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California Mushrooms PMB113

Pink-spored agarics

Fall 2007

Pluteaceae ­ Habit pluteoid; lamellae free; spores "pink"; lamella trama inverse

(convergent); pileipellis (cap cuticle) variable. Saprotrophic, on wood, wood chips, soil; one Volvariella species parasitic on fruitbodies of Clitocybe nebularis. Pluteus ­ no volva, no annulus. Habit small to moderate sized mushrooms with stipes that "snap", pileus usually planar or slightly umbonate at maturity. Microscopic features - spore smooth (and boring), gill trama convergent, cystidia usually present and often very distinctive, pileopellis a cutis, trichoderm, or hymenoderm Ecology - solitary or in small groups, always on wood (they really like tan oak in our area), yet difficult to culture axenically Common species Pluteus cervinus (Deer fungus) ­ very common. This species belongs to a section of the genus which is characterized by thick-walled horned pleurocystidia, a pileipellis made up of radial hyphae, and a solid stipe. Pluteus atromartinatus - a cervinus-like species with dark gill edges (due to cheilocystidia) Pluteus thomsonii - small whitish species with a hymenoderm pileopellis and caulocystidia P. salicinus - a slightly smaller gray species with a stipe that bruises blue (due to psilocybin) P. flavofuligineus - a beautiful bright yellow species Volvariella ­ volva present Habit - small to very large mushrooms with free pink gills and a volva. Microscopic features - convergent gill trama, boring spores Ecology - on soil, or compost or wood chips, or cultivated, rarely mycoparasistic Common species Volvariella volvacea - the paddy straw mushroom, natural habitat: china town. Volvariella gloiocephala (synomyn V. speciosa) ­ our most common species, on fresh wood chips. Greyish, slightly gelatinous pileus, thick whitish volva. Volvariella bombycina - hugh silky pileus, a rare species that shows up in unexpected places usually on wood. No keys for the genus Pluteus as a whole for our area are available. For the Pluteus cervinus-group: Banerjee, P. & W.J. Sundberg, 1995. The genus Pluteus section Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) in the midwestern United States. Mycotaxon 53: 189-246. For Pluteus species with a cellular pileipellis: Homola, R., 1972. Section Celluloderma of the genus Pluteus in North America. Mycologia 64: 1211-1247. Shaffer, R.L., 1957. Volvariella in North America. Mycologia 49: 545-579. Michael Kuo "mushroom expert" key is worth a try

California Mushrooms PMB113

Pink-spored agarics

Fall 2007

~~~~~ Entolomataceae ­ Habit very variable; lamellae adnate, adnexed, decurrent; spores "pink" and cubical, knobbed, or grooved; lamella trama regular or (irregular?). Saprotrophic on soil, a few species tentatively ectomycorrhizal, a few species mycoparasitic. Entoloma, Nolanea, Leptonia ­ with cubical to angular-knobby spores. Some authors distinguish 13 genera, others just one genus, Entoloma, with many subgenera. The three most widespread are Entoloma Habit tricholomatoid habit: big sturdy fruitbodies; sometimes with odors Microscopic features: Pileopellis usually a cutis with clamp connections common on crosswalls (>20%), spores angular in all views Ecology: Most thought to be saprobes, some species ectomycorhhizal with Rosaceae and Ulmus; some species cause heavy gastro-intestinal problems. Common species - many are common, but identification is very difficult to the species level Entoloma bloxamii (synonym E. madidum) blue on stipe and pileus is common. Entoloma nidorosum gr - one of many large, gray-brown species, but this group has a prominent bleach-like odor, Entoloma rhodopolium gr. - large gray to yellowish tan species lacking bleach smell. Lots of species in the group, and few are bold enough to apply names to them. All poisonous. Nolanea Habit collybioid/mycenoid fruitbodies; Brown-grey mushrooms. Often with funky odors: fishy, rancid, farinaceous Microscopic features - pileopellis with entangled hyphae in center of pileus, clamp connections rare in these (<10 %) Ecology - all thought to be saprobes, found on the forest floor. Common species - a large and difficult genus Leptonia Habit collybioid fruitbodies, with umbilicate or centrally depressed pileus, often with bluish, pinkish, greenish tinges, and a shiny steel-like stipe; edge of gills often reddish, bluish or greenish. Beautiful species Microscopic features: angular spores (like the others); pileopellis with upright, cylindrical to inflated cells in center of disc. Ecology all thought to be saprobes Common species Species change colours when aging, hard to identify, also by experts. Clitopilus ­ a small genus ; lamellae decurrent. Habit - our only common species looks like a Clitocybe (omphaloid) with strongly decurrent gills, other species can pleurotoid Microscopic features nerf football-shaped spores Ecology - saprobic Common species Clitopilus prunulus (the Miller) - a grayish small to moderate-sized mushroom with pinkish decurrent gills and a strong farinaceous odor (smell of flour or cut roma beans); good edible, but

California Mushrooms PMB113

Pink-spored agarics

Fall 2007

check spores before eating, as some Clitocybe species look very similar, and they might contain muscarin.

Largent, D.L., 1994. Entolomatoid fungi of the western United States and Alaska. Mad River Press, Inc., Eureka. (Clitopilus not treated) Czederpiltz, D.L.L.., T.J. Volk & H.H. Burdsall, 2001. Field observation and inoculuation experiments to determine the nature of the carpophoroids associated with Entoloma abortivum and Armillaria. Mycologia 93: 841-851. Kobayashi, H. & K. Hatano. 2001. A morphological study of the mycorrhiza of Entoloma clypeatum f. hybridum on Rosa multiflora. Mycoscience 42: 83-90.

California Mushrooms PMB113 Fall 2007 ~~~

Overview of mushroom families with white to pink spores




main genera

Russula, Lactarius --Amanita, Limacella

Sphaerocysts in trama (not only hyphae as in all other families) Spores white to cream (or orange), with amyloid warts and ridges, sulfovanilla positive cystidia ----Amanitaceae Lamellae free Universal (and partial) veil present Spores white Lamella trama divergent (made up of big inflated cells in Amanita) Pluteaceae Lamellae free Universal veil present in Volvariella Spores pink-brown, ellipsoid Lamella trama convergent (inverse), made up of big inflated cells Entolomataceae Lamellae not free Veils absent Spores pink-brown, and angular, knobby, or ridged Lamella trama regular (or irregular?) Hygrophoraceae Lamellae waxy or thick, often decurrent (sometimes Often with bright colours, esp. in Hygrocybe included in Partial veil present in Hygrophorus Tricholomataceae) Spores white, smooth Lamella trama divergent in Hygrophorus, made up of narrow cells Basidia long and slender Agaricaceae p.p. Lamellae free Universal and partial veil present Lamella trama regular or trabecular Spores white to pale pink ----Tricholomataceae not with the character combinations of the other families 1

Pluteus, Volvariella

Entoloma (incl. Leptonia, Nolanea) Clitopilus Hygrophorus Hygrocybe, Camarophyllus,

Lepiota, Leucoagaricus, Leucocoprinus, Macrolepiota, Chlorophyllum ---

California Mushrooms PMB113 Fall 2007 ~~~

Tricholomataceae - overview of characters


habit see figure

character states

pleurotoid: stipe is laterally attached to the pileus mycenoid: with long slender stipe, conical to flat pileus, and adnexed to adnate lamellae omphalioid: with decurrent lamellae and often slender stipe collybioid: pileus not conical, nor umbilicate; context tough; tricholomatoid: with broad pileus and relatively short stipe convex applanate, umbonate conical umbilicate decurrent adnate adnexed emarginate, sinuate (notched) almost free short and squat long and slender tough in most cases absent universal veil present partial veil present white, cream, pink, brownish - lamellae might be coloured in most cases smooth and glabrous, not angular, without germ pore minutely roughened and amyloid spiny shorter than 5.5 times the spore length usually absent or subtitle usually abundant and prominent regular, irregular very variable: cutis, hymeniderm, trichoderm absent or present

example genera

Pleurotus, Hohenbuehelia, Panus, Lentinus Mycena Omphalina group, Clitocybe Gymnopus (Collybia), Marasmius, Laccaria, Melanoleuca Tricholoma, Leucopaxillus Mycena Omphalina, Clitocybe Omphalina, Clitocybe, Xeromphalina many Mycena Tricholoma, Melanoleuca Cystoderma Tricholoma Mycena, Marasmius, Marasmius, Gymnopus (Collybia), Melanoleuca Most genera Cystoderma Armillaria, Tricholoma most Melanoleuca, Leucopaxillus Laccaria all (if longer see Hygrophoraceae) Clitocybe, Tricholoma, Gymnopus (Collybia), Tricholomopsis, Mycena,

pileus shape



veil spore print spores basidia cystidia lamella trama pileipellis clamps


California Mushrooms PMB113 Fall 2007 ~~~

special substrate

on cones on leaves or needles parasitic on other mushrooms mutualistic with green algae On wood Mycorrhial


Baeospora,Strobilurus Marasmius, Mycena, Hemimycena Nyctalis (Asterophora), Squamanita Lichenomphalia many Tricholoma, Laccaria, Panellus, Armillaria, Omphalotus



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Microsoft Word - Pink spored agarics