms.fraunhofer.de/products/ ptf/cmp_d.shtml (University level). Excellent image of actual chip crosssection, marking where CMP took place.

2)

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3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.2. Nanowires

3.2.1. Definition A nanowire is a wire of dimensions of the order of a nanometer (10 - 9 meters). They have been grown out of metals, traditional semiconductors such as silicon and gallium, and a variety of polymers. Nanowires show peculiar electrical properties due to their size. Essentially the motion of electrons can fall under the regime of ballistic transport: the electrons can travel freely from one electrode to the other. Nanowires can show peculiar shapes. Sometimes they can show noncrystalline order.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.2. Nanowires

3.2.2. Applications · · · · · Next generation of computing devices (digital computing) Chemical and biological detectors To create membranes and for gas separation and microanalysis Tunable microwave devices Biological analysis

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.2. Nanowires

3.2.3. Images

A silver wire, 50nm thick, 100nm wide and 5µm long, is connected to two superconducting reservoirs implemented by aluminium films 400nm thick. Source: Quantronics gallery http://www-drecam.cea.fr/drecam/spec/Pres/Quantro/Qsite/gallery.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.2. Nanowires

References 1) 2) 3) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. Website: http://uw.physics.wisc.edu/~himpsel/wires.html Website: http://www.eurotechnology.com/nano/

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.3. MEMS/NEMS

3.3.1. Definitions MEMS MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) are devices which contain extremely small mechanical elements. Normally they are usually integrated together with electronic processing circuitry. MEMS are manufactured with leading edge silicon wafer techniques similar to those used to manufacture semiconductor chips or microchips. NEMS As MEMS devices have shrunk down to the nanometer range ­ they are being referred to as NEMS or NanoElectroMechanical Systems. Many are related to biological applications and are called Bio-NEMS. They may actually sort different cells or molecules.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.3. MEMS/NEMS

3.3.2. Applications · · · · · · Part of electrical circuitry or other semiconductor chips. Mobile phones. Related to biological applications and are called Bio-NEMS. Sort different cells or molecules. Microfluidics and chemical testing processing market (gene chips, lab-on-achip systems, chemical sensors, flow controllers, microvalves...). Pressure sensors for automotive.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.3. MEMS/NEMS

3.3.3. Images

MEMS device ­ showing 2 gears. Image source: http://www.cre.u-bordeaux.fr/ html/lesmetiers.htm

MEMS device. Image source: http://transducers.stanford.edu/.../ aluminum.html

Bio-NEMS: A chaotic bio-molecule mixer. Image source: http://engineer.ea.ucla.edu/bulletin/ 5-02/Bio-NEMS.htm

Bio-NEMS : SEM cross section image. Image source: http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/umbmlab/index.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.3. MEMS/NEMS

References 1) 2) MEMS guide "What are MEMS", website at: http://www.memsguide.com/WhatareMEMS.htm "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.4. Electronics and optoelectronics

The evolution of the traditional semiconductor market towards the nanoscale has driven the tools sector considerably and driven a lot of research into technologies that might allow Moore´s law to progress beyond the limits to current lithographic approaches. The spectacular growth of the electronics industry over the decade has been application driven. Shrinking size and increasing complexity of integrated circuits have been part of this growth. In the core area of computer processors, continued miniaturization, and the resulting reduction in power consumption and cost, and increase in processing power, are likely to continue and nanotechnology-based processors can be expected to eventually take over from current photolithographyc technologies

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.4. Electronics and optoelectronics

3.4.1. Processors The second half of 2001 saw a flood of results that represent the first steps towards nanoscale processors. The most basic logic element, a NOT gate, was created by IBM on a single nanotube. A variety of basic circuits elements have been also created by different companies. However, the realization of commercial products are estimated to be ready in 15 years. A quite diverse set of elements may be used in nanoelectronic processors, including carbon nanotubes, non-carbon nanotubes, nanobelts, nanowires, nanofibers and various organic molecules. Self-assembly mechanism are a good approach in this field.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.4. Electronics and optoelectronics

3.4.2. Data storage Commercial products of nanotechnology in the area of computer processors are much farther off than for storage devices because of their grater complexity. We can recognize several technologies: high-volume, slow access (such as magnetic hard disks) and Low-volume, fast-access, usually volatile (such as the Dynamic random access memory (DRAM)). Somewhere in between the two are forms of memory like EEPROM and flash RAM. Molecular memory, nanotube-based memory, nanowire-based memory, etc... are going to be some of the data storage devices.

"Millipede" Courtesy IBM

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.4. Electronics and optoelectronics

References: 1) 2) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. Website: http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=903

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.5. Quantum computing

3.5.1. Definition Quantum computing relies on quantum physics by taking advantage of certain quantum physics properties of atoms or nuclei that allow them to work together as quantum bits, or qubits, to be the computer's processor and memory. By interacting with each other while being isolated from the external environment, qubits can perform certain calculations exponentially faster than conventional computers. While traditional computers encode information into bits using binary numbers, either a 0 or 1, and can only do calculations on one set of numbers at once, quantum computers encode information as a series of quantum-mechanical states The scale at which quantum effects come into play, the atomic scale, argues for a requirement for nanoscale structures. The realization of a powerful and practical quantum computer is generally believed to be a long way off.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.5. Quantum computing

3.5.2. Applications · · · · Cryptography Simulation Modelling Quantum computers (they will do tasks much easier, rendering even the strongest current encryption mechanisms vulnerable)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.5. Quantum computing

3.5.3. Images

Quantum computers could one day make silicon chips completely obsolete. Source : http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s796909.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.5. Quantum computing

References: 1) 2) 3) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. Website: http://www.cs.caltech.edu/~westside/quantum-intro.html Centre for quantum computation. Oxford University. http://www.qubit.org/

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.1. Molecular electronics Definition: Molecular electronics approach is the utilization of a molecule or group of molecules as an electronic device in a circuit. It uses molecules as wires and other components in the construction of electronic circuitry. Molecular electronics was effectively founded by Mark Ratner and Avi Aviram in 1974, when they suggested a molecular structure that could act as a diode.

Molecular electronics Source: Ken Shimizu, Ragip Pala, Jason Fabbri, Jim Jelenic http://www.stanford.edu/ group/melosh/

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.1. Molecular electronics Applications: · · · · · Sensors or detectors, fabricated by coating some type of nanowire Molecular diodes Molecular transistors Logic gates Memory circuit (molecular memory cells)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.1. Molecular electronics Images:

The conduction path in a conventional microelectronics transistor is turned on using an applied voltage at the gate electrode. Similarly, the conduction path thru a molecular switch is turned on by an applied voltage. The applied voltage is believed to cause a conformational shift which, in concert with the charging of the molecule, opens the conduction pathway. Source: Molecular electronic devices. http://www.eng.yale.edu/reedlab/research/device/mol_devices.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.1. Molecular electronics References: 1) 2) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. Website: Molecular electronic devices. http://www.eng.yale.edu/reedlab/research/device/mol_devices.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.2. Nanotubes Carbon nanotubes have unique electrical properties that make them candidates for molecular electronics, which is certainly a most promising direction in nanotechnology. Carbon nanotubes are fast, efficient and durable electronic devices. They are stronger than steel. Electronic properties of ideal carbon nanotubes depend on their diameter and chirality. However, carbon nanotubes are not perfect. Defects like pentagons, heptagons, vacancies, are found to modify drastically the electronic properties of these nano-systems. Electron spin resonance is the main method used to study the electron properties of carbon naotubes. ESR determines the electronic properties by detecting the presence of conduction electrons. These electrons tell us whether the nanotubes present are metallic or narrow band gap semiconducting. If there are no conduction electrons present, the nanotubes are mostly semiconducting, if there is a strong ESR signal, metallic nanotubes are present.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.2. Nanotubes Applications: · · · · · · Diodes Transistors Computer memory Sensors Electrodes in batteries Nanotweezers

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.2. Nanotubes Images:

When two nanotubes, one a conductor and one a semiconductor, are joined into a molecule, their junction acts like a diode, permitting electric current to flow only in one direction. Source: University of California at Berkeley

Diagram of a carbon nanotube transistor, an electronic device based on a single rolled-up sheet of carbon atoms. In figure, a carbon nanotube bridges two closely separated platinum electrodes atop a silicon surface coated with an insulating silicon oxide layer. Applying an electric field to the silicon turns on and off the flow of current across the nanotube, by controlling the movement of charge carriers onto the nanotube. Source: Courtesy Cees Dekker, Delft Institute of Technology, the Netherlands

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

3. Nanoelectronics & devices

3.6. Nanoelectric Devices

3.6.2. Nanotubes References: 1) 2) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. "Nanotubes for electronics", by Philip G. Collins and Phaedon Avouris. December 2000, Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

My table of contents: 4. Nanobiotechnologies 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Biological building blocks 4.1.2 Cells 4.1.4 Nucleic Acids 4.2.1 Proteins Active compounds in drugs 4.2.1 Micelles 4.2.4 Vesicles 4.2.3 Multilayer Films Biological and Medical research 4.3.1 Diagnostic Systems 4.3.2 Drug Delivery 4.3.3 Implantable Systems 4.3.4 Antimicrobial, antiviral and antifugal agents 4.3.5 Imaging

4.2

4.3

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

Nanotechnology has probably advanced further in the biology/medical field than in any other sector. Most advances related with "nano" are actual applications, and therefore this section is referred to as Nanobiotechnologies instead of Nanobioscience.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

Definition: Nanobiotechnology is an emerging area of scientific and technological opportunity. Nanotechnology relates with the application of nano-scaled tools to biological systems and the use of biological systems as templates in the development of nano-scale products.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

Applications: · Improved detection of cancer and HIV/AIDS by tagging biological molecules with nanometer-sized markers, avoiding in the process many drawbacks associated with organic dyes conventionally used to mark cells; Improved detection of tuberculosis with quantum dot optical biosensors. Development plans for a nanotech-based diagnostic kit to reduce the cost, time and the amount of blood required for TB tests was recently announced in India; Inexpensive miniaturized medical diagnostic devices; More effective delivery of drugs and vaccines packaged in nano-particles, allowing more precise targeting to areas of the body where medications are needed, thereby producing stronger responses with fewer side effects, possibly at lower cost;

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

·

· ·

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

Applications: · · · · The ability to repair damaged skeletal tissue using nanotech-based bone scaffolds; Better monitoring of soil and crop toxicity levels through enzyme biosensors; Improved water purification technologies; More effective clean-up of large oil spills.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.1. Biological building blocks Definition: All known living things on earth are made up of 4 basic molecular building blocks: protein, DNA, polysaccharide and lipid. In nature, two different approaches are taken to synthesize these molecules. Proteins and DNA are built in modular form with an established system of subunits, whereas lipids and polysaccharides are built by different mechanisms. As a result the proteins and nucleic acids are much more versatile, while the lipids and polysaccharides appear in fewer forms and their uses/roles are much more limited.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.1. Biological building blocks Applications: · · · · · Biomolecules as building blocks in nanoelectronic devices. Biochemical process monitoring. Environmental testing. Food processing. Drug and biochemical delivery for medicine or agriculture.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.1. Biological building blocks Images:

One lipid molecule

Protein illustration Image source: Barnet http://www.barnet.gov.uk/ community/cancer/index.p hp3

DNA illustration Image source: Kansas State Univ. http://www.ksu.edu/bchem

Polyscacharide diagram Image source: Kansas State Univ. http://www.ksu.edu/bchem

Lipid Bilayer illustration Image source: Kansas State Univ. http://www.ksu.edu/bchem

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.2. Cells Definition: Cells are the extremely small, basic units from which all living things are built up. Most cells have some common features. They can look different from each other and perform different functions. Cells that are typically 10 µm across. However, the cell parts are much smaller and are in the sub-micron size domain, with a typical size of just 5 nm. Nanoparticles are used as very small probes that would allow us to observe cellular mechanisms without introducing interferences. With the development of nanotechnology we can try to understand biological processes on the nanoscale level.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.2. Cells Applications: Some applications of nanotechnology for this part of biology are: · · Separation and purification of biological molecules and cells. Cancer therapy (for example, photodynamic cancer therapy is based on the destruction of the cancer cells by laser generated atomic oxygen, which is cytotoxic). Magnetic nanoparticles have found many applications including cell separation and probing.

·

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.2. Cells Images:

Confocal fluorescence image of tumor cells treated with HPPH-doped nanoparticles developed at UB. Image source: http://www.buffalo.edu/reporter/vol34/vol34n32/articles/PrasadRoy.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.3. Nucleic Acids Definition: The protein production chain: DNA RNA protein

All living organisms contain 4 amino acids that are the building blocks for proteins, DNA and RNA. DNA stores the genetic information, where as RNA uses the information to help the cell produce proteins. The DNA double helix is made up of repeating units called nucleotides. The four bases pairs are called A (Adenine), C (Cytosine), T (Thymine) and G (Guanine). RNA bases are the same except Uracil (U) is used instead of Thymine (T).

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.3. Nucleic Acids Images:

DNA

Double stranded Base: Thymine (T) Sugar: Deoxyribose Maintains protein-encoding information

RNA

Single stranded Base: Uracil (U) Sugar: Ribose Uses protein-encoding information

DNA illustration Image source:GlaxoSmithKline http://genetics.gsk.com/ overview.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.4. Proteins Proteins are macromolecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order. This order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene that codes for the protein. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs; and each protein has unique functions. Examples are hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.

Images of some classical proteins.(Lysozyme, Hemoglobin, Aspartate transcarbamoylase, Alpha-chymotrypsin). Source: http://chemistry.gsu.edu/glactone/PDB/Proteins/Classic/classic.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.4. Proteins Applications: · · · Numerous applications are being developed for proteins that have been engineered for specific biological or physical properties. Some nanoparticles and devices can detect proteins. Gold nanoparticles are widely used in immunohistochemistry to identify protein-protein interaction.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.1. Introduction

4.1.4. Proteins Images:

Gold nanoparticles have been used to visualize proteins. This advance could overcome obstacles in detecting individual molecules in biological tissue samples.The nanoparticle method allows 3D imaging of molecules. Source: "Nanoparticles Map Proteins" By Gabe Romain http://www.betterhumans.com/News/news.aspx?articleID=2003-09-11-3

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.1. Micelles Micelles are a class of aggregate formed by lipids or other amphiphilic molecules in an oil or aqueous environment. A micelle has two concentric spherical regions: an inner core consisting of closedpacked solvent-incompatible components and an outer shell of solventcompatible moieties. Micelles formed in an aqueous environment can have a variety of shapes which have a hydrophilic exterior and hydrophobic core. A typical length scale associated with micelles is about 2 nm.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.1. Micelles Applications: Micelles have a variety of applications which often depend on the molecules from which they are formed. · · · Physical models for more complicated biological systems. Prototype drug delivery systems or capsules for other hydrophobic molecules. Constituents of larger aggregates found in food products, cosmetics, pesticides, etc.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.1. Micelles Images:

Micelles in water. The surfactants hide the hydrophobic tails in the nuclei, leaving only the water-soluble ionic heads exposed to solution. Image source: http://www.barrettresearch.ca/teaching/liquid_crystal/LC05.htm

Micelles in oil. The surfactants hide the watersoluble ionic heads in the nuclei, leaving only the hydrophobic tails exposed to solution. Image source: http://www.pnl.gov/supercriticalfluid/tech_mic.stm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.2. Vesicles Vesicles are a particular class of aggregate formed by lipids in an aqueous environment. Closed bilayer aggregates formed by surfactants represent sophisticated models for biological membranes and have been therefore extensively investigated. Swelling of thin surfactant films in water produces large multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Vesicles can range in size from ~30 nm to microns in diameter, depending on the preparation technique and typically have a membrane thickness of between 20 and 40 Å depending on the lipids which form the membrane.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.2. Vesicles Applications: · · · Physical models for more complicated biological systems Prototype drug delivery systems Basis of nanostructures with useful electronic or photonic properties.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.2. Vesicles Images:

Vesicles Image source: http://bravo436.chem.mcgill.ca/groups/eisenberg/morphologies/

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.3. Multilayer films Definition: Monolayers and multilayers on solid substrates have been extensively studied since their initial preparation by Katherine Blodgett in the early 30s. Her experiments, together with those of Langmuir, resulted into a major discipline in surface science. Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films are a mechanically assembled array of amphiphillic molecules upon a water surface. Once the molecules are compressed to the desired organization (on an air/water interface), the film can then be transferred to a solid support. Hydrophobic substrates preferentially attract the tails of surfactants and the monolayer is transferred during immersion. On the contrary, polar substrates have better interactions with the surfactant headgroups and monolayers are transferred during raising of the plate.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.3. Multilayer films Applications: · · · · · Sensors, detectors, displays, electronic circuit components. Molecular electronic Bioelectronic devices Biomembrane research Multilayer coatings

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

4.2.3. Multilayer films Images:

A 10 x 10 nm2 field of view of a Langmuir-Blodgett (Ba-arachidate) film. Image source: http://chem.sci.gu.edu.au/spm/images/thinfilm/thinfilm.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.2. Active compounds in drugs

References: 1) 2) 3) Website: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2004-01/tca-gbr012304.php "Intermolecular and surface forces". Israelachvili, J. N. Academic, New York 1992 "Application of Solid-State 31-P NMR to the Study of Langmuir-Blodgett Films" G.E. Fanucci, C.R. Bowers, and D.R. Talham J. Am. Chem. Soc.1999,121,1088-1089.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.1. Diagnostic Systems The primary major near-term impact of micro and nanotechnology on medicine is likely to be in detection and analysis, especially the continued growth of: · · · Microarray chips Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices Combinations of Micro arrays and LOCs.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.1. Diagnostic Systems · Microarray chips

Large number of miniaturized test tubes or wells placed side by side on a plate or chip. Micro arrays = spot sizes >200 nm. Used for DNA analysis and protein detection. Limited to single chemical reaction/well ­ giving YES/NO results.

Fluorescent dyes are used to label genes and visualize gene activity. In this microarray, each dot represents a gene. Image source: http://www.csiro.au/index.asp?type=featureArticle&id=GenomicsFuture

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.1. Diagnostic Systems · Microarray chips

Images:

Microarray plate Image source: http://arrayit.com/Products/MicroarrayH/ MM384/mm384.html

Image source: http://www.pharmagenomicsonline.com/

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.1. Diagnostic Systems · Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices

- Microfabrication and electronic techniques similar to ones used in semiconductor and sensor devices, - Manipulation and characterisation of both chemicals and biochemical material. - Serial processing with complex functions integrated into a "lab" chip. - According to design ­ sequence different chemical processes and analysis steps (mixing different compounds, synthesis, LOC ­ portable unit for Protein tests. Image source: electrophoreses or chromatography). - Complete several processes with minimum http://www.chem.agilent.com/.../ 10-00/feature.html material. - Automated & eliminates human error and handling.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.1. Diagnostic Systems · Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices Images:

Lab on a Chip diagram. Image source: http://www.cfdrc.com/applications/biotechnology/

Comparison of CFD-ACE+ simulation and experiments of sample multiplexing (experimental images courtesy of Prof. Chong Ahn, U. Cincinnati) Source: http://www.cfdrc.com/applications/biotechnology/biochip.html

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.1. Diagnostic Systems · Combinations of Micro arrays and LOCs

Left: Diagram of Microarray process Image source: http://employees.csbsju.edu/hjakubowski/classes/c h331/bind/microarray.gif Above: Actual photograph of microarray chipshowing gene activity. Image source: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/.../tb02/microarrays.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.2. Drug Delivery Drug delivery is one of the areas where nanotechnology looks set to produce applications that will hit the market very soon. Nanoparticles, nanoporous materials, nanocapsules and dendrimers have biological and medical applications.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.2. Drug Delivery Applications: Drug delivery potential applications and improvements with Nanotechnology: · Targeted drug delivery ­ right time/right place/correct dosage · Increase medicine solubility in bloodstream · Resistance to gastric enzymes (limiting intravenous delivery) · Controlled release or directed medicine. · Oral; Pulmonary/Inhaled; Tranmucosal · Implantable/Injectable Polymer systems · Transdermal Application methods: 1. Micro and nano pumps and valves 2. MEMS and NEMS devices 3. Micro and Nanoneedles

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.2. Drug Delivery Images:

C Sixty in Houston develops fullerene compounds for therapeutic applications. Illustration courtesy of C Sixty

Polymeric nanoparticles as delivery system for influenza virus glycoproteins. Image source: http://www.md.ucl.ac.be/pharma/pub_farm_stat.htm

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.3. Implantable Systems There is a considerable scope in the medium term for nanoengineered prosthetics. These can be bulk materials engineered for strength and biocompatibility, or devices designed to provide missing biological functionality such as sensory information. It is already possible to plug devices into the parts of our nervous systems. The crucial factor for sensory prosthetics is scale, being able to make listening or seeing devices as small as nature does and with connections small enough to interface with the human nervous system.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.3. Implantable Systems Applications: · · · Treatments that could restore sight to the bind or hearing to the deaf. Stem cell research. Technology for devices such as future artificial hearts.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.4. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal agents Nanoparticles and nanocrystalline materials are already commercialized as antimicrobial and antifugal agents. The health care industry needs for improved protection against bacteria in the face of growing antibiotic resistance. Silver has antibiotic properties and is being used to made into crystalline nanoparticles, which increase solubility and potency. There are a development which consists of nanodroplets of oil that can destroy bacterial spores, viruses and funguses. Another potential weapon against antibiotic-resistant bacteria lies in self-assembling nanotubes made of peptides.

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.5. Imaging New developments in biochemistry and molecular biology extend some of the traditional methods to a higher sensitivity and specificity at the molecular level. Applications: · PAMAM dendrimer conjugates with paramagnetic ions are being studied for use as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Dendrimers provide multiple bonding sites, allowing many MRI contrast agent complexes. Luminescent quantum dots for imaging (recent advances in nanomaterials have produced a new class of fluorescent labels by conjugating semiconductor quantum dots with biorecognition molecules).

·

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

4.3.5. Imaging Images:

New biocompatible quantum dots are set to revolutionize biological imaging. In (a) a frog embryo has been imaged using conventional organic-dye techniques, and the signal is seen to fade in time. (b) Specially prepared quantum dots that were injected into another frog embryo at the same time fluoresce brightly for much longer. Source: Physics Web, http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/16/3/3

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

4. Nanobiotechnologies

4.3. Biological and Medical Research

References: 1) 2) "The Nanotechnology Opportunity Report", by Paul Holister, Cristina Román and Tim Harper. (Second edition) June 2001, Científica. "Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging". By Chan WC, Maxwell DJ, Gao X, Bailey RE, Han M, Nie S. Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Website: Starphama, http://www.starpharma.com Website: C Sixty, http://www.csixty.com

3) 4)

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

Acknowledgements

The tremendous amount of work accomplished for this educational "Tree" CD was largely due to the following people: · Kathleen Terryll ­

Project Manager, CMP Cientifica & Nanoforum Partner, Madrid, Spain

· Pedro Serena ­

Department of Condensed Matter Theory Professor Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC Madrid, Spain

Nanoforum Education Tree - 2004

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