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KINGS AVENUE/PARKES WAY ROUNDABOUT, CANBERRA

ASSESSMENT OF HERITAGE IMPACT

08.1245

PREPARED FOR: THE NATIONAL CAPITAL AUTHORITY

BY:

Architectural Projects Pty Ltd, Architects Studio 1, The Foundry, 181 Lawson Street, Darlington, NSW 2008 Ph: +61 (0) 2 9319 1122 Fax: +61 (0) 2 9319 1128 Email: [email protected] SEPTEMBER 2008 Version 7 gh/CM

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2. 2.1 2.2 INTRODUCTION 1

BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................................................................1 SITE LOCATION..................................................................................................................................................................1 AUTHORSHIP.....................................................................................................................................................................1 . LIMITATIONS......................................................................................................................................................................1 METHODOLOGY ..............................................................................................................................................................1 . TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................................2 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .....................................................................................................................................................3 EXTENT OF SEARCHES.....................................................................................................................................................3 . COPYRIGHT........................................................................................................................................................................3 HISTORICAL DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS OF THE PRECINCT 4 TIMELINE OF THE RUSSELL PRECINCT WITHIN THE CITY OF CANBERRA ...............................................................4 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PRECINCT ..........................................................................................................6 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 PRE EUROPEAN OCCUPATION .......................................................................................................................6 EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND RURAL OCCUPATION................................................................................6 THE FEDERAL CAPITAL COMPETITION AND THE GRIFFIN CONCEPT ......................................................8 BUILDING THE FEDERAL CAPITAL............................................................................................................... 15 POSTWAR MODIFICATIONS OF THE GRIFFIN PLAN................................................................................ 16 THE RUSSELL PRECINCT................................................................................................................................ 26 APPRECIATION OF THE GRIFFIN PLAN....................................................................................................... 27 30 33

3 3.1 4 4.1 4.2 4.3

PHYSICAL ANALYSIS CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE

DESCRIPTION OF KINGS AVENUE/PARKES WAY...................................................................................................... 30 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACT ........................................................... 33 THE AUSTRALIAN HERITAGE COUNCIL...................................................................................................................... 34 COMMONWEALTH HERITAGE CRITERIA ................................................................................................................... 34 4.3.1 4.3.2 Section 341D of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations Act: ...... 34 The Commonwealth Heritage Criteria ....................................................................................................... 34 Section 324D of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations Act........ 35 The National Heritage Criteria..................................................................................................................... 35 37

4.4

NATIONAL HERITAGE CRITERIA................................................................................................................................... 35 4.4.1 4.4.2

4.5 5 5.1

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE.................................................................................................................................... 35 ASSESSMENT OF HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE EXISTING ASSESSMENTS OF HERITAGE VALUE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS OF KINGS AVENUE/PARKES WAY ............................................................................................................................... 37 5.1.1 PARLIAMENT HOUSE VISTA......................................................................................................................... 37 RUSSELL PRECINCT HERITAGE AREA - COMMONWEALTH HERITAGE LIST........................................ 38 RUSSELL OFFICES PRECINCT - HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN .......................................................... 39 RUSSELL OFFICES PRECINCT KEY ATTRIBUTES ......................................................................................... 40 CANBERRA CENTRAL PARKLANDS HERITAGE ASSESSMENT................................................................. 40 KINGS PARK KEY ATTRIBUTES..................................................................................................................... 43 (Criterion (a))................................................................................................................................................... 44 (Criterion (b)) .................................................................................................................................................. 44 Criterion (c) ..................................................................................................................................................... 44

5.2

RUSSELL PRECINCT ASSESSMENTS OF SIGNIFICANCE............................................................................................ 38 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3

5.3

KINGS PARK ASSESSMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE .......................................................................................................... 40 5.3.1 5.3.2

5.4

ASSESSMENT OF HERITAGE VALUES FOR THE KINGS AVE PARKES WAY PRECINCT........................................ 44 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3

5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.4.7 5.4.8 5.4.9 5.5 6. 6.1 6.2

(Criterion (d)) .................................................................................................................................................. 44 (Criterion (e))................................................................................................................................................... 44 (Criterion (f)) .................................................................................................................................................. 44 . (Criterion (g)) .................................................................................................................................................. 45 (Criterion (h)) .................................................................................................................................................. 45 (Criterion (i))................................................................................................................................................... 45 . 46

KINGS AVE / PARKES WAY ROUNDABOUT STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE....................................................... 45 CONSTRAINTS & OPPORTUNITIES GENERAL ......................................................................................................................................................................... 46 CONSTRAINTS & OPPORTUNITIES ARISING FROM HERITAGE PLANNING REQUIREMENTS............................. 46 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 AUSTRALIAN HERITAGE COMMISSION ..................................................................................................... 46 HERITAGE COUNCIL OF ACT / ACT HERITAGE ACT ................................................................................ 46 NATIONAL TRUST (ACT) ............................................................................................................................... 46 RAIA REGISTER OF SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS............................................................................................ 46 ROYAL AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERS ...................................................................................... 46 NATIONAL ART DECO REGISTER................................................................................................................. 46

6.3 7.

CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES ARISING FROM THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLAN AND THE GRIFFIN LEGACY........................................................................................................................................... 46 STATEMENT OF KEY HERITAGE ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.2.1 7.1.2.5 7.1.3 7.1.4 48 HERITAGE ISSUES........................................................................................................................................... 48 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PRECINCT................................................................. 48 EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND RURAL USE............................................................................................. 48 NCA LAYER ................................................................................................................................................... 49 HERITAGE IMPACT OF THE EXISTING CONDITION.................................................................................. 49 TRAFFIC AND SERVICES CONSTRAINTS ..................................................................................................... 49 51

7.2 8. 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 9. 9.1 10.

OPPORTUNITIES ASSOCIATED WITH ANY REDEVELOPMENT OF THE ROUNDABOUT...................................... 50 IMPACT OF PROPOSAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSAL ............................................................................................................................... 51 BACKGROUND TO THE HERITAGE IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL ........................................................................... 53 RUSSELL OFFICES PRECINCT IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL ...................................................................................... 54 ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT AGAINST OFFICIAL VALUES RUSSELL PRECINCT ....................................................... 54 THE CENTRAL PARKLANDS IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL ........................................................................................ 55 KINGS PARK IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL................................................................................................................. 56 IMPACT ON THE VALUES OF THE KINGS AVE / PARKES WAY PRECINCT ........................................................... 56 CONCLUSION.................................................................................................................................................................. 57 ILLUSTRATION LISTS BIBLIOGRAPHY 58 60 HISTORIC IMAGES.......................................................................................................................................................... 58

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1. 1.1

INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND The site of Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra is currently the subject of a Heritage Assessment and Environmental Impact Statement which aims: · · · · to more precisely determine the heritage significance of the place to further inform the preparation of traffic options; to more precisely determine the constraints which limit the desirability and nature of development; to develop policy which retains and reveals the significance of the place which address statutory requirements and are achievable within procurable resources. to assess the potential impact of proposed works on the listed heritage items to determine whether the works are likely to have a significant impact on the environment and require a referral under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999 (EPBC Act). Architectural Projects were commissioned by the National Capital Authority (the NCA) to prepare this document in January 2008. While the intersection of Kings Avenue and Parkes Way lies beyond the Parliamentary Triangle and the Parliamentary Vista, Kings Avenue is important in defining the geometry of the Parliamentary Triangle. The proposed changes to the roundabout needs to be understood within the significance of the various layers of development of the site and the proposed constraints related to traffic movement and service provision.

1.2

SITE LOCATION The site of the Kings Avenue and Parkes Way roundabout forms an important node in Canberra's road network. Kings Avenue defines the eastern avenue of Griffin's National Triangle and stretches from Parliament House, north-east across Lake Burley Griffin towards the Russell Precinct, Australian-American Memorial and to the nodal intersection of Constitution Avenue of Blamey Square. Parkes Way lies within Griffin's National Triangle.

1.3

AUTHORSHIP A multi-disciplinary team consisting of heritage architects, and architectural historians, consisting of the following key members, has prepared the Assessment: Jennifer Hill ­ Architectural Projects Pty Ltd - Heritage and Urban Design Architect Elizabeth Gibson ­ Architectural Projects Pty Ltd ­ Heritage, Urban Design and Horticulturalist Craig McPherson ­ Historic Research Assistant

1.4

LIMITATIONS A time frame of 4 weeks was established for the preparation of the Report. Access was given to the site and Government records held by the NCA. No physical intervention was undertaken to prepare this report. No historical archaeological work other than the site surveys provided herein was commissioned for the report.

1.5

METHODOLOGY This document satisfies the requirements of a heritage assessment in accordance with the Environment Protection and

Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and in particular, sub-section 10.03G(1) in Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment Regulations 2003 (No.1). The Heritage Assessment is made against Commonwealth Heritage criteria (set out in sub-section 10.03A(02) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment Regulation 2003 (No. 1) and considers natural, indigenous and historic heritage values of the place.

It seeks to identify from documentary and physical evidence any historic, aesthetic, social, scientific, technological,

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indigenous, and natural values of each component within the precinct and to determine their level of representatives or rarity by comparison with other identified examples. The analysis also looks at the overall character of the adjoining area to determine the development pattern and significance of the place. The Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the methodology outlined in J. S. Kerr The Conservation Management Plan by Dr James Semple Kerr (5th Edition 2000). Assessment has been undertaken using the recognised industry standards and processes outlined in Australian ICOMOS Burra Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural

Significance (the Burra Charter) (1999), Ask First: a guide to respecting Indigenous heritage places and values (2002), and Australian Natural Heritage Charter (2002).

Information from previous studies inform the development timeline for the area and further historical analysis of the settlement patterns planning and landscape history of the precinct as a whole have informed this study. The timeline is inclusive of key events which inform an understanding of the place in terms of use or visual change, while there is some overlap with existing histories, the history deals with physical changes to the area to provide an understanding of the intention behind the realised or unrealised occupation, use and vision for the site. The history recognises the importance of Canberra, which developed originally to Griffin's Concept, and merged as a composition of City Beautiful and Garden City concepts. The development of this area in the 1960's under the NCDC is seen to be an important phase. Comparative assessment of the original drawings and historical photos and current condition was carried out to inform this study. 1.6 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS The terms fabric, place, preservation, reconstruction, restoration, adaptation and conservation used throughout this report have the meaning given them in Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (Burra Charter). (See Section 1.7) The terminology used to described building styles follows the nomenclature set out in Apperly, R., Irving, R. and Reynolds, P. A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture, 1989. In order to achieve a consistency in approach and understanding of the meaning of conservation by all those involved a standardised terminology for conservation processes and related actions should be adopted. The terminology in the

Burra Charter is a suitable basis for this. Article 1 of the Burra Charter gives the following definitions:

Place means site, area, building or other work, group of buildings or other works together with associated contents and surround. Cultural significance means aesthetic, historic, scientific or social value for past, present or future generations. Fabric means all the physical material of the place. Conservation means all the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its cultural significance. It includes maintenance and may, according to circumstance include preservation, restoration, reconstruction and adaptation and will be commonly a combination of more than one of these. Maintenance means the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and setting of a place, and it is to be distinguished from repair. Repair involves restoration and reconstruction and it should be treated accordingly. Preservation means maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and retarding deterioration. Restoration means returning the existing fabric of a place to a known earlier state by removing accretions or by

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reassembling existing components without the introduction of new material. Reconstruction means returning a place as nearly as possible to a known earlier state and is distinguished by the introduction of materials (new or old) into the fabric. This is not to be confused with either recreation or conjectural reconstruction which are outside the scope of the Burra Charter. Adaptation means modifying a place to suit propped compatible uses. Compatible use means a use which involves no change to the culturally significant fabric, changes which are substantially reversible, or changes which require a minimal impact. 1.7 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS National Capital Authority - Stuart Mackenzie, Ros Ransome, Phil Waite and Design Teams National Archives of Australia National Trust of Australia (ACT) Australian Heritage Commission ACT Heritage Council ACT Heritage Unit Departmental Environment and Water Resources Australian ICOMOS Canberra and District Historical Society Dr Peter Dowling Dianne Firth Dr Linda Young Richard Clough Peter Freeman Robert Boden James Weirick Robert Freestone Dr John Gray Ken Taylor Garreth Roberts 1.8 EXTENT OF SEARCHES Information searches have occurred in the following organisations: NCA Archives National Archives NCDC Files Australian Heritage Commission National Trust of ACT Register RAIA ACT ACT Heritage Council ACT Heritage Unit Departmental Environment and Water Resources Australian ICOMOS Canberra and District Historical Society ACT Heritage Library 1.9 COPYRIGHT This report is copyright of Architectural Projects Pty Ltd and was prepared specifically for the NCA. It shall not be used for any other purpose and shall not be transmitted in any form without the written permission of the authors.

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2. 2.1

HISTORICAL DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS OF THE PRECINCT TIMELINE OF THE RUSSELL PRECINCT WITHIN THE CITY OF CANBERRA YEAR 1825 1827 1829 1830 1830's 1830's 1833 1833 1846 1850 1859 1901 1908 1909 1910 1912 1912 1913 1913 1913 1913 1914 1914 1916 1917 1917 1918 1921 1921 1922 1923 1923 1924 1924 1925 January August November 15 April Late December MONTH TEXT Robert Campbell awarded a land grant of 4,000 acres at Limestone Plains Received permission from the governor to buy another 5,000 acres across Molonglo River The grant was made 5,000 acres Holdings to the maximum allowance of 2,560 acres Robert Campbell consolidated his holdings by purchasing some 8,000 acres Old Duntroon Dairy Building referred to in records Construction at Pialligo and was known as Limestone Cottage. Pialligo Estate later named Duntroon and Campbell lived there increasingly after the death of his wife Robert Campbell died in the gardens of Duntroon About fifty station hands, wives and children lived on the homestead block Blundell's Cottage constructed Colonies federate as states in Commonwealth of Australia Yass-Canberra district selected as site for National Capital Charles Scrivener surveys site Duntroon was earmarked for development as the Commonwealth's military college Competition Plan ­ Entry No. 29 by Walter Burley Griffin is chosen as plan for Federal Capital Resumption in the house and 370 acres Griffin Preliminary Plan ­ Canberra Federal Capital Charles Weston arrived The Federal Capital ­ Report Explanatory of the Preliminary General Plan Griffin appointed as Federal Capital Director of Design and Construction Federal Parliament House Architectural Competition ­ Brief by Walter Burley Griffin The Canberra Plan ­ The Problem (paper for British Association for the Advancement of Science) Griffin Plan showing detail of subdivision and road hierarchy Royal Commission on Federal Capital Administration, Walter Burley Griffin's Evidence

Plan of Main Axial Lines positions city on the site; establishes enduring

framework of main avenues and axial lines relating to topography Griffin's last signed plan 1918 Canberra ­ Plan of City and Environs, which will form the basis of 1925 Gazetted Plan FCAC established with six-member committee chaired by (Sir) John Sulman Federal Capital Advisory Committee of 1921­1924 build essential buildings Causeway railway bridge washed away in floods; train stops at Kingston; Griffin's railway line to Russell and city abandoned FCAC endorses Sulman's vision of a suburban `Garden City' with suburbs largely dominated by modest single storey bungalows 1,162,942 trees planted in capital, 1913-1923

Seat of Government Act; Parliament decides to protect Griffin Plan through

gazettal Griffin declines membership of FCAC, and withdraws from any further activity in Canberra Federal Capital Commission established. Has broad powers including planning, construction, maintenance and administration of capital. John Butters appointed as Chief Commissioner

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construction, maintenance and administration of capital. John Butters appointed as Chief Commissioner 1925 1928 1929­1930 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 Late 1950s 1951 1953 1954 1954 1954 1954 1955 1955 1957 1957 1957 1961 1963 1963 1964 1964 1968 1970 1974 1980 1982 1988 1988 1989 1989 1990 1997 21 January 1 July June 11 March

Griffin's 1918 Plan forms basis of 1925 Gazetted Plan, but Gazetted Plan does not include Griffin's built form or land-use intentions

Parliamentary Committee on Public Works, Walter Burley Griffin gives evidence Murdoch as Commissioner of Federal Capital Commission Twenty million trees planted in capital, 1913-45 Parliamentary Zone ­Landscape design by Lindsay Pryor, Director of Parks and Gardens Cabinet plan a 5­7 year construction program to build 3,500 houses Federal Government 10 year plan to relocate all public department headquarters Department of Works appoints Trevor Gibson as Canberra's first Town Planner Griffin's East Lake formally deleted from Gazetted Plan; decision to terminate railway at Kingston instead of extending line across North Canberra Relocation of public departments and their public servants from Melbourne Inaugural conference of the Regional and Town Planning Institute of Australia in Canberra Royal Visit Senate Select Committee established to inquire into the site for the AustralianAmerican Memorial Australian-American Memorial completed Senate Select Committee established to `inquire into and report upon the development of Canberra Report on failure of the Federal Government in providing a planning framework Calls for the establishment of single authority to oversee construction of city Select senate Committee of Inquiry ­ Tree planting Holford travelled to Canberra and completed his Observations on the Future Development of Canberra Peter Harrison prepares first plan for Canberra based on Garden City and British New Town planning models Federal Government establishes the National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) with John Overall as commissioner Inaugural Griffin Memorial Lecture (by Peter Harrison), convened by RAIA Kings and Commonwealth Avenues completed Canberra & District Historical Society leased Blundell's Farmhouse Scrivener's Dam constructed Lake Burley Griffin filled Holford's proposed Lakeside location of Parliament House rejected to Camp or Capitol Hill NCDC publishes Tomorrow's Canberra New Site decided for Parliament House Mitchell/Giurgola & Thorp Architects wins Parliament House Design competition. Design reinforces the importance of views from the roof of Parliament House. National Gallery of Australia opens

The National Capital Authority (NCA) is established under the ACT Act 1988

New Parliament House completed NCDC cease operation and first ACT Government elected. National Capital Planning Authority (NCPA) established Interim Territory Planning Authority (ITPA) established National Capital Plan came into effect. NCPA renamed National Capital Authority (NCA)

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2004 2006 2.2

8 December 30 November

The Griffin Legacy was launched. Amendment 60 to NCP ­ Constitution Avenue linking Civic to Russell

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PRECINCT 2.2.1 PRE EUROPEAN OCCUPATION 2.2.1.1 EVIDENCE OF PRE-EUROPEAN OCCUPATION A separate and concurrent assessment is being undertaken of the potential impact of the works on the indigenous and natural environmental values of the site. 2.2.2 EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND RURAL OCCUPATION

2.2.2.1 EARLY LAND GRANTS Aerial photographs taken from Canberra from the Twentieth Century show the site of Kings Avenue / Parkes Way to be largely cleared with little natural vegetation or evidence of rural occupation. The formation of Kings Avenue and Bridge, Parkes Way and further development in the area have further removed all evidence of rural occupation. Duntroon House, Old Duntroon Dairy and Blundell's Cottage remain in the greater vicinity of the site as remnants of the Duntroon Estate. The site of Parkes Way/ Kings Avenue is located on part of the historic Duntroon (Pialligo) Estate, which was the second European settlement established in the Canberra region. Several buildings located in the vicinity of the site are remnants from the Duntroon Estate and still survive today, including Duntroon House, Old Duntroon Dairy and Blundell's Cottage. No known buildings or structures are known to have been located on the site of Parkes Way/ Kings Avenue. The first European settlement at Canberra was Joshua John Moore's stock station, which was located on the north side of the Molonglo River at Acton.1 On May 3, 1825, Moore obtained permission to purchase one thousand acres of unoccupied crown lands. The land acquired by Moore included Acton, the civic centre, and the site of the university. The eastern boundary ran north and south, commencing on the north bank of the Molonglo river east of the bridge on Commonwealth Avenue. The western boundary is also a north and south line commencing on the river below the Acton bridge.2 He did not exercise this option to purchase until the 16th of December, 1826, when he wrote to the colonial secretary as follows:

The land, which I wish to purchase, is situated at Canberra on the Eastern Bank of the River, which waters the Limestone Plains, above its junction with the Murrumbidgee, adjoining the grant of Mr. Robert Campbell, Snr... my having had possession of that land from upwards of three years.3

The Duntroon Estate was formed by James Ainslie, an overseer for Sydney merchant Robert Campbell. Robert Campbell, merchant, pastoralist, politician and philanthropist, was born on 28 April 1769 at Greenock, Scotland. After some unprofitable commercial experience in Greenock, Robert at 27 went to India to join his elder brother John, a partner in the Calcutta agency house of Campbell Clarke & Co., established in 1790. In January 1798, a few months after his arrival, Robert was admitted to a partnership.4 In June, 1798, Robert Campbell arrived at Sydney, and opened a shipping agency and a branch of his firm.5 With the governor's permission he took up residence on land bought in 1798 at Dawes Point, where he had begun to build warehouses and a private wharf. Campbell was soon heavily involved in the Australian trade, having £50,000 worth of goods in its Sydney warehouses in 1804. The firm also engaged to fulfil contracts for supplies from India, mainly livestock for the Sydney and Derwent settlements.6

1 2 3 4 5 6

A Brief History of Canberra, Wright, WD, John Andrew & Co., Sydney, 1923, p21 A Brief History of Canberra, Wright, WD, John Andrew & Co., Sydney, 1923, p22 A Brief History of Canberra, Wright, WD, John Andrew & Co., Sydney, 1923, p21 Australian Dictionary of Biography - Online Edition, Campbell, Robert, 1846-1976 A Brief History of Canberra, Wright, WD, John Andrew & Co., Sydney, 1923, p23 Australian Dictionary of Biography - Online Edition, Campbell, Robert, 1846-1976

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In compensation for the loss of his ship Sydney while it was on government service, Campbell was awarded a land grant of 4,000 acres at Limestone Plains in 1825 and had his shepherd James Ainslie settle there.7 In April 1829 the grant was made 5000 acres, having been 'over-valued' in 'that remote part of the Colony'. However, Campbell realized its potential and in 1827 had received permission from the governor to buy another 5000 acres across Molonglo River. An adjacent grant of 1060 acres, authorized in December 1830, brought his holdings to the maximum allowance of 2560 acres. During the 1830s Campbell consolidated his holdings by purchasing some 8000 acres, so that by the 1840s he owned a vast amount of the land that is present day Canberra.8 Although Robert Campbell continued to live in Sydney he authorised the construction of the first substantial homestead at Pialligo in 1833. The one storey Georgian structure was known as Limestone Cottage. The cottage was situated on a small flat terrace, looking across the Molonglo River to the south-east.9 The Pialligo Estate was later named Duntroon after an ancestral castle in Scotland and Campbell lived there increasingly after the death of his wife in 1833.10 Duntroon was the focus of an ever-expanding pastoral estate, enlarged by strategic purchases of adjoining land. The property was run in accordance to Scottish farming practices, which allowed for tenant farmers to have a house and a small portion of land within the property, under the understanding that their labour would be available to the landlord.11 As such the Duntroon house was surrounded by a cluster of accommodation and service buildings for the house and estate workers. In the 1850s, about fifty station hands, wives and children lived on the homestead block. By the time of Commonwealth resumption in 1910, they occupied some ten stone and more slab houses and cottages around Duntroon House.

12

Robert's third son Charles took over management of Duntroon in 1835. Robert Campbell died in the gardens of Duntroon on the 15th of April, 1846.13 Campbell, however, left the Duntroon to his fourth son, George. George did not take up residence until his marriage in 1854 to Marrianne Close. In the meantime, Charles remained manager of Duntroon. In the early 1860s George and Marrianne embarked on major improvements to Duntroon House and to the estate infrastructure.14 Around 1876, George took his sons to school in England, where he died in 1881. Charles's son Frederick had stepped in to manage Duntroon in 1877 but, on George's death, he departed to Yarralumla. Duntroon was now managed by trustees on Marrianne's behalf. She lived there until her death in 1903, but the estate stagnated for twenty years. Her eldest son, John, still resident in England, inherited Duntroon. In 1910, Duntroon was earmarked for development as the Commonwealth's military college, the first federal institution to be established in Canberra. Even before resumption in 1912, the house and 370 acres (150 hectares) were leased directly from John. When the compulsory acquisition was enacted, he received £141,00 compensation.15 A small cottage that was built of rendered brick about 1865, immediately adjacent to the Old Duntroon Dairy building, was occupied by Elizabeth Mayo in 1912, when the Duntroon estate was resumed by the Commonwealth. The dairy is referred to in records of the late 1830s and still survives. The cottage building, however, was demolished in 1975 after a public call for information assessed the building as having `little or no architectural importance,' and was demolished in December 1975.16

7 8 9

RMC Duntroon Conservation Area, Harrison Road, Campbell, ACT, Australian Heritage Database Australian Dictionary of Biography - Online Edition, Campbell, Robert, 1846-1976 RMC Duntroon Conservation Area, Harrison Road, Campbell, ACT, Australian Heritage Database Australian Dictionary of Biography - Online Edition, Campbell, Robert, 1846-1976 Australian Heritage Database, Blundells Farmhouse, Slab Outbuildings & Surrounds, Wendouree Dr, Parkes, ACT National Capital Plan ­ Draft, National Capital Authority, February 2007, p16 A Brief History of Canberra, Wright, WD, John Andrew & Co., Sydney, 1923, p26 National Capital Plan ­ Draft, National Capital Authority, February 2007, p15 National Capital Plan ­ Draft, National Capital Authority, February 2007, p16 National Capital Plan ­ Draft, National Capital Authority, February 2007, p19

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

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The only surviving Duntroon estate cottage in the National Triangle, is Blundell's Cottage. The existing building was originally constructed in 1859, as a cottage for the head ploughman on the Duntroon Estate, William Ginn and his family.17 The Blundells were the second family to occupy the cottage, having moved in as newlyweds in 1874 and living there all their lives. George (1846-1933) was born nearby on Duntroon and worked there as a bullock-driver. He and wife Flora (1845-1917) brought up eight children in the house. When the Commonwealth acquired Duntroon estate, George Blundell took on the lease of the immediate paddocks as well as some south of the river. 18 After a short tenancy by Mr and Mrs Walton, the house subsequently became the home of Harry and Alice Oldfield. They died there, respectively in 1942 and 1958. The house was then scheduled for demolition to prepare for the building of Lake Burley Griffin in 1962. But a new consciousness of the Canberra district's history impelled the Canberra & District Historical Society to declare that the little stone cottage now amounted to a rare relic of the rural origins of the city and merited preservation. The Historical Society took on the lease of the house in 1963 and opened it as a historical museum under the name Blundell's Farmhouse, to commemorate its longest inhabitants.19 Due to financial concerns the Canberra & District Historical Society transferred management of the cottage back to the Commonwealth, National Capital Authority, in October 1999.20 2.2.2.2 EVIDENCE OF EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND RURAL USE Original woodland trees and plantings from pastoral properties dating before the development of Canberra survive in scattered locations in the parklands surrounding the lake, Some of these species include Eucalyptus blakelyi, Cedrus deodara (Governor General's Residence), Eucalyptus bridgesianna (Acton Peninsula) Pinus radiata (Yarralumla), Cupressus macrocarpa (Yarralumla and Lennox Gardens), and Silex babylonica (near Blundells' Cottage and at Molonglo Reach)." The area was scattered with farms and the Molonglo Valley comprised numerous homesteads with the flood plains supplying fertile areas suitable for farming. Evidence of the original river course, the flood plains, areas of cultivation and many rural structures were submerged beneath Lake Burley Griffin in the 1960's. 2.2.3 THE FEDERAL CAPITAL COMPETITION AND THE GRIFFIN CONCEPT

2.2.3.1 THE COMPETITION During the celebration of the new Commonwealth of Australia, a conference of professionals was held in Melbourne in May 1901 to `discuss questions relating to the laying out and building of the Federal Capital'. The Congress of Engineers, Architects, Surveyors and Others Interested in the Building of the Federal Capital of Australia, Wales, at least 100 miles from Sydney. 22 Initially the benefits of a site on Lake George (New South Wales) were expounded at length and a Sydney architect, Robert Coulter, published a romantic vision of the future capital with a jumble of classical revival monuments reflected in the water. 23 The Seat of Government Act became law on 14 December 1908 and a week later Charles Robert Scrivener, the surveyor who had made the preliminary surveys for the Department of Home Affairs, received his instructions. and westerly winds.

24 21

decided that Melbourne

would be the temporary home for the Federal Parliament and public servants until the new city was built in New South

The capital would

probably lie in an amphitheatre of hills with an outlook to the north and north-east well sheltered from both southerly

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

National Capital Plan ­ Draft, National Capital Authority, February 2007, p19 National Capital Plan ­ Draft, National Capital Authority, February 2007, p22 Lost Houses of the Molonglo Valley, Young, Dr Linda, Ginninderra Press, Canberra, 2007, p23 Australian Heritage Database, Blundell's Farmhouse, Slab Outbuildings & Surrounds, Wendouree Dr, Parkes, ACT Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 9 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 pp. 11 & 13 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 10 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 13

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He was concerned about the flood plain, up to a mile wide, running through the centre of the valley. Significantly, he picked a precise position for the city. The big question was whether the city should be north or south of the river. Two alternate sites were selected ­ Canberra and Mugga Mugga. John Sulman, a distinguished Australian architect and town planner who had a great interest in the early development of Canberra. Sulman prepared diagrams for both situations but he preferred the Canberra site because it was less exposed to the winds. 25 In a 1910 paper on the `Australia Federal Capital', Sulman describes precisely the model that was later to replace Griffin's urban vision in the minds of all other planners and ultimately on the ground in Canberra -- the city as a garden suburb.

26

Where the 1909 plans, had assumed the city would be on the Mugga Mugga site and so included only a nominal amount of land north of the river, the competition base plan was ambiguous. There was more flat land north of the river than there was south. Most competitors interpreted this to mean they could put their city on both sides of the river. It was to be a crucial misinterpretation of the Department of Home Affairs' intentions.

27

A preliminary water supply, sewerage design, railway route and sites for the powerhouse and brickworks were selected prior to selection of a design for the city. Not only had they (the Competition Committee) located the city, they appear to have planned Parliament House on Camp Hill and the departments on the nearby flat land. 28 Department of Home Affairs officers apparently saw no contradiction in taking major decisions on designing and siting buildings while preparing for a competition for the city layout. 29 In April 1911 the competition was announced and, in May 1911, a thousand copies of the conditions and descriptive material were sent to 10 cities around the world. Entries were to be submitted in Melbourne by 31 January 1912. 2.2.3.2 THE GRIFFIN CONCEPT One of the major achievements of Griffin's Canberra lies in his assembly of diverse town planning theories and practical prototypes, his integration of them into a single package, and his application of them to the unique features and nuances of a full-scale city site. Undoubtedly it is a masterwork in the City Beautiful style and the incorporation of Garden City principles. While the geometric regularity of Griffin's spider web of streets lacks the informality preferred by the advocates of Garden City Town Planning, Griffin's tenets reflect Garden City theory. The principles ­ of protection of natural features, integration of agricultural land, universal access to nature reserves and even public ownership of land ­ are true to Garden City ideals. Burnham's 1908 plan of Chicago, an obvious influence on Griffin, carried the boulevard principles of American baroque urbanism. The boulevard idea would prove to be difficult to adapt to Canberra, mainly due to the city's sparsely populated early phase of development and its lack of popularity with Australians who preferred the newly discovered pleasures of the low-density garden suburb. Griffin had designed his avenues as boulevards flanked by commercial and residential terraces. Sulman had already recorded his opinion that in Australia `the boulevard, as a public resort, with its numerous cafes, is unknown and would

30

25 26 27 28 29 30

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 28 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 29 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 15 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 18 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 21 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 26

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be unappreciated'.

31

Griffin's Canberra was therefore an inspired synthesis of city planning theories including the `City Beautiful' and `Garden City' Movements which had a number of key aspects; Geometry, Landscape Setting, Urban Setting and Transport and Connections. The National Triangle, originally conceived on the Griffin Concept for Canberra was defined by Kings Avenue, Commonwealth Ave and Constitution Avenue (Figure 2.1). The concept is generally regarded internationally as a work of excellence. The siting of the Kings Avenue and Commonwealth Avenue axis is seen to be highly sensitive to the topography. While it is acknowledged that Constitution Avenue has to deal with some significant level changes, these are not unrealistic aims for a capital city of this quality. Griffin's approach which is a combination of Beaux Arts principles overlaid with landscape terminations of the axis, was capable of achieving these level differences. A significant amount of land excavation, in the order of 9 metres, was required to achieve this. The resistance to expenditure on excavation resulted in this area being unresolved. Due to a lack of clarity in the competition brief the concept of a dual city across the lake was not discouraged. The competition survey levels were not finalized in the Russell corner. Griffin segregated the city's municipal administration function, the Civic Centre, and the marketing function, the Market Centre at Russell. These centres anchor the administrative and commercial activities of the Municipal Axis. They serve as transport interchanges and allow for expansion along the avenue.32 The eastern end of Constitution Avenue was to terminate at the General Station, the principal gateway to the city. The station, a significant public edifice of a height equivalent to an eight-storey building, was a major objective focal point for the vista along Constitution Avenue. Below the station was the Market Centre, a busy shopping and employment precinct which includes public produced markets adjacent to the main railway.33 The difficulty of building the main station and market centre in this terrain are graphically revealed in the drawings Griffin prepared for the Public Works Committee inquiry in 1916. The Department lacked the will... to deal with this corner of the triangle. The resulting blank in the city did more than displace the railway station; it killed the Municipal Axis as the main street of Canberra.34 Griffin had planned a Recreation Group to be located between Constitution Avenue and the proposed lake which would contain the nation's finest cultural institutions, spread along the waterfront in a continuous public domain.35 The NCDC motorway plan reinforced in William Holford's freeway plan of 1958 killed both the parkland setting and the use of Constitution Avenue as a primary avenue.36 Geometry Griffin's Plan of 1912 won the international competition because it embodied, above all others, a central idea in civic design which would express in the finest possible way the heart of the new nation . . . It is a theme, simple yet grand, which owes little to its historic antecedents at Versailles and Washington. The design of the Capital as Griffin conceived it was based on the major axis from Capital Hill to Mount Ainslie bisecting a triangle formed by Commonwealth, King's and Constitution Avenues containing the formal water features of Molonglo Basin. This is the central theme which placed the Griffin Plan above all others, the grand idea without which the Plan of Canberra has no meaning. This is the dramatic essay in civic design which alone distinguishes the Canberra Plan and places in the first rank of world capitals, a brilliant

31 32 33 34 35 36

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 160 Griffin Legacy, p62 Griffin Legacy, p62 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002, p141 Griffin Legacy, p60 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002, p244

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combination of mountains and lake, axis and avenue to form a composition. It embodies the heart, the brain and the spirit of the Nation.37 Perhaps, the most conspicuous features of this plan are the Beaux-Arts elements of the classical, strong, axial formalism and the use of geometric patterns as the basis of-the street system. This and the radial-concentric planning principle are characteristics of the time which are also reflected in the plans of the other competitors. Avenues and 'parkways' radiate from each of the single centres of the city. On flat land, they form patterns developed to the full circular form, or rather to a geometric approximation thereof, the hexagonal or octagonal form. In areas where limitations are set by the topography, these patterns are reduced to the basic element of the segment or the triangle. The triangle is also the basic element on which the whole city scheme is built, Griffin isolated governmental, municipal and local market functions as the most important spheres of the capital. In his spatial design, he allocated these functions to three urban centres connected by three main avenues into an equilateral triangle: Government Center, Municipal Center and Market Center. The spatial, functional and geometric elements of this scheme were set into a close relationship with the topography of the site. Griffin located the corners of the triangle in such a way that they coincided with three hills jutting out into the flood pain of the Molonglo: the Government Center with Capital Hill, the Municipal Centre with Mt. Vernon, later called City Hill, and the general area of the Market Centre with Mt. Pleasant and Mt. Russell. Griffin used these hills and the mountains of the city area as the topographical-points of reference for an elaborate system of visual axes. The Land and Water Axes, as Griffin explains, are not primarily thoroughfares, but give a connected park or garden frontage for all the important structures ... with scope for artistic embellishment, little hampered by utilitarian limitations, affording the greatest ease and comfort for observation and appreciation of the Capital'38 Having established the Land and Water Axes as the primary framework for the location of the city's most important buildings and symbolic spaces, Griffin provides a second organising framework, the National Triangle. The Triangle provides the focus for the Seat of Government and the location of the principal cultural buildings and recreation areas of the capital. Events, memorials, protests, parades, cultural expositions and the workings of parliamentary democracy ­ all take place in the Triangle and give the National Capital meaning.

39

Commonwealth, Kings and Constitution Avenues connect the nodal points of the National Triangle and are of critical significance in delineating the geometric form of Griffin's plan. They are not only the primary movement routes, but they are powerful generators of structure and urban form. Their formal expression is paramount and is to be achieved by strong avenue planting, consistent road design, special lighting and detailing. Building heights and setbacks will be planned to ensure consistency and continuity.40 The Griffins used the space of the river to treat the triangle as two, rather than three, parts. They placed the federal presence at the apex and the municipal presence on the base.

41

The Government Group would face, and be viewed from, the growing city along the Municipal Axis. The Causeway would carry the railway. 42 The `municipal avenue' Constitution Avenue was to be Canberra's main street, modelled on Chicago's Michigan Avenue, with an important plaza on the high ground at either end. 43

37 38 39 40 41 42 43

A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.226 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p. 52 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p. 54 National Capital Plan ­ Draft Amendment 53 ­ Albert Hall Precinct, National Capital Authority, February 2007, p. 10 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.74 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.107 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.74

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The program of works was Griffin's order of Functions, so fundamental to this design. It gave symbolic value to all the activities of the city, enabling them to be located appropriately in the geometry of the plan. No reading of Griffin could overlook this principle.

44

Griffin's straight shoreline revealed the plan's triangulation. Landscape Setting

45

In plans prepared subsequent to the 1912 Competition Plan the city is generally dominated by hills [not buildings], and the valleys by parks and gardens, in accordance with the Griffins' rejection of hierarchical symbols of political domination. Street vistas terminate on public buildings, views of parks, ornamental waterways, cultural centres or community places.46 A plan of the central part of the city as projected indicates main features whose general relationship may be considered as an amphitheatre, with Mount Ainslie on the north in the rear, flanked on either side by Black Mountain and Mount Pleasant, all together forming a top gallery; with slopes to the water, the auditorium; with waterway and flood basin, the arena; with southern slopes reflected in the basin, the terraced stage set with monumental Government structures sharply defined, rising tier on tier to the culminating highest forested hill of the Capitol; and with ... the purple distant mountain ranges; sun-reflecting, forming the back scene47 Public buildings are generally set in public gardens and grouped in focal spaces in the city, forming campus-style ensembles.48 Griffin's public buildings were meant to be seen above the tree belt but not much above. For the most part they consist of two lofty storeys mounted on a raised ground floor with accommodation below it. Where prominence is desired domes and spires are added.49 The buildings are arranged in long low blocks with a strong horizontal emphasis across the Land Axis. A monumental effect is achieved by arranging successive tiers of horizontal buildings one behind another on rising ground to give a pyramidal effect, but subordinated to the dominant background hills. 50 Tree-lined pedestrian promenades follow the water's edge. The balance of the lakeshores nevertheless remains overwhelmingly in favour of open space. Scenic waterside drives for recreational motoring weave in and out of the lakeside parks, crossing bridges and taking in strategic vantage points, before joining formal waterfront boulevards in the central area. 51 The way in which the plan ties in with the topography of the site, it exhibits essential differences to the development leading up to the City of Beautiful and also to the concept of Washington. In the classical tradition monumental buildings and triumphal arches or obelisks are used to frame and terminate the vistas. But in Griffin's plan this function is strongly supported or even taken over by landscape elements, such as the hills and ridges and the lake. In this way, only a few points of architectural accentuation are needed to establish a spatial design interpretation of the natural landscape. In developing the concept the test for Griffin's plan was how the natural landscape and the form-giving geometry could be reconciled. The way Griffin dealt with this issue was a major measure of his design ability.

52

The realization of Griffin's plan would have demanded extensive excavations and earthworks of significant cost. This was quite feasible as long as it was only the terrain of a garden or park which was to be revolutionized; and trees or bushes

44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.243 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.243 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p. 46 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p. 49 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p. 84 NCDC Building Height Policy, Richard, Gray, 1972, p. 9 NCDC Building Height Policy, Richard, Gray, 1972, p. 9 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p. 52 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.130

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could easily be trimmed into idealized geometric shapes. 53 The rural farmhouse Blundell's Cottage and nearby St John's Church and the Duntroon College were all existing prior to the competition scheme and had to be accommodated in any realization of the plan. The College was established in 1910, before plans had even been invited for the layout of the National Capital, and in its earlier days, the cadets had the whole of Canberra, then undeveloped, on which to exercise.54 Exotic vegetation in contrast to the open nature of the former Limestone Plains is associated with these buildings.55 Urban Setting Griffin wasn't afraid of urbanity or density and in fact that approach was immediately, and has continually been, challenged throughout Canberra's development. Successive generations of inhabitants and designers who knew little of the difference between Garden Cities and City Beautiful misread the ideal and overlaid the plans with ... the ubiquitous [in Australia] Garden City and suburban vision rather than recognising that the open spaces he designed worked with a much denser form of development to increase diversity in form and a much greater liveliness and accessibility that everyone complains that the current city lacks.56 In the 1916 plan a series of secondary avenues appeared one block either side of the primary avenues giving additional frontages for the narrow and deep (30 x 135 feet) subdivisions which characterised these areas. 57 Griffin proposed a medium-density urban city in which terraces of residential and commercial development, with narrow repetitive frontages rising to four or five storeys, were concentrated along his straight avenues. Transport and Connections Griffin visualized the principal means of transport in the city as the railway and a fast tramway service. He proposed a causeway to carry the railway across the river, and a pair of bridges to carry the tramways.59 A tram network was proposed along Commonwealth Avenue. Reference to the geological map of Canberra suggests that Griffin's selection of the Commonwealth-avenue and Kingsavenue crossings indicates an understanding of the practical requirements of bridge-building.60 The two main bridges, essential links in Griffin's plan required significant earthworks to cross the lake on a flat bridge 25 feet above the water. 61 The Griffin Concept 1915 anticipated the need for significant fill to accommodate the approach roads to the Kings Ave and Commonwealth Avenue Bridge. The significant earth works would have changed the relationship of the higher shoreline, the lake and the approach roads. Of the five bridges Griffin proposed to cross the lake, only two have been constructed.62 2.2.3.3 THE GRIFFIN PLANS The popularity of Marion Mahoney Griffin's iconic competition drawings reinforced the initial vision but inadvertently

58

53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002, p.70 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 520 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 30 Albert Hall ­ Condition Assessment and BCA Compliance Report, Eric Martin & Associates, August 2005, p. 168 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 144 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 216 Observations on the Future Development of Canberra, A.C.T., Holford, William, The Commonwealth Government, 1958, p. 5 Observations on the Future Development of Canberra, A.C.T., Holford, William, The Commonwealth Government, 1958, p. 5 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 130 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p. 168

60

61 62

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obscured other less familiar drawings and texts that record the cumulative efforts to build the actual city. Recognising that the competition design for Canberra was preliminary, significant changes were made to it as early as 1913. The `Griffin Plan' comprises more than a single plan, it is a suite of plans. Three plans represent definitive stages on the evolution of the `Griffin Plan' when it was under the creative control of the Griffins, the 1912 Competition Plan, the 1913 Preliminary Plan and the 1918 Canberra Plan of City and Environs. An important plan called the Plan of Main Axial Lines (1917) and a series of detailed subdivision plans, sometimes referred to as the "1916 Plan" were ultimately incorporated into the 1918 Plan which drew together the detailed design development of the previous six years (Figure 2.3). This is the last general plan of Canberra officially signed by Griffin. The 1918 Plan retains the key features of the original competition design. There are no further embellishment of the symbolism, rather an improvement in the Plan's capacity to be implemented.63 Modifications to the Griffin Plans Edmund Bacon in The Design of Cities describes the city as "Australia's Canberra, here flourished and continues to flourish one of the greatest urban designs ever produced."64 It has however been only partly realised on the ground. Experts differ as to the extent of alterations, but all agree that the current City is a tempered version of the original concept. This realisation, while modest in size and altered in many respects from Griffin's vision, remains an extraordinary achievement deserving recognition and protection as one of the treasures not only of Australia but also of the entire urban world. In 1916, proposals for the city railway came before the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works. Again the Department was at loggerheads with Griffin over the same issue: whether the city should be on one or both sides of the river. 65 As the scheme developed the two main bridges, essential links in Griffin's expansive plan, were problematic. The avenues on either side of the triangle were adjusted to cross the lake on a flat bridge 25 feet above the water, Each bridge had an abutment standing right in the course of the river. This required significant areas of 30 or 40 feet of fill on the southern bridgehead and excavation 10 feet. Bold, and probably expensive, civil engineering was required. Owen was to persuade the Public Works Committee that it would be unreasonably expensive.

66

The Mount Pleasant (Russell) corner proposed an irregular hexagonal place 650 feet wide surrounding the railway station sat in a small valley the plaza between the market and railway station would inevitably require major earthworks and a climb of about 50 feet from the railway platform (Figure 2.2). 67 The decision to co-locate the city's commercial centre with its municipal centre at City Hill was an extension of the committee's concern that the Griffins' plan would lead to a ribbon commercial development along Constitution Avenue. When the government effectively abandoned plans in 1924 for a rail line from Queanbeyan that was intended to run through and service the area, on the way to Yass. This also meant it would not be the location for the main railway station was not required.

68

It was in the subsequent modifications of the Plan by those who followed Griffin that the original vision began to be eroded. The Griffin Plan was officially reviewed twice. An additional review `The Holford Report' 1958 was carried out between these official studies. The first study began in 1921 by the Federal Capital Advisory Committee (FCAC). The second study began in 1964 by the National Capital Development Commission (NCDC).

63 64 65 66 67 68

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 113 Bacon, `The Design of Cities' A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.141 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.130 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.132 (Wigmore 1963, p. 88; Linge 1975, p. 28; Reid 2002, p. 159; Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Senate 1955, pp. 49,50) (v52)68)

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2.2.3.4 EVIDENCE OF THE GRIFFIN CONCEPT Kings and Constitution Avenues in association with Commonwealth Avenue, connect the nodal points of the National Triangle, and are of critical significance in delineating the geometric form of Griffin's plan. Lake Burley Griffin, Kings Avenue and Commonwealth Avenue Bridge and the earthworks associated with it realize the Griffin concept during the NCDC period of development. 2.2.4 BUILDING THE FEDERAL CAPITAL

2.2.4.1 FEDERAL CAPITAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE (FCAC) AND FCC The FCAC was set up in 1921 to advise the Minister of Home Affairs on the construction of Canberra and to review the Griffin Plan. The Committee was chaired by Sir John Sulman. The FCAC proposed that Griffin's concept of the Capital as a city of monumental buildings and ornamental works be reviewed and that it be regarded, in the early period of its existence, as a Garden Town. carrying none of the form or meaning of Griffin's design.

70 69

Denied the plan they really

believed in, the FCAC proceeded to create an entire provisional capital city placed on Griffin's 1918 road layout but

The 1925 Gazetted Plan, a result of the 1921 FCAC study, was a two dimensional version showing only the streets and containing none of the land-use, staging or three-dimensional intentions of the 1918 Plan which greatly varied from the original Griffin concept. This was a completely different settlement pattern resulting from changes in the design and siting of buildings. 71 In 1921, the Federal Capital Advisory Committee decided to have built the few essential buildings required before the Federal Parliament could be moved from Melbourne to Canberra.72 Planned by the FCAC and already under construction were the provisional Parliament House and two flanking office buildings, the Hotel Canberra, the Kurrajong Hotel, the Government Printing Office, Telopea Park School, and shopping centres in Kingston and Manuka.

73

The Albert Hall Precinct was one of the first areas to be developed by FCAC.

The first hotel, the Hotel Canberra (Hyatt Hotel) was sited on Commonwealth Avenue where Griffin's subdivision of narrow deep blocks clearly implies an urban terrace frontage. In place of Griffin's boulevard, lined with commercial and residential activity, the FCAC built loose pavilions in a huge garden... which was in line with their idea of a Garden City. 74 The FCAC explained its rejection of Griffin's terrace treatment:

The plan indicates Commonwealth and Federal Avenues are intended to be lined with shops deep with a back lane ... The Committee... recommends buildings of a semi-public character only should be allowed on these frontages, placed on sites of ample area. The lanes and secondary roads should, therefore, be eliminated.75

This was much more than a change of use; it was a completely different view of the relationship of architecture to city form. The continuity of Griffin's terraces reinforced the line of the avenue allowing emphasis to occur at terminals on the hills. It was consistent with this approach to build fine hotels with impressive facades; they would have been urban rather than suburban. The FCAC destroyed the possibility of continuity by adopting Sulman's position that every important building should be

69 70 71 72

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 152 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 175 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 153 Canberra's Early Hotels: A Pint-sized History, Purchase, Shirley (Ed), Canberra & District Historical Society Inc., 1999, p. 28 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 182 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 160 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 60

73 74 75

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isolated. Ultimately, it isolated not only important buildings but every building. Griffin's original concentration of civic, retail, commercial and residential buildings along the Municipal Axis was shaken out a very loose suburban spread.

76

The Federal Capital Commission (FCC) took over responsibility of the planning of Canberra in 1925. Chief Commissioner Sir John Butters and his fellow Commissioners, Sir John Harrison and Clarence Gorman, took control formally on 1 January 1925, 24 years after the founding of the Commonwealth.

77

The city planned by the FCAC and being built by the FCC was as much the Board's 1913 plan as it was Griffin's. On the road plan of Griffin's 1918 plan, widely separated provisional buildings and cottages began to appear. Despite the clear intent of a City Beautiful concept, the FCAC persisted in the overlay of a garden city concept on the city which was in many ways diagrammatically opposed to the Griffin Concept. 2.2.5 POSTWAR MODIFICATIONS OF THE GRIFFIN PLAN

2.2.5.1 THE 1950s Trevor Gibson, chief planner of Canberra between 1949 and 1958, did not support Griffin's geometry. This is probably due to the economic implications of the completion of the Russell Apex. After 6 unsuccessful locations were proposed for the Australian-American Memorial, Gibson was asked to suggest a siting for this very prominent marker. He picked Kings Avenue, but 656 feet south of the true corner with Constitution Avenue (Figure 2.5). The placing of a monument just a bit out of place dislocated all subsequent development. It postponed the completion of Constitution Avenue and laid the groundwork for the later large office complex that distorted the intended form and function of the triangle. The Causeway and railway station were made even more irrelevant. Rather than solve a problem, Gibson compounded the difficulty.78 2.2.5.2 AUSTRALIAN AMERICAN MEMORIAL Planned from 1948, the Australian American Memorial was constructed to acknowledge the men and women of the United States Defence Force who contributed to defending Australia in World War Two. Funding for the Memorial was sourced from public subscription and a Commonwealth Government contribution. A competition was held for the designing of the Memorial. It was won by Richard M Ure, an architect who worked for the Commonwealth Department of Works, in 1950. The sculptor for the Eagle and Sphere was Paul Beadle, whilst the civil engineering works were by Crooks & Mitchell. Menzies' Cabinet was concerned about the prominence given to American links, over Australia's historic ties to Britain. They also realized that the 40-foot high flanking walls on the Land Axis would block views to the War Memorial. A relationship with the War Memorial would have seemed appropriate but the Returned Services League expressed a view that the memorial should be sited away from the Land Axis - a question discussed in Parliament on 16 May 1950. Gibson was asked to suggest a siting for this very prominent marker. He picked Kings Avenue but 656 feet south of the true corner with Constitution Avenue.

79

The opening ceremony for the memorial was performed by Queen Elizabeth II on 16 February 1954. For a number of years after this event, the Memorial was situated virtually alone in the bushlands of the surrounding area. (Figure 2.7) On 3 November 1954, Senator John A McCallum stood in Parliament to move that 'a Senate Select Committee be appointed to inquire into and report upon the development of Canberra in relation to the original plan and subsequent modifications'.

80

Peter Harrison, a senior lecture in town planning at Sydney University and Secretary of the 1951 Federal Congress on Town and Regional Planning in Canberra, represented the Town Planning Institute.

81

76 77 78

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 160 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 177 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002, pp217-221) A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.217 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 223 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 225

79 80 81

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The Committee relied heavily on Harrison's view of the principles of Griffin's design. It became the officially accepted definition for the next 20 years...

... The design of the Capital as Griffin conceived it was based on the major axis from Capital Hill to Mount Ainslie bisecting a triangle formed by Commonwealth, King's and Constitution Avenues containing the formal water features of Molonglo Basin. This is the central theme which placed the Griffin Plan above all the others, the grand idea without which the Plan of Canberra has no meaning. ... Griffin's scheme depends on landscape architecture as a setting for the public buildings like jewels in the landscape. 82 That the importance of the `pastoral' or `garden' atmosphere of Canberra be kept before future administrations; and the tree patterns, wide streets, and particularly the policy of siting each of the important public and semi-public buildings in its own spacious parklands be recognised as important factors which must govern the future planning and development of the city. That the examination of the question of the lakes be proceeded with immediately; and that the final decision be implemented as soon as possible; but that provision of the three central basins be regarded as obligatory.83

The 1955 Senate Committee Enquiry The 1955 Senate Committee Enquiry fully supported the Griffin plan and was instrumental in supporting the completion of the lake (Figure 2.8). In response to concerns raised about traffic management of the Triangle and a proposed alternative route they were adament that this would spoil both the parkland setting and the use of Constitution Avenue as a primary avenue (Figure 2.9).84

The Senate Committee commended its fellow parliamentarians on the Public Works Committee for rejecting a road bridge on the line of the Land Axis but queried the wisdom of that Committee's recommendation for a new road connecting Kings Avenue Bridge with Constitution Avenue: "The Senate Committee is opposed in principle to the construction of any short cut main traffic route to Civic Centre across the area south of Constitution Avenue, as being in conflict with Griffin's conception for this area, which the Senate Committee wholeheartedly endorses". Griffin's writings and his preliminary plan for Canberra show that the area between Constitution Avenue and the northern stretches of the central lake should be one continuous recreation area un broken by roads, beautified by public gardens and dotted with buildings of a recreational and cultural nature; to the north would be Constitution Avenue and to the south the continuous embankments and driveway along the lake's edge. It would seem no traffic was intended within this area. The recommendation of the Public Works Committee for a lakeside road would disrupt the intended peacefulness of this area and separate the city from the lake. 85 The Senate Committee is opposed in principle to the construction of any short cut main traffic route to Civic Centre across the area south of Constitution Avenue, as being in conflict with Griffin's conception of this area, which the Senate Committee wholeheartedly endorses. Griffin's writings and his preliminary plan for Canberra show that the area between Constitution Avenue and the northern stretches of the central lake should be one continuous recreation area unbroken by roads, beautified by public gardens and dotted with buildings of a recreational and cultural nature; to the north would be Constitution Avenue and to the south the continuous embankments and driveway along the lake's edge. It would seem no traffic was intended within the area.

82 83 84 86

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 226 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 231 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p.244 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.229 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 269

85 86

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The recommendation of the Public Work Committee would mean a disruption of the peacefulness of this area and a severance of its continuous effect. The Senate Committee feels that the Public Works Committee could not have been aware of these implications of its suggestion.

87

The reports of the Federal Capital Advisory Committee do not indicate why Griffin's idea for a market centre was abandoned. 88 The committee notes that the recent siting of the Australian American Memorial near the axis provided for the market centre is in keeping with this earlier decision of the Federal Capital Advisory Committee, and leaves no inference to be drawn other than the Griffin's original suggestion for a market centre at this apex of the central triangle has now been completely abandoned. It also notes that the decision to abandon the city railway extension has naturally had an important influence on plans for the development of this area (Figure 2.10).

89

It has been stated that many of the 200 feet avenues are ornamental in purpose, rather than intended as main thoroughfares, and that, particularly where "many converge at junctions, a considerable amount of area is devoted simply to road patterns. The Chief Town Planner, Mr. Gibson, advised the Committee that in some subdivisions roads accounted for 30 per cent of the land utilized. Nevertheless, the Senate Committee is strongly opposed to any reductions in the widths of main avenues and thoroughfares as it believes these widths are in keeping -with the garden city ideal and the standards expected of a planned national capital. It is frankly unable to see any real justification for the reduction of the avenues above-mentioned, it considers the amount of land saved to be small compared to the loss of vista effect and of beauty, apart altogether from the very important utilitarian considerations of the possible traffic needs of the City generations hence. 90 The Senate Committee agrees with Mr Harrison, appointed by the Australian Planning Institute, that with relatively little expenditure, the beauty and attractiveness of the vistas could be made much more discernible from the main points, and it feels that the little effort and money involved would be amply repaid by the greater appreciation of the fundamental principles of the city's plan which would be gained by Canberra's citizens and the many tourists visiting the city. It does not believe, however, that architecture is unimportant.

91

The Kings Avenue, Constitution Avenue junction was the weak point of Griffin's central triangle and his city plan. Griffin took Capital Hill and Civic Hill as two focal points of his central triangle, and the Capital Hill Mount Ainslie axis as the bisecting line. The junction of Kings Avenue and Constitution Avenue was based on the completion of the triangle, and not on any outstanding physical feature. The siting of the Australian American Memorial, the now dominant feature of this area, a some distance along Kings Avenue vista, has served to throw the City Hill Constitution Avenue aspect completely out of focus. 92 Development in relation to the Duntroon area has already been approved and commenced and this, in itself, is sufficient justification for the immediate commencement of the King's Avenue Bridge.

93

The Senate Committee on the other hand, was strongly opposed to any short cut for traffic across what they considered Griffins intent to be; namely a pedestrian parkland. Crossings were considered by the Public Works Committee and rejected on the grounds that it would be a serious

87 88 89 90 91 92 93

Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 270 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 383 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 384 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 420 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 453 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 455 Federal Capital Advisory Committee, Senate Committee Enquiry, 1955, Resolution 265

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departure from the Griffin Plan and would create traffic difficulties in the centre of the Government Triangle. The Public Works Committee recommended as an alternative a road from the northern bridgehead on King's Avenue to a central point on Constitution Avenue, i.e., cutting off the Duntroon comer. They suggested that Griffin's lakeside boulevard should provide part of the route. 2.2.5.3 HOLFORD In the 1950s, Prime Minister Menzies invited Sir William Holford, an eminent British architect and town planner to advise on planning matters. William Holford had been guest of honour at the 1951 Town Planning conference in Canberra.94 Born in South Africa, Holford arrived in England in 1925 to study at the University of Liverpool School of Architecture. He graduated with first-class honours in 1930. He became a senior lecturer at the University of Liverpool (1933) and three years later, aged 29, was appointed to the Lever Chair of Civic Design. He held this post through the war years to 1947 and also undertook work for the Ministry of Town and Country Planning as Chief Technical Officer (1943­46) and, in 1948, became Professor of Town Planning at University College London holding this post until his retirement in 1970.

95

Two well-known examples in which Holford was involved are the office precinct surrounding St Paul's Cathedral (London) designed in 1955 and the city of Brasilia (Brazil). This design approach grew from the Beaux Arts principles of composition, adapted by the City Beautiful movement and pared down by the severity of Modernist architecture.

96

During the nine years in which he was its planning consultant, Holford's special relationship with the City (London) produced little in the way of fine building.97 What can be claimed for Holford is that he was the central actor in the process whereby effective control, exercised on professional advice, was established over redevelopment in the City.98 In a large and complicated exercise Holford's team had made use of the new floorspace calculations and had applied maximum `plot ratios', together with daylighting controls, to the entire City. This was the first public demonstration of the new techniques which were subsequently applied in London and elsewhere, and which entitle the Holden-Holford report to be described as `the definitive city centre plan in the post-war years'.

99

Yet Holford's plans were unlike those

which Abercrombie prepared for Plymouth, Hull or Edinburgh: whereas the latter were notable for the boldness of their substantive proposals, Holford tended rather to evolve his proposals out of the circumstances as they presented themselves to him.100 Between 1948 and 1951 he was planning consultant to the City of Pretoria, and from 1951 he advised various Australian federal departments and agencies upon planning matters, culminating in his appointment as consultant to the National Capital Development Commission. A knighthood for public services in the field of town planning came in 1953, and in that year he became President of the Town Planning Institute. The Town Planning Institute Presidency was the finale to Holford's performance as a master-planner of British towns. The preceding years had offered ample scope for independent consultants, whose services were much in demand by local authorities struggling to meet the demands placed upon them by the new legislation. From the mid-1950s onwards this flood of work diminished to a trickle. Though Holford would continue to advise, appear at inquiries and prepare plans of a more or less specialized nature, he would not again take the future of an entire British town in his hands. Clearly, Holford's conception of civic design is far removed from the Beaux Arts `grand manner' or its modern successors.101 Even those who admired him most acknowledge that he was not an original thinker or an innovator in his own right. It was later held that `the failures of planning are partly due to Holford's leaving the Ministry of Town and Country Planning before the machinery was operating smoothly'. Neither was Holford a direct participant in most of the technical work which was done under him. ... with the possible exception of New Town development corporations, no

94 95 96 97 98 99

Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 237 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 355 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 274 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 140 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 141 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 139 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 152 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 156

100 101

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particular idea, of which we can say he was the author.102 `the best work', Holford told his students, `is collective, anonymous, disinterred, and carried out almost as a social service'. One looks in vain in his writings for any attempt to conjure up a vision of what the product of this self-effacing civic design might be: the emphasis, again is on process. While an emphasis on method rather than form is not unique in the history of town planning, it is unusual to find it expressed, at this time, by an architect-planner in the course of a justification of design itself. The ends of civic design have unusually inspired and justified the means: in Holford's case values beyond those which he espoused before the war, nor any definite preference regarding their formal expression. It is a similar sort of puzzle to that presented by the architecture of Team Valley. The spectacle of an exhaustively comprehensive effort, leading to an indeterminate result, makes one wonder about the motive behind the effort itself. One can conclude that Holford's concerns as a planner transcended his concerns as an architect, if only on the intellectual plane of reasoned argument.103 In June 1957, only three month's after Costa's Brasilia victory, Holford travelled to Canberra. After but a fortnight, Holford returned to London and completed his Observations on the Future Development of Canberra, ACT that December.104 Holford's 1957 report largely discredited the Griffin Plan and strongly advocated Canberra as a Garden City (Figure 2.11). Holford failed to understand the `City Beautiful' principles of the design. In the report he notes, "Although the scale of the garden suburb will be transcended, individual buildings and blocks will...continue to depend upon their settings. The landscape component in the future make-up of Canberra seems almost certain to remain..." Holford also declared "I think one must assume that the architecture of the average individual buildings and groups will itself be functional and that this is the only common basis of design. Idiosyncrasy and invention is bound to lift some of them above the average; but as there is bound to be an increasing trend towards sameness in detail (which in Georgian architecture we regard as a virtue) the importance of differentiation and subtlety in the location and site-planning of streets, blocks, clusters and picturesque groups is all the more obvious". of the lake. Although he seemed to understand the geometry of the Parliamentary Triangle he was less supportive of the strict geometrical order of the layout and its proposed formal landscapes. His original sketches noted the Russell apex. Holford's proposal to loosen the geometry laid the way for the NCDC to downgrade its importance in the scheme. He introduced a new picturesque modernist landscape which is recognised today as having some value. He raised concerns with the traffic management of the Triangle and proposed an alternative consistant with that earlier proposed by Trevor Gibson. William Holford's plan of 1958 provided a new freeway solution to direct through traffic to the centre of the city. Introduced as Parkes Way, this solution killed both the parkland setting and the use of Constitution Avenue as a primary avenue.106 In carrying out his 1957 review, Holford set forth what he saw as the 'main choice' confronting authorities in the future development of the city. The question was whether Canberra would remain as 'a divided city', its two halves separated by the floodplain of the Molonglo, or whether it would become a unified metropolitan entity. Holford strongly favoured the latter alternative. As the factor that would most of all act to unify the two halves of the city, he urged the construction of the Griffins' lake and basins107. That Holford, the government's appointee and a town planner of pre-eminent status, so strongly advocated the lakes scheme ensured that the government would seriously consider his view, and it was in no small measure as a result of his advocacy that work commenced on the scheme soon afterwards.

108 105

William Holford was a supporter of some elements of the Griffin plan and was instrumental in supporting the completion

102 103 104 105 106

Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 133 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 156 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 8 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002, p244) Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls &

107

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, (Holford 1957, pp. 6-7, 10-11)

108

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.63

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In his review, Holford clearly understood the geometrical basis for the Griffin concept but did not consider it relevant to the town planning principles that were to influence Canberra. His report made the following comments "Griffin visualized the principal means of transport in the city as the railway and a fast tramway service. He proposed a causeway to carry the railway across the river, and a pair of bridges to carry the tramways, along the direct lines between the government centre and the civic and market centres". Chiefly owing to the removal of the railway station, which was to have been the magnet of the market centre, from the north to the south side of the river, except for the Commonwealthavenue bridge, has not materialized. Since the municipal and commercial centres have now coalesced at Civic, his system would not be satisfactory were it in existence. The central Molonglo basin which Griffin proposed to form between the two main crossings has also not materialized. It might have proved to be, as critics of his scheme feared more of a barrier than a link between the northern and southern parts of the city. 109 The bisector of the angle which these two lines make at Capital Hill gives Griffin his Land Axis directly towards Mt Ainslie. The base of Griffin's triangle-his Municipal Axis-represented now by Constitution-avenue, a line normal to the Land Axis intersecting the Commonwealth-avenue line at Civic Hill. At the opposite end, the intersection with the Kings-avenue line had no prominent natural feature to mark it was in fact in a hollow between two hills. Griffin's proposed railway station made use of this and provided a raison d'etre for his third centre. The absolute symmetry of Griffin's Parliamentary triangle, and of the north side of the Central Basin, is no longer feasible. In the first place, City Hill and the proposed market centre at the end of King's Avenue have never balanced. King's Avenue will take traffic which is, in general, unable to get on to Commonwealth Avenue, and is much less important as an artery. The long straight bank of the proposed Central Lake on the south side is too extensive to make symmetry of building on either side of it worth while. In these and other particulars it seems necessary to amend the formal symmetry of the Griffin plan and to retain it only for those features where it can be really effective, leaving a balanced but not symmetrical development to take its place on either side of the central axis. Further out still, a frankly picturesque treatment would be more in keeping with the beautiful background of a valley which the existing suburbs and the wider landscape of the Australian Capital Territory provide. 110 In his review, Holford also came to fasten on to what he called 'necessary amendments' to the Griffins' plan arising from defects that he saw with the plan or its realisation to that point. All of his proposed amendments impacted to some degree on the future development of Canberra. The relevant amendments to Kings Avenue include the following The Griffins' road system was not designed to cope with the speed and volume of modem traffic, especially at peak-hour. He implied, too, that the scale of the Griffins' plan and the spread-out nature of the city made automobiles indispensable for ultra-city travel. Holford recognised that the Australian War Memorial in particular had set a precedent for the kind and scale of development that would occur along the northern half of the Axis. The weakness of the Griffins' proposed Market Centre vis-a-vis City Hill, the secondary nature of Kings Avenue as a traffic artery in comparison to Commonwealth Avenue. He believed it was necessary to 'amend' -in plain terms, abandon - the formal symmetry of the Griffins' plan. In its place, he advocated a balanced treatment on either side of the Land Axis and on either side of the proposed lake, or, in effect, the Water Axis. 111

109

Observations on the Future Development of Canberra, A.C.T., Holford, William, The Commonwealth Government, Observations on the Future Development of Canberra, A.C.T., Holford, William, The Commonwealth Government, Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls &

1958, p.5

110

1958, p.6

111

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, (Holford 1957, pp. 5- 6)

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Holford took the minor naturalistic changes that had hitherto been made to the northern shore of the lake and converted it into a wholly informal shoreline. Within the Central Basin, he used the top of the low rise that had been known as Cork Hill as the basis for an island to be planted with trees -now Aspen Island that would carry the eye across to the north bank', thus helping to unify the two halves of the city. 112 Holford's criticism of the Griffins' road system as unsuitable for modem traffic led to his recommending a parkway or freeway for through-traffic that cut through the Parliament House which reinforced previous proposal by the Public Works Committee. The issue of the capacity of Constitution Avenue to handle large volumes of traffic is raised repeatedly in reports from about the mid-1950s onward, especially by Holford. Apart from the narrowness of the road, Holford and others drew attention to the large number of intersections along it which would have made it unsuitable for easy cross-city traffic flow. 113 Holford saw the Land Axis being `too long and too uneventful to register any marked impression on the beholder'. 114 The problem on the east side of the Government Triangle is to find a shorter route to Civic than the Commonwealthavenue crossing. Proposals for a central bridge on the line of Scott's Crossing were considered by the Public Works Committee and rejected on the grounds that it would be a serious departure from the Griffin Plan and would create traffic difficulties in the centre of the Government Triangle. The Public Works Committee recommended as an alternative a road from the northern bridgehead on Kings Avenue to a central point on Constitution-avenue, i.e., cutting off the Duntroon comer. They suggested that Griffin's lakeside boulevard should provide part of the route. (Figure 2.12) In May 1959, Federal Cabinet gave approval for the lake scheme to proceed (Figure 2.14). 115 In early 1961, at the NCDC's behest, Holford produced a further 'advisory' report on Canberra which dealt with the landscape of the lake surroundings. It focused on the landscape around the Central Basin, particularly on its northern side. Referring to a north-facing panoramic view painted by artist Lawrence Daws, Holford drew attention to 'the great lateral spread of the landscape and the emphatically horizontal lines in which the design has to be composed.'

116

The 1961 report indicated the desired form of planting, treatment of lake margins, roadways and architectural features. A panoramic painting by Lawrence Daws illustrated the recommendations of the report. The 1961 report proposed that the length of the north bank between the two new bridge promontories (Commonwealth and Kings Bridges) should be natura1 except for the central section around the Land Axis. Recommendations for planting included the use of the existing landscape colour on the higher ground, with Eucalypt planting being brought down from the surrounding hills through the built up areas into the parklands with light green used for the lake margins and darker conifers for boundaries and background. Autumn colour foliage plants were to be employed for formal and dramatic use. Flowering trees and shrubs were to be massed in small enclosures so as to allow the character of the natural landscape to predominate. Holford saw the band of parklands along the northern side of the lake as one of the features that tied the three formal groups together believed either had to be integrated into the landscape scheme or screened out of it. He favoured the screening option.

117

112

Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Canberra: City in a landscape, Taylor Ken, 1937, p.64 Canberra: City in a landscape, Taylor Ken, 1937, p.65 Canberra: City in a landscape, Taylor Ken, 1937, p.66 Canberra: City in a landscape, Taylor Ken, 1937, p.67 Canberra: City in a landscape, Taylor Ken, 1937, p.67

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, (Holford 1957, pp. 10-11)

113 114 115 116 117

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This was to be done by planting belts of trees along Constitution Avenue and erecting 'buildings in terraces with long, regular roofings' along its southern side. The latter suggestion eventually led to the construction of the portal buildings that later framed Anzac Parade.

118

Holford thought that Constitution Avenue still had important functions to perform as the base of the Griffins' central triangle and as the north boundary of the lakeside park. The bridge piers when viewed 'in echelon' (presumably this meant viewed obliquely from the southern lakeshore) would form a wall that would allow 'only narrow glimpses of the basin beyond.' To emphasise its role as a terminating screen at night, the deck was to be lit by a line of fluorescent tubes set in the handrails. This would have the additional effect of linking the north and south banks of the lake by a curving ribbon of light. Holford proposed a highway, undermined the lakeside park. 120 "There could be no objection to the use of the Molonglo Boulevard for this part of the route if it ran on the north instead of the south of Central Park as proposed by Griffin." The road, he said, should divide the lakeside park 'as little as possible'. He advised, therefore, that the landscaping of the park should not comprise separate strips north and south of the roadway, but should be designed as a series of zones from the lakeshore to Constitution Avenue. He favoured a generous median strip between the two carriage-ways of Parkes Way so that it could be planted with trees and shrubs to screen one carriage-way off from the other, and to lint with similar plantings either side of the road such as to form a continuous parkland belt. 121 The lakes scheme came to fruition in the early 1960s. On 10 March 1962, the Prime Minister officially opened Kings Avenue Bridge and, on 20 September the following year, the valves of the just-finished Scrivener Dam were closed to enable the lake to fill. Two months later, in November 1963, Commonwealth Avenue Bridge was completed. Integral to the development of the lake were the parks along the northern shore which Holford also advised on. Commonwealth Park and Kings Park were mainly developed in the 1960s. 122

119

British Modernism, paradoxically, was historicist in its landscape expression;123 drawing upon and re-vivifying the Eighteenth century picturesque. Believing it necessary 'to amend [its] formal symmetry', Holford dramatically revised Walter and Marion Mahoney Griffins' design in its belated execution. Holford now sought a 'frankly picturesque treatment' as, for him, it ostensibly 'would be more in keeping' with the city's 'beautiful background of hill and valley'. Consequently, instead of the precise, geometric clarity the Griffins originally envisaged for the central basins, the new lake's margins were alternatively executed with an irregular edge and cloaked with picturesque parklands. Although this result was, to a lesser degree, an economic concession to the steep topography at the lake's edge, the new lake's configuration and its parklands was, more prominently, the product of Modernism's benign landscape imagery.

124

118

Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.229 Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986 Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007,, p.68

119

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.66 (William Holford & Partners 1961, p. 18; NCDC Annual Report 1962, pp. 13-14)

120 121

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.68 (William Holford & Partners 1961, pp. 2-4, 11, 12)

122

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.69

123 124

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Although its Parliamentary nucleus was later deleted, the 1964 completion of Lake Burley Griffin and its parkland margins began the transformation of Canberra's landscape into a Modernist 'setting'. For Holford, Canberra was also to be, like Brasilia, a 'City of the Automobile'; the NCDC embarked upon an extensive motorway building program. The capital's modernist landscape would now be increasingly experienced visually through an automobile windscreen frame. Holford's expansive new lake and 'Lakeside Parliament' ambition gave impetus to the NCDC's institutional view that ' Griffin was history'. 125 Between 1958 and 1968, Holford and the NCDC had developed Australia's national capital on the basis of what Peter Harrison had defined as `the essence of Griffin' ­ the Triangle and the Land Axis. 126

2.2.5.4 NCDC The National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) ­ 1958 In 1956 the Menzies government moved to end the 29-year situation of having cabinet and parliament meet in Canberra while the public service remained largely in Melbourne, and Overall recommended accordingly that the city should have a stand-alone authority responsible for all planning, construction and development. His advice was accepted and in October 1957 the NCDC was established. The following year John Overall, MC, an architect and town planner who had worked in the firm of Stephenson & Turner in Melbourne was appointed first Commissioner of the NCDC. He graduated from Sydney Technical College, subsequently he won the NSW Board of Architects Travelling Scholarship in 1939 but the war delayed his departure overseas. He served in the Royal Australian Engineers from 1940-1942 and in the Parachute Battalion from 1943-1945. He then became chief architect of the South Australian Housing Trust and, after a time of private practice, director of architecture for the Commonwealth Department of Works. Overall was highly instrumental in the development of the Canberra we see today. Overall's skills as an administrator and leader of creative teams were recognised in 1968 when he was knighted. When he stepped down in 1972 Canberra's population was 150,000, its Y-plan of architecturally spirited decentralised centres had been established, and national institutions were being established or planned for the Triangle.

127

The NCDC undertook the planning and development of the national capital with zeal and confidence based on the successes of other major projects in Australia and around the world. Holford provided expertise in British post-war planning and brought the influence of Modernism to the design of the landscape. Commissioner Overall brought skills of rational organization and hierarchy as well as experience of public agencies involved with public housing and urban development, such as for the Melbourne Olympic Games. Confident in their planning ability and aesthetic judgements, the success of Snowy Mountains Hydro Electric project confirmed Australia's technological ability to undertake major infrastructure projects.

128

His solution was three-fold: a new town plan, budget and five year growth strategy; the completion of Griffin's central lake system and the construction of a new defence precinct at Russell, flanking the Australian-American War Memorial. The most important of these moves was the lake. When it filled in 1963 it instantly clarified the land-use pattern for central Canberra, establishing for all time the central city plan, as defined by the Parliamentary Triangle and the land and water axes. The Federal Government established the National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) on 1st July 1958 with the aims of establishing Canberra more strongly as a seat of government; to further its development as an administrative centre; to give Canberra an atmosphere and individuality worthy of the national capital; and to promote the growth of the city as `a place in which to live in comfort and dignity. The NCDC embraced Holford's proposals with the exception of

125 126 127 128

Holford, Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith, Mansell Publishing Ltd, London, 1986, p. 9 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 262 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 84 Behind the Landscape of Lake Burley Griffin: Landscape, water, politics and the national capital 1899-1964, Firth,

Dianne, University of Canberra, 2000, p.194

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a Royal Pavilion on Capital Hill. In 1959, 18 months after its establishment, the NCDC's policy was backed by the Government to introduce a structure into the Capital. Lake Burley Griffin was initiated, two bridges put to design and an entrance to the city on Northbourne Avenue were put to for site planning and design. In the 1960's, under the management of the Commonwealth, a period of intense development and expansion commenced in Canberra. The NCDC diagram is a redrawing of Holford's with modifications. East Basin is restored to the full circle; the Mount Pleasant corner is broken off to focus on a Defence precinct; 129 Commonwealth Avenue Bridge was completed in 1963 130 After a number of schemes for Canberra's lake, detailed planning of the Lake edges was begun in 1954. Lake Burley Griffin was created in 1964 by the damming of the Molonglo River by Scrivener Dam. It reached its predicted level of 556 metres in the same year. 131 The NCDC's first landscape architect, Richard Clough, explained in a 1982 article:

Before taking up the position with the Commission I had worked at Basildon New Town [in Britain] where Miss Sylvia Crowe, now Dame Sylvia, was Landscape Consultant and it was the approach that she had adopted at Basildon that was used as a model for developing the landscape character of Canberra. In its simplest terms this was to relate the urban landscape to the existing natural and man-made rural landscape in a direct manner using all the open spaces in the city to provide a unified landscape, to tie the diverse City developments together and in turn to relate this back to the landscape surroundings of the City. When, three years later, Miss Margaret Hendry joined the Commission's Landscape staff this approach was reinforced as she had also worked at Basildon. 132

In 1955 a Select Senate Committee of Inquiry urged tree planting and landscape works to be undertaken in Canberra under the direction of the National Capital Development Commission. The Commission sought guidance from landscape designers including Lord William Holford and Dame Sylvia Crowe. Holford recommended that a predominantly Australian character be retained around Lake Burley Griffin with autumn coloured foliage trees used in a dramatic way. Parliament House was to be built on the lakeside with a great forecourt. In 1968 the lakeshore location was rejected in favour of Camp Hill or Capital Hill. During the 1960s, the landscaping of the Parliamentary Triangle was modified to create more formality in Parkes Place. Holford and Partners recommendations on the landscape and plantings for the lake, were summarised by Richard Clough and John Gray in a 1964 paper on the 'Landscaping of Lake Burley Griffin', Including that the: · · · · Character of natural landscape should be maintained; Existing colour of the landscape (brown grey) should predominate but light fresh green should be used around the lake margins and darker conifers for boundaries and backgrounds; Autumn colours should be fully exploited for the formal and dramatic parts of the landscape; flowering trees and shrubs should be massed in small enclosures; and Central Axis and Kings and Commonwealth Avenues should be planted formally.

Clough and Gray reported further that the character of the existing landscape formed the basis for the designs of each area of the lake and suggested the following: ·

129 130 131 132

That the scale of the planting of open spaces should be related to the expected use; and while preserving a sense Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 252 Lake Burley Griffin Heritage Assessment Draft Report, Godden Mackay Logan, June 2007, p. 16 Parliament House Vista, Anzac Parade, Parkes, ACT, Australia, Australian Heritage Commission, 21/10/1980, p. 9 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 271

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of unify, the design should aim at creating recognisable character in specific areas been created by grouping willows and poplars along the entire lake shores.

134

133

Clough, using Holford's

recommendations and his own detailed studies, Produced planting plans for each area around the lake. Unify has

Holford's proposal to loosen the geometry laid the way for the NCDC to downgrade its importance in the scheme. This led to the removal of the Russell apex and the reinforcement of a different geometry . Elms were planted along Kings Avenue to define the axis by contrast with the proposed surrounding landscape. The trees located on the roundabout, were placed off axis to assist in defining the Kings Avenue axis when it became a roundabout rather than an underpass. In 1964, Peter Harrison, Canberra's Chief Town Planner, consulted the city's original design. He noted that the design's realisation did not depend upon `the construction of grand buildings; buildings were made important by their setting.' He concluded that Canberra was not an architectural composition but a landscape composition.135 By 1965, a number of the major elements of the 1925 Gazetted Plan were at last in place. Areas of Special National Concern, identified in 1964 included the central area, the lakeshore, hills and ridges and the main avenues and approach routes to Canberra. This concern for the integrity of the Griffin Plan was maintained by the National Capital Development Commission in its Plan. 136 Richard Clough was appointed as an architect in the Town Planning section in 1958. He had been a landscape student at University College. London and knew of both William Holford and Dame Sylvia Crowe. He worked on an NCDC committee which coordinated landscape, architectural and engineering issues. By 1962 all documentation for the northern sections of the late foreshore was complete. However, some plantings had taken place in 1958,1959 and 1961, and as well the proposals conserved some of the much earlier plantings by Pryor and Weston, and remnant plantings associated with Blundells' Cottage and Murray's Bakery.

137

By 1977 much of Commonwealth Park was established and in September Sylvia Crowe visited to review the gardens. Her comments generally reflected the desire for less hard lines by strengthening planting and increasing density yet maintaining vistas and views out.

138

The subsequent creation of an integrated parkland composed of a balance of contrasting species in both formal and informal manners relating to the larger regional context was one promoted by the National Capital Development Commission. This forms the basis of the present landscape character of the study area and is one heavily influenced by the English landscape tradition. 2.2.6 THE RUSSELL PRECINCT

139

The main point of difference between the NCDC and Holford, was the Commission's insistence on developing the Russell area as a Defence complex. To make the area accessible to traffic, it urged the construction of the Kings Avenue Bridge as a priority. Holford had said that the early construction of the bridge was not warranted, especially as he had indicated a causeway across the East Basin. Holford argued that monumental buildings north of the lake that Griffin and the Senate

133 134 135 136 137

Lake Burley Griffin Heritage Assessment Draft Report, Godden Mackay Logan, June 2007, p.20 Lake Burley Griffin Heritage Assessment Draft Report, Godden Mackay Logan, June 2007, p.21 Canberra following Griffin, Reid, Paul, 2002 Canberra following Griffin, Reid, Paul, 2002 Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls &

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.85

138

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.87

139

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.129

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Committee proposed for cultural institutions were no longer possible because of the scale of existing cottages: The existing Australian American Memorial remained the focus for the entire site. Buildings R3 and R4 (originally known as G and F) were the first two buildings to be designed.

141

140

Melbourne architects Buchan, Laird and Iluchan combined with American site consultants Skidmore, Owings and Merrill to prepare the master plan. The master plan depicts a set of block and slab buildings grouped symmetrically around the memorial. 142 By the 1990's the Government decided to demolish the "railway carriages", refurbish Buildings R3 and R4 and Buildings R1 and R2. The two new buildings were to work on the premise of a flexible open floor plan and consolidate and integrate the three Defence services. A formal agreement to redevelop the site was reached in June 1995. Construction work began on Building R1 in 1997, with Building R2 following Building R1 was occupied by mid 1998. Other buildings on site were extended and refurbished. The "railway carriages" were demolished in 1999. The concept of a security compound was abandoned, and all building foyers were upgraded to have their own security entry points. In 2002, the Russell former Canteen was converted into a child care centre. 143 The 1994 study proposed a new entrance to the national capital at the Russell apex (Figure 2.15). Russell would then become the principal entry point for visitors from Sydney, Melbourne and the airport . . . and include the train station, coach terminal and light rail terminus.

144

Opportunity arose when the Department of Defence decided in 1994 to replace most of their office buildings in the Russell group. The NCPA prepared a new Masterplan, accepting the need to cut nine metres into the hill to complete the avenue and extending Kings Avenue and Constitution Avenue through to connect at the true corner of the triangle. The Department of Defence commissioned the building designs and funded construction. It was now possible to see how this corner could revitalise Constitution Avenue and the approach from the north but there is no public or official interest in trying (Figure 2.16). 2.2.7 APPRECIATION OF THE GRIFFIN PLAN

2.2.7.1 REDISCOVERING GRIFFIN Peter Muller delivered the 1976 Walter Burley Griffin Memorial Lecture in the Academy of Science building in Canberra. Muller's talk was entitled "The esoteric nature of Griffin's design for Canberra" and in it he re-created the process by which Griffin produced his original work of art. 145 Paul Reid was Chief Architect of the newly formed National Capital Development Commission from 1975 to 1983. He took the time and trouble to understand The Griffin Plan in every detail and he became a most ardent advocate. Indeed, Reid believed the grand organic plan to be the most important new city of the Twentieth century. 146 The Reid plan was a realistic and imaginative update of the Griffin plan and should perhaps have signalled the end of the wrangling over the future development of the triangle. It discarded the notion of a vast national green park [which in any case was no longer valid with a remote Parliament House] and built instead a hierarchy of spaces at a more human

140 141 142 143 144 145 146

A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.243 Heritage Management Plan Final Report, Russell Offices, June 2006, p.7 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.275 Heritage Management Plan Final Report, Russell Offices, June 2006, p.8 A Brief History of Canberra, Watson, F, Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT, 1927, p.333 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul p. 304 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul p. 85

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scale147. The most recent major change to the Central National Area was the construction of a new Parliament House on Capital Hill. In 1974, the site of Capital Hill for Parliament House, was chosen by a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament. An Act of Parliament extended Parliamentary jurisdiction over work in the Parliamentary Triangle, henceforth known as the Parliamentary Zone. Completed in 1988, the building has resulted in a number of significant changes to the area. The relocation of the Parliament to the new building left the Old Parliament House without its original use. The construction of the building also resulted in the levelling of Camp Hill, Griffin's intended location for a Parliament House and its incorporation into the broader formal landscape of the new Federation Mall. Finally, the new Parliament House involved the construction of a large complex of buildings and extensive new landscape areas. The changes affected most of Capital Hill. The winning design, by Mitchell, Giurgola and Thorp Architects, considered the land axis of Canberra as the fundamental gesture of the City, a line around which all other design has evolved in circular and radial directions.148 2.2.7.2 NATIONAL CAPITAL PLAN 1990

Thirty years on, the National Capital Plan attempted `to respect the geometry and intent of Walter Burley Griffin's formally adopted plan of Canberra. The National Capital Plan, gazetted in 1990, proposed that Matters of National Significance respect the key elements of Walter Burley Griffin's formally adopted plan for Canberra. The Designated Areas are almost identical to the Areas of Special National Concern identified in the 1960's. The key elements of the Designated Areas, the areas of national significance, are the Central National Area, Inner Hills, Ridges and Buffers, Main Avenues and Approach Routes, and the National Capital Open Space System ­ including the bush backdrop of wooded hills framing Central Canberra. The character of the Zone reflects several major development periods. The first occurred in the 1920s with the creation of Old Parliament House and the associated gardens and formal spaces of Parkes Place. The second, from 1950 to 1970, included the construction of Lake Burley Griffin and the National Library of Australia and included a mix of deciduous and Australian species to accentuate the Land Axis and lakeshore. The third occurred in the 1980s with the construction of the High Court of Australia and National Gallery of Australia and the subtle planting of Australian species in the gallery's Sculpture Garden. The last major development, in 1988, was Parliament House. This project was the result of an international design competition and it demonstrated how architecture, landscape and art could be successfully brought together. The process of building Parliament House renewed interest in Australian design and advanced Australian craftsmanship.

149

The site of the Royal Canberra Hospital was developed as the National Museum. From 76 entries, six became finalists and a winner emerged from the Melbourne practice of Ashton Raggatt MacDougall, Robert Peck von Hartel Trethowan. The architects turned their backs on Griffin's simple geometry for West Basin of a circle and axis to City Hill:150 The national project for Acton Peninsula was the National Museum of Australia. A hastily arranged design competition was conducted in 1997.

151

Central to the scheme is the idea of a `tangled vision' engaging the axes of Burley Griffin's city plan... Instead of Burley Griffin's straight lines, these axes are imagined bent, stretched, twisted and curled, now fully in three dimensions... the axes were envisaged as meeting in a great virtual knot.152

147 148 149 150 151 152

Architecture Australia November/December 2001,pp.84-85.

Parliament House Vista, Anzac Parade, Parkes, ACT, Australia, Australian Heritage Commission, 21/10/1980, p. 10 Parliamentary Zone Review, NCA, 2000, p. 8 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul p. 338 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul p. 338 Canberra Following Griffin, Reid, Paul 2002 p. 338

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2.2.7.3

THE GRIFFIN LEGACY 2004

The Griffin Legacy was launched on the 8 December 2004. Prepared by the NCA the Griffin Legacy involved research and analysis of the main elements of Griffin's 1918 plan and identified what had been realised or reinterpreted, what had not been realised, and what is no longer relevant or is not recoverable. The document notes that a matter of national significance is to respect the geometry and intent of Walter Burley Griffin's formally adopted plan for Canberra. (Figure 2.17) The intent of the Griffin Legacy is to recover and reinforce the original plans of Griffin. Issues noted as being relevant include: The axial lines of the Plan connect the form, and thereby the life of the city, to landscape features. These act as a concerted whole for carefully framed, scenic effects. Landscape sets the identity of the city as a distinctive national place. The Land Water Axes are Griffin's principal organising lines at the centre of the National Capital. The central structure of the Griffins National Capital is provided primarily by landscape spaces. The framework of main avenues reinforces the formal qualities of the Plan, with a radial pattern of vistas cutting across. The avenues are the main divisions into which the city is plotted, the object being to concentrate traffic and travel on lines directly connecting important points, at the same time leaving interspaces that are easily accessible yet without the necessity for long cross thoroughfares and therefore free for large and varied units of subdivision to suit local needs. The Main Avenues, which connect the functional centres of the Plan, reinforce the lines of connection between the city.1 The axis of Commonwealth Avenue, the western flank of the Triangle, extends from Capital Hill for ten kilometres as a processional corridor through the Northbourne Avenue valley. In the Griffin Plan, streets are designed as more than just corridors for car traffic, they are treated in an integrated way that balances traffic requirements with pedestrian movement.2 The drawing `Canberra ­ Typical Highway, 1917' by Griffin shows the scheme for the implementation of the city's entire street network from 200 feet (sixty metres) wide main avenues with broad central mediums a to 100 feet (thirty metres) wide business streets and residential streets.3 The avenues, at sixty metres wide are generous and two to three times wider than typical main streets in other Australian cities.4 2.3 RELEVANT HISTORICAL THEMES NATIONAL Peopling Australia STATE LOCAL

Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements

Formation of the National Capital

Building, Settlements, Towns and Cities

Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and

Griffin's urban and landscape intent for Canberra Later overlay from subsequent Planning Authorities The formation of the Parliamentary Zone. Military Zone

Governing

villages Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations

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3 3.1

PHYSICAL ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION OF KINGS AVENUE/PARKES WAY The site of Kings Avenue / Parkes Way forms an important intersection in Canberra's inner city. Kings Avenue forms the eastern avenue of Griffin's National Triangle and stretches from Parliament House, north-east across Lake Burley Griffin towards the Russell Precinct, Australian-American Memorial and to the nodal intersection of Constitution Avenue (Figure 3.1). Kings Avenue is a dual two-lane road with bitumen surface. Each roadway is approximately 7 metres wide. Between the road is a wide grassed median strip approximately 15 metres wide to the south-west of Parkes Way and approximately 50 metres wide to the north-east (Figure 3.2). The approach from Parliament House towards the Russell precinct is across the Kings Avenue Bridge which is a dual carriageway bridge of concrete construction (Figure 3.3). Kings Avenue follows the topography of the land and the approach from Kings Avenue Bridge towards the intersection rises steeply and continues to incline towards the Russell Precinct. Kings Avenue is well landscaped on either side of the southern roadways approaching the Parkes Way intersection. Formal tree plantings are predominantly Elm species which date from the 1960s with natural tree species located northwest in Kings Park which predate the roundabout. Plantings on the south-east of Kings Avenue, the north-eastern approach to Russell, features carparking on either side. Extensive vistas along Kings Avenue are viewed from Parliament House and the Russell Precinct. Features such as the Kings Avenue / Parkes Way roundabout, flagpoles and tree plantings located in the median strip of Kings Avenue near Parliament House distort its axial quality and integrity of the view corridor (Figure 3.4). Parkes Way was designed in the 1950s, a later road in comparison to Kings Avenue which is part of the original Griffin design and it functions as a traffic link that directs traffic from the airport through to the city. Parkes Way lies within Griffin's National Triangle and stretches northwest from Kings Avenue across the parklands along the northern shoreline of Lake Burley Griffin and terminates at Glenloch Interchange (Figure 3.6 & Figure 3.7). South-east of the Kings Avenue intersection the road becomes Morshead Drive and heads east towards the airport. Like Kings Avenue, Parkes Way is a dual two-lane road with bitumen surface and 7 metre wide roads. Median strips feature between the roadways and taper from approximately 40 metres near the Kings Avenue intersection to approximately 20. The approach from Morshead Drive towards Kings Avenue rises with the topography of the land and subsequently falls heading along Parkes Way towards Anzac Parade and Canberra Civic. There are vast views along Parkes Avenue across Lake Burley Griffin allowing access to Constitution Avenue and Kings Avenue and towards the Park Zone. The Kings Avenue / Parkes Way intersection features a wide roundabout with 2-3 laneways providing access for traffic. The central roundabout is approximately 150 metres in diameter NW-SE and 120 metres NE-SW. The roundabout features 24 flagpoles across Kings Avenue which postdate the roundabout. The roundabout is grassed and features two landscaped strips of planting across Parkes Way dating from the 1960s. The roundabout is largely flat but falls slightly south towards Lake Burley Griffin. The Kings Avenue roundabout is located at the intersection of Kings Avenue and Parkes Way and is problematic for traffic flow heading from the central area and the parliamentary zone to the airport. The Kings Avenue roundabout is largely screened by trees from the following vantage points: · Commonwealth Square

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· · · · ·

The base of the steps of old Parliament House The top of the steps of old Parliament House The ground foyer of Parliament House The terrace of Parliament House Carillon and Blundell's Cottage

The Kings Avenue roundabout is clearly visible from the roof of Parliament House. The landscaping and flags of the Kings Avenue roundabout is not consistent with the 1960's design concept which reinforced Griffin's axis. Kings Park Like Commonwealth Park it is part of the Metropolitan Parks System within the National Triangle. Kings Park is located to the east of the Land Axis and is in practical terms bounded by Lake Burley Griffin, Kings Avenue and Parkes Way. The formal boundary of Kings Park is much further away from the current road alignments in the eastern corner. The park is a large area with dryland grasses and woodland of Australian tree species of an informal character, a zone of exotic trees closer to the lakeside, an access road, Blundells' Cottage precinct, memorials, carparking and a bridge to Aspen Island and the Carillon. As in Commonwealth Park, the tree planting reflects various former policies to give a sense of carrying the indigenous vegetation structure from the surrounding hill slopes down to the lake edge; provide a skirt of exotic trees within the plains valley landform; and to integrate with the perceived character of historic places such as Blundells' Cottage 153 The area which was to become Kings Park had been extensively cleared of its original vegetation for pastoral activity and cropping even before major earthworks were undertaken for the establishment of the lake and building of the Kings Avenue Bridge and Parkes Way which bound the site (Figure 2.4). Investigations have not located visible evidence of indigenous occupation in the area but a possible location where archaeological deposits may be found has been identified southwest of Blundells' Cottage (Navin Officer 2004, p. 4)154. Basic tree planting at the almost treeless park site occurred in the 1950s in conjunction with the planning and preparation for the lake and development of Commonwealth Park further to the west. In contrast to the rich variety of deciduous species chosen for Commonwealth Park to show off spring blossom and autumn colour, more evergreens and khakicoloured Eucalypts were chosen for Kings Park. Richard Clough was appointed NCDC Landscape Architect in 1959 and supervised the design and implementation of the Kings Park landscape. Initially Clough provided broad direction to Ray Margules who set about establishing informal stands of Eucalyptus bicostata on the higher ground of Kings Park, while otherwise retaining existing exotic plantings of elm, pine and robinia around Blundells' Cottage and copse plantations of deciduous varieties already laid out in the area by Lindsay Pryor and extending them with similar species (Burton & Clough 1990, pp. 37-40; Clough 1997, pp. 113-4).

155

.

The landscape scheme was designed to recall the scale and space of rural Australia with an open feel in lower areas, deciduous plantings of willow, elms and poplars near the lake and dense darker-coloured native plantings up the hill towards Parkes Way which was screened using informal groups of eucalypts with pine accents and under-plantings of wattles in a dryland grass landscape. The essential aim of the landscaping was that the view of Kings Park from the southern shores of the lake should be visually linked with the hills behind Russell, which were also extensively re-planted

153

Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan, Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Draft Canberra Central Parklands Heritage Assessment, Duncan Marshall et al., February 2007, p.50 Draft Canberra Central Parklands Heritage Assessment, Duncan Marshall et al., February 2007, p.50

Brendan O'Keefe, June 2007, p.30

154 155

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after their clearance during the pastoral phase of the region's history. In the lower areas long vistas of dryland grass were established between planting groups except for some aquatic herbage where a drainage channel runs from Parkes Way to the lake. The overall design was to allude to the natural landscape and provide a visual link to the background hills while at the same time creating vistas through Kings Park and from Parkes Way to the lake and Holford's proposed lakeside Parliament House. (GML 2006, p. 72; Burton & Clough 1990, p. 40). 156. There are three main associated places, or groups of associated places related to the Central Parklands. To some extent these groups overlap. The parklands are strongly associated with Lake Burley Griffin, especially the Central Basin which borders the parkland to the south and which provides many views out from the parklands. In addition, there is a wider contextual setting for the Central Parklands which includes: the Parliamentary Zone south of the Central Basin; Commonwealth and Kings Avenue Bridges, and the East and West Basins beyond; and Mount Pleasant and the woodland between it and Kings Park. There is a strong visual aspect to this association. Finally, there is an association with the other surviving elements of the Griffins' plan which exist outside the parklands. In particular, this includes the whole Parliament House Vista conservation area plus the other corners of the National Triangle at City Hill and Russell, and Constitution Avenue. There is a strong conceptual/planning aspect to this association, rather than a visual aspect, at least from within the parklands. 157. Russell Offices Precinct The Russell Offices Precinct is located at the eastern apex of the Parliamentary Triangle, Canberra, between Mount Pleasant and Parkes Way/Morshead Drive. The precinct spreads southwards down the slopes of Mount Pleasant, from the roundabout junction of Constitution and Sellheim Avenues towards Lake Burley Griffin. Buildings are arranged around the eastern vista space that extends from Kings Avenue to Sir Thomas Blamey Square and beyond the southern edges of the roundabout.

158

The American Australian Monument is located at the northern end of Blamey Square and is 200 metres from the true Kings Avenue/Constitution Avenue geometric apex of the Parliamentary Triangle (Figure 3.8). The hollow octagonal column consists of a steel framed structure clad in aluminium panels, sandblasted to a dull matt finish to give the impression of stone, and stands on a sandstone platform with sandstone steps around all four sides. The column is topped with a bronze sphere surmounted with a stylised American Eagle and Sphere. The Eagles wings are spread in a V shape, symbolic of victory. At the foot of the column is a bronze wreath, a commemorative tablet and a small plaque. The total approximate height of the Memorial is 73 metres, of which the Eagle and Sphere consist of 11 metres. Two marble faced tablets have been placed in front of the podium and either side of the axis. A small hedge surrounds three sides of the Memorial

159

Planting around Constitution Avenue and Parkes Way, and Morshead Drive, the following species are typically found: Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus cinerea, E. bicostata, E. pauciflora, E. polyanthemos, E, mannifera cedrus and Prunus.

160

156 157 158 159 160

Draft Canberra Central Parklands Heritage Assessment, Duncan Marshall et al., February 2007, p.50 Draft Canberra Central Parklands Heritage Assessment, Duncan Marshall et al., February 2007, p.27 Heritage Management Plan Final Report, Russell Offices, June 2006, p.3 Heritage Management Plan Final Report, Russell Offices, June 2006, p.19 Heritage Management Plan Final Report, Russell Offices, June 2006, p.20

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4 4.1

CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACT The Commonwealth and National and Heritage Criteria of the EPBCA regulations the heritage values of the Kings Avenue Parkes Way Precinct. Amendments to Australian heritage legislation brought into effect on 1 January 2004, have changed the way in which the Commonwealth and its agencies must manage places of heritage value. Through amendments to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC Act) 1999 and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations 2000 (the Regulations), actions which may have a significant impact on the heritage values of a place must not be undertaken without the approval from the Minister for Environment and Heritage. The EPBC Act is complex and the implications of some aspects are not entirely clear. Given this situation, and that significant penalties can apply to breaches of the Act, a cautious approach seems prudent. Two additional heritage registers have been created, the Commonwealth Heritage List and the National Heritage List. The Commonwealth Heritage List has been established to Identify and record places of heritage value owned by the Commonwealth or under Australian Government control. The National Heritage List records places of outstanding heritage value to the nation. Commonwealth Heritage places are protected under certain general provisions of the EPBC Act related to Commonwealth actions and Commonwealth land. In addition, all Commonwealth Government agencies that own or control (eg. lease or manage) heritage places are required to assist the Minister for the Environment & Water Resources and the Australian Heritage Council to identify and assess the heritage values of these places. They are required to: · · · develop a heritage strategy (Section 341ZA (3) of the EPBC Act); develop a register of places under their control that are considered to have Commonwealth Heritage values; develop a management plan to manage places on the Commonwealth Heritage List consistent with the Commonwealth Heritage Management Principles and management plan requirements prescribed in regulations to the Act (Section 341S of the EPBC Act); and · ensure the ongoing protection of the Commonwealth Heritage values of the place when selling or leasing a Commonwealth Heritage place. The EPBC Act requires approval from the Minister for the Environment &Water Resources for all actions likely to have a significant impact on matters protected under Part 3 of the Act. These include Commonwealth actions (section 28) and Commonwealth land (section 26). The Act provides that actions: · · · taken on Commonwealth land which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment will require the approval of the Minister for the Environment &Water Resources; taken outside Commonwealth land which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment on Commonwealth land, will require the approval of the Minister; and taken by the Commonwealth or its agencies which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment anywhere will require approval by the Minister. Significant impact is defined as follows: 'A 'significant impact' is an impact which is important, notable, or of consequence, having regard to it's context or intensity. Whether or not an action is likely to have a significant impact depends upon the sensitivity, value, and quality of the environment which is impacted, and upon the intensity, duration, magnitude and geographic extent of the impacts. You should consider all of these factors when determining whether an action is likely to have a significant impact on the environment.'

161

have been used to identify and assess

161

Environment Protection Biodiversity Conservation Regulation pp. 82 - 86

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The definition of 'environment' in the EPBC Act includes the heritage values of places, and this is understood to include those identified in the Commonwealth Heritage List and possibly in other authoritative heritage lists. The definition of 'action' is also important. Action includes: · · · · · a project; a development; an undertaking; an activity or series of activities; and an alteration of any of the things mentioned above.

However, a decision by a government body to grant a governmental authorisation, however described, for another person to take an action is not an action for the purposes of the Act. It is generally considered that a government authorisation entails, but is not limited to, the issuing of a license or permit under a legislative instrument. (Sections 523-4 of the EPBC Act). If a proposed action on Commonwealth land or by a Commonwealth agency is likely to have a significant impact on the environment, it is necessary to make a referral under sections 68 or 71 of the EPBC Act. The Minister is then required to decide whether or not the action needs approval under the Act, and to notify the person proposing to take the action of his or her decision. Relevant in considering the question of significant impact is including whether or not a referral should be made. It is possible to obtain an exemption from seeking approval for an action if an accredited management plan is in place. 4.2 THE AUSTRALIAN HERITAGE COUNCIL The Australian Heritage Council (formerly Australian Heritage Commission) is the principal adviser to the Australian Government on heritage matters. The Council assesses nominations for the National Heritage List, the Commonwealth Heritage List and the List of Overseas Places of Historic Significance to Australia. The Council also maintains the Register of the National Estate (RNE). The RNE is a list of natural, indigenous and historic heritage places throughout Australia. Following amendments to the Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975, the RNE was frozen on 19 February 2007, which means that no new places can be added, or removed. The RNE will continue as a statutory register until February 2012. 4.3 COMMONWEALTH HERITAGE CRITERIA 4.3.1 Section 341D of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations Act 2000, sub-regulation (2) prescribes the Commonwealth Heritage criteria for the following: a) natural heritage values of places; b) indigenous heritage values of places; c) historic heritage values of places. 4.3.2 The Commonwealth Heritage Criteria for a place are any or all of the following:

a) the place has significant heritage value because of the place's importance in the course, or pattern, of Australia's natural or cultural history; b) the place has significant heritage value because of the place's possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural or cultural history; c) the place has significant heritage values because of the place's potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural or cultural history; d) the place has significant heritage value because of the place's importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of: i) ii) a class of Australia's natural or cultural places; or a class of Australia's natural or cultural environments;

e) the place has significant heritage value because of the place's importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic

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characteristics valued by a community or cultural group; f) the place has significant heritage value because of the place's importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period; g) the place has significant heritage value because of the place's strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons; h) the place has significant value because of the place's special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance to Australia's natural or cultural history; i) the place has significant heritage value because of the place's importance as part of indigenous tradition.

The cultural aspect of a criterion means the indigenous cultural aspect, the non-indigenous cultural aspect, or both. 4.4 NATIONAL HERITAGE CRITERIA 4.4.1 Section 324D of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations Act 2000162, subregulation (2) prescribes the National Heritage Criteria for the following: a) natural heritage values of places; b) indigenous heritage values of places; c) historic heritage values of places. 4.4.2 The National Heritage Criteria for a place are any or all of the following:

a) The place has outstanding significant heritage value to the nation because of the place's importance in the course, or pattern, of Australia's natural or cultural history; b) The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place's possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural or cultural history; c) The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place's potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural or cultural history; c) The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place's importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of: i) ii) A class of Australia's natural or cultural places; or A class of Australia's natural or cultural environments;

d) The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place's importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics valued by a community or cultural group; e) The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place's importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period; f) The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place's strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons; g) The place has outstanding value to the nation because of the place's special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance to Australia's natural or cultural history; h) The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place's importance as part of indigenous tradition. The cultural aspect of a criterion means the indigenous cultural aspect, the non-indigenous cultural aspect, or both. 4.5 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE A statement of cultural significance is a declaration of the value and importance given to a place or item, by the community. It acknowledges the concept of a place or item having an intrinsic value which is separate from its economic value.

162

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While a place can be assessed against criteria for its heritage value, this may not always be sufficient to determine whether it is worthy of inclusion on a particular heritage list. To reach the threshold for the National Heritage List, a place must have `outstanding' heritage value. This means that it must be important to the nation, that is, to the Australian community as a whole. Whether a place has `outstanding' heritage values, can only be considered by comparing the nominated place to other similar types of places. This allows the Council to determine if one place is `more' or `less' significant compared to other similar places, or if it is unique. The degree of significance can also relate to the geographic area, for instance, the extent of a place's significance locally, regionally, nationally or internationally. Thresholds for the Commonwealth Heritage List and the Register of the National Estate will be different to those used for the National Heritage List, as most of the places on these lists may be of only local or state-level significance. To be entered on these lists, a place must have `significant' heritage value.

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5 5.1

ASSESSMENT OF HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE EXISTING ASSESSMENTS OF HERITAGE VALUE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS OF KINGS AVENUE/PARKES WAY 5.1.1 PARLIAMENT HOUSE VISTA163 Register of National Estate Listing The Parliament House Vista is the central designed landscape of Canberra, that expresses the core of the Walter Burley Griffin design vision for Canberra. It is highly significant for its symbolic representation of the democratic interchange between the people and their elected representatives and its use of the natural landforms to generate a strong planning geometry. It expresses a masterly synthesis and ordering of topographical features and administrative functions to meet the needs of a national capital. The vista landscape embraces the central land axis and part of the water axis and most of the Parliamentary Triangle including the area known as the Parliamentary Zone. The significance incorporates Walter Burley Griffin's vision for the area, as the focus of Commonwealth parliamentary and governmental activity as well as national cultural life. This vision has been partly realised and the place is the setting for major, government, judicial and cultural institutions. The northern extent of the vista of Anzac Parade and the Australian War Memorial, despite differing from the original plan, are significant for memorial purposes developed in response to the needs of the people. Despite being modified to a lesser degree to accommodate the impact of wars on Australians, the Vista now presents as a philosophical concept expressed in urban planning, landscape and architecture, to achieve a grand vision of a symbolic, unified and visually dramatic place. The Parliament House Vista incorporating the central national area, is the core of the most ambitious and most successful example of twentieth century urban planning in Australia. It is important for its design pattern with large landscape and waterscape spaces with their tree-framed avenues and at the lake by bridges, the terminal vista features of the Australian War Memorial and Mount Ainslie at the northern end and Parliament House at the southern end, with the Carillon and Captain Cook Jet creating balanced vertical features in the water plane. The spatial setting of the buildings as features in the landscape reflects Beaux Arts planning concepts and the building masses and their careful location complement the significance of the overall landscape pattern. Avenues of trees along the terraces, roads and pathways of deciduous, pine, and eucalypt species provide colour, character, and contrast, emphasising the significance of the formal symmetrical design. Lombardy Poplars in groups of four, form sentinels at key locations. The vista landscape is significant for its richness of features. Many places in the Vista area have individual heritage significance for their architectural design and historic importance. Within the area are important parklands and gardens enhancing the significance of the landscape setting. The Central National Area of Canberra is strongly associated with the history of politics and government in Australia and the development of Canberra as the Australian National Capital. It is significant as the home of the Commonwealth Parliament, the focus of the Federal Government since 1927, initially in the Old Parliament House and from 1988 in the new Parliament House. The various government buildings in the area reinforce the association with Australian government and political history. The central national area has strong links with the planning and development of Canberra as the Australian Capital. The relocation of Parliament to Canberra and the central national area in 1927 was the focus of an intense period of development of the new city and gave purpose to Canberra as the Nation's Capital. Over time this association has been reinforced by the construction of major government buildings in the area. The area as intended has become the focus of Commonwealth parliamentary and governmental activity as well as, to some extent, national cultural life. The area has strong and special associations with the broad Australian community because of its social values as a symbol of Australia and Federal Government. The values have developed over many years since Canberra's creation and the relocation of the Parliament in 1927 gave them a special focus. The special association is reflected in the use of the area

163

Parliament House Vista, Anzac Parade, Parkes, ACT, Australia, Australian Heritage Commission, 21/10/1980

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Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

as the location for national memorials, the number of tourists who have and continue to visit the area, the media portrayal of Canberra and federal politics and the continuing use of the area as the venue for occasional ceremonies and political protests by sections of the community. Memorial features include sculptures, plaques, commemorative trees, water features and gardens. The landscape spaces are important for social activities of visitors and Canberra residents and these include Canberra festivals, water events, national events and parades such as Anzac Day Parade and the Dawn Service, and other commemorative services. The place has high aesthetic significance due to the visual impact of the extensive open sweeping vista along the land axis that can be experienced in two directions, the designed axes set within natural features of forested hills, patterns and textures of architectural massing accentuated by planned open spaces, water planes and tree plantings that are arranged across the area. The vista is significant for its visual drama with its ability to engage viewers in the visual perspective of the sweeping vista to the terminal features. The aesthetic significance is also a result of the large scale qualities of the axes, including the open green spaces, combined with patterns and symmetrical characteristics of the road networks and numerous designed smaller attributes. These include the rose gardens, the Old Parliament House Gardens, Commonwealth Park, the street tree plantings, the lake-land interface and the Sculpture Garden of the National Gallery, and many intimate spaces rich in texture, colour, fragrance and in some cases, art works and water features. The central national area has a special association with its designer, Walter Burley Griffin. Griffin is an important figure in Australia's cultural history for his overall design of Canberra as the Nation's Capital. The special association between the central national area and Griffin results from the area being the centrepiece of the planning geometry for Canberra and perhaps the only part of his Canberra plan to survive relatively intact. The area has a strong association with Marion Mahoney Griffin who prepared the perspective drawings of the Vista. The Vista area has a strong association with numerous architects and planners, in particular John Smith Murdoch, Chief architect of the Commonwealth Government, and Thomas Charles Weston, Superintendent of Parks, Gardens and Afforestation in Canberra, and notable planners of the National Capital Development Commission such as Sir John Overall, Peter Harrison and Paul Reid. Kings Avenue (Federal Avenue) is significant as one of the sides of the National Triangle, originally conceived as part of Griffin's Concept for Canberra . It was envisaged at that time as an avenue in which the central axis remained clear of vegetation. Tree planting has occurred along the axis at various stages. Kings Avenue reads as a lesser road to that of Anzac Parade, which marks the central axis of the National Triangle. Griffin proposed a promenade or Plaisance, which is the opposite of the existing Parkes Way situation. 5.2 RUSSELL PRECINCT ASSESSMENTS OF SIGNIFICANCE 5.2.1 RUSSELL PRECINCT HERITAGE AREA - COMMONWEALTH HERITAGE LIST Russell Precinct as a Defence campus, is a refined urban landscape of a grand scale, designed for visual articulation of the highly significant eastern apex of Canberra's Parliamentary Triangle and to give visual prominence to the Defence component of the Federal Government. The vista and its terminus is a significant component of the Walter Burley Griffin Canberra Plan concept and his 1918 Canberra Plan. It includes the significant spaces, of Kings Avenue, Kings Avenue Bridge across the round-about to Blamey Square and to the focal feature of the Australian - American Memorial column. The Russell apex and the vista terminal spaces are articulated by the enclosing composition of Buildings R3 and R4 and their expression in classical styles and forms with high quality exterior fabric finishes. The Russell apex is reinforced by the scale form and location of Buildings R1 and R2 and new road alignments that accentuate this element of Canberra's landscape geometry. (Criterion F1) Australian Historic Theme 8.10.4 Designing and Building Fine Works. Within the eastern area of the precinct, the building R8 has design importance for its exterior, being the recipient of the Canberra Medallion by the RAIA in 1971. The former Russell Offices Canteen set on a podium in an open space area, is an individual small-scale square building, with extensive eaves, glazed walls and a copper spire atop a pyramidal roof. It provides a minor stylised focal feature of the eastern area (although this value has been compromised to a small degree, by recent alterations and additions including the security fence and the location of the equipment store). (Criterion F1) Australian Historic Theme 8.10.4 Designing and Building Fine Works.

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The precinct has aesthetic significance as a well-balanced spatial arrangement of geometric forms and spaces, within which the Australian-American Memorial, a grand obelisk shape rising from the open spaces, forms the imposing terminal feature of the Kings Avenue vista. Buildings R3, R4, and to a lesser degree R1 and R2, by their classical form and scale, contribute to the aesthetic quality by their visual enclosure of the Kings Avenue vista and contrasting form with the obelisk memorial. The informally grouped eucalypt and pine plantings between Parkes Way, Morshead Drive and Constitution Avenue contribute to the aesthetic value of the precinct by providing a canopy foreground, framework and enclosure.(Criterion E 1) Russell Precinct is significant through its continued occupation by the Defence force, and the work that has been undertaken there, particularly the management of Australia's involvement in the Vietnam and Gulf War and general defence matters. The Precinct has a focus as the Defence nucleus of the nation with its offices, war memorials and its locational relationship to other Defence and memorial features such Duntroon Royal Military College, the Australian Defence Force Academy, the Australian War Memorial, and the Campbell Park Offices. The foyers of buildings R3 and R4 have historic importance as intact period interiors. The underground tunnel linking R3 and R4 is also of significance, demonstrating the high-level security measures that were and continue to be exercised at the site. The Russell Canteen is one of a small group of government cafeterias that reflect the need for these services at their time of construction, in isolated complexes of offices, and their use of high quality materials and the creative architectural expression to make them a human scale feature for social interaction. (Criterion A4) Australian Historic Theme: 4.3 Developing Institutions, 7.7. 1 Providing for the Common Defence, 8.8 Remembering the Fallen Buildings R3 and R4 are important as examples of late Twentieth Century office architecture of the stripped classical style, with a high degree of original fabric particularly in their intact original public foyer areas and R 8 is an example of the late Structuralist style. The Australian - American Memorial is a high quality, distinctive obelisk sculpture and the most impressive of its kind in Canberra. The Russell Canteen is an example of the post war International Style and is one of a few remaining government cafeterias of the 1960s in Canberra. (Criterion D2) Australian Historic Theme: 8.10.4 Designing and Building Fine Buildings Russell Precinct, and particularly the American - Australian, and Australian - Netherlands Memorials have clear significance on a social level, due to their reflection of strong association between Australian and American communities, and Australian and the Dutch communities. A large percentage of the funding for the two Memorials came from public donation, reflecting the importance given to them by the Australian Community. (Criterion G1). The Precinct holds significance to the Defence personnel community that have a continued occupation and utilisation of the buildings and urban landscape. This is reflected in the variety of moveable heritage items such as photographs and portraits remaining at the site. The adaptive reuse of the former Canteen as a child-care centre reflects the strong community within the Defence Force and a continued requirement for a community-oriented space within the precinct. (Criterion G1) The Precinct has a strong association with the Australian Defence Force, and heroes and heroines of Australian wars as Sir Thomas Blamey, Captain Vivian Bullwinkel, Captain Reg Saunders, and Private Richard Kelliher are commemorated in the Precinct's named streets and squares. It is significant for associated with Richard Ure, designer of the Australian American Memorial and Commonwealth Department of Works. (Criterion H1) 5.2.2 RUSSELL OFFICES PRECINCT - HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

The Russell Offices Precinct has been continually occupied by the Australian Defence Force since the 1960s. The work undertaken by the Defence Force, particularly their involvement in the managerial aspects of the Vietnam and Gulf Wars and other general Defence matters, has played an important role in shaping the course of Australia's cultural history. The Precinct, throughout this time, has been the nucleus for Defence's national headquarters, offices and administration. It retains a relationship to other important Defence sites, such as Duntroon Royal Military College, the Australian Defence Force Academy, the Australian War Memorial, the Campbell Park Offices and Brindabella Park.

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Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

The Russell Offices Precinct is a well balanced arrangement of geometric forms and spaces, with the Australian American Memorial forming a strong visual terminus of the Kings Avenue vista of the Parliamentary Triangle. R3 and R4, and the more recent additions of R1 and R2, contribute aesthetically to the visual enclosure of this vista. The informally planted trees, primarily Eucalypts, along and between Parkes Way, Morshead Drive, Constitution Avenue and Russell Drive, provide a native landscape backdrop to the built environment of the Russell Offices Precinct. The Russell Offices Precinct forms the eastern apex of the Griffin Parliamentary Triangle. The Precinct is a refined urban landscape of a grand scale, with built elements integrated with predominantly native landscape elements. The Australian American Memorial and the Australian Netherlands Memorial are both socially significant, representing the ties between these countries and Australia. The exteriors of R3 and R4 are examples of the late twentieth century office architecture of the Stripped Classical style. R8 is an example of the late Twentieth Century Structuralist style. The Australian American Memorial is a distinctive and monumental sculpture, highly visible and recognised throughout Canberra. The former Russell Canteen is one of the few remaining examples of the type of government cafeteria typically constructed in Canberra in the 1960s. The Russell Offices Precinct holds significance to numerous Defence personnel who have worked at or utilised the Precinct, particularly high ranking personnel such as Ministers of Defence and the Chiefs of the three services. This is reflected in the vast collection of moveable heritage items now located primarily in R1. It has a special association with the Department of Defence, Field Marshall Sir Thomas Blamey, Captain Vivian Bullwinkel, Captain Reg Saunders and Private Richard Kelliher. 5.2.3 RUSSELL OFFICES PRECINCT KEY ATTRIBUTES

Russell Precinct as a Defence campus, is a refined urban landscape of a grand scale, designed for visual articulation of the highly significant eastern apex of Canberra's Parliamentary Triangle and to give visual prominence to the Defence component of the Federal Government. The vista and its terminus is a significant component of the Walter Burley Griffin Canberra Plan concept and his 1918 Canberra Plan. It includes the significant spaces, of Kings Avenue, Kings Avenue Bridge across the round-about to Blamey Square and to the focal feature of the Australian - American Memorial column. The precinct has aesthetic significance as a well-balanced spatial arrangement of geometric forms and spaces, within which the Australian-American Memorial, a grand obelisk shape rising from the open spaces, forms the imposing terminal feature of the Kings Avenue vista. The informally grouped eucalypt and pine plantings between Parkes Way, Morshead Drive and Constitution Avenue contribute to the aesthetic value of the precinct by providing a canopy foreground, framework and enclosure. The Australian - American Memorial is a high quality, distinctive obelisk sculpture and the most impressive of its kind in Canberra. The Russell Offices Precinct is a well balanced arrangement of geometric forms and spaces, with the Australian American Memorial forming a strong visual terminus of the Kings Avenue vista of the Parliamentary Triangle. R3 and R4, and the more recent additions of R1 and R2, contribute aesthetically to the visual enclosure of this vista. The informally planted trees, primarily Eucalypts, along and between Parkes Way, Morshead Drive, Constitution Avenue and Russell Drive, provide a native landscape backdrop to the built environment of the Russell Offices Precinct. The Russell Offices Precinct forms the eastern apex of the Griffin Parliamentary Triangle. The Precinct is a refined urban landscape of a grand scale, with built elements integrated with predominantly native landscape elements. 5.3 KINGS PARK ASSESSMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE 5.3.1 CANBERRA CENTRAL PARKLANDS HERITAGE ASSESSMENT Duncan Marshall "Heritage Assessment of Canberra Central Parklands, Feb 2007' The Central Parklands is of significant heritage value because of its history, unique design, uncommon, outstanding or very good examples of trees, aesthetic qualities, creative achievement, social value and historic associations. The Central

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Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Parklands is of significant heritage value because it is associated with the history of the development of Canberra as Australia's national capital, including the initial Griffins' design for the city and subsequent designs notably by Holford, Crowe and the NCDC, through Clough and others. The result is a layering of designs which have built upon or consciously departed from the Griffins. This complex, evolving design is an important part of the story of the national capital and the Parliament House Vista in particular. The Central Parklands landscape reflects the National Identity Period in Australian landscape history through its overall informal structure of Eucalyptus tree planting. In addition to the broad landscape areas, the parklands contain a range of individual sites with some measure of historic value including trees or tree groups, memorials and other sites. Most of these individual sites are of modest historic significance. The overall use of the parklands for memorial activities is of greater significance. One site which may be of somewhat greater historic significance is the Carillon. In addition, the plantation of Eucalyptus bicostata in Kings Park is of interest as the last plantation style planting in the central part of Canberra. (Criterion (a)) The Central Parklands makes a major contribution to the Parliament House Vista conservation area, which is arguably of outstanding heritage value. The larger area is unique within Australia as a designed national place, or indeed as a series of component national places, evolving over time and contributing to this larger national landscape. It's physical evolution has allowed a tradition of landscape architecture and horticulture to be developed which is unparalleled in any other Australian city. The Podocarpus totara and Camphor laurel are of significant heritage value being of botanical interest as uncommon exotic specimens. (Criterion (b)) The research potential of the parklands to contribute to our understanding of the history of landscape design in Australia has not yet been formally established, nor alternative sources explored, and further research is needed to establish the strength of the value. (Criterion (c)) A number of trees are of significant heritage value being of botanical interest as outstanding or very good examples. (Criterion (d)) The Parliament House Vista including the parklands has significant heritage value being cherished by the Canberra community for its aesthetic qualities. A range of particular trees may also have aesthetic value, and require further research to confirm any value. (Criterion (e)) The Central Parklands is of significant heritage value as a related set of creative achievements in landscape design. This partly arises because of the individual qualities of the parklands but also as part of the wider setting of the Parliament House Vista conservation area. This creative achievement relates to the: · · · · · · · · · · contrasting informality of the parklands compared to the Parliamentary Zone; unified natural (informal) landscape composition with increasing areas of horticultural and specialist interest away from the lake edge; open woodland vegetation structure as a device to unite the parks, combined with the careful use of exotic and native trees for different topographies; use of vegetation in informal drifts in an attempt to integrate with the surrounding informal indigenous landscape character, and thereby to create a distinctly Australian landscape character; use of more linear and formal planting on either side of the Land Axis; creation of vistas to help structure the spatial composition of the landscape; careful use of scale related to use; creation of recognisable character in specific areas, achieved through the careful selection of trees; development of horticultural interest in Commonwealth Gardens; and the dryland woodland contrast of Kings Park compared to Commonwealth Park.

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There are also a number of artworks and memorials within the parklands which have potential value for their creative achievement, including some by prominent artists. While all of the works have some claim to creative achievement, a further expert assessment of their artistic merit is needed to better understand such values. In the case of very recent works, some further time may need to pass before a meaningful assessment can be undertaken. (Criterion (f)) The Central Parklands has significant heritage value to the Canberra community for social reasons. It is valued as an important part of the two most recognised icons of Canberra, the Parliament House Vista and Lake Burley Griffin. In addition, the parklands contain the National Carillon, a landmark within Canberra both in terms of its physical presence and also as a musical instrument. The music from the Carillon is valued by the Canberra community as part of the experience of spending time in Kings Park. The Central Parklands has a history of long use by and association with the Canberra community. It is of social value to the Canberra community as a place which is an integral component of the wider designed landscape encompassing the Parliament House Vista and Lake social value of the Parliament House Vista and Lake Burley Griffin. These values are summarised as follows. · · · · A place which embodies the ideals of Australian values and nationhood, a place which is an icon and landmark marking the heart of Canberra, and contributing to what it means to live in the city. A place which is important to the Canberra community as an element in the continuum of Australian history, and which engenders in them feelings of pride and belonging. A place which is valued highly for its public accessibility, as a gathering and meeting place for the community, for national commemoration and as a place for all Australians. A place which is an iconic focus for Walter Burley Griffin's design for Canberra, an achievement whose realisation continues to be regarded with pride by the Canberra community and contributes to their sense of identity. The Carillon Association of Australia values and has associations with the National Carillon and Aspen Island, and may also value the parklands. However, this needs to be researched further to establish any value. (Criterion (g)) The parklands have significant heritage value for their special associations with a number of landscape designers and planners who are significant in Australia's history, these being Richard Clough, Sylvia Crowe, William Holford and Harry Oakman. In addition, as part of the Parliament House Vista, the parklands have a special association with Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin. (Criterion (h)) Contributory Significance of Certain Components A number of components within, overlapping with or adjacent to the Central Parklands have previously been identified as having heritage value. Such value has been expressed either though formal heritage listings or through conservation management plans. In some cases the value is contained to just the particular component, and in other cases the component makes a contribution to the broader landscape of the study area. The following section provides a summary of such component values or features where they relate to the study area. This summary draws on existing listings or studies, and no new analysis has been undertaken. Blundells' Cottage: · · a remnant 19th century pastoral settlement; and has an "irregular and vernacular charm" based on its idealised remnant pastoral character which contrasts with the surrounding national capital (Freeman Collett & Partners 1994-95, vol. 1, pp. 65-66). National Carillon and Aspen Island: · · the Carillon has value as a musical instrument providing aesthetic experiences; are a highly visible part of the picturesque landscape composition of the lake and its parklands, with the Carillon itself as a landmark;

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· · · ·

contribute to the grand vision of the vista as a symbolic, unified and visually dramatic place; provide, along with other features, an informal balance to the Parliament House Vista and the symmetry of the National Triangle; they contribute to the richness of features of the Parliament House Vista; · the landscape of Aspen Island offers a range of aesthetic experiences; and there are substantial aesthetic values related to views towards the place as well as views out from it (Marshall & Firth 2006, p. 62).

Lake Burley Griffin (adjacent to the parklands): · · National Heritage values: is an essential part of what defines Canberra and an essential component of the Griffin plan for a lake to link and unify the axes and vistas of the plan to the underlying landform of the place. The lake is a unique and creative aspect of Australia's most successful urban plan, which is highly valued by communities for its aesthetic qualities. The lake is an outstandingly successful engineering and technical achievement which underpins the success of its creative and aesthetic qualities; · · Commonwealth Heritage values: is important for its association with the creation of the national capital and subsequent phases of national development. It reflects two key periods of urban design: the City Beautiful/Garden City discourses, associated with the design of the lake, and the later discourses of International Modernism, associated with its construction, its edge treatments and features; · · · supports habitats for threatened ecological communities and species ­ Murray Cod; is valued highly by communities for its landmark value, as a symbol of Canberra and as an iconic cultural landscape which for many is a symbol of local identity; is associated with important individuals involved in the creative and technical aspects of the design and construction of the lake such as Walter Burley Griffin, Marion Mahony Griffin, Charles Scrivener, John Sulman, Charles Weston, Lindsay · · · · · · Pryor, Sir William Holford, Dame Sylvia Crowe, Richard Clough, Peter Harrison, Trevor Gibson, and John Overall; supports natural areas valued as remnants of the pre-settlement environment and an aquatic ecosystem which is valued by the community; possesses significant scientific research values and values as part of Indigenous tradition; possesses research potential relating to the study of the history and development of urban design and key practitioners in this area; the occurrence of threatened ecological communities and species also provides some opportunities for research; and the Indigenous archaeological sites of the study area are valued highly by Indigenous communities as evidence of their traditional occupation of this area. These sites also possess research potential for contributing to an understanding of past Indigenous lifeways in the area. (GML 2006, pp. 181-2) 5.3.2 KINGS PARK KEY ATTRIBUTES

Kings Park as part of the Central Parklands is of significant heritage value memorials and other sites. The plantation of Eucalyptus bicostata in Kings Park is of interest as the last plantation style planting in the central part of Canberra. The dryland woodland contrast of Kings Park compared to Commonwealth Park. The parklands have significant heritage value for their special associations with a number of landscape designers and planners who are significant in Australia's history, these being Richard Clough, Sylvia Crowe, William Holford and Harry Oakman. In addition, as part of the Parliament House Vista, the parklands have a special association with Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin.

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5.4

ASSESSMENT OF HERITAGE VALUES FOR THE KINGS AVE PARKES WAY PRECINCT Architectural Projects Pty Ltd 2008 5.4.1 (Criterion (a))

The place's importance in the course, or pattern of Australia's natural or cultural history.

The Precinct possesses highly significant historical values and meets the threshold for Commonwealth Heritage Value under this criteria for the following reasons: · · The Precinct is integrally associated with the creation of the national capital The Precinct includes historic sites around Molonglo River associated with European Settlement and rural development of the region 5.4.2 (Criterion (b))

The place's possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural and cultural history

The Precinct possesses highly significant rarity values relating to Planning for the Capital, the foundation of the Lake, and early homestead sites and include: · · 5.4.3 Griffin Planning geometry Lake edge/ Kings Avenue Criterion (c)

The place's potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural and cultural history.

The Precinct meets the threshold for the following reasons: · · Research into urban planning schemes of Griffin, Holford, Overall and Harrison Research into landscape design ­ Weston and Clough

5.4.4 (Criterion (d)) The place's importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of:

i) A class of Australia's natural and cultural places; or ii) A class of Australia's natural and cultural environments

The Precinct possesses highly significant representative values for the following reasons: · · · 5.4.5 Demonstrates layers of design philosophies including City Beautiful, Garden City, Modernism Planning of NCDC 1958 Lakeside landscaping (Criterion (e))

The place's importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics valued by a community or cultural group: The Precinct meets the threshold for the following reasons:

· · · · 5.4.6 Parliament House Vistas Lake edge and distinctive plantings Parkland setting Avenue plantings

(Criterion (f)) The place's importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period. The Precinct meets the threshold for significance for the following reasons: · · · · · A component of the Griffin Plan for Canberra, specifically Lake/Axes, Vista, Commonwealth Avenue, Landscape A designed landscape of high creative and technical achievement Demonstrates different layers of design/planning and creative response Elements display technical excellence including Kings Ave and Commonwealth Ave Bridge and Lake retaining walls Clough landscapes are ambitious horticultural projects integral to the planning of the precinct

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·

Deciduous trees deliberately planted along foreshore to reflect spring blossoms and autumn leaf colours and lake water

5.4.7

(Criterion (g))

The place's strong or special association with a particular community or cultural grasps for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.

The Precinct has no known social values. 5.4.8 (Criterion (h)) The place's special association with the life of works of a person, or groups of persons, of importance in Australia's

natural or cultural history.

The Precinct has close association with many individuals where work is significant in the history of the Federal Capital: · · · · 5.4.9 Walter Burley Griffin and Marian Mahony Griffin Sir William Holford Richard Clough Peter Harrison (Criterion (i))

The place's importance as part of indigenous tradition.

There are no identified indigenous sites within the study area. 5.5 KINGS AVE / PARKES WAY ROUNDABOUT STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE Architectural Projects Kings Avenue (Federal Avenue) is significant as one of the key projects of the NCDC period which reinforced some of the Griffin Principles but imposed a new picturesque modernist landscape which is recognised as having some value. Parkes Way, designed in the 1950s, is a later road which was part of a motorway concept dating from the late 1950s and 1960s which was at odds with the Griffin National Triangle concept defined by Kings Avenue, Commonwealth Ave and Constitution Avenue . Its construction required significant excavation and separated many of the original streets that led to the water proposed in the Griffin Concept for Canberra. It bisects Commonwealth Park and isolates Constitution Avenue from the water. The roundabout has low significance as an unrealized grade interchange due to budgetary constraints. It detracts from Kings Avenue termination at Russell. The apexes at Russell and City Hill completed the National Triangle. The strength of the Russell apex has been diluted by the location of the Australian-American Memorial off the nodal position, and the subsequent development at Russell which was perpendicular to the Kings Avenue axis rather than reinforcing the Russell node. Recent attempts have occurred to recover this node which is identified as requiring further reinforcement in the Griffin Legacy.

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6. 6.1

CONSTRAINTS & OPPORTUNITIES GENERAL A general policy for the preservation of the buildings and their settings is based on a recognition of significance and the relevant constraints, the chief constraint being the Statement of Significance. These constraints may extend to development on sites in the vicinity of the precinct.

6.2

CONSTRAINTS & OPPORTUNITIES ARISING FROM HERITAGE PLANNING REQUIREMENTS 6.2.1 AUSTRALIAN HERITAGE COMMISSION Lake Burley Griffin, Indicative Place and Indicative Place on Commonwealth Heritage List 2007 Parliamentary Vista, 11/08/1987 and Listed on Commonwealth Heritage List Both are in the vicinity of the precinct. Listing on this Register imposes no legal restrictions. 6.2.2 HERITAGE COUNCIL OF ACT / ACT HERITAGE ACT

No sites within the Precinct are covered by statutory protection provided pursuant to the Heritage Act 2004, 6.2.3 NATIONAL TRUST (ACT)

Sites within the Precinct are listed as heritage items classified by the National Trust (ACT), namely: Lake Burley Griffin, 24/11/1986 and Parliamentary Zone, October 1992 Both are in the vicinity of the precinct. Listings in this register impose no legal restrictions. No constraints apply. 6.2.4 RAIA REGISTER OF SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS

Sites within the Precinct are not listed as heritage items by the RAIA. Listings in this register imposes no legal restrictions. No constraints apply. 6.2.5 ROYAL AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERS

Sites within the Precinct are not listed as a heritage item by the RAIE. Listings in this register imposes no legal restrictions. No constraints apply. 6.2.6 NATIONAL ART DECO REGISTER

Sites within the Precinct are not listed as heritage items on the National Art Deco Register. Listings in this register imposes no legal restrictions. No constraints apply. 6.3 CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES ARISING FROM THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLAN AND THE GRIFFIN LEGACY The National Capital Authority (NCA) is established under the Australian Capital Territory (Planning and Land Management) Act 1988 (the Act). The current National Capital Plan (the Plan) came into effect on 21 January 1990. The Griffin Legacy was launched on 8 December 2004. The Griffin Legacy was prepared by the NCA, as a Twenty First Century plan for the heart of the nation's capital.5 The Griffin Legacy project involved research and analysis of the main elements of Griffin's 1918 plan and identified what had been realised or reinterpreted, what had not been realised, what is no longer relevant or is not recoverable, and what are the opportunities of the Twenty First Century.6 A matter of national significance is to respect the geometry and intent of Walter Burley Griffin's formally adopted plan for Canberra,7 in particular significant avenue connections. A summary of relevant constraints and opportunities identified in the Griffin Legacy are listed below. Landscape Framework164 REALISED: · · Landscape as unifying element of plan Public spaces, buildings and vistas anchored in the landscape

164

The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p113

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·

Landscape hierarchy of naturally vegetated hills, lake parklands, parkways, urban parks, some avenue and street tree-planting, and absence of fence as continual garden

OPPORTUNITIES: · Main Avenues with intended formal planting.

Lake and Park Lands 165 REALISED: · · Continuous parkland surrounding lake Kings and Commonwealth bridges

UNREALISED: · · Urban waterfronts Continuous boulevards and promenades on the water's edge of the central basin

OPPORTUNITIES: · · Continuous pedestrian promenade around central basins Lake Burley Griffin as exemplar of urban freshwater ecology management

166

National Triangle REALISED: · · ·

The geometry of the triangle established by the surrounding hills and framed by main avenues. The triangle as the site and setting for most of the national, cultural and government buildings. Parts of Kings and Commonwealth Avenues as elegant, tree-lined streetscapes

UNREALISED: · · · · · Definition of the Triangle by built form A range and intensity of uses focused on the Central Basin Urban activity on the avenues framing the Triangle, and development extending into the Triangle and Civic and Russell along the avenues. Protection of the Triangle from through traffic. A pedestrian-friendly environment with frequent connections into the Triangle by streets and parks.

OPPORTUNITIES: · · · Main avenues framing the Triangle as integrated transport, land-use and development corridors. New development sites to reinforce the geometry of the Triangle. The triangle as a more accessible public domain by removing land bridges and underpasses, freeway-style intersections and reinforcing a pedestrian-friendly environment. Urban Form167 UNREALISED · Main avenues with dense development and commercial activity supported by public transit.

165 166 167

The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p115 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p117 The Griffin Legacy, NCA, 2004, p141

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7.

STATEMENT OF KEY HERITAGE ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1.1 HERITAGE ISSUES The issues recommended below are additional to the specific policies and recommendations outlined in the Conservation Management Plan of various components of the precinct. 7.1.2 · · · · AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PRECINCT European settlement and rural use The Federal Capitol Competition and the Griffin Concept FCAC and specifically Weston NCDC and specifically Holford , Crowe and Clough .

Informed by further historical research and physical assessment of historical layers:

7.1.2.1 EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND RURAL USE Issues No Specific sites have been identified that reflect the European settlement and rural layer of occupation Recommendations Further exploration and monitoring of the area should occur to precisely determine the location of key sites using aerial photos. 7.1.2.2 THE FEDERAL CAPITAL COMPETITION AND THE GRIFFIN CONCEPT Issues Specific features associated with the Griffin Concept have been identified and can be summarized as: · · · · · · · Kings Ave and Commonwealth Avenue and bridge Lakeshore landscape zone Griffin road network Axes and connections across Kings Avenue King's Avenue being the defining arm of the Parliamentary Triangle, Kings Avenue as part of the Parliamentary Vista, Kings Avenue as part of the vistas from the roof of Parliament House

7.1.2.3 THE FCAC Issues The character of the Precinct is predominantly defined by the Garden City concepts of the FCAC Few features associated with the FCAC have been identified and can be summarised as: · The location of the American American Monument on the axis of Kings Avenue and offset from the apex of the Griffin Parliamentary Triangle. 7.1.2.4 NCDC AND SPECIFICALLY HOLFORD Issues Specific features associated with the NCDC have been identified and can be summarized as: · · · · · · · · · Lake Burley Griffin Road network The 1960s plantings associated with the lake and Avenue formation Kings Avenue as major traffic route ­ removal of intersections The reinforcement of Kings Avenue as the defining arm of the Parliamentary Triangle by deciduous planting that differentiated from the overall evergreen character of the landscape. The construction of Parkes Way as a motorway which was contrary to the Griffin intention for Canberra. Parkes Way as a grade interchange unrealized due to budgetary constraints. Holford had previously proposed Kings Avenue overpass with no connection to Parkes Way. The roundabout as part of a sequence of roundabouts and new motorways that reflected the 1960s expansion of

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Canberra under the supervision of the NCDC. · · The original planting of the roundabout was specifically designed to reinforce the axis of the Kings Avenue. The variation to the geometry of Griffin's Parliamentary Triangle in the Russell Area due to cost of land excavation and the discontinuation of the proposed railway and causeway leaving the apex of the Parliamentary Triangle incomplete. · The imposition of a different geometry in the Russell Precinct near the corner of the Griffin Parliamentary Triangle which is perpendicular to Kings Avenue rather than resolving the geometry of Constitution Avenue and Kings Avenue. 7.1.2.5 NCA LAYER The reworking of the Russell Precinct to established a public space at the junction of Constitution Avenue and Kings Avenue which, while ineffectual, reinforced the importance of this junction. With development this junction could form the basis of a better resolution of the apex of the Parliamentary Triangle. 7.1.3 HERITAGE IMPACT OF THE EXISTING CONDITION

The existing condition provides an `at grade' roundabout that links Kings Avenue and Parkes Way. The Kings Avenue roundabout detracts from the Griffin Concept for Canberra for the following reasons: · · · · · The roundabout interrupts a clear visual axial link to the end of Kings Avenue at Constitution Avenue The pattern of flags interrupts a clear axial link to the end of Parkes Way The planting in the roundabout reinforces the intersection as a node competing with the node at the intersection of Constitution Avenue The location of the Australian-American Memorial, interrupts the axis and displaces the importance of the apex of the Parliamentary Triangle. Research has indicated that the reason for this siting was related to cost constraints. The later redevelopment of Russell has facilitated the marking of the corner of the Triangle

The Kings Avenue roundabout detracts from the 1960's design concept for the following reasons: · · 7.1.4 The perimeter planting which left the axis clear has been modified The setting of carparking distracts from the importance of the axis and apex of the National Triangle. TRAFFIC AND SERVICES CONSTRAINTS

The proposed changes to the roundabout need to be understood within the framework of the current traffic requirements for Canberra. The original Griffin intention for Canberra never anticipated the level of car usage that exists today. Alternate forms of transport in the form of a rail link and tram network proposed by Griffin were never realized. The pre Holford and NCDC intention was to create a series of motorways that linked Canberra providing a motor car dominated city that separated the lake from the city in key locations. The Griffin legacy seeks to understand, protect and enhance the original Griffin intention for Canberra. The NCA layer following the Griffin legacy research proposes to reduce the impact of the NCDC motorways and increase development in the city. The level of existing traffic movement due to the use of Parkes Way as a motorway and main route to the airport requires an upgrade of the roundabout to provide grade separation between Parkes Way and Kings Avenue. Grade separation between Parkes Way and Kings Avenue was previously proposed by Holford and the NCDC. The requirement to access Kings Avenue from Parkes Way results in the need for a complex set of traffic lights and turning requirements. The required traffic movement has generated the need for the overpass. The existing Russell roundabout is at traffic capacity during peak hours. This traffic performance will deteriorate further into the future. In upgrading the intersection four options were considered, as follows: · · · 'Do nothing' (existing roundabout, as a base case for comparison) 'On grade four way intersection', signalised 'Twin bridge', at the existing general level of Kings Avenue, with Parkes Way lowered as an underpass, and signals

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at Kings Avenue with on and off ramps to Parkes Way. · 'Single bridge' (single point urban interchange), at the existing general level of Kings Avenue, with Parkes Way lowered as an underpass, and signals at Kings Avenue with on and off ramps to Parkes Way. Specialist traffic analysis indicated that the single bridge had substantially the best traffic and environmental outcomes. Based on immediate to medium term growth in building development of around 500,000m2 in the CBD, Constitution Avenue, Russell, Barton and the Airport. the · · · · · Single bridge traffic delay performance would be reduced by 4.0 times compared to the existing roundabout Twin bridge would improve traffic delay performance by 1.3 times On grade four way intersection would actually increase traffic delays by 1.4 times Single bridge resulted in similarly substantially improvements in CO2 emission and business case operating cost reductions. Single and twin bridge options provided equal improvements in traffic accident reduction over the other two options. While a proposed dual carriageway bridge is preferred to a single surface bridge, as it avoids an overly wide road width, it does not address the traffic requirements. To strengthen Kings Avenue as a unified and continuous axis, consideration should be given to applying the same width to both sections of the road. The extension of the alignment of Kings Avenue into the Russell Precinct lies outside the current project. It represents a later stage of the project which will be incorporated in the Russell Precinct Masterplan and further reinforce the Kings Avenue axis. The extension of the alignment will continue to reinforce the axis of Kings Avenue to the apex of the Parliamentary Triangle. 7.2 OPPORTUNITIES ASSOCIATED WITH ANY REDEVELOPMENT OF THE ROUNDABOUT The Overpass The new work could reinforce the importance of the axis and of the apex of the National Triangle by the following; · · · · · · Reduce the impact of the later Parkes Way on the Kings Avenue axis by cutting it below the main axis Provide visual continuity of the bridge/carriageway width to the apex, thereby reinforcing the axis of the Kings Avenue as the primary eastern avenue of the triangle Defining the Kings Avenue axis with perimeter planting Improve visual connection to Constitution Avenue Provide an appropriate marker at Kings Ave and Constitution Avenue Provide other linkages over Parkes Way that assist to reduce its impact and reinforce the original design intention.

Archaeological Scope exists in the cutting required for Parkes Way to undertake archaeological investigations and interpret the various layers of soil deposits and possibly found artefacts from the Pleistocene period, which could contain indigenous artefacts. Landscaping Independent of the loss of specific trees the reduction in landscape buffer to the Carillon and Blundell's Cottage should be offset by new planting. New planting should consider long term strategies for regeneration of the landscape buffer.

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8. 8.1

IMPACT OF PROPOSAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSAL Project Description, Intersection Design and Benefits The upgrade if the existing Russell Roundabout adopts a `single point urban interchange' (SPUI) traffic configuration, with 3 phase traffic signal/light movements. Recent traffic counts indicate that over 70,000 vehicles pass through the roundabout in a 24 hour weekday period. At the 8.00-9.00am weekday traffic peak there are over 6,700 vehicle movements. In Canberra's predominantly north-south arterial roadway network, Parkes Way is Canberra's most central and one of its most important east-west connector roads. Importantly, it provides connections between the Parliamentary zone, City CBD, Acton, Russell, Barton, Forrest and the Airport administrative and commercial precincts. The SPUI design arrangement comprises · · · Keeping Kings Avenue close to its current level, with around a 1m adjustment at the new bridge to raise, `level out' and provide a more continuous roadway transition and vista appearance. Traffic signal control at the Kings Avenue level. Bridging of Kings Avenue over a lowered Parkes Way. (A lowered and grade-separated Parkes Way will allow uninterrupted east-west through traffic. Lowering of Parkes Way removes around 25% of traffic movements from the intersection. · · · · · Re-configuration of traffic lanes to Kings Ave ­ West (Parliament House side). Retention of Kings Avenue ­ East (Russell side) in its current configuration. Provision of on and off ramps to Parkes Way on the Russell side of the intersection. Provision of on and off ramps to Parkes Way the Parliament House side of the intersection. Compliance with national and local statutory building and traffic design standards.

The traffic and bicycle new intersection roadway lane configurations include · Kings Avenue ­ West o o · o o · o o · o o · o o · o o · o o · o o North Side ­ 2 through lanes, 2 right hand turn lanes and 1 left hand turn lane (with kerb-side bicycle lane) South Side ­ 2 through lanes and one merging left hand turn lane (with kerb-side bicycle lane) North Side ­ 2 through lanes and 1 merging left hand lane (with kerb-side bicycle lane) South Side ­ 2 through lanes, 1 right hand turn lanes and 1 left hand turn lane (with kerb-side bicycle lane) 2 through traffic lanes (with future capacity for a third lane), and inner bicycle lane 2 through traffic lanes (with future capacity for a third lane), and inner bicycle lane 2 right hand turn lanes, and 1 left hand turn lane, with kerb-side bicycle lane 1 right hand turn lane, and 1 left hand turn lane, with kerb-side bicycle lane 2 right hand turn lanes, and 1 left merging hand turn lane, with kerb-side bicycle lane 1 right hand turn lane (with future capacity for a second lane); and 1 left merging hand turn lane, with kerb-side bicycle lane

Kings Avenue ­ East

Parkes Way Under Bridge (from City CBD to Airport)

Morshead Drive Under Bridge (from Airport to City CBD)

Parkes Way ­ Up Ramp (from City CBD)

Parkes Way ­ Down Ramp (to City CBD)

Morshead Drive ­ Down Ramp (to Airport)

Morshead Drive ­ Up Ramp (from Airport)

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Predominant intersection traffic demand movements include · · The right hand turn from Parkes Way to Kings Avenue ­ West (ie. from the City CBD to the Parliamentary zone) The right hand turn from Kings Avenue ­ West to Morshead Drive (ie. from the Parliamentary zone to the Airport)

The primary SPUI intersection dimensions, include · · · · · · · · · 31.0m bridge span over Parkes Way; 42.0m internal clear bridge width, as part of Kings Avenue; 1.2m bridge structure depth, approximately; 5.3m minimum clearance under the bridge; 27.0m wide Parkes Way roadway zone, including the median strip; 76.9m wide Kings Avenue ­ West roadway zone, including the median strip; and existing layout to Kings Avenue ­ East 3.5m wide traffic lanes 2.0m wide on-road bicycle lanes

Intersection construction comprises · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · bored reinforced concrete piers to the bridge abutments and retaining walls, together with soil-nail stabilisation; reinforced concrete header beams to the top of the abutment piers; reinforced and post-tensioned concrete bridge deck; steel reinforcement earthing; bridge expansion joints; concrete pre-cast panels to abutments, curved retaining walls and curved bridge balustrades; concrete and tension-wire road safety barriers; asphalt roadways; concrete kerbing; bridge pedestrian concrete footpath and metal safety fences; landscape treated traffic islands with flagpoles; traffic signals; line marking and roadway directional signage; street lighting and bridge feature lighting; stormwater systems and median bio-swale; relocation and augmentation of underground engineering services infrastructure (high voltage power, gas mains, water supply, sewer, and primary copper and fibre optic communication services) ESD measures; and surrounding landscape reinstatement and enhancement.

The new SPUI traffic movement performance; at the `am peak' and based on over 500,000m2 GFA building growth in the Russell, Constitution Avenue, City CBD, Acton, Barton, Forrest and the Airport precincts, has · · around half the average waiting time delay (ie. twice as efficient), compared to a twin-bridge 4 phase traffic signal/light intersection, and around one fifth the average waiting time delay (ie. five times more efficient), compared to the existing roundabout (ie. `do nothing') The SPUI intersection benefits include · significantly improved levels of traffic performance for future medium term (500,000m2 GFA future precinct building development) traffic demands and acceptable performance in the longer term ((1,000,000m2 GFA future precinct building development); · · · · traffic movements through, to and from the intersection in all directions; pedestrian, on-road bicycle and bus priority movements (that are currently not available); reduced visual interruption and capacity to reinforce the vista along Kings Avenue; a comparatively compact "land take', reducing impacts on the adjacent Kings Park and surrounding land;

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· · · · · · 8.2

compact design options for traffic lane capacity augmentation, should this be required in the future; capacity to accommodate future environmentally improved public transport systems, such as `light rail', should this be required; improved traffic safety (the existing roundabout intersection recorded 475 accidents in the 5 year period, January 2001 ­ December 2005, which is the highest number for any Canberra intersection); reduced vehicle emissions and fuel consumption (environmental benefits); reduced travel times; and reduced vehicle operating costs.

BACKGROUND TO THE HERITAGE IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL Overpass The proposed bridge is seen as a positive contribution to understanding Griffin's original concept for Canberra. The proposed bridge and associated roadworks reinforce the continuity of Kings Avenue. Removing the current dip in the road due to the topography of the site will assist in reinforcing the axial alignment of Kings Avenue. The 7m metre cut under Kings Avenue is acceptable as it is below the axis of Kings Avenue. To strengthen Kings Avenue as a unified and continuous axis, consideration should be given to applying the same width to both sections of the road. The use of materials and colour of pavements/road surfacing should be used to strengthen the axis along Kings Avenue particularly where it is necessary for the road to widen.

Kings Avenue The existing Elms along Kings Avenue are noted as the preferred species for defining the axis. The condition of the trees should be confirmed and if the trees are to be removed due to poor condition or practical reasons, replacement trees should define the axis by contrast and be of a similar scale. Replacement planting could constitute a variety of tree species and should be clearly distinguished from the existing native species located in Kings Park.

The roundabout From initial discussions with Richard Clough in regards to the existing trees located on the roundabout, these were placed off axis to assist in defining the Kings Avenue axis, it is of his opinion that strengthening the axis of Kings Avenue through the hierarchy of the roads and perimeter planting is more important than retaining the trees.

Kings Avenue Extension to Russell Precinct While outside the site, the Sir Thomas Blamey Square and any further landscaping or courtyard leading from the Australian­American Memorial should similarly reinforce the axis of Kings Avenue and attempt to continue the vista towards Griffin's intended corner of the National Triangle at the intersection with Constitution Avenue. It is preferred that landscaping and the use of trees should define the axis in a consistant fashion. New buildings proposed in the Russell area could similarly assist in defining the Kings Avenue axis. Car access to any new buildings located on Kings Avenue should be limited to reinforce the Kings Ave axis and preferably be approached from secondary roads to allow a continuous tree lined avenue.

Parkes Way The existing trees planted along Parkes Way are noted as having a low aesthetic significance for their positive contribution to the setting of Parkes Way. As Parkes Way is a later road and considered of less significance in relation to the formal axis of Griffin's National Triangle, their removal may be acceptable. Kings Park Kings Park as part of the Central Parklands is of significant heritage value memorials and other sites. The plantation of Eucalyptus bicostata in Kings Park is of interest as the last plantation style planting in the central part of Canberra. The dryland woodland contrast of Kings Park compared to Commonwealth Park is also of interest. A number of trees in

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Kings Park will be removed and replaced. .

8.3

RUSSELL OFFICES PRECINCT IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL The Russell Offices Precinct comprises a series of informally planted trees, primarily as part of the Eucalypts bicostata, along and between Parkes Way, Morshead Drive, Constitution Avenue and Russell Drive, provide a native landscape backdrop to the built environment of the Russell Offices Precinct. The removal and replanting of trees occurs at the perimeter of the Russell Precinct and therefore has a minimal impact on this setting in the long term. A number of trees are proposed for removal but an equivalent number are proposed in the replacement. The removal and replacement needs to be understood in the context of a broader regeneration plan of species planted in the 1960s.

The removal and replanting in the area of the roadway and Kings Park will change the setting significantly until regrowth occurs. The informally grouped eucalypt and pine plantings between Parkes Way, Morshead Drive and Constitution Avenue contribute to the aesthetic value of the precinct by providing a canopy foreground, framework and enclosure. This change needs to be seen in the context of a largely constructed landscape dating from the 1950s which would be subject to tree regeneration.

The removal and replanting in a realigned location in the area of Kings Ave will change the setting permanently. This change needs to be seen in the context of the landscape contribution to the vista. The vista and its terminus is a significant component of the Walter Burley Griffin Canberra Plan concept and his 1918 Canberra Plan. The existing avenue of trees will be widened as part of the proposed works. The selection of trees and their intended extension into the Russell Precinct will in fact improve the appreciation of the vista. The area is highly visible as a main avenue to the Parliamentary Triangle.

8.4

ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT AGAINST OFFICIAL VALUES RUSSELL PRECINCT (Criterion (a)) Russell Precinct is significant through its continued occupation by the Defence Force. The Precinct has a focus as the Defence nucleus of the nation with its offices, war memorials and its locational relationship to other Defence and memorial features such as Duntroon Royal Military Collage. There will be no impact on this value. (Criterion (b)) Buildings R3 and R4 are important as examples of late Twentieth Century office architecture. The Russell Canteen is an example of the post war International Style. There will be no impact on this value. (Criterion (d)) Russell Precinct, and particularly the American - Australian, and Australian - Netherlands Memorials have clear significance on a social level, due to their reflection of strong association between Australian and American communities, and Australian and the Dutch communities. There will be no impact on this value. (Criterion (e)) The informally grouped eucalypt and pine plantings between Parkes Way, Morshead Drive and Constitution Avenue contribute to the aesthetic value of the precinct by providing a canopy foreground, framework and enclosure. The Russell apex will continue to be reinforced. In the short term there will be a significant change. In the long term, with the regrowth of planting, this will become a moderate change which is considered acceptable. (Criterion (f)) The Russell apex is reinforced by the scale form and location of Buildings R1 and R2 and new road alignments that accentuate this element of Canberra's landscape geometry. While the nature of the trees location and species will change the Russell apex will continue to be reinforced. In the short term there will be a significant change. In the long term, with the regrowth of planting, this will become a moderate change which is considered acceptable.

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(Criterion (h)) The Precinct has a strong association with the Australian Defence Force, and heroes and heroines of Australian wars. It is significant for associated with Richard Ure, designer of the Australian - American Memorial and Commonwealth Department of Works. There will be no impact on this value. 8.5 THE CENTRAL PARKLANDS IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL (Criterion (a)) The Central Parklands makes a major contribution to the Parliament House Vista conservation area. The Podocarpus totara and Camphor laurel are of significant heritage value being of botanical interest as uncommon exotic specimens. No Podocarpus totara or Camphor laurel are proposed for removal (Criterion (b)) The research potential of the parklands to contribute to our understanding of the history of landscape design in Australia is considered important. As the trees will reinforce he original design including the definition of Kings Avenue with Elms this research potential will be retained. (Criterion (c)) A number of trees are of significant heritage value being of botanical interest as outstanding or very good examples. The trees proposed for removal are representative rather than individual species of botanical interest (Criterion (d)) The Parliament House Vista including the parklands has significant heritage value being cherished by the Canberra community for its aesthetic qualities. The Parliament House Vista will be maintained in the long term as the trees will reinforce he original design including the definition of Kings Avenue with Elms this research potential will be retained. (Criterion (e)) The Central Parklands is of significant heritage value as a related set of creative achievements in landscape design. In particular contrasting informality of the parklands compared to the Parliamentary Zone; use of more linear and formal planting on either side of the Land Axis; creation of vistas to help structure the spatial composition of the landscape; and the dryland woodland contrast of Kings Park compared to Commonwealth Park. These attributes of the Parliament House Vista will be maintained in the long term as the trees will reinforce he original design including the definition of Kings Avenue with Elms this research potential will be retained. (Criterion (f)) The Central Parklands has significant heritage value to the Canberra community for social reasons. It is valued as an important part of the two most recognised icons of Canberra, the Parliament House Vista and Lake Burley Griffin. The Parliament House Vista will be maintained in the long term as the trees will reinforce he original design including the definition of Kings Avenue with Elms this research potential will be retained. (Criterion (g)) The parklands have significant heritage value for their special associations with a number of landscape designers and planners who are significant in Australia's history, these being Richard Clough, Sylvia Crowe, William Holford and Harry Oakman. In addition, as part of the Parliament House Vista, the parklands have a special association with Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin. The proposed work has been informed by research into these designs. The proposal will reinforce the original design intention. (Criterion (h)) Contributory Significance of Certain Components Blundells' Cottage and its idealised remnant pastoral character. There is minimal impact on his setting. National Carillon and Aspen Island. There is minimal impact on his setting. Lake Burley Griffin (adjacent to the parklands). There is minimal impact on his setting.

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Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

8.6

KINGS PARK IMPACT OF THE PROPOSAL Some of the trees that form the plantation of Eucalyptus bicostata in Kings Park will be removed. These trees are of interest as the last plantation style planting in the central part of Canberra. The permanent removal of some trees and the replanting of other trees will impact on the values. Given the percentage of trees that will be affected within the Parliament Vista Boundary the impact is considered to be manageable. There are 4 Eucalyptus bicostata at the western end of the roadworks that fall within the Parliamentary Vista Boundary. In addition the Eucalyptus bicostata in Kings Park beyond the Parliament Vista Boundary in the service zone will be removed. The elms along Kings Avenue which define the edge of Kings Park will be removed and replaced. The service zone of Kings Avenue has always anticipated expansion of the road. The replacement of the elms along Kings Avenue will maintain the relationship with Kings Park.

The Central Parklands makes a major contribution to the Parliament House Vista conservation area which is arguably of outstanding heritage value. The permanent removal of trees due to the Kings Ave widening will impact on these value in a minor way. The removal and replanting of trees along Parkes Way site behind the established canopy will have a minimal impact on these values. The Podocarpus totara and Camphor laurel are of significant heritage value being of botanical interest as uncommon exotic specimens will be retained. The removal and replanting of the dryland woodland species which define Kings Park in contrast to Commonwealth Park will have a minimal impact on these values.

8.7

IMPACT ON THE VALUES OF THE KINGS AVE / PARKES WAY PRECINCT (Criterion (a))

The place's importance in the course, or pattern of Australia's natural or cultural history The Precinct's association with the creation of the national capital will be retained by realising the original Holford

intention. The Precinct's association with historic sites around Molonglo River will remain unchanged. Minimal impact is therefore envisaged. (Criterion (b))

The place's possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural and cultural history The Precinct's values relating to the Planning of the Capital, the foundation of the Lake, and early homestead sites will

not be affected. The Griffin Planning geometry will be reinforced. Minimal impact is therefore envisaged. (Criterion (c))

The place's potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural and cultural history The place's potential to contribute to research into the urban planning schemes of Griffin, Holford, Overall and Harrison

and research into landscape designs of Weston and Clough will not be affected as the proposal reinforces earlier concepts by Griffin and the NCDC. Minimal impact is therefore envisaged. (Criterion (d))

The place's importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of: i) A class of Australia's natural and cultural places; or ii) A class of Australia's natural and cultural environments

The Precinct's ability to demonstrate layers of design philosophies including City Beautiful, Garden City, Modernism and the planning of NCDC 1958 will remain unchanged. The substitution of species with a similar species to the existing Elms or a distinctive alternate species will not impact on the intent to define the linear avenues with a distinctive planting. Minimal impact is therefore envisaged. (Criterion (e))

The place's importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics valued by a community or cultural group The Precinct's aesthetic characteristics related to the Parliament House Vista will remain unchanged. The Avenue plantings

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will be replaced a similar species to the existing Elms or a distinctive alternate species which achieves the same intent. Minimal impact is therefore envisaged. (Criterion (f))

The place's importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period

The Precinct's contribution to the Griffin Plan for Canberra, specifically the Lake/Axes, Vistas, Kings Avenue, Landscape setting will be enhanced by increased delineation of the avenues. The intent of the Clough landscapes will be retained. Minimal impact is therefore envisaged. (Criterion (g))

The place's strong or special association with a particular community or cultural groups for social, cultural or spiritual reasons. As the precinct has no known social values minimal impact is therefore envisaged.

(Criterion (h))

The place's special association with the life of works of a person, or groups of persons, of importance in Australia's natural or cultural history.

The Precinct's close association with many individuals such as the Griffins, Holford, Clough, Harrison and Gibson will be maintained by the retention of their original design intention. Minimal impact is therefore envisaged. (Criterion (i))

The place's importance as part of indigenous tradition. As the Precinct has no known social values there is minimal impact

As there are no identified indigenous sites within the study area minimal impact is therefore envisaged. 8.8 CONCLUSION Given the extent of replanting proposed as part of the proposal the impact of the tree loss is considered to be manageable.

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Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

9. 9.1

ILLUSTRATION LISTS HISTORIC IMAGES Figure Date 2.1 2.2 2.3 1913 1915 1918 Description Griffin Plan - Canberra Federal Capital of Australia: Preliminary Plan. Griffin Plan ­ Schematic Plan with levels to indicate road, rail and waterway levels. Griffin Plan ­ City and Environs, signed by Griffin as the area between Constitution Avenue and the Lake is lakeside boulevard. 2.4 1929 The aerial shows the Russell area as bare landscape with no buildings or Griffin roads as yet formalised. 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 1950 1951 1953 1955 1955 Gibson's site plan for the Australian-American Memorial Plan shows parklands north of the lake still with lakeside boulevard Australian American Memorial at the foot of Mount Russell in undeveloped area. Aerial Photo of Canberra, Kings and Constitution Avenue yet to be defined. Recommendations of the 1955 Senate inquiry noting Russell Corner of the triangle is to be a focus. 2.10 2.11 1955 1958 Russell site showing a formal court leading to the Australian American Memorial Observations to Illustrate the Future of Canberra by Sir William Holford underpass for Kings Avenue was planned but not proceeded 2.12 1958 The NCDC response to Lord Holford's plan the Russell area aligned perpendicular to Kings Avenue showing underpass at intersection of Kings Avenue/ Parkes Way. 2.13 2.14 1959 1959 Photo from City Hill, the Australian-American Memorial can be seen 200 metres off the axis. Canberra City District ­ Central Area, NCDC. The intersection of Kings Avenue and Parkes Way is resolved with a roundabout. 2.15 1994 Study for the Central National Area completing Constitution Avenue and restoring the Russell corner of the triangle. 2.16 2006 Russell showing vista along axis of Kings Avenue. Kings Avenue and Constitution Avenue terminates in a roundabout. 2.17 2006D Griffin Legacy with a new underpass and landscaping to reinforce the axis of Kings Avenue and node of the apex.

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9.2

CURRENT SITE PHOTOGRAPHS Figure 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Image # DCS 00523 DCS 00539 DCS 00549 DCS 00552 DCS 00566 DCS 00619 DCS 00620 DSC 01870 Description Parliament House Vista from first floor of Parliament House Parliament House Vista from roof of Parliament House Parliament House Vista from Kings Avenue Bridge Parliament House Vista from Kings Avenue/ Wendouree Drive Parliament House Vista from Sir Thomas Blamey Square Panorama of Canberra from Mount Ainsle Panorama of Canberra from Mount Ainsle Parkes Way/ Constitution Avenue from Commonwealth Place South West South West South East Towards Parkes Way along Kings Ave - North East Towards Parkes Way along Kings Avenue - North East North East North East

9.3

PROPOSAL FOR NEW BRIDGE AND UNDERPASS Figure 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 Descriptions Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking east towards Russel Precinct Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking north along Parkes Way Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking west towards Kings Park Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking north along Parkes Way Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking south towards lake Burley Griffin Bridging of Kings Avenue over Parkes Way, site works area Bridging of Kings Avenue over Parkes Way, site works area Russel Overpass design footprint Parliament House existing vista Parliament House vista proposed Johnson Pilton Walker Johnson Pilton Walker National Capital Authority Architectural Images PL Architectural Images PL Architectural Images PL Architectural Images PL Architectural Images PL Architectural Images PL Architectural Images PL

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Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

10.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Author Title Publisher Date

Australian Dictionary of Biography ­ Online Edition Ministers Press Release Altenburg, K Argus Australian Government, National Capital Authority Australian Heritage Commission Australian Heritage Database Australian Heritage Database Australian Planning Institute The 1963 Canberra Convention Canberra Branch of the NSW Division of the Australian Planning Institute, Canberra Bacchi, C. L. Birkett, EM and Fernie, GN Birrell, James Birtles, T. G. The Nature-Nurture Debate in Australia 19001914, In Historical Studies, Vol.9, No. 75 Bridges in the Canberra Central Lake Areas ­ Design Walter Burley Griffin Scrivener's Ideas and Mapping Surveys for an Australian Capital City, Cartography, Vol. 17, No.2 Bluett, WP The Aborigines of the Canberra District at the Arrival of the White Man. Manuscript held at the Library of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra Brown, MC and Ollier, CD Butlin, N Our Original Aggression: Aboriginal populations of southeastern Australia 17881850Cab Consulting Pty Ltd, Context PL, Dr Warren Nicholls & Brendan O'Keefe Draft Parliament House Vista Heritage Management Plan Allen and Unwin, Sydney Geology and Scenery of Canberra Australian Geographer The Journal of the Institution University of Queensland Press, Brisbane RMC Duntroon Conservation Area, Harrison Road, Campbell, ACT Blundells Farmhouse, Slab Outbuilding and Surrounds, Wendouree Dr, Parkes, ACT Parliament House Vista, Anzac Parade, Parkes, Canberra, ACT, Australia Canberra: A Landscape History (1958 ­ 1980) `Enormous Lake, Rival to Sydney Harbour' Military Memorials in the National Capital Australian Government, National Capital Authority

08/06/2007 8 May 2007 1993 16 April 1915

21/10/1980

1973

1980 1964 1964 1988

1954

1975 1983

June 2007

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Author Brendan O'Keefe Charlton, Ken Cherry, Gordon and Penny, Leith Clough, R and Gray, J Clough, Richard and Hendry, Margaret Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Commonwealth of Australia (CA) Conroy Denning, Warren Department of Env. & Water Res. Duncan Marshall et al. Edwards, Maurice C.

Title

Publisher

Date

Federal Capital Architecture Holford Landscaping Lake Burley Griffin Mansell Publishing Ltd, London Institute of Park Administration Conference, Canberra Influence and Work in Australia, in Collens, G. and Powell, W. (eds), Sylvia Crowe Development of Canberra Landscape Design Trust, Surry The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia Federal Capital: Proposed Site at Federal Capital: Proposed Site at YassCanberra, No.6 Final Report National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) Act, No. 47 Second Annual Report, No. 83 The Construction of Dam and Improvements on the Molonglo River, Federal Capital, No. 893 The Proposed Construction of Commonwealth Avenue Bridge at Canberra Consultation Report, Kings Park Plan of Management Capital City. Canberra Today and Tomorrow "Urban & Town Planning Thematic Heritage Study" Draft Canberra Central Parklands Heritage Assessment Another Look at Canberra's Plan Albert Hall ­ Condition Assessment and BCA Compliance Report Sydney Morning Herald The Publicist, Sydney Federal Capital Commission (FCC) Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works (PW) Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works (PW) Federal Capital Advisory Committee (FACA)

1984 1986 April 1964

1999

1955

1907 1909 1926 1957 1926 1926

1955

2005 1938

February 2007 14 May 1957 August 2005

Eric Martin & Associat es

Federal Capital Advisory Committee Federal Capital Advisory Committee

Construction of Canberra

1922

Senate Committee Enquiry

1955

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Author Firth, Dianne

Title Behind the Landscape of Lake Burley Griffin: Landscape, water, politics and the national capital. 1899-1964

Publisher University of Canberra

Date 2000

Fisher, K. F. Fitzgerald, Alan

Canberra: Myths and Models Historic Canberra 1825­1945-- A Pictorial Record

A Publication of the Institute of Asian Affairs Australian Government Publishing Services, Canberra Canberra & District Historical Society, Canberra, ACT

1984 1977

Fitzhardinge, L. F. Freeman Collett & Partners Freeman, Peter Freestone, Robert Gale, John

Old Canberra and the Search for a Capital

1983

Central National Area-Canberra: Heritage & Environmental Study The Early Canberra House Communities. The Garden City Movement in Australia Canberra, History of and Legends Relating to the Federal Capital Territory of the Commonwealth of Australia Epworth Press, Sydney Thomas Nelson, Australia

1995 1996 1989 1927

Gibney, James Gibney, James Gillespie, L Gillespie, Lyall Godden Mackay Logan Gray, John

Calthorpe's Canberra: The town and community in 1927 Canberra 1913 ­ 1953 Aborigines of the Canberra Region Canberra 1820-1913 Lake Burley Griffin Heritage Assessment Draft Report T.C.G. Weston (1866-1935) Horticulturist and Aboriculturist. A Critical Review of his Contribution to the Establishment of the Landscape Foundations of Australia's National Capital

Australian Government Publishing Service AGPS Press Canberra Publishing and Printing, Canberra ACT AGPS Press, Canberra

1986 1988 1984 1991 June 2007

Thesis for the Degree of Doctor in Environmental Design of the University of Canberra

1999

Gray, John Consultant Gugler, A Gugler, Ann

The Historical and Cultural Background of Selected Urban Parks in Canberra Westlake One of the Vanished `Suburbs' of Canberra The Builders of Canberra 1909-1929 CPN Publications Pty Ltd, Fyshwick, ACT C.P.N. Publications, ACT (first published 1994)

December 1997 1997 1995

Gugler, Ann

Where They Lived 1910­1959. An overview of the Times. An Essay about the Builders of Canberra

2000

Holford, Sir William Holford, William Holford. Sir William

The Growth of Canberra

National Capital Development Commission

1965

Observations on the Future Development of Canberra, A.C.T. `Canberra: Comparatively Speaking',

The Commonwealth Government Architecture in Australia, December 1959

1958 1959

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Author Holford. Sir William

Title An Advisory Report on the Landscape of the Canberra Lake Scheme with Special

Publisher Reference to the Central Basin and Its Surroundings, NCDC, Canberra

Date 1961

Holford. Sir William Jackson-Nakano, Anne

The Landscape of the Central Basin The Kamberri: A History of Aboriginal Families in the ACT and Surrounds Aboriginal History Monograph 8, Weereewaa History Series 1

NCDC, Canberra Australian National University Press, Canberra Summer/Autumn Transition

1960 2001

James Weirick LFA LFA Marshall, D&D Firth Maunsell Metcalf, Andrew Mildenhall, William James National Capital Authority NCA NCA NCA NCA NCA NCA Files NCDC NCDC NCDC NCDC NCPA NCPA

Don't You Believe It: Critical Response to the New Parliament House Parliament House Vista Report Street Trees Assessment National Carillon and Aspen Island Management Plan, Draft 9 Traffic Analysis for Griffin Legacy Business Case Canberra Architecture Images of early Canberra National Capital Plan ­ Draft Amendment 53 ­ Albert Hall Precinct Amendment 56 Griffin Legacy ­ Principles and Policies PDF-342kb Amendment 60 Constitution Avenue PDF 1.28mb Parliamentary Zone Review Questions & Answers Media Information The Griffin Legacy Hyatt Hotel Parliamentary Zone Development Plan Sites of Sign in the ACT The Future Canberra Tomorrow's Canberra Lake Burley Griffin Management Plan National Capital Plan

1989 February 2007 February 2007 2006 December 2006 2003

Commonwealth of Australia

1993 February 2007 2008 2008 2000 9 May, 2007 2004 October 1989

NCDC

1986 1988

Angus & Robertson, Melbourne ANU Press, Canberra National Capital Planning Authority Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra

1965 1970 1995

NCPA Overall, John

Parliamentary Zone ­ A Development Programme Canberra, Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow The Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra

1989 1995

Pearson, Dr Michael; Betteridge, Maragret; Marshall, Duncan; O'Keefe, Brendan and

Old Parliament House: Conservation Management Plan

May 2000

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Author Michael; Betteridge, Maragret; Marshall, Duncan; O'Keefe, Brendan and Young, Dr Linda Pegrum, Roger

Title Management Plan

Publisher

Date

The Bush Capital

Hale & Iremonger Pty Ltd, Sydney

1983

Pryor LD and Banks, JCG Purchase, Shirley (Ed) Reid, Paul Richard, Aitken Richard, Gray Robert Boden, Gillian Hills Robert Campbell Robinson, F W Russell Offices Shumack, J E, and Samuel

Trees and Shrubs in Canberra Canberra's Early Hotels: A Pint-sized History Canberra following Griffin Gardenesque NCDC Building Height Policy Favourite Canberra Trees Australian Dictionary of Biography ­ Online Edition Canberra's First Hundred Years and After Heritage Management Plan Final Report An Autobiography, or Tales and Legends of Canberra pioneers

Little Hills Press, Crows Nest NSW Canberra & District Historical Society Inc.

1991 1999 2002

Miegunyah Press

2004 1972 1962 1976-1846

WC Penfold, Sydney NSW

1927 June 2006

(Edited by LF Fitzhardinge), Australian National University Press, Canberra

1967

Sulman, John

"The Federal Capital of Australia' in Transactions of the Town Planning Conference

London

1910

Sulman, John

An Introduction to the Study of Town Planning in Australia

William Applegate Gullick, Sydney John Sands Limited, Sydney

1921

Sulman, John

The Federal Capital

1909

Sylvia Crowe Sylvia Crowe Taylor Ken The Lake News Tindale, N. B. W C Andrews, W. Shellshear, I. Cooper, L. Pascoe, I.Morison, CJ Price, KJ

Edited by Geoffrey Collens and Wendy Powell Garden Design Canberra: City in a landscape Lake Burley Griffin Aboriginal Tribes of Australia Canberra's Engineering Heritage Second Edition ANU Press, Canberra 1937 June 1986 1974

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64

Minty, HA Jones, P.Clark, P Yonge, AH Corbett, TH

Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Author I.Morison, CJ Price, KJ Dalgarno, AE Minty, HA Jones, P.Clark, P Yonge, AH Corbett, TH Cooke, R Leslie, RPS Dalgleish, AE Taylder, KE Downey, JK Connal Watson, F Weirick, James

Title

Publisher

Date

A Brief History of Canberra `Spirituality and Symbolism in the Work of the Griffins' in Jane Watson, Beyond Architecture, Marion Mahony and Walter Burley Griffin

Federal Capital Press of Australia, Canberra ACT Powerhouse Publishing, Sydney

1927 1998

Weirick, James William Holdord & Partners William Holdord & Partners and Sylvia Crowe & Associates Wright, WD Young, Dr Linda

`The Griffins and Modernism' in Transition Statement of policy and preliminary landscape report Commonwealth Gardens Landscape Report

1988 1964 1965

Canberra Lost Houses of the Molonglo Valley

John Andrew & Co., Sydney Ginninderra Press, Canberra

1923 2007

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9. 9.1

ILLUSTRATIONS HISTORIC IMAGES

Fig. 2.1

1913

Griffin Plan - Canberra Federal Capital of Australia: Preliminary Plan.

Fig. 2.2

1915

Griffin Plan ­ Schematic Plan with levels to indicate road, rail and waterway levels.

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.3

1918

Griffin Plan ­ City and Environs, signed by Griffin as the area between Constitution Avenue and the Lake is lakeside boulevard.

Fig. 2.4

1929

The aerial shows the Russell area as bare landscape with no buildings or Griffin roads as yet formalised.

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.5

1950

Gibson's site plan for the Australian-American Memorial

Fig. 2.6

1951

Plan shows parklands north of the lake still with lakeside boulevard

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.7

1953

Australian American Memorial at the foot of Mount Russell in undeveloped area.

Fig. 2.8

1955

Aerial Photo of Canberra, Kings and Constitution Avenue yet to be defined.

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.9

1955

Recommendations of the 1955 Senate inquiry noting Russell Corner of the triangle is to be a focus.

Fig. 2.10

1955

Russell site showing a formal court leading to the Australian American Memorial

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.11

1958

Observations to Illustrate the Future of Canberra by Sir William Holford underpass for Kings Avenue was planned but not proceeded

Fig. 2.12

1958

The NCDC response to Lord Holford's plan the Russell area aligned perpendicular to Kings Avenue showing underpass at intersection Kings Avenue/ Parkes Way.

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.13

1959

Photo from City Hill, the Australian-American Memorial can be seen 200 metres off the axis.

Fig. 2.14

1959

Canberra City District ­ Central Area, NCDC. The intersection of Kings Avenue and Parkes Way is resolved with a roundabout.

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.15

1994

Study for the Central National Area completing Constitution Avenue and restoring the Russell corner of the triangle.

Fig. 2.16

2006

Russell showing vista along axis of Kings Avenue. Kings Avenue and Constitution Avenue terminates in a roundabout.

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

Fig. 2.17

2006D

Griffin Legacy with a new underpass and landscaping to reinforce the axis of Kings Avenue and node of the apex.

1245.07.01.06 Historic#3A03.doc

9.2

CURRENT SITE PHOTOGRAPHS

Fig. 3.1

Parliament House Vista from First Floor of Parliament House

Towards Parkes Way along Kings Ave - North East

Fig. 3.2

Parliament House Vista from roof of Parliament House

Towards Parkes Way along Kings Avenue - North East

1245.07.01.06 Current_#3A04.doc

1

Fig. 3.3

Parliament House Vista from Kings Avenue Bridge

North East

Fig. 3.4

Parliament House Vista from Kings Avenue/ Wendouree Drive

North East

1245.07.01.06 Current_#3A04.doc

2

Fig. 3.5

Parliament House Vista from Sir Thomas Blamey Square

South West

Fig 3.6

Panorama of Canberra from Mount Ainsle

South West

1245.07.01.06 Current_#3A04.doc

3

Fig. 3.7

Panorama of Canberra from Mount Ainsle

South

Fig. 3.8

Parkes Way/ Constitution Avenue from Commonwealth Place

East

1245.07.01.06 Current_#3A04.doc

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Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

9.3 PROPOSAL FOR NEW BRIDGE AND UNDERPASS

Fig. 7.1

Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking east towards Russel Precinct

Architectural Images PL

Fig. 7.2

Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking north along Parkes Way

Architectural Images PL

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Fig. 7.3

Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking west towards Kings Park

Architectural Images PL

Fig. 7.4

Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking north along Parkes Way

Architectural Images PL

Architectural Projects Pty Ltd : 1245.07.01.10 Proposa#43209.doc

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Fig. 7.5

Model of proposed bridge and underpass looking south towards lake Burley Griffin

Architectural Images PL

Fig. 7.6

Bridging of Kings Avenue over Parkes Way, site works area

Johnson Pilton Walker

Architectural Projects Pty Ltd : 1245.07.01.10 Proposa#43209.doc

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Fig. 7.7

Bridging of Kings Avenue over Parkes Way, site works area

Johnson Pilton Walker

Fig. 7.8

Russel Overpass design footprint

National Capital Authority

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Fig. 7.9

Parliament House existing vista

Architectural Projects

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Fig. 7.10

Parliament House vista proposed

Architectural Projects

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

Fig. 7.10

Parliament House vista proposed

Architectural Projects

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Job No: 08.1245

Kings Avenue/Parkes Way, Canberra

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