Read 1996 Basics of Chocolate Panning text version

Basics of Chocolate Panning

material has evolved to allow modern day panners higher outputs in less time with expectations of superior quality. Modern Day Panning Your success as a modern day panner depends very much on your ability to control conditions, material, equipment and technique. To "establish control" is critical to sustaining quality. EQUIPMENT Choosing the right type of panning equipment to begin a new operation or to upgrade your existing operation, can be a challenging experience. Equipment is available to meet every panning production need from low volume output to very large volume output and at prices ranging from a poor man's pan (budget price) to a king's ransom. Most operations will begin their panning experience with conventional pans (revolving stainless steel or copper pans) and will migrate to more sophisticated equipment as budget and volume dictates. Figure 1 briefly describes available panning equipment. Large volume automatic computer controlled pans represent the ultimate in available equipment and demonstrate the dramatic evolution from conventional revolving pans. For the most part large automatic pans are the domain of the multinational high volume candy manufacturers. The high capital outlay for large automatic pans must be weighed against the many benefits offered such as: low labor, high level of process control, consistent quality, less shrink, high volume output in less time (improved yield), lower energy costs and less floor space. Belt coating systems provide a "middle ground" option for panners considering upgrades in equipment. Typical belt coating systems offer

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his paper will address what I consider to be the four major elements of chocolate panning. · Equipment · Environment · Material · Technique The above elements encompass important sub-elements of equipment (types and style of pans, tanks, pumps and piping, air delivery, spray versus drip and controls) and environment (air conditioning, humidity and heat/cold). Equipment and environment are important elements; however, your

choice of material (chocolate, compound, yogurt) will have the greatest impact on the taste, texture and flavor of your final product. Careful attention to selection of equipment, management of environment and choice of material must be supported by a good understanding and development of processing techniques. A discussion of techniques and troubleshooting will complete this review. I will detail common panning processing problems, explore the probable source of problems and offer suggested solutions. WHAT IS PANNING Panning may well be the oldest form of processed confection, dating back over 1,000 years. A simplified definition of panning would be: a continual and controlled gross-up of a center by the application of chocolate (or other coating) and cold conditioned air on centers inside a revolving vessel (pan) until the desired size and smoothness is achieved. Sounds easy, doesn't it?! Although the basic principle of panning has not changed over the years, just about everything else from equipment to processing and

Thomas Copping

Alpha Candies

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improved levels of process control over conventional pans. Many newer belt coaters have programmable logic controllers (PLC) built in which provides many of the same benefits found in large automatic pans. Belt coaters are closed systems utilizing a perforated plastic belt formed in a "U" shape to promote a wave of product common to conventional pans. A drip method is used to apply material to centers. Cooling is introduced through internal air ducts with cool air being pulled through the perforated belt. Air can be controlled by the operator or by a PLC. A 48 belt will deliver higher pounds out than a 42/48 revolving pan for comparable center and gross-up factor. Labor is considerably reduced versus revolving pans and overspray is virtually eliminated. Belt coaters are a viable and cost efficient option to conventional and large automated pans. For the purpose of this presentation, and based on the benefit of my experience with conventional pans, my comments and examples are directed to traditional (conventional) revolving pans. Tanks, Pumps and Piping Whether you are upgrading an existing set up or starting from scratch, you have a wide range of options for the purchase of new or used equipment. Figure 2 lists factors that should influence your buying choice. SOURCE OF HEAT FOR JACKETS Electric heat is not energy efficient, not cost efficient, quick and reliable. It is also easier to control specific temperatures. Natural Gas/Steam/Water Boiler The best option for your general needs is natural gas as an energy source. A low-pressure gas-fired steam boiler with a heat exchanger to achieve desired temperature is a good solution as a heat source, specifically where many tanks and pipes require heating close to the same temperatures. A gas fired hot water boiler is the most cost efficient way to go for small to mid-size operations. These units are not overly expensive and one or more can provide reliable cost efficient heating. For small hot water holding tank be sure to use stainless steel. Mild steel will rust quickly and will promote rusting in your piping system. Use a water softener system to extend life of pipes and tanks. Consider a mix of water and propylene glycol for closed systems or where there is minimal evaporation. Long-term efficiencies can be gained through some initial purchases. Do not leave heated tanks open. Keep them closed with a stainless steel lid. Moisture from evaporation can impact on chocolate and other coatings. Install fans in your hot rooms and tank farm area to improve temperature balance. AIR DELIVERY Delivery of clean dry air is absolutely essential to product quality. Several types are available--piston, screw, hydrovane and others. I prefer and recommend a screw type air compressor for the following reasons: · No oil as with piston · Less noise versus hydrovane · More compact--small footprint A screw type is little more expensive than a piston type but the benefits are well worth the extra cost. Whatever system you choose, be very sure to install a good drying system balanced to the cfm output of your air compressor. APPLICATION OF MATERIAL There are two methods of applying material to centers in conventional revolving pans. Drip Systems There are two types of drip systems: · Hand drip using a ladle to distribute a stream of chocolate over centers. · Hand drip system using a conical device shaped much like a funnel with an adjustable valve on the bottom to allow for control of the stream of chocolate. This device usually contains 3­8 pounds of chocolate allowing the operator

Panning Equipment

Pan Type Traditional Pans Style Open front oval or pear shape stainless steel or copper revolving to create wave of product flow Closed cabinet with perforated plastic belt "u" shaped designed to create wave of product flow Closed SS cylinder or SS drum designed to create long wave of product flow Air/Dry Delivered by flexible duct work with hand shut off 6­8 wide Self contained automatic system Size 32­60 42­48 most common 3.5´­5´ door opening 6´­7´ high 10´­14´ high 18´­24´ long 8´ wide Volume Output 1,000 lbs using 5 48 ss pans gross Up of 1/1 peanuts 1,200 lbs using 3 typical belt coaters 4´ size 2,200 lbs using 1 automatic pan Batch Time 45 min. Direct Labor 1

Belt Coaters

40 min.

1

Automatic Jumbo Pan

Self contained automatic PLC controlled system programmable

45 min.

1

Volume output based on chocolate covered peanuts one to one ratio does not include pre-coat time.

Figure 1

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Factors to Consider

Tanks Agitation Size Motor Location New Used Used Used Pumps Capacity Spec. Type Jacket Piping Size Type Jacket Connections Insulation Piping Used Consider Double agitating c/w close side arms (scrapers) Size to match needs Best under tanks Parts available--local supplier Check all mechanical thoroughly Check jacket for wear/leaks Do pressure test on jacket Consider Be sure pump has capacity to service volume required. Must be calibrated for speed and tolerance for chocolate SS or mild steel--choose from local supplier Water jacket is best--otherwise heat trace required Consider Usually 1 1/2 to 2 unless main supply line SS always best but mild steel acceptable (shorter Life) Do pressure test even if newly fabricated Thread or victaulic--victaulic is best for flexibility Insulate everywhere outside of hot room/tank farm--will save time and money later Consider Beware of used piping Re corrosion, leaks, bacteria Do pressure test on each section If possible use treated soft water for all jackets (pipes and tanks)

eted. The tube has holes in the bottom to allow for a continuous drip. Depending on the construction of the tube, the operator can control the rate of drip by adjusting valves on the tube or by adjusting a main value located on the incoming line. These systems have the advantage of delivering coatings to centers without the overspray problem common to air driven spray heads. The tube drip system has a disadvantage in that it is sometimes difficult to keep the coating from setting up in the delivery lines. I have tried both systems and prefer the air driven spray head system despite the extra clean up required due to overspray. CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION As with any process, control represents one of the key elements to success. · Control temperature · Control humidity · Control air pressure First of all, it is important to set up control points throughout your process. Secondly, decide what information you are trying to capture and finally, decide how you are going to use the information to protect, maintain and improve your process. Control Points: · Thermometer on all tanks. · Thermometer in hot room, grossup area and spray area. · Hygrometer or sling psychrometer (to read relative humidity) in hot room, gross-up area and polish area. · Air pressure indicators should be installed just prior to air pressure use points. When using conventional spray panning systems a pressure indicator and a temperature indicator should be installed on your chocolate return line immediately after the last pan on the line. This will give you valuable information as to normal operating parameters for pressure (flow of chocolate) and temperature at these critical points. Calibration: One should never have blind trust in instrumentation readings, particularly when an

Figure 2

more gross-up time without returning continually to a pail of chocolate as with a ladle system. These hand drip devices are effective when doing small test runs or where the coating would contaminate regular spray lines and cause a clean up problem. Spray Versus Drip In conventional panning the most common method of delivering chocolate to centers is through the use of a spray system. Spray systems utilize a device commonly known as a spray head. This device is made of stainless steel and utilizes compressed air to force chocolate (or other coatings) through an orifice which, when under the force of air pressure provides a steady flow of chocolate in a circular pattern to the centers. The concentration of the spray can be adjusted somewhat through the increase or decrease of air pressure and opening or closing of the nozzle. If air pressure is sufficient (usually each pan will require a minimum of 20 cfm) the spray will be delivered as a mist in the form of globules of chocolate. In

order to achieve a proper spray effect for grossing up centers, the operator must adjust air pressure, nozzle opening and chocolate flow until the desired spray effect is achieved. Clean dry air with proper force of air pressure is critical (20 cfm at 80 psi). A disadvantage of spray systems is that the force of air used to deliver chocolate and the force of air used to set the chocolate causes particles of chocolate to leave the inside of the pan and migrate to other areas in the panning room, this is referred to as "overspray" and has the disadvantage of reducing yield, increasing shrink and utilizing labor for clean up. Chocolate spraying requires a regular cleaning routine in order to remove fine particles of chocolate (chocolate dusting) from pipes, walls, floors and other equipment. The cost of shrink and the additional cost of labor to clean should be factored into your overall cost of goods when using spray systems. The bar or tube drip system is another way to apply coatings to centers. This system utilizes a stainless steel tube which is water jack-

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unusual problem is noticed. Calibration of instrumentation is very important and should be part of your maintenance check list. Documentation: If you have product failure that may be due to environmental conditions (or other conditions) it is important that you have the ability to refer to hard copy records of environmental conditions during the period of product failure. Document daily readings from all control points. In sensitive areas of your control path it is a good idea to record readings at least twice a day or more. ENVIRONMENT Conditioned air is a critical element to successful panning (Figure 3). Attention to proper environmental conditions to support gross-up and final polish of product will impact positively on your bottom line. You will enjoy labor savings through increased output while minimizing product and process failure and drastically reducing shrink. The key element is humidity, and to control humidity you must consider the following: · environment · size of gross-up and polish room · size of air conditioning equipment balanced to room size (cfm rating) · Type of air conditioning equipment re: ability to dry air as both temperature and moisture reduction is essential. A dehumidifier will provide moisture reduction · Physical properties of gross-up polishing room: roof insulation insulating integrity of walls (block, dry wall) make up air doors Your target for relative humidity should be between 40 percent rh and no higher than 60 percent rh. · Base all factors on worse case conditions i.e., hot humid summerwet rainy conditions. Talk to your air conditioning service representative; he should be qualified to provide a report on equipment required to meet worse case operating conditions. He should be suggesting improvements to existing equipment such as hot gas by pass on your existing air conditioning unit if it does not already have one. Make up air may be required in polish area to control level of alcohol fumes resulting from glazing agents. Correct choice of material will dramatically impact final product quality and profit expectations. Know your target customer and formulate levels of product quality accordingly. MATERIAL Enrobing, molding and depositing require certain characteristics in material used. · Milk chocolate · Dark chocolate · Yogurt flavor coating · Compound/chocolate flavored coatings: Gum Glaze Lecithin Centers Standards What factors should determine your choice of material for panning? The first thing to recognize is that panning is a reasonably forgiving process and accordingly provides for a wider choice of materials and will tolerate a broader range of processing parameters than enrobing, molding and depositing. The fact that successful chocolate panning can be achieved without the requirement to temper (create stable crystal structure) is an enormous processing advantage. Let's take a look at the elements that should influence your choice of material. · Quality desired · Target customer (who) · Target profit (how much) · Equipment capabilities For milk chocolate coatings the following considerations will influence your choice: color, flavor, fat content, particle size, viscosity and origin of cocoa butter/liquor. The combination of above choices will determine: taste, texture, mouth feel and cost of finished product. The four elements across the top of Figure 4 are very much related and the mix of these elements impacts on the balance between material cost versus flavor and quality. If you are fortunate to achieve a perfect balance, you will be rewarded with many satisfied customers and a positive bottom line. Viscosity Viscosity is the resistance to flow or movement of material. Water is low viscosity; honey/molasses is high viscosity. Yield Material with a "high" yield value requires more force to move than material with "low" yield value.

Heat--Cold/Ideal Conditions

Area Gross-up Room Polish Room Room Air Temp 55°­65° F 50°­60° F Air Temp To Pans 55°­60° F 50°­60° F

Material Conditions

Viscosity Spray temp. Fat content Figure 4 Milk Chocolate 28/40 95° F/105° F 28%/34% Dark Chocolate 40/50 100° F/110° F 28%/32% Yogurt Coating 22/33 110° F/115° F 32%38 Compound Coating 16/24 110° F/115° F 32%38

Cold dry air will provide... · Faster gross-up · Quicker set on gum and glaze · Firm surface--outstanding shine · Less labor--more output · Ideal relative humidity 45% RH Ceiling fans will mix/balance air Figure 3

Based on typical spray panning--viscosity (Brookfield)--fat content (total fat).

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Lecithin can help lower viscosity and lower yield value. But beware: An overdose of lecithin can be fatal (maximum of 0.3% to 0.5% of total mass is considered safe). An increase of lecithin over 0.5 percent can result in a thickening of material reversing the intended effect (increasing viscosity rather than decreasing viscosity). Of the four elements shown, viscosity may well have the greatest impact on panning efficiency. If material is of high viscosity, spray head nozzles will plug up and gross-up will be slow due to possible clumping and doubling. Shrink will increase due to excessive build up on back and sides of pan. Product may have to be reworked or scrapped. If material is of very low viscosity product will be difficult to gross-up due to "slippery effect" of material on centers. Centers with sharply rounded ends such as almonds and cashews will show bare spots as slippery low viscosity material will not adhere to product. Slippery material will build up on pans causing abnormal shrink. An experienced panner will quickly recognize a viscosity problem and can adjust processing variables such as temperature of material, temperature of air, spray air pressure and nozzle setting. If Problem Continues ... In some cases chocolate can be "doctored" by the addition of cocoa butter or lecithin. For compound and chocolate coatings an addition of 10/12 cocoa powder can help to adjust low viscosity, but this addition may change the color, flavor and texture of the final product (particle size will increase). For both compound and chocolate, mixing a new lot (different lot number) of the same material mixed with offending material can balance viscosity and help solve the problem. Remember, if you add fat, cocoa butter or lecithin into your holding tank or mixer/melt tank, your equipment must provide very good agitation to assure a reasonable mix prior to spraying. Do not add lecithin unless you know total lecithin will remain below 0.5 percent of total formula. It is important to find out what caused high or low viscosity in your material. You may have a moisture problem in piping or high humidity in your tank room or spray room; or your material may have been sent to you out of spec. Check your spec and call your supplier for help. CHOICES A quick set is generally preferred for chocolate panning (Figure 5). Chocolate containing harder cocoa butters will set up quicker and allow for faster gross-up. If you can use chocolate with a quick set and still achieve the chocolate flavor and texture profile that satisfies your customer's needs, you will save time and money. Milk Chocolate Milk chocolate is the most common coating material used in panning. A wide range of milk chocolate coatings are available based on various ingredient compositions (Figure 6). Four factors that should influence your choice of chocolate are: · Quality desired (satisfy customer) · Target customer (who) · Viscosity range (what's best for panning) · Cost of chocolate (cost and source of ingredients) Dark Chocolate Dark chocolate contains the same ingredients as milk chocolate with the exception of milk powder and dairy butter. The removal of dairy butter and milk powder and the adjustment in the mix proportion of the remaining ingredients results in "dark chocolate." The total fat content in dark chocolate is similar to milk chocolate. The fat from milk powder and dairy butter is replaced by fat from chocolate liquor. A typical dark chocolate formula calls for chocolate liquor at 33 percent to 38 percent. Approximately 53 percent of chocolate liquor is cocoa butter. In dark chocolate total fat from cocoa butter is less than in milk chocolate, however, the combination of fats from cocoa butter and chocolate liquor provide total fats in the range of many milk chocolate formulations. The color and flavor of dark chocolate is the result of the removal of milk powder and the increased level of chocolate liquor. Dark chocolate can be panned at the same temperature as milk chocolate, but will tolerate (and may require) a slightly higher temperature due to higher viscosity of dark chocolate. (+5°F to 10°F over normal milk chocolate panning temperatures). The velocity of cool air may have to be reduced when panning dark chocolate to offset overcooling during gross-up. Milk chocolate can be formulated to have a somewhat similar taste as dark chocolate with the same dark appearance. If you have good agitation in your mix/melt tank, mix very dark 10/12 cocoa powder with milk chocolate (try 8%) until completely blended. Open spray nozzles a little more than normal, otherwise follow

Hard--Soft Chocolate

Malaysian cocoa butter Brazilian cocoa butter Dairy butter West African cocoa butter Figure 5 Harder/sets quicker Softer/longer to set Softens chocolate/anti bloom Generally soft

Milk Chocolate--

Color Flavor Fat content Particle size Source of butter/liquor Viscosity (Brookfield) Cost Figure 6 Very light to medium dark Sweetness­milk­caramel 29%­35% mouth feel Mouth feel­texture Africa­South America­other 24­42 (32­36 best for panning) Driven by target customer

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the same procedure used for milk chocolate gross-up and polish (particle size will be higher than normal). You will be surprised and impressed with the resulting color, shine and unique flavor, but remember this is not real dark chocolate. Many panners stick to milk chocolate and dark chocolate only. A broad customer base demands a wide selection of panned products utilizing a variety of coatings. A mix of compound (vegetable fat) based coatings and chocolate (cocoa butter) based coatings present certain scheduling and handling challenges that must be carefully considered. As you expand into other coatings (yogurt, light and dark compounds) you must consider additional costs for: · holding/melting tanks · additional air handling · separate spray lines (dedicated) · new/used pans · ancillary equipment · increased raw material and finished goods inventory · additional space (raw material and finished goods) A "milk chocolate only" panner can process other coating materials such as dark chocolate, compound chocolate flavor and compound yogurt without cross contamination of milk chocolate equipment by the "hand drip" method. However this method is very labor intensive and should be reserved for very small volume "specialty runs" or R&D testing. To maintain production efficiently dedicated processing equipment should be considered. If regular chocolate equipment is used to process compounds, a complete clean and flush is a must to minimize crossover contamination for the following reasons. · Light to dark or dark to light will affect color of coating. · Yogurt coatings present the most difficult cleaning problems. · Flavor/texture transfer can effect next coating to be run. · Non-compatible fats can cause fat migration (bloom). For example, cocoa butter (in chocolate) is a non-lauric fat and as such is not compatible with palm kernel oil or coconut oil. (Generally material in liquid form is referred to as "oil," in solid form the term used is "fat.") Compound coatings are usually based on lauric vegetable fats which are not compatible with cocoa butter fat. Soybean, cottonseed and palm oils are vegetable fats that are reasonably compatible with cocoa butter. Due to incompatible fats and other cross contamination factors (color and flavor) it is a good idea to flush equipment with cocoa butter when changing from compound coatings to chocolate coatings. This is very important for molding, depositing and enrobing equipment as these applications require tempered chocolate which is much more susceptible to bloom than panning of non-tempered chocolate which receives a coating of gum (polish) and a final coating of glaze. The gum and glaze coatings, if applied correctly, help "lock in" possible migrating fat crystals which eliminates the visual perception of bloom. To save time and labor (money) one must consider purchasing dedicated equipment to support processing of additional coatings such as yogurt and/or compound chocolate flavor coatings. No doubt customer pressure and potential profits will dictate this decision. COMPOUND COATINGS Compound coating have a different fat base than chocolate coatings. In compounds, palm kernel oil and other vegetable oils are used to replace cocoa butter. This results in three important factors. · Vegetable oils (fats) are considerably less expensive than cocoa butter. · Fats derived from vegetable oils have a different structure than cocoa butter and consequently behave differently during processing. · Taste, texture and overall mouth feel of vegetable oil fats is different than cocoa butter (chocolate). The two most common compound materials used by panners are yogurt coatings and chocolate flavored coatings. Compound coatings can usually be sold labeled as "chocolate flavored;" however, they do not meet current ingredient requirements for "pure chocolate" and therefor can not legally be labeled as "chocolate." Yogurt coatings usually require higher temperatures to melt wafers (125° F) and should be at higher temperatures than chocolate when sprayed (gross-up) 105°­110° F. This is particularly true for harder (higher melt point) vegetable oils. Temperatures normal for chocolate coating processing can also be used for yogurt and chocolate flavor coatings that contain higher levels of fractionated vegetable fats (steeper melting curve--softer fat). High melt point coatings (harder fats) require higher processing temperatures than when processing chocolate. When choosing yogurt coating, be sure to address color. Many yogurt coatings will have a yellowish or off white color. If you want a very white yogurt coating you must specify with your supplier that titanium dioxide be added to the degree required for a white appearance in the final product. Attention should be paid to the flavor profile of your yogurt coating to achieve that sharp yogurt taste. Adding malic acid to your existing yogurt coating can "boot up" the flavor profile and deliver the tang or sharp taste typical of real yogurt (your choice). Chocolate flavored coatings have similar characteristics to yogurt coatings. Processing temperatures are dictated by the fat base. Chocolate flavored coatings are available in a range of fats from very hard fats to very soft fats and in a wide range of colors (light to dark) and with various mouth feel (melting points). Very soft fats should be panned at lower temperatures, around 90° F to 95° F while hard fats will require temperatures in the range of 105°­115° F. Highly fractionated vegetable fats will present special processing problems as they will have a slippery effect and will not cover well on pointed centers. Nitrogen can be introduced into the pan to provide a quick set, however this is an expensive and time consuming solution. A better idea

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would be to call your favorite vegetable oil supplier and ask for a recommendation on a fat base that meets your needs in terms of equipment, taste, and price. TO PRE-COAT OR NOT? Pre-coating with a gum solution, and/or dusting centers with cocoa powder, flour, starch and icing, sugar is a common practice. There are several reasons for precoating: · To seal in vegetable oils--prevent bloom · To cover slippery centers--allows chocolate to stick · To fill in dips/depressions in centers · To seal on skins (peanuts) · To absorb moisture (raisins) The most costly aspect of pre-coating is the time and labor expended to prepare the pre-coat liquid solution and dry base and the time and labor required to apply several wet and dry coatings to the centers. Pre-coating of various centers will average 30 minutes to 1 hour (including dry time). In some cases the pre-coated centers are removed from the pans and allowed to set up overnight prior to actual gross-up of chocolate or compound coating. Is it worth it? If you are convinced that pre-coating protects your product from bloom and maintains or improves quality while reducing customer complaints and product returns, then yes, it's worth the extra time, effort and cost. For panners who are pre-coating now, I would suggest the following options to pre-coating be given consideration: · Dry roast all nuts normally oil roasted. (Dry roasting releases more flavor.) · If you don't have roasting equipment, order dry roasted nuts from your supplier. (This will cost 8 to 10 cents per pound.) · Consider dry roasted "blanched" peanuts. · Establish strict standards with your raisin supplier for free flowing raisins at moisture levels of 13 percent maximum. Insist that raisin suppliers keep oil levels to a bare minimum. · Source firm, dry raisins. · Cool raisins in pan (or panning room) for 30 minutes prior to gross-up. The option is yours; however, other than occasionally "dusting" raisins with icing sugar we never precoat centers and over the past several years we have never experienced bloom, or gross-up problems as a result of not pre-coating.

·

DRY ROASTING VERSUS OIL ROASTING Various nutmeats represent important material as centers for panning. Traditionally, raw nutmeats such as almonds, peanuts, cashews and filberts are roasted to improve flavor. Roasting is accomplished by frying nuts in vegetable oil or peanut oil or by dry roasting. Dry roasting equipment (drum roaster) and frying equipment (batch or continuos oil roaster) vary in price depending on new vs. used and capacity of equipment. I prefer dry roasting nutmeats for the following reasons: · Pre-coating is not necessary. · Equipment is simple to operate. · Equipment takes less space. · Cleaner ingredient statement (no peanut or vegetable oil) · Healthier perception. · Equipment is easier to clean and maintain. · On the downside, shrink is greater versus oil roasting: 2.5­3 percent for almonds, 5­6 percent for peanuts. One definition of shrink is "the unrecoverable loss of product/ingredients during the production process." For example, when ribbed polishing pans are cleaned, product build up from pan walls can not be reworked due to the glaze and gum in the chocolate. Other examples are: over-spray loss, spillage, change-over loss and under-grossing and over-grossing. Some of these shrink points can be reduced and controlled but those shrink points that are uncontrollable must be tolerated. It is important to

determine where shrink is occurring through the production, packing process and to build the loss into your cost of goods. Be sure to set and maintain standards for gross-up of centers (Figure 7). Over-grossing of centers costing less than the coating material or under-grossing expensive centers (almonds/ cashews) constitutes hidden shrink and if not corrected quickly will have drastic impact on bottom line expectations. Standards must be established for gross-up of centers. Product should be checked during the final stages of gross-up. If raw material (centers) are consistent in size, weigh 50 to 100 pieces to establish average raw weight. Then compare gross-up weight to raw weight to determine gross-up factor. Another method is to melt coating off centers and compare the difference in weight to raw centers. This method takes more time and effort but is more precise if done correctly. Stay on top of this potential "hidden shrink" by establishing a procedure to monitor gross-up on a regular basis.

Typical Centers

Center Almonds Almonds Raisins Peanuts Malt balls Filberts Pecans Brazils Cashews gross-up 3/1 4.5/1 1/1 1/1 4/1 3/1 2.5/1 2.5/1 2.5/1 Time (Hrs) 2 2.5 0.75 0.75 1.5 2 1.5 2 2

Based on 42 pan using milk chocolate. Viscosity 38 (Brookfield)--spray head temp. 106° F.

Specialty Centers

Center gross-up Coffee beans 10/1 Pistachios 3/1 Jujubes 1/1 Jellies 1/1 Cereals Corn Flakes 3/1 Shreddies 2.5/1 Puff Wheat 8/1 Rice Crisp 6/1 Fruit Loops 4/1 Figure 7 Time (Hrs) 4 2 1 1 2.5 2 3.5 3 2.5

Total fats 31%. RH at 55% room temperature 55° F.

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REWORK Rework can be considered as all rejected material (food safe) that can be re-processed for use as originally intended or used as an ingredient for other products/formulas. Typical chocolate rework comes from build up of chocolate on grossup pans. Chocolate removed must be remelted and sifted through a very fine screen to take out peanut skins, raisin particles and other foreign material. A vibrating screen will allow for much faster throughput. Spray heads will clog if chocolate is not adequately screened. Peanuts (and other nut) rework should be kept separate and carefully marked. Equipment should be dedicated to nut rework if possible otherwise a very thorough cleaning is a must. Check label declarations. It may be prudent to label all products processed in or around equipment that has come in contact with peanuts (and other nuts) with a "may contain peanuts" declaration. GUM SUGGESTIONS Experienced panners will agree that correct application of the right gum solution is the most important final step in producing products with exceptional shine/luster. When gross-up of centers is complete, product should be placed in trays or totes and allowed to set up in cool dry conditions for at least four hours (overnight is best). Product is then ready for the application of a gum solution. Ribbed pans are required. It is normal practice to hand coat chocolate onto the pan walls. This step is done after polishing pans are cleaned and will last for several weeks before re-cleaning is necessary. This technique helps provide a better final shine and helps smooth centers. Suggested Gum Solution Recipe · Add 19 liters of water (33 lbs) to kettle, bring to a boil. · Add 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs of fine sugar to boiling water and stir until completely dissolved--temperature of solution, now below boil (200° F)). · When solution has cooled to

·

· ·

155° F, add 1.7 kg (3.7 lbs) of gum arabic, stir until fully dissolved. Add 14 kg (30.86 lbs) of glucose (DE43), stir at 155° F until fully dissolved in solution. Allow to cool to room temperature (do not stir). Apply solution at 50°­55° F.

POLISH--GLAZE Polish · Provides seal · Acts as base for glaze Glaze · Complements/enhances polish · Provides durable shell · Helps product tolerate higher temperatures · Reduces scuff and scratches during packing · Prevents sticking Confectioner's glaze, glaze and shellac are terms generally used to describe lac or gum lac. Lac originates from the secretions of female insects (beetles). Bark from trees (in India and Thailand) is scraped to collect this resinous material. Lac is then cleaned, refined and processed. Shellac is mixed with a food grade alcohol carrier in a solution that allows for easier dispersion. A four pound cut is typical (4 lbs of shellac

added to 1 gallon of alcohol.) Although food grade shellac has been used by the confectionery industry for many years there are some serious drawbacks with regards to the alcohol carrier in shellac. The polishing room must be well ventilated, to keep levels of alcohol well below 1,000 ppm. High levels of alcohol can present a health hazard (sore eyes, rash, headache) and may create potential for an explosion under certain conditions. There are commercial glazing agents now available that are easier to use (more forgiving) and safer due to a lower alcohol content. TROUBLESHOOTING Recognizing problem conditions and understanding the possible cause of the problem are important factors of troubleshooting and will contribute to finding a quick solution to panning processing or equipment problems. Figures 8 and 9 illustrate common problems and suggested remedies. BLACK MAGIC Prior to concluding I would like to offer a definition to the question of "black magic" in candy making and address the age old question of "Is panning an art or a science?"

Troubleshooting

Polish/glaze

Condition Possible Cause Sticky Too much polish Product Insufficient drying Air quality/temp.humidity Pock Marks Moisture in solution Insufficient drying Too little polish Too much polish Solution not mixed well Solids too high/too low Moisture high Poor drying Temperature high Poor air quality Moisture high Bad glaze Product not smoothed During gross-up Dust or overspray From chocolate gross-up area

Suggested Remedy Less polish­single dose 15 oz for 180­200 lbs Dry thoroughly prior to next application Cool air 55°­55° F RH max 55% check norms Check solution formula--55%/60% solids ideal Dry thoroughly with pan off air on Increasing dosing level for complete coverage Reduce polish--wet until pieces covered­pan o Solids in solution must be completely dissolved Solids should be 55%­60% RH 45%­55% ideal--check air quality against norm Solution must be well dried--allow more dry time Check room temp.--55°­65° F ideal Check relative humidity--45%­55% ideal Check air handling equipment Check quality of glaze against nor--call supplier Run pan with air off until smooth Turn pan off and apply cool air to set chocolate If gross-up & spray are in same room hang plastic curtain and/or check air flow path

Sugar Bloom

Cloudy Hazy Finish Bumpy Pitted Surface

Figure 8

122

50th P.M.C.A. Production Conference, 1996

Basics of Chocolate Panning

To answer the second question first, I would propose that panning is a "scientific art" having evolved over many years from an art, when the science of panning was little understood, to more of a science, as operators now apply traditional panning skills with a new-found understanding of the chemistry of ingredients, control of environment, and the development of process controls. I believe "black magic" in candy making is a term often used to describe an operator's competency and successes in dealing with certain techniques and formulations during chocolate or candy making processes. In many cases the operator has little or no specific knowledge of the scientific and technical aspects associated with the formulations that are necessary to the development of an acceptable finished product. Most "black magic" operators know that a certain action will evoke an expected reaction which, when in conjunction with several other actions and reactions leads to the successful completion of a specific formulation or process. The larger the business the more important it is to remove the "black magic" element through the development of documented step-by-step procedures supported by a critical control path covering all elements of formulation and processing. This, together with operator training in the scientific basics of "why and how" of formulations and processes, will allow management to be less reliant on "black magic" operators and will pay dividends when various trained operators within the production population can make use of hard copy procedures to fill in on other lines for absent operators. CONCLUSION Remember to choose chocolate or compound coatings that will provide a finished panned confection consistent with the quality required to satisfy your target customers. Don't overlook the importance of maintaining air quality and low relative humidity. Don't forget the control of moisture is essential to successful panning. Last but most important, remember to measure and control viscosity. At the end of each day ask yourself the question, "Am I impressed with the quality of my finished product?" If the answer is no, revisit the basics of chocolate panning; if the answer is yes, congratulations, keep s up the good work.

Troubleshooting

Gross-up

Condition Bumpy Coating

Possible Cause Thick chocolate Too much air Lack of friction Spray nozzle Spray nozzle Spray directed incorrectly Too much choc. applied Non compatible fats From centers Not sufficient set up time Exposure to high temp. Poor agitation of choc. Chocolate too thin Choc. temp. too high Air temp. too high Centers loaded warm Oil on centers Spray nozzle set too fine Uneven centers

Suggested Remedy Check viscosity against specs Cut back use of air Run pan without air until centers smooth Adjust nozzle to finer spray Check air pressure 40/50 psi ideal per nozzle Re-direct nozzle to spray mid to back of pan Adjust spray time-less chocolate/more air Check pre-coat procedure/formula Dry roast all oily nuts Allow minimum 4 hour set up in cool area Check storage conditions Look for fat separation Check viscosity­use harder cocoa butter Reduce temp. to normal­95° F at spray head Reduce temp. to normal­95° F at spray head Cool centers to 50° F/60° F­run cold air Pre-coat or dry roast nuts Open nozzle for thicker coverage Use more consistent center size Direct spray to mid point to back of pan All pans must have same rpm­24 rpm ideal Start with thick spray­finish with thin spray Check viscosity against specs 28 to 40 (Brookfield) ideal for choc. panning Add cocoa butter fat to thin out choc. Contact supplier--specify lower viscosity Adjust RH to norm--45%­55% ideal Check piping for leaks--repair piping Scrap choc.--do micro check after repair Check air filters--check dryer system Adjust temperature to normal 95° F ideal Check heating system Adjust to normal 95° F Check viscosity against specs. Mix with higher viscosity chocolate Check agitation--improve agitation Change to higher viscosity chocolate Try harder cocoa butter--(Malaysian)

Build up on pan pan Fat Bloom

Chocolate will not stick points exposed Poor Coverage

Chocolate too thick

High viscosity

High humidity Moisture contamination

Wet Air/Oily Air

Low temp.--chocolate setting up Chocolate too thin Heat too high Low viscosity Fat separation Wrong choc. for panning Doubles

Spray application too thick Adjust nozzle to thinner spray Pan speed too slow Adjust to norm.--24 rpm ideal No wave--centers sliding Increase pan load--100 lbs--1 to 1 gross-up For 42 pan finished load 200 lbs Overloaded pan Reduce pan load for delicate centers

Crushed Centers Figure 9

50th P.M.C.A. Production Conference, 1996

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1996 Basics of Chocolate Panning

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