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Dr. Yuri Khersonsky, Dr. Narain Hingorani, Dr. Herbert Ginn and Joseph Sullivan

IEEE Standards for Open Architecture in Naval Ship Control Systems

Abstract

The IEEE has a portfolio of more than 870 completed standards and more than 400 standards in development. This paper emphasizes that IEEE standards are collective practical experience of many generations of engineers and they are the necessary tools for any controls engineer. Paper also describes the status of the IEEE societies standardization activities and reviews active IEEE and international standards applicable to Naval Ship Control and Power Delivery Systems. manufacturers and customers. IEEE members worldwide voluntarily participate in standards activities. Examples of these activities are:

IEEE Std. 1662TM-2008

Industrial Applications Society developed new IEEE Std. 1662TM-2008 "Guide for the design and application of Power Electronics in Electrical Power Systems on Ships". It states: Power Electronics equipment should have a local controller that operates autonomously regardless of the status of communications with other controllers. The local controller performs the basic equipment functions for internal actions, and it reports to the next higher hierarchical controller for equipment functions, which require system-level coordination. The power electronics local controller should provide the appropriate interfaces and functionalities to meet ship-wide automation and control needs. For individual equipment controllers, the following control functionality may be required: Provide autonomous control of itself and equipment served. Provide health/status to, and receive control commands from, higher level equipment or supervisory control workstation. Provide autonomous fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration coordinated with a supervisory controller. Provide power flow management in accordance with allocations provided by higher level equipment or the supervisory control workstation. Provide a multi-line display capability as well as a minimum of hardwired controls and indicators for local operation and maintenance of the equipment's functions. This functionality should be provided via a

Introduction

According to P.L. 104-113 "The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995" Federal agencies must use voluntary consensus standards and participate in the development of such standards. The IEEE, a globally recognized standards-setting body, develops such consensus technical standards through an open process that brings diverse industries and academia together. These standards are establishing baseline for customer's selection and acceptance of products as well as the technical base for codes, rules and regulations by different enforcing and regulating authorities. All IEEE standards continuously revised at required 5 years interval.

IEEE Ship Control standards

The IEEE, a globally recognized standardssetting body, develops standards through an open process that brings diverse parts of an industry together. The IEEE has a portfolio of more than 870 completed standards and more than 400 standards in development. These standards set specifications and procedures based on consensus of working group members as an accumulated practical experience of

human machine interface (HMI) and will provide a means for the operator to handle each type of alert and to review alert status for itself and equipment served. Provide built-in test capability. Response to changing load conditions.

The equipment level controller should: take self-protection actions regardless of the status of communications by performing autonomous or reflexive actions to maintain continuity of power. respond to internal and downstream faults. sustain communications and ability to perform control actions following a loss of input voltage to permit detection, isolation, and system reconfiguration following a casualty condition. latch parameter values at the time of the fault and communicate status to higher level controllers. be in the off-line, standby, on-line, battery/maintenance, or unavailable. a means should be provided at the equipment to place the equipment controller in local or remote control. respond to commands received via the local area network (LAN) but not from the local HMI other than emergency controls and self-protection. interact in the prescribed manner with other power electronics equipment for power flow management and fault handling. Alarm display should be both local and remote.

storage are connected to the dc bus via power electronics converters, dc/ac, and dc/dc or ac/dc. Such an approach allows limiting fault currents, relative ease of connection of different size generators, storage and loads. It is proposed that MVDC systems, should use commercially available Power Electronics Building Blocks (PEBB) shown on Figure 2. Each PEBB have its own intelligence to be programmable and self protecting to the appropriate extent possible. Automatic control should ensure smooth insertion and removal of generators and sharing of loads as desired.

IEEE i8 Working Group

Over last 20 years through several large and small projects ONR encouraged development of PEBB concept that is now practiced worldwide by many power electronics manufacturers. To support these new concept, Working Group WG i8 "Power Electronics Building Block Concepts" was launched in 2000 under Substation Committee of Power Engineering Society PES (now Power and Energy Society PES). By engaging very diverged and knowledgeable international group of power electronics specialists, WG i8 spread the word and changed power electronics business culture. In 2003, IEEE Working Group i8 published a document for a variety of high power electronics applications with a power range from hundreds of kW to thousands of MW. This Document, Product Number 04TP170 "Power Electronics Building Block (PEBB) Concepts", is available from IEEE. Concurrently and for the same objectives, Task Force 1 of the sponsoring Working Group i8, worked on defining the control architecture for PEBB-based power electronics. This Task Force concluded that when the control functions of different power electronic systems are investigated and evaluated, a significant degree of common functionality emerges, irrespective of the target application.

IEEE Std. 1709-2010

The new IEEE Std. 1709-2010 "Recommended Practice for 1 to 35 KV Medium Voltage DC Power Systems on Ships" has been approved by IEEE Standards Board on its June 2010 meeting. This standard recommends functional MVDC block diagram on Figure 1 based on the assumption that all generators, loads, and

Ship Wide Electric Power and Energy Management and Control

System protection

Other ship system controls

Bus Regulation (power conditioning)

(connect, disconnect, control & information)

Shore Power Interface

Pulse Load

Propulsion

Power Generation

MVDC bus

Ship Service

Energy Storage

Dedicated High Power Load

Figure 1 ­ Functional MVDC block diagram

Power Electronic Building Blocks PEBB

Figure 2 Power Electronics Building Block Concept

Power Engineering Society PES extended activities of its working group i8 to develop new IEEE standard P1676 "Guide for Control Architecture for High Power Electronics (1 MW and Greater) used in Electric Power Transmission and Distribution Systems". This standard is in balloting now. IEEE P1676 recommends using the concept of system layers shown on Figure 3. The control layers include a system layer, an application layer, a converter layer, a switching layer, and a hardware layer. The layers in Figure 3 are based on temporal considerations. The criteria for establishing the location of the boundaries for each layer based on functional partitioning are as follows: a. System Control Layer All functions involved in the determination of the system mission and, thus, the duties of the power electronics system or their mode of operation, belong to this layer. It also includes human-machine interfaces. From the viewpoint of the system controller, the lower control layers execute all power electronic system functions that are necessary to fulfill the system mission. b. Application Control Layer The application control layer dictates the operation of the power electronics system in order to meet the mission determined by the system control. From the viewpoint of the application controller, the lower control layers of the power electronics system enable the power electronics system to be viewed as controlled current source, or controlled voltage source. c. Converter Control Layer Converter control layer is the feedback control system, while the other components support the input and output requirements of the feedback control system. The converter control layer implements many of the functions common to all converters such as synchronous timing (PLL), current and voltage filtering,

measurements, and feedback control calculations. d. Switching Control Layer The switching control layer and all lower layers enable the power electronics to behave as a switch-mode controlled source and include functions such as modulation control and pulse generation. These functions are common and independent of the final application. e. Hardware Control Layer The hardware control layer manages everything specific to the power devices, and it may consist of multiple modules depending on the power requirements. Gating, galvanic isolation, safe commutation, limits of di/dt, dv/dt, and first level protections, etc., are functions of this layer and are common for virtually any application. When a system is partitioned, the partition interface should be designed to meet performance requirements of different layers, including requirements on data volume and transmission rates. Moreover, the interface should be designed to enable layer modularity such that replacement of any layer should not induce modifications in other layers. The communication speed requirements at the lowest or hardware layer are the greatest and decline with each higher control layer. In order to preserve the hierarchical architecture horizontal communication between layers should be avoided. Therefore, it is also recommended that each converter have its own independent switch control to serve its hardware control. The proposed architecture further suggests that there may be a common converter control to serve multiple switching controls. Also, one application control may serve more than one converter control. The function of protection is to take the necessary action as fast as required; therefore, the function of protection may go to any of the layers.

Figure 3. Control/Protection Architecture for Power Electronics

IEEE P1826

Industrial Applications and Power Electronics Societies just formed the new joint working group P1826 to develop new "IEEE Standard for Power Electronics Open System Interfaces in Zonal Electrical Distribution Systems rated above 100 kW". Goals of the new standard are: implement 4 major principles of the Department of Defense Open Systems Approach establish preferred state of the systems under varying conditions. identify the interactions between the internal parts, the system and the environment. define how Openness of System should be verified and validated through rigorous assessment mechanism, interface control

management and proactive conformance testing maintain total system performance and efficiency under changing mission and loads conditions. enable plug-and-play operability, information exchange, and reconfiguration of the systems in response to load demands, change of the mission or new technologies insertion.

IEC Ship Control Standards

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national Electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and

electronic fields. IEC publishes International Standards, and Guides (IEC Publication(s)). IEC technical committee TC 18 maintains the IEC 60092 family of standards under common title Electrical Installations in Ships. IEC 60092 is a series of international standards for electrical installations in sea-going ships, incorporating good practice and coordinating, as far as possible, existing rules. These standards form a code of practical interpretation and amplification of the requirements of the International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea, a guide for future regulations which may be prepared and a statement of practice for use by ship owners, shipbuilders and appropriate organizations. The following reference parts of IEC 60092 are related to Ship Control Systems: IEC 60092-101: 2002, Electrical installations in ships ­ Part 101: Definitions and general requirements. IEC 60092-201: 1994, Electrical installations in ships ­ Part 201: System design ­ General IEC 60092-202, Electrical installations in ships. ­ Part 202: System design ­ Protection IEC 60092-204, Electrical installations in ships ­ Part 204: System design ­ Electric and electrohydraulic steering gear. IEC 60092-350: 2008, Ed. 3.0, Electrical installations in ships - Part 350: General construction and test methods of power, control and instrumentation cables for shipboard and offshore applications. IEC 60092-501:2001, Electrical installations in ships ­ Part 501: Special features ­ Electric propulsion plant. IEC 60092-503: 2007 Ed. 2.0 Electrical installations in ships - Part 503: Special features - AC supply systems with voltages in the range of above 1 kV up to and including 15 kV IEC 60092-504:2001, Electrical installations in ships ­ Part 504: Special features ­ Control and instrumentation. IEC/ISO/IEEE 60092-510 The standard IEC/ISO/IEEE 60092-510 Electrical installations in ships ­ Part 510 : Special features ­ High-voltage shore connection systems is developed jointly between

IEC technical committee 18 "Electrical installations in ships and mobile and offshore units", the technical committee of ISO TC8 " Ships & Marine Technology Subcommittee SC 3, Piping and Machinery" and IEEE IAS PCIC Marine Industry Subcommittee. It will go to balloting in summer of 2010. This international standard (standard) describes HVSC systems, on board the ship and on shore, to supply the ship with electrical power from shore. This standard is applicable to the design, installation and testing of HVSC systems and plants and addresses: high-voltage shore distribution system, shore-to-ship connection, transformers/reactors, semiconductor / rotating convertors, ship distribution system, and control, monitoring, interlocking and power management system.

The standard requirements for system control and monitoring are: Ship equipment shall be protected and controlled by the ship's own protection and control systems. Load transfer shall be provided via blackout or synchronization Interlocking means shall be provided to ensure that the shore supply can only be connected to a dead switchboard. The interlocking means shall be arranged to prevent connection to a live switchboard when operating normally or in the event of a fault, e.g. a fault in the blackout monitoring circuit. load shall be automatically synchronized and transferred between the HV shore supply and ship source(s) of electrical power following their connection in parallel, the load transfer shall be completed in as short a time as practicable without causing machinery or equipment failure or operation of protective devices and shall be used as the basis for defining the transfer time limit any system or function used for paralleling or controlling the shore connection, shall have no influence on the ship's electrical system, when there is no shore connection.

Figure 4 ­ Block diagram of a typical HVSC system arrangement

Industry is anxious for standards in this area especially in California where new restrictions have been placed on the operation of auxiliary diesel engines on ocean-going vessels at-berth in California ports (Section 2299.3, title 13, chapter 5.1, California Code of Regulations).

CONCLUSIONS

IEEE working group activities in writing new and revising active older standards for marine industries are making possible significant risk reduction in applying new technologies by combining established industrial practices with the latest innovations and modern analytical tools.

When the control functions of many different power electronic systems are investigated and evaluated, a significant degree of common functionality emerges, irrespective of the target application. Using the concept of system layers, it is possible to define a hierarchical control architecture for high power electronicsbased systems.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Authors gratefully acknowledge support from Mr. Terry Ericsen from Office of Naval Research as well as from all members of IEEE P1662, P1676, P1709, P1713 and i8 Working Groups.

REFERENCES

1. IEEE Std 1709TM-2010 ""Recommended Practice for 1 to 35 KV Medium Voltage DC Power Systems on Ships" 2. IEEE Std 1662TM-2008 "Guide for the Design and Application of Power Electronics in Electrical Power Systems on Ships", 3. IEEE Power Engineering Society, "Power Electronics Building Block (PEBB) Concepts", IEEE publication 04TP170, 2004 4. Y. Khersonsky, N. Hingorani, K. Peterson "IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Initiative", IEEE Industry Applications Society 2009 Petroleum & Chemical Industry Conference, Anaheim CA, September 14-16, 2009.

VITA

Dr. Yuri Khersonsky is consultant to the Office of Naval Research. Previously as Vice President of Technology for Power Paragon Inc. and L-3 Communications SPD Technologies he was responsible for development &integration of Power Conversion Systems, Servo-drives, Solid State Circuit Breakers and Transfer Switches for US Navy and industrial applications. He is Life Senior Member of IEEE Industrial Applications, Power Electronics and Power Engineering Societies, Chair of IEEE P166, P1709 and P1826 working groups, and Technical Chair of IEEE Electrical Ship Technologies Symposiums in 2005, 2007 and 2009. He is a Life Member of Naval League and Surface Navy Association, a Member of American Society of Naval Engineers, Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology and Naval Submarine League. He holds 5 patents, published over 80 papers and co-authored two books: "Optimization of Positioning Electrodrives" and "Thyristor Control of Asynchronous Electro-drives". He received his ElectroMechanical Engineer's Diploma (M.Sc.) and Ph.D. in Technical Sciences from Odessa Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Narain Hingorani is ONR consultant on Power Electronics Applications in Power Systems since 1995 after twenty year at EPRI ( 5 years as Vice President of Electrical Systems). He spent 6 years at Bonneville Power Administration and credited with originating power-electronics based concepts of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). He published over 150 papers and coauthored two books on HVDC power transmission (1960) and on Flexible AC Power Transmission

(1999). He is IEEE Life Fellow and was presented Uno Lamm Medal by IEEE Power Engineering Society for outstanding contributions in High HVDC Technology, and IEEE Lamme Gold Medal for leadership and pioneering contributions to transmission and distribution of electric power. In 2006 he received Franklin Institute Bower Medal and Prize for Science. He received B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from Baroda University in India, and M.Sc., Ph.D. and Doctor of Science from University of Manchester England. In 1988, he was elected to US National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Herbert L. Ginn III received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees both in electrical engineering from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, in 1998 and 2002 respectively. He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of South Carolina as an Associate Professor in 2010. Previously he was an Associate Professor at Mississippi State University and Director of the Power and Energy Research Laboratory in the ECE department which he joined in 2003. His research interests encompass the areas of power electronics with emphasis on power electronics applications in power systems, power phenomena and compensation in non-sinusoidal systems, and power quality issues. He is a Principal Technical Editor of IEEE P1676"Draft Guide for Control Architecture for High Power Electronics(1MW and Greater)" and was a major contributor to the IEEE Std 1662-2008 and IEEE Std 1709-2010. Joseph R. Sullivan III received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Penn State, in 1991, and has held a research position with the Department of the Navy for the past 20 years. His primary areas of interest have been with power electronic converters, controls and their application in current and future Navy systems. While working for the Navy he has been involved in the Navy Integrated Fight Through Power Program, Power Electronic Building Block Program and the ONR Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System Demonstrator. Mr. Sullivan holds the chair position in IEEE Working Group i8 Task Force 1 (P1676) which is writing a guide titled "Guide for Control Architecture for High Power Electronics (1 MW and Greater) used in Electric Power Transmission and Distribution Systems." He is a member of IEEE, IEEE-Standards Association, Eta Kappa Nu Sigma H, and Lambda honorary Society.

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