Read Based on the Fire and Rescue text version

Based on the Fire and Rescue Commission's Occupational Safety and Health Standard

FIRE/RESCUE DEPARTMENT

Occupational Safety and Health Planning Document

DEVELOPED FOR FIRE AND RESCUE DEPARTMENTS BY THE NORTH CAROLINA FIRE AND RESCUE COMMISSION

REVISED 7/05 NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE / OSFM

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Worksheet and Planning Document

In an effort to reduce injury and death to fire and rescue personnel in the State of North Carolina, the State Legislature established General Statute GS 95-148, which required the State Fire and Rescue Commission to establish voluntary occupational safety and health standards for fire and rescue personnel. This document was developed to provide a voluntary guide for departments to implement an occupational safety and health program that meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration within the NC Department of Labor, as well as the OS&H standards of the National Fire Protection Association. It is provided as a supporting document to coincide with the Fire and Rescue Commission's Occupational Safety and Health Standard for Fire and Rescue Departments. In addition to serving as a voluntary planning document for volunteer departments, it can also serve as a supporting document when applying required OS&H standards to career departments and career personnel. In carrying out these objectives, it allows a department to meet all recognized safety and health standards for fire and rescue activities. The Fire and Rescue Commission gratefully acknowledges the following individuals for their contributions to the development of this manual and supporting documentation. Timothy L. Bradley, Executive Director Senior Deputy Commissioner of Insurance North Carolina Fire and Rescue Commission

Occupational Safety and Health Planning Document NC Department of Insurance / OSFM / Fire and Rescue Commission

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FIRE AND RESCUE COMMISSION MEMBERS

Member Donald Whitaker Doug Lowe Robert Poe Ken Dilday Robert Griffin C. Harley Cook Chuck Gallyon Tom Taylor Walter M. Gardner, Jr. Cloyce Anders Marvin O. Wilson Billy Winn Brynn Thomas Ed Duffield Mike Tapp Representing NC Association of Fire Chiefs NC Association of Rescue and EMS, Inc. NC Association of Rescue and EMS, Inc. NC Firemen's Association NC Firemen's Association NC Society of Fire Service Instructors NC Fire Marshal's Association NC Association of County Commissioners NC League of Municipalities Public-At-Large Speaker of the House Appointee President of the Senate Appointee Governor's Appointee Professional Firefighters and Paramedics of NC County Fire Marshal's Association

Occupational Safety and Health Planning Document NC Department of Insurance / OSFM / Fire and Rescue Commission

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INTRODUCTION

This document was prepared as a supplement to the North Carolina Fire and Rescue Commission's Occupational Safety and Health Standard. The standard, based on a compilation of applicable sections of OSHA's General Industry Standard and NFPA occupational safety and health standards, is a voluntary standard for volunteer fire and rescue departments in North Carolina. It can also be used as a guide for departments with career personnel who are subject to OSHA regulation. This document is a brief overview of the standard, as well as a planning document and worksheet for assisting departments in preparing an occupational safety and health plan. It is not the standard. For a complete understanding of the components of the standard, individuals should refer to the complete North Carolina Fire and Rescue Commission Occupational Safety and Health Standard for Fire and Rescue Departments that accompanied this document. This document is broken into two sections. The first section is a worksheet that allows departments to track compliance with each section of the standard. Once this worksheet is complete with supporting documentation, the department has, in fact, completed an Occupational Safety and Health Plan. This plan should be maintained and kept up to date. Even though the standard is a voluntary one for volunteer departments, working toward compliance assists in assuring a safer working environment for personnel. It also helps the department in meeting a recognized standard of care for personnel safety. For career and combination departments, it assists in meeting compliance obligations under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the North Carolina Department of Labor. Complete compliance to the standard will vary in time from department to department. However, as new facilities are constructed, new equipment is purchased, and new procedures are written, they should be built, purchased, and written in compliance with the standard. Once compliance is achieved, maintaining compliance will be a natural element of our process, and our personnel provided a much safer environment. .

Occupational Safety and Health Planning Document NC Department of Insurance / OSFM / Fire and Rescue Commission

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Occupational Safety and Health Committee......................................................................I Fire and Rescue Commission Members .............................................................................II Introduction.....................................................................................................................III Worksheets .....................................................................................................................1-5 BRIEFS Subpart A - General 1904 Recording and Reporting......................................................................6 Subpart A - General 1910.1 Purpose and scope 1910.2 Definitions 1910.3 Petitions for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard 1910.4 Amendments to this part 1910.5 Applicability of standards 1910.6 Incorporation by reference 1910.7 Definition and requirements for a nationally recognized testing laboratory 1910.8 OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act Subpart B ­ Adoption and Extension of Established ­ Federal Standards .............................7 1910.11 Scope and purpose 1910.12 Construction work 1910.15 Shipyard employment 1910.16 Longshoring and marine terminals 1910.17 Effective dates 1910.18 Changes in established Federal standards 1910.19 Special provisions for air contaminants Subpart D ­ Walking-Working Surfaces ............................................................................8 1910.21 Definitions 1910.22 General requirements 1910.23 Guarding floor and wall openings and holes 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs 1910.25 Portable wood ladders 1910.26 Portable metal ladders 1910.27 Fixed ladders 1910.28 Safety requirements for scaffolding 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers) 1910.30 Other working surfaces Subpart E ­ Means of Egress ............................................................................................9 1910.33 Table of Contents 1910.34 Coverage and Definitions

1910.35 1910.36 1910.37 1910.38 1910.39

Compliance with NFPA 101-2000 Life Safety Code Design and Construction Requirements for Exit Routes Maintenance, Safeguards and Operational Features for Exit Routes Emergency Action Plans Fire Prevention Plans

Subpart F - Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms...................10 1910.66 Powered platforms for building maintenance 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms 1910.68 Manlifts 1910.69 Sources of standards 1910.70 Standards organizations Subpart G - Occupational Health and Environmental Control ............................................11 1910.94 Ventilation 1910.95 Occupational noise exposure Subpart H - Hazardous Materials .....................................................................................12 1910.101 Compressed gases (general requirements) 1910.106 Flammable and combustible liquids 1910.110 Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases 1910.120 Hazardous waste operations and emergency response Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment .........................................................................14 1910.132 General requirements 1910.133 Eye and face protection 1910.134 Respiratory protection 1910.135 Occupational head protection 1910.136 Occupational foot protection 1910.137 Electrical protective devices 1910.138 Effective dates Subpart J - General Environmental Controls......................................................................15 1910.141 Sanitation 1910.142 Temporary labor camps 1910.143 Nonwater carriage disposal systems 1910.144 Safety color code for marking physical hazards 1910.145 Specifications for accident prevention signs and tags 1910.146 Permit-required confined spaces 1910.147 The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) Subpart K - Medical and First Aid .....................................................................................16 1910.106 Flammable and combustible liquids 1910.110 Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases 1910.120 Hazardous waste operations and emergency response

Subpart L - Fire Protection ................................................................................................17 1910.151 Medical services and first-aid 1910.155 Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this subpart 1910.156 Fire brigades 1910.157 Portable fire extinguishers 1910.158 Standpipe and hose systems 1910.159 Automatic sprinkler systems 1910.160 Fixed extinguishing systems, general 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam 1910.165 Employee alarm systems Subpart M - Compressed Gas and Compressed Air Equipment ..........................................33 1910.169 Air receivers 1910.170 Sources of standards 1910.171 Standards organizations Subpart N - Materials Handling and Storage.....................................................................34 1910.176 Handling material general 1910.177 Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels 1910.178 Powered industrial trucks 1910.179 Overhead and gantry cranes 1910.180 Crawler locomotive and truck cranes 1910.181 Derricks 1910.183 Helicopters 1910.184 Slings Subpart O - Machinery and Machine Guarding.................................................................35 1910.211 Definitions 1910.212 General requirements for all machines 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements 1910.214 Cooperage machinery [Reserved] 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery 1910.216 Mills and calendars in the rubber and plastics industries 1910.217 Mechanical power press 1910.218 Forging machines 1910.219 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus 1910.220 Effective dates 1910.221 Sources of standards 1910.222 Standards organizations Subpart P - Hand Tools....................................................................................................36 1910.241 Definitions 1910.242 Hand and portable powered tools and equipment 1910.243 Guarding of portable powered tools 1910.244 Other portable tools and equipment 1910.245 Effective dates 1910.246 Sources of standards

1910.247

Standards organizations

Subpart S ­ Electrical .......................................................................................................37 1910.301 Introduction 1910.302 Electric utilization systems 1910.303 General requirements 1910.304 Wiring design and protection 1910.305 Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use 1910.306 Specific purpose equipment and installations 1910.307 Hazardous (classified) locations 1910.308 Special systems 1910.331 Safety related work practices, scope 1910.332 Training 1910.333 Selection and use of work practices 1910.334 Use of equipment 1910.335 Safeguards of personnel protection 1910.361 Safety related maintenance requirements 1910.381 Safety requirements for special equipment 1910.399 Definitions applicable to this subpart Subpart T - Diving OPS .................................................................................................... 1910.401 Scope and application 1910.402 Definitions 1910.410 Qualifications of dive team 1910.420 Safe practices manual 1910.421 Pre-dive procedures 1910.422 Procedures during dive 1910.423 Post-dive procedures 1910.424 SCUBA diving 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving 1910.426 Mixed-air diving 1910.427 Lifeboating 1910.430 Equipment 1910.440 Recordkeeping requirements 1910.441 Effective date Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances ....................................................................38 1910.1030 Bloodborne pathogens 1910.1200 Hazard communication

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH WORKSHEET

07/2005 Revision

Compliance Y or N Expected Compliance Date Remarks or Modifications

Standard and Section Content

Part 1904 1904.2 1904.5 1904.6 Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries & Illnesses Posting of OSHA Form 300 for Injuries and Illnesses Annual Summary of Injuries and Illnesses on Form 300 Retention of Records (OSHA Forms 200, 100, and 102)

Subpart D - Walking - Working Surfaces

1910.22 General Requirements - Housekeeping - Clear Aisles and Passage Ways Floor, Wall Opening, and Guarding of Open Holes Design and Guarding of Fixed Stairs NFPA Approved and Tested Wood Ladders (or OSHA) NFPA Approved and Tested Metal Ladders (or OSHA) OSHA Approved Fixed Ladders Design and Safety of any Temporary Scaffolding Design/Safety of any Temporary Mobile Scaffolding Other working surfaces

1910.23 1910.24 1910.25 1910.26 1910.27 1910.28 1910.29 1910.30

Subpart E ­ Means of Egress

1910.35 1910.36 1910.37 1910.38 1910.39 Compliance with NFPA 101-2000 Life Safety Code (reference NCBC Vol. I and II) Design and Construction Requirements for Exit Routes (reference NCBC Vol. I and II). Maintenance, Safeguards, and Operational Features for Exit Routes (reference NCBC Vol. I. and II). Emergency Action and Fire Prevention Plans Fire prevention plans

Subpart F - Platforms

1910.66 1910.67-68 Procedure to Prevent Use of Aerial Ladders for Platform Procedure to Prevent Use of Aerial Ladders for Maint

Subpart G - OH and Environment

1910.94 1910.95 Facility Properly Ventilated While Apparatus Running Hearing Conservation Program in Effect

Subpart H - Hazardous Materials

1910.101 1910.106 1910.110 1910.120 Compressed Gas Cylinders Inspected and Approved Flammable and Combustible Liquids Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases Hazardous waste operations and emergency response

Subpart I - Environmental

1910.132 1910.133 1910.134 1910.135 1910.136 General requirements Eye and face protection Respiratory Protection Occupational head protection Occupational foot protection

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1910.137

Electrical protective devices

Subpart J - Environmental Controls

1910.141 1910.144 1910.145 jj Toilets, kitchens, food handling area clean and sanitized Safety cans, dangerous areas, etc, marked properly Accident prevention signs proper and in place Confined Space - Department conducting Confined Space Rescue - Equipment available for confined space operations - Personnel Training Complete Procedures in place for lock-out of haz energy during maintenance and emergency procedures.

1910.147

Subpart K - Medical

1910.151 First-aid equipment and personnel available

Subpart L - Fire Protection

Chapter 1 - Administration 1-1 Scope 1-2 Purpose 1-3 Implementation 1-4 Equivalency 1-5 Definitions 1-6 Physical and Medical for Personnel Chapter 2 - Organization 2-1 Fire Department Organizational Statement 2-2 Roles and Responsibilities 2-3 Fire Department Safety Officer -NFPA 1521 2-4 Occupational Safety and Health Committee 2-5 Records 2-5.1 Occupational Exposure 2-5.2 Training 2-5.3 Vehicles and Equipment 2-5.4 Confidential Database maintained Chapter 3 - Training and Education 3-1 General Requirements 3-1.5 Training Officer - NFPA 1041 3-2 Training Frequency 3-2.1 Training not less than twice each year 3-3 Basic Training and Education Requirements 3-3.2 NFPA 1001 Firefighter 3-3.3 NFPA 1002 Driver/Operator 3-3.4 NFPA 1003 Airport Firefighter (if applicable) 3-3.5 NFPA 1021 Fire Officer 3-3.6 Incident Management System 3-4 Training for Firefighting 3-4.1 Training Commensurate with Duties 3-5 Special Operations 3-5.2 Written Procedures 3-5.4 NFPA 472 First Response Operations Level Chapter 4 - Vehicles and Equipment 4-1 Fire Department Vehicles 4-1.2 NFPA 1901 Pumper Fire Apparatus (new) 4-1.3 NFPA 1902 Initial Attack Fire Apparatus (new) 4-1.4 NFPA 1903 Mobile Water Supply Fire apparatus 4-1.5 NFPA 1904 Aerial & Elevating Platform Fire Apparatus (new) 4-2 Driver/Operators of Fire Department Vehicles 4-2.1 Approved Driver Training Program

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4-2.2 Valid Driver's License 4-2.6 Written Standard Operating Procedures for Safe Driving 4-2.7 Procedures During Emergency Responses for Complete Stopping 4-2.9 Procedures on Retarder Use 4-2.10 Procedures on Brake Limiting Valves Use 4-3 Persons Riding on Fire Apparatus 4-3.1 Tailboards and Standing Prohibited: - EMS Operations - Hose Loading Operations - Tiller Training 4-3.2 Helmets/Eye Protection for Non-enclosed Areas 4-3.4 New Apparatus to Meet Appropriate NFPA Standard 4-4 Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair of Vehicles 4-4.1 At Least Inspected Weekly or Within 24-Hours After Use 4-4.2 Preventive Maintenance Program 4-4.3 Evaluation of Apparatus to be Placed Out of Service 4-4.5 NFPA 1911 Service Tests of Pumps on Apparatus 4-4.6 NFPA 1914 Testing Fire Department Aerial Devices 4-5 Tools and Equipment 4.5.2 NFPA 1931 Ground Ladder Specification (new) 4-5.3 NFPA 1961 Fire Hose Specification (new) 4-5.4 NFPA 1964 Spray Nozzle Specification (new) 4-5.5 At Least Inspected Weekly and Within 24-Hours After Use 4-5.8 NFPA 1932 Ground Ladder Service Test 4-5.9 NFPA 1962 Fire Hose Service Test 4-5.10 NFPA 10 Portable Fire Extinguishers Chapter 5 Protective Clothing and Protective Equip. Chapter 5 ­ Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment 5-1 General 5-1.4 Protective Clothing and Equipment, Maintenance and Inspection Program 5-1.6 NFPA 1975 Station/Work Uniforms 5-2 Protective Clothing for Structural Firefighting 5-2.1 NFPA 1971 Protective Clothing: - Fit Test 5-2.2 NFPA 1972 Helmets 5-2.3 NFPA 1973 Gloves 5-2.4 NFPA 1974 Footwear 5-2.5 NFPA 1971 Hoods 5-3 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (S.C.B.A.) 5-3.1 NFPA 1981 S.C.B.A. 5-3.7 ANSI/CGA G7.1 5.3.9 Beards and Facial Hair 5-3.10 Corrective Lenses 5-4 Protective Clothing for Proximity Firefighting 5-4.1 NFPA 1976 Clothing for Proximity Firefighting 5-5 Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations 5-5.1 NFPA 1999 Protective Clothing for EMS 5-5.4 NFPA 1581 Infection Control Program 5-6 Chemical-Protective Clothing for Hazardous Chemical Emergency Operations

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5-6.1 Vapor-Protective Garments: - NFPA 1991 Vapor -Protective Suits 5-6.2 Liquid Splash-Protective Garments: - NFPA 1992 Liquid Splash-Protective Suits 5-6.3 Support Functions Protective Garments: - NFPA 1993 Support Function Protective Garments 5-6.4 Inspection, Maintenance, & Disposal of Chemical-Protective Clothing 5-7 Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) 5-7.1 NFPA 1982 PASS for Firefighters 5-8 Life Safety Ropes, Harnesses, & Hardware 5-8.1 NFPA 1983 Life Safety Rope 5-8.3 Life Safety Ropes Reused 5-8.5 Life Safety Rope Records 5-10 Eye and Face Protection 5-11 Hearing Protection Chapter 6 - Emergency Operations 6-1 Incident Management 6-1.2 NFPA 1561 Fire Department Incident Management System 6-2 Risk Management During Emergency Operations 6-3 Accountability 6-4 Members Operating at Emergency Incidents 6-4.4 Standby Member During Initial Stages 6-5 Rapid Intervention for Rescue of Members 6-5.2 At Least Two Members 6-6 Rehabilitation During Emergency Operations 6-7 Incident Critique Chapter 7 - Facility Safety 7-1 Safety Standards 7-1.2 Smoke Detectors Throughout Building 7-1.4 NFPA 101 Life Safety Code 7-1.6 Smoke-Free Areas 7-2 Inspections Chapter 8 ­ Confidential Health Database 1910.157 Portable Extinguishers - Installation - Inspection - Training of Personnel 1910.158 Standpipe and Hose Systems Inspections Complete 1910.159 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Inspection Complete 1910.160 Fixed Systems, General Inspection Complete 1910.161 Fixed System, Dry Chemical Inspection Complete 1910.162 Fixed System, Gaseous Agent Inspection Complete 1910.163 Fixed Systems, Water and Foam Inspection Complete 1910.164 Fire Detection Systems 1910.165 Employee Alarm Systems Inspection Complete

Subpart M - Compressed Gas and Air Equipment

1910.169 Air Receivers (if used for breathing air) - Installed properly - Air inspected

Subpart N - Materials Handling

1910.176 1910.177 1910.178 1910.179 Handling Materials Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels Powered industrial trucks Overhead and gantry cranes

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1910.180 1910.181 1910.183

Crawler locomotive and truck crranes Derricks Helicopters

Subpart O - Machinery and Machine Guarding

1910.211 Machinery Guarding in Place

Subpart P - Hand Tools

1910.242 1910.243 Hand and Portable Tools Used Safely Hand and Portable Tools - Safety Procedures in Place - Equipment in Original Design Other Portable Jacks Selected for Proper Use

1910.244

Subpart S ­ Electrical

If personnel are required to do electrical installation or maintenance, see Sections 1910.330-334) 1910.303 General - Wiring meets Code 1910.304 Wiring Design and Protection - Wiring meets Code - Proper Fuses and Breakers - Ground Fault Breakers Where Applicable - Proper Polarity - Equipment Grounded Properly

Subpart Z - Toxic and Haz Mat

1910.1030 Bloodbourne Pathogens - Personnel Training Conducted - Procedures in Place - Equipment Available - Proper Personnel Screening and Inoculations - Clothing Decontamination Available - Disposal Bags and Procedure - Proper Markings - Personnel Records on Exposure Hazard Communication - Personnel Training - Personnel Notification

1910.1200

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OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH BRIEFS

A Synopsis of The North Carolina Fire and Rescue Commission's OS&H Standard

07/2005 Revision

SECTION 1904

Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

Part 1904 provides for record keeping and reporting by employers of occupational injuries and illnesses. It includes requirements for the preparation, posting, and submittal of these records. The requirements by sections are as follows: 1904.2 Requires that each employer maintain a log and summary of all recordable OS&H injuries and illnesses, which must be entered within 6 working days of the occurrence. OSHA Form 300 may be used for this. This log must be posted at each station reflecting the occurrences at that location. Requires that for each injury, a supplemental record be completed within 6 days on OSHA Form 301, and this supplemental record be kept available for inspection. Requires that an Annual Summary be completed and posted on OSHA Form 300, and be posted in the same manner as prescribed in 1904.2 above. This must be posted for the previous year no later than February 1. It includes a summary of the incidents on Form 300 for the year. If no injuries or illnesses occur, it still must be posted showing zero's (0) in the columns. It must remain in place through March 1 of the same year. Requires that records completed in the previous sections listed above be maintained for 5 years following the end of the year to which they relate. All the records kept under these sections of 1904 must be available for inspection by appropriate OS&H Officials from the Dept of labor. Requires, within 8 hours, that employers report any fatality of one or more employees, or the hospitalization of 3 or more employees to the Dept of Labor either in written or verbal form. Lists the requirements for recording and reporting occupational injuries and illnesses for small employers.

1904.4

1904.5

1904.6 1904.7 1904.8

1904.15

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SUBPART A 1910.1 - 8

General Safety This part carries out the directive to the Secretary of Labor under section 6(a) of the Act. It contains occupational safety and health standards which have been found to be national consensus standards or established Federal standards.

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SUBPART B 1910.11 - 19

Federal Standard The provisions of this subpart B adopt and extend the applicability of, established Federal standards in effect on April 28, 1971, with respect to every employer, employee, and employment covered by the Act.

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SUBPART D 1910.22

Walking-Working Surfaces (a) Requires that all places of employment, passageways, storerooms, and service rooms shall be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition. (b) Requires where mechanical handling equipment is used, a sufficient safe clearance must be allowed and aisles or passageways shall be kept clear and in good repair. (c) Requires that covers and/or guardrails shall be provided to protect personnel from the hazards of open pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc. (d) Requires that in every building, load approval approved by the building official shall be marked. It shall be unlawful to place a load greater than for which the floor or roof is approved by the building official.

1910.23 1910.24 1910.25 1910.26 1910.27 1910.28 1910.29

Requires that all floors, wall openings, and holes be guarded to protect personnel. Requires that all fixed industrial stairs must be of safe design and construction. Requires that all portable wood ladders must be NFPA or OSHA approved. Requires that all portable metal ladders be NFPA or OSHA approved. Requires that all fixed ladders be OSHA approved. Only applies to fire or rescue facilities where construction may be taking place. Only applies to fire or rescue facilities where construction may be taking place.

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SUBPART E 1910.33 1910.34 1910.35 1910.36 1910.37 1910.38 1910.39

Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans Table of Contents Coverage and definitions. Compliance with NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code Design and construction requirements for exit routes. Reference applicable sections of the NC State Building Codes, Volumes I and V. This inspection of premises may be accomplished by a qualified code official with the city or county. Requires establishment of an emergency action plan. Requires establishment of a fire prevention plan.

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SUBPART F 1910.66 ­ 910.70

Platforms Only applies if mobile aerial platforms or ladder trucks are used for building maintenance, or any other work not consistent with normal operation of an aerial device for life safety and firefighting. If a vehicle of this nature is used for maintenance, then these section should be reviewed and followed.

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SUBPART G 1910.94

OH and Environment Requires that all fire and rescue departments provide adequate ventilation from exhaust emissions while vehicles and gas operated equipment are operated inside the station or maintenance facility. (a) Requires that hearing protection shall be provided for and used by all personnel when exposed to noise in excess of 90 db, or when the average noise exposure exceeds that shown on Table G-16 Permanent Noise Exposure limits. b) Requires that a hearing conservation program be established and maintained to identify, reduce or eliminate potentially harmful sources of noise be in effect.

1910.95

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SUBPART H 1910.101

Hazardous Materials (a) Requires that all compressed gas cylinders shall be kept under safe conditions with visual and/or other inspections. Reference the Hazardous Materials Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR parts 171179 and 14 CFR part 103). (b) Requires in the handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders shall be in accordance as stated in the Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P-1-1965. (c) Requires that all compressed gas cylinders shall have pressure relief devices installed and maintained in accordance with the Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets, S-1.1-1963 and 1965 addenda and S-1.2-1963.

1910.106

Requires that the storage of flammable and combustible liquids be properly stored in approved containers, cabinets, tanks, and buildings. Note: This standard only concerns any storage of paint, gasoline, etc., at the fire or rescue facility. For emergency response to these type environments refer to standard 1910.120. Requires that all LP Gas containers and cylinders be inspected and approved according to the Compressed Gas Association and the U.S. Department of Transportation. (Also reference section 1910.101). (a) Requires that all Hazardous Material Response personnel shall have an emergency response procedure developed and implemented. (b) Requires all emergency responders and their communications shall be coordinated and controlled with the Incident Command System (ICS). (c) Requires that emergency responders shall be given levels of training before they are permitted to respond in any emergency operation. Levels of training are divided into four levels, Awareness, Operations, Technician, and Specialist. NC OSHA has also established and Operations Plus Level for those individuals who respond and handle flammable, combustible, or LP Gas Incidents. Fire Departments who handle these type incidents should assure that personnel have been trained to the Operations Level, and have had Flammable, Combustible, and Liquid Petroleum training, or have taken a course meeting Operations Plus. The Chief, or employer, should so certify to the correct level, whether it be Awareness, Operations, Operations Plus, Technician, or specialist. Training and certification should be consistent with the departments duties as spelled out in their plan. (d) Requires that the "On Scene Commanders" be trained on how to effectively respond to a hazardous material release, and have ICS training.

1910.110

1910.120

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(e) Requires that all emergency responders trained in any level receive annual refresher training. (f) Requires that all emergency responders (technician level and above) shall receive medical surveillance and consultation. (g) Requires that personal protective equipment be provided for all protection levels (A,B,C,D).

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SUBPART I 1910.132

Personal Protective Equipment Requires that all personal protective equipment meet the requirements of the National Fire Protection Associations applicable standards at the time of purchase, and that a procedure be established to outline the proper requirements for use and maintenance of PPE. Requires that an eye and face protection procedure be in effect and that all personnel shall be provided and use eye and face protection. Requires that all fire and rescue departments meet the respiratory protection requirements for self-contained breathing apparatus as stated in the current standard of NFPA 1404. The medical portion as revised by North Carolina shall be adhered to as well. Requires that all fire and rescue helmets shall meet the requirements and specifications established in the American National Standard Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection, (ANSI Z89.1-1969) or the National Fire Protection Association's standard, (NFPA 1072). Requires that all fire and rescue foot protection shall meet the requirements and specifications for the American National Standard for safety toe footwear, (ANSI Z41.1-1987) or the National Fire Association Protection's standard, (NFPA 1992). Requires that all electrical protective gloves meet the American National Standard Institute standard, (ANSI J6.6-1967). Design requirements for insulating blankets, matting, covers, line hose, gloves, and sleeves made of rubber.

1910.133 1910.134

1910.135

1910.136

1910.137 1910.138

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SUBPART J 1910.141

Environmental Controls (a) Requires that all fire and rescue departments shall be kept clean to maintain a sanitary condition. (b) Requires separate toilet rooms with facilities for each sex. (c) Requires that any food handling shall be carried out in accordance with sound hygiene principles.

1910.142 1910.143 1910.144 1910.145

Temporary labor camps Nonwater carriage disposal systems [Reserved] Requires that emergency stop features, safety cans, dangerous areas, etc. shall be color coded for physical hazards. Requires that a recommended color coded (standard does not specifically mandate colors) sign, tag, etc., be present to indicate or define a possible hazard or for accident prevention. (a) Requires that all confined space rescue personnel shall have a confined space rescue procedure developed and implemented. (b) Requires that all personnel conducting confined space rescue is provided with and is trained to use properly, personal protective and rescue equipment necessary for making rescues. (c) Requires that the internal atmosphere shall be tested before an entry is attempted and that periodically testing will be performed. (d) Atmosphere hazards shall be controlled by forced air ventilation and SCBA's shall be used in addition if forced ventilation does not maintain acceptable respiratory conditions.

1910.146

1910.147

Requires that a hazardous energy lock out/tag out procedure for maintenance and emergencies shall be developed and implemented.

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SUBPART K 1910.151

Medical and First Aid (a) Requires the availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on health matters. (b) Requires that a person or persons shall be adequately trained to render first aid and are provided with the necessary first aid supplies. (c) Requires where the eyes or body may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing shall be provided for immediate emergency use.(i.e. eye stations)

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SUBPART L

Fire Protection

Chapter 1 - Administration 1-1 ­ 1-1.3 Scope Contains minimum requirements for organizations providing rescue, fire suppression, and other emergency services. This standard does not apply to industrial fire brigades. 1-2 - 1-2.2 Purpose Specifies the minimum requirements for an occupational safety and health program for a fire department, and safety procedures for those members. The achievement of these objectives is intended to help prevent accidents, injuries and exposures and to reduce the severity of those accidents, injuries and exposures that do occur. Implementation Adoption by a jurisdiction, the authority having jurisdiction shall set a date or dates for achieving compliance. The fire department shall adopt a risk management plan. (Page 81: 1-3.2) Equivalency Permitted to approve an equivalent level of qualifications for the requirements specified within this standard provided the fire department has technical documentation to demonstrate equivalency. The equivalency effort shall not reduce the competency of the members or the safety. Definitions (pages 82-86) Medical Assures that persons engaged in fire and rescue service work will have the physical capacity to perform their assigned duties and to do so without undue risk to themselves or others. It is suggested that departments adopt and adhere to NFPA 1582 which would fulfill all of the requirements of this standard. Choosing not to adhere to NFPA requires a department to appoint a medical officer with duties assigned from 1-6.3. (page 86a) These departments must use a written plan for maintenance of records that will guarantee confidentially. Use of self-contained breathing apparatus shall be referred for evaluation and clearance by a physician at matriculation and between January and December 31 of the years of their 30th, 40th, 45th, and 50th birthdays and yearly thereafter. Evaluations for return to duty following an illness or injury shall be performed by a physician.

1-3 - 1-3.2

1-4 - 1-4.2

1-5 1-6 - 1-6.11

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Medical evaluations shall be provided at no cost to the members. Members under the influence of alcohol or drugs shall not participate in any department activities. The department shall establish, provide and require participation of all members in a physical fitness program coordinated by the Health and Fitness coordinator in accordance with NFPA 1582. Chapter 2 - Organization 2-1 - 2-1.3 Fire Department Organizational Statement Preparation and maintenance a written statement that establishes the following: existence; services; organizational structure; expected number of members; functions of members; type, amount and frequency of training for members; operational response criteria for various emergency incidents - this statement shall be available for inspection by members of their designated representatives. 2-2 - 2-2.4.1 Roles and Responsibilities The fire department has a responsibility to research, develop, implement, and enforce an occupational safety and health program that recognizes and reduces the inherent risks involved in the operations of a fire department. Each individual member shall cooperate, participate, and comply with the provisions of the program. Each member has the right to protected by an effective program An accident investigation procedure shall be developed and implemented. All accidents, injuries, fatalities, illnesses, and exposures involving members, fire department vehicles, fire apparatus, equipment, or fire department facilities shall be investigated and records shall be kept. Corrective action shall be taken to avoid repetitive occurrence. 2-3 - 2-3.2 Fire Department Safety Officer Appoint a designated fire department safety officer to comply with the requirements of NFPA 1521, who shall be responsible for the management of the occupational safety and health program. 2-4 Occupational Safety and Health Committee Establish an occupational safety and health committee to serve in an advisory capacity to the fire chief. Members are: fire department safety officer, representatives of fire department management, and the individual members or representatives of member organizations, also other persons. Representatives shall be selected by their respective organizations, other members shall be appointed by the fire chief. The purpose if the committee shall be to conduct research, develop recommendations, and study and review matters pertaining to the occupational safety and health within the fire department. Meetings are to be

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held regularly at least once every six months, and special meetings when necessary. 2-5 - 2-5.3 Records Maintain permanent records of the following: injuries; or deaths; occupational exposure to known or suspected toxic products or infectious or contagious diseases; training records for each member - indicating dates, subjects covered, satisfactory completion and any certifications achieved; inspection, maintenance, repair and service for all vehicles and equipment used for emergency operations and training.

Chapter 3 - Training and Education 3-1 - 3-1.5 General Requirements Establish and maintain a training and education program for all department members that will commensurate with the duties and functions they are expected to perform, to assure they are able to perform their assigned duties in a safe manner. The training officers shall at least meet the qualifications for Instructor I as specified in NFPA 1041. 3-2 - 3-2.3 Training Frequency Provided for all members as needed whenever changes in procedures or technology are introduced or new hazards are identified, but not less than twice a year. Members who are assigned nonstructural fire fighting operations shall attend nonstructural fire fighting training at least 9 hours annually. 3-3 - 3-3.10 Basic Training and Educational Requirements Provides appropriate training for duties and responsibilities, meets the requirements of NFPA 1001, NFPA 1002 for drivers operators, NFPA 1003 for aircraft rescue, NFPA 1021 for Fire Officer I, incident management system training, and emergency operations procedures. Members shall be required to attend a minimum of 24 hours structural fire fighting training annually. Their officers, coordinated by the training officer shall train specialized bureaus. 3-4 - 3-4.7 Training for Fire Fighting Training commensurate with the duties and responsibilities of members as frequently as needed, compliance with NFPA 1403, non-structural fire fighting operations training, based upon standard operating procedures and supervised by qualified instructors. Smoke generating devices shall not be used in training exercises unless the requirements of NFPA 1001 have been met. Wildland fire fighting training shall meet the requirements of NFPA 1051. 3-5 - 3.5.3 Special Operations

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Specific and advanced training for special operations, written procedures for special operations, and training in accordance with NFPA 472. Chapter 4 - Vehicles and Equipment 4-1 - 4-1.6 Fire Department Vehicles Consider safety and health as primary concerns in the specification, design, construction, acquisition, operation, maintenance, inspection and repair of all fire department vehicles. The requirements for vehicles: New pumper fire apparatus - NFPA 1901; New initial attack fire apparatus - NFPA 1902; New mobile water supply fire apparatus - NFPA 1903; New aerial fire apparatus NFPA 1904. Where tools, equipment, or SCBA are carried within seating areas of vehicles, such items are to be secured to minimize injury in the event of an accident. 4-2 - 4-2.10 Drivers/Operators of Fire Department Vehicles Operated only by qualified members with valid driver's licenses who are to be responsible for the safe and prudent operation of the vehicles. All persons are to be seated and secured before vehicles are moved, all traffic rules are to be obeyed, written standard operating procedures are to be followed. During emergency response the vehicle shall be brought to a complete stop at any of the following: a. When directed by a law enforcement officer b. Red traffic lights c. Stop signs d. Negative right-of-way e. Blind intersections f. When all lanes of traffic cannot be accounted g. When other intersection hazards are present h. Stopped school bus with flashing warning lights ( Vehicles must stop at all unguarded railroad crossings, a written standard operating procedure pertaining to the use of retarders and manual brake operations is to be developed.) 4-3 - 4-3.4 Persons Riding on Fire Apparatus Are to be seated and secured in approved riding positions. Hose loading operations (page 93-94) - Tiller training (page 94-95). Helmets and eye protection for persons riding in cabs and tiller seats that are not enclosed on at least three sides and the top. Alternate means of transportation for extra members shall be provided. All new fire apparatus shall be specified and ordered in accordance with Section 4-1 of this chapter. Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair of Vehicles Inspected at least weekly, within 24 hours after any use or repair, prior to being placed in service. A preventive maintenance program is to be established and maintained, a list of major defects to be utilized to declare a vehicle unsafe, all repairs are only to be made by qualified persons, fire pumps

4-4 - 4-4.7

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service tested according to NFPA 1911, aerial devices tested according to NFPA 1914. After potential exposure to contamination, all equipment shall be cleaned and disinfected in accordance with NFPA 1581. 4-5 - 4-5.10 Tools and Equipment Consider safety and health as primary concerns in the specification, design, construction, acquisition, operation, maintenance, inspection, and repair of all tools and equipment using the following requirements: a. Ground ladders - NFPA 1931 and NFPA 1932 b. Fire hose - NFPA 1961 and NFPA 1962 c. Spray nozzles - NFPA 1964 d. Fire extinguishers - NFPA 10 e. Equipment carried on fire apparatus or designated for training inspected weekly and within 24 hours after use and tested yearly. Any defective equipment or unserviceable condition shall be removed from service, repaired, or replaced.

Chapter 5 - Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment 5-1 - 5-1.6 General Each member provided with appropriate clothing and equipment meeting the requirements of NFPA 1975, which is to be utilized after full training, and maintained according to manufacturer's inspections. Members should avoid wearing any clothing considered unsafe. 5-2 - 5-2.7 Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting Provide members with protective coats and trousers or coveralls meeting requirements of NFPA 1971. Helmets meeting requirements of 1972, gloves meeting requirements of NFPA 1973, footwear meeting requirements of NFPA 1974, protective hoods meeting requirements of NFPA 1974 are to be worn at all times when involved in or exposed to the hazards of structural fire fighting. All members are to be aware of the flammability and thermal stability characteristics. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Open-circuit SCBA shall be positive pressure and shall meet the requirements of NFPA 1981. Closed-circuit SCBA shall be NIOSH/MSHA certified. Members shall operate in teams of two or more and be trained at least annually in the safe and proper use. SCBA shall be used in the areas where: a. The atmosphere is hazardous b. The atmosphere is suspected of being hazardous c. The atmosphere may rapidly become hazardous Compressed gaseous air in the SCBA shall meet the requirements of ANSI/CGA G7.1, Commodity for Air, with a minimum air quality of Grade D, as well as meeting a dew point level of -65 F (-54 C) or dryer (24ppm v/v or less), and a maximum particulate level of 5 mg/m air.

5-3 - 5-3.11.4

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Purchased breathing air in a vendor supplied cylinder or department made cylinders require documentation that the above requirements are met. SCBA cylinders shall be hydro-statically tested. The facepiece seal capability of each member qualified to use SCBA be verified by qualitative fit testing, facial hair, corrective lenses, spectacles, hard contact lenses, (soft contact lenses are permitted) that interferes with the fit shall be prohibited. The SCBA facepiece, head harness, and helmets shall not be worn over the head protection. 5-4 - 5-4.6.1 Protective Clothing for Proximity Fire Fighting Operations Proximity fire fighting clothing shall be provided and utilized with requirements NFPA 1976, NFPA 1972, NFPA 1973, NFPA 1974, NFPA 1971. SCBA must be used as in section 5-3. Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations Performing emergency, blood or body fluids exposure requires the requirements of NFPA 1999, Standard on Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations, and Section 1910.1000 and 1910.1030 for Air Contaminants and Bloodbourne Pathogens. Gloves must be worn, contaminated emergency medical garments, emergency medical face protection devices, an emergency medical gloves shall be cleaned and disinfected or disposed of in accordance with NFPA 1581, Standard on Fire Department Infection Control Program. Chemical-Protective Clothing for Hazardous Chemical Emergency Operations Potential airborne infectious disease exposure, protection shall be provided with NIOSH approved Type C respirator. 5-6 - 5-6.1.5 Vapor-Protective Garments Vapor-protective suits shall meet the applicable requirements of NFPA 1991 and are not to be worn for any fire fighting applications but can be used for protection from liquid splashes or solid chemical and particulates. Members shall be provided and utilize SCBA. Liquid Splash-Protective Garments Liquid splash-protective suits shall meet the applicable requirements of NFPA 1992 and are not to be worn as protection from chemicals or specific chemical mixtures with known or suspected carcinogenicity as indicated by the below documents: a. N. Irving Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Chemicals b. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards c. US Coast Guard Chemical Hazard Response Information System (CHRIS), Volumes 1-3, "Hazardous Chemical Data". Members shall be provided and utilize SCBA. Liquid splash-protective suits are not to be worn as protection from chemicals or specific chemical mixtures with skin toxicity notations as indicated by: American Conference of Government

5-5 - 5-5.5

5-6 - 5-6.2.8

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Industrial Hygienists, Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1988-1989. Liquid splash-protective suits are not to be worn as protection for fire fighting applications or for protection from radiological, biological, or cryogen agents; from flammable or explosive atmospheres; or from hazardous chemical vapor atmospheres but can be used for protection from liquid splashes or solid chemical and particulates. 5-6 - 5-6.3.8 Support Functions Protective Garments Provide functional support outside the hot zone during hazardous chemical emergencies to members with protective garments according to NFPA 1992. Members are to use SCBA as detailed in 5-3. Support function protective garments are not to be worn as protection from chemicals or specific chemical mixtures with known or suspected carcinogenicity as indicated by the below documents: a. N. Irving Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Chemicals b. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards c. US Coast Guard Chemical Hazard Response Information System (CHRIS), Volumes 1-3, "Hazardous Chemical Data". Support function protective garments are not to be worn as protection from chemicals or specific chemical mixtures with skin toxicity notations as indicated by: American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1988-1989. Support function protective garments are not to be worn as protection for fire fighting applications or for protection from radiological, biological, or cryogen agents; from flammable or explosive atmospheres; or from hazardous chemical vapor atmospheres but can be used for protection from liquid splashes or solid chemical and particulates. 5-6 - 5-6.4.2 Inspection, Maintenance, and Disposal of Chemical-Protective Clothing All chemical-protective clothing shall be inspected and maintained as required by the technical data package, manufacturer's instructions, and manufacturer's recommendations. Clothing that receives any significant exposure to a chemical or chemical mixture will require disposal in accordance with applicable state or federal regulations. All wildland clothing and equipment shall be in compliance with NFPA 1977. Training in all areas of safety for wildland fire suppression shall be conducted annually. Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) Each member shall be provided with and utilize a PASS device, that meets the requirements of NFPA 1982, in the hazardous area. Each PASS device shall be tested at least weekly and prior to each use.

5-7 - 5-7.4

5-8 - 5-8.2

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5-8 - 5-8.5

Life Safety Ropes, Harnesses, and Hardware Shall meet the requirements of NFPA 1983. Class I life safety harnesses used for fire fighter attachment to ladders and aerial devices; Class II and Class III life safety harnesses utilized for fall arrest and rappelling operations. Only life safety ropes are to be used and can be reused under these guidelines: a. The rope has not been visually damaged by exposure to heat, direct flame impingement, chemical exposure, or abrasion. b. The rope has not been subjected to any impact load. c. The rope has not been exposed to chemical liquids, solids, gases, mists, or vapors of any material known to deteriorate rope. If the rope fails these visual test it must be placed out of service. Records are to document rope use.

5-9 - 5-9.2

New and Existing Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment Shall meet the requirements of the current edition, as specified in Chapter 10 of this standard, of the respective standards specified in 5-1.6, 5-2.1, 5-2.2, 52.3, 5-2.4, 5-2.5, 5-3.1, 5-4.1, 5-5.1, 5-6.1.1, 5-6.2.1, 5-6.3.1, 5-7.1, and 5-8.1 of this chapter and also the current requirements of NFPA or OSHA when purchased. Eye and Face Protection Appropriate for a given specific hazard to meet specific requirements of ANSI Z87.1, and OSHA 1910.133. Full facepiece of SCBA is to be worn, without full facepiece members shall deploy helmet faceshield for partial face protection. Hearing Protection In accordance with OSHA 1910.095, hearing protection when noise level excels 90 dBA, and an active noise conservation program.

5-10 - 5-10.3

5-11 - 5-11.3

Chapter 6 - Emergency Operations 6-1 - 6-6-1.6 Incident Management Conducted in a manner that recognizes hazards and prevents and injuries that meets the requirements of NFPA 1561. The incident commander is responsible for the overall safety of all members, and establish an organization with sufficient supervisory personnel to control the position and function of all members. Other incident commander responsibilities: a. Assume and confirm and take an effective command position b. Perform situation evaluation that includes communications c. Initiate, maintain, and control incident communications d. Develop an overall strategy and attack pal and assign units to operations e. Develop an effective incident organization by managing resources, maintaining and effective span of control, and maintaining direct supervision over the entire incident by creating geographic and functional sectors f. Review, evaluate, and revise the attack pal as required g. Continue, transfer, and terminate command

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Fire dispatch and incident communication system meets the requirements of Section 3-6 of NFPA 1561. 6-2 - 6-2.5 Risk Management During Emergency Operations Integrated into the regular functions of incident command based upon the following principles: a. Activities that present a significant risk to the safety of members shall be limited to situations where there is a potential to save endangered lives. b. Activities that are routinely employed to protect property shall be recognized as inherent risks to the safety of members, and actions shall be taken to reduce or avoid these risks. c. No risk to the safety of members shall be acceptable when there is no possibility to save lives or property. Risk is evaluated by the incident commander and activities may be limited. Principles are to define the limits of acceptable and unacceptable positions, specific authority and responsibility to evaluate hazards are to provide direction. The incident commander is responsible for the proper use of all protective equipment. 6-3 - 6-3.6 Accountability Establish written standards in accordance with Section 4-3 of NFPA 1561, local conditions and characteristics are to be considered, all members are to actively participate. The incident commander has the following responsibilities: a. Overall personnel accountability, inventory worksheet b. Maintain an awareness of the location and function of all companies and sections c. To have members actively participate in the personnel accountability system Sector officers shall directly supervise and account for companies. Company officers shall maintain an ongoing awareness of the location and condition of all company members. Members shall be responsible to remain under supervision and to follow personnel accountability system procedures at all incidents. The fire department shall develop the system components required to make the personnel accountability system effective and based upon the size, complexity, or needs of the incident. 6-4 - 6-4.7.2 Members Operating at Emergency Incidents Shall be an adequate number of personnel, inexperienced members are to be directly supervised by experienced officers or members. Hazardous areas require teams of two or more, at least one member is to be assigned outside to monitor the area. Other duties may be performed provided constant communication is maintained. Initial stages shall encompass the tasks undertaken by the first arriving company with only one team assigned in the hazardous area. The standby member shall be provided with appropriate clothing, equipment and SCBA. Once a second team is assigned "initial stage" shall no longer be considered. The highest level of emergency shall be

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standing by at the scene. Basic life support shall be the minimum level of emergency medical care. All emergency medical personnel shall meet the requirements of NFPA 473, the incident commander shall evaluate the risk to members operating at the scene. Aerial devices are secured to the aerial device by an approved safety harness - requirements 5-8.1.1 of this standard. Fluorescent retro-reflective material is to be worn at assignment paces in potential conflict with motor vehicle traffic. THE FOLLOWING RULING FROM FEDERAL OSHA HAD BEEN PLACED HERE TO FURTHER DEFINE THE REQUIREMENTS FOR MANPOWER AT INCIDENTS INVOLVING ATMOSPHERES DANGEROUS TO LIFE SAFETY. Information Date: 19950501 Standard Number: 1910.134 + 1910.156 Description: Memorandum for Regional Administrators Subject: Response to IDLH or Potential IDLH Atmospheres. May 1, 1995 MEMORANDUM FOR: REGIONAL ADMINISTRATORS / STATE DESIGNEES FROM: JAMES W. STANLEY DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY SUBJECT: Response to IDLH or Potential IDLH Atmospheres The agency has recently received a number of requests for interpretation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements for workers who are actively conducting operations in atmospheres that are immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). The specific question posed is whether OSHA regulations mandate the minimum number of workers required to be involved in operations under IDLH or potential IDLH conditions. The purpose of this memorandum is to clarify requirements under all of the applicable standards which have a bearing on this question, namely: Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER), 29 CFR 1910.120; Respiratory Protection, 29 CFR 1910.134; Fire Brigades, 29 CFR 1910.156; and Section 5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. It is intended to apply to operations where IDLH conditions exist or potentially exist in the following situations: 1) Emergency responses to uncontrolled releases of a hazardous substance or substances; 2) Emergency operations covering interior structural fire fighting. As will be explained in greater detail later in the memorandum, the interpretations given herein are not intended to apply to personnel prior to initiation of IDLH operations. At the end of the memorandum is a two page summary to which persons who do not have a need to follow in detail the reasons which led the Agency to the particular requirements contained therein may refer. This memorandum does not address entry into a confined space containing an IDLH atmosphere. That subject is addressed in the Permit Required Confined Space standard, 29 CFR 1910.146, and is discussed in the compliance directive on that standard.

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CLARIFICATION OF 1910.120: Attached for your reference is a copy of an August 15, 1994, letter to Ms. Peg Seminario of the AFL-CIO that provides OSHA's current interpretation of the HAZWOPER standard as it relates to IDLH operations. The letter specifically addresses the HAZWOPER requirement for workers who are engaged in remedial operations as well as in emergency response operations in atmospheres which are or may be IDLH and who utilize self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for the control of inhalation hazard(s). The HAZWOPER standard addresses three categories of employees: workers at hazardous waste sites (paragraphs b-o), workers at Treatment, Storage, and Disposal facilities (paragraph p) and workers in workplace situations where they face an actual or potential emergency from the release of hazardous substances (paragraph q). Fire fighters are often involved in emergency response operations when serving as members of an organized HAZMAT team, and as such, would be covered by the HAZWOPER standard. Paragraph (q)(3)(v) of HAZWOPER requires that "operations in hazardous areas (emphasis added) shall be performed using the buddy system in groups of two or more." In addition, paragraph (q)(3)(vi) states that "back up personnel shall stand by with equipment ready to provide assistance or rescue." This section means that as a minimum the buddy system must be used within the hazardous area (entry by at least two persons) and at least two additional personnel shall stand by outside the hazardous area. Thus, there must be at least four individuals at the site. One of the two individuals outside the hazard area can be assigned to another task, provided that the second assignment does not interfere with the performance of the standby role. Regarding the use of buddy systems, OSHA understands the HAZWOPER standard to mean the following: a buddy shall be assigned who is able to: (1) provide the partner with assistance; (2) observe the partner for signs of chemical, heat, or other hazardous exposure; (3) periodically check the integrity of the partner's personal protective equipment/clothing; and (4) if emergency help is needed, notify the appropriate individual (i.e., the Command Post Supervisor, the OnScene Incident Commander). The standard defines a "buddy system" and "IDLH" below as: "Buddy system means a system of organizing employees into workgroups in such a manner that each employee of the work group is designated to be observed by at least one other employee in the work group. The purpose of the buddy system is to provide rapid assistance to employees in the event of an emergency." "IDLH or Immediately dangerous to life or health means an atmospheric concentration of any toxic, corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses an immediate threat to life or would cause irreversible or delayed adverse health effects or would interfere with an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere." Please refer to OSHA Instruction CPL 2-2.59, "Inspection Procedures for the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard, 29 CFR 1910.120, paragraph (q): Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Releases," for further compliance guidance and information on paragraph (q).

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CLARIFICATION OF 1910.134: The Respiratory Protection standard, 29 CFR 1910.134, which does apply to operations covered by OSHA's Fire Brigade Standard will be discussed next. Paragraph (e)(3), requires the development of written procedures for the safe use of respirators in IDLH and potential IDLH atmospheres. Paragraphs (e)(3)(i) and (ii) of the standard specifically state that: (3) Written procedures shall be prepared covering safe use of respirators in dangerous atmospheres that might be encountered in normal operations or in emergencies. Personnel shall be familiar with these procedures and the available respirators. (i) In areas where the wearer, with failure of the respirator, could be overcome by a toxic or oxygen-deficient atmosphere, at least one additional man shall be present. Communications (visual, voice, or signal line) shall be maintained between both or all individuals present. Planning shall be such that one individual will be unaffected by any likely incident and have the proper rescue equipment to be able to assist the other(s) in case of emergency. (ii) When self-contained breathing apparatus or hose masks with blowers are used in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health, standby men must be present with suitable rescue equipment." (Please note that NIOSH no longer approves hose masks with blowers for IDLH).

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Paragraph (i) addresses workplace conditions where an IDLH atmosphere is possible but not presently existing. It requires at least one standby person to be present in communication with the worker(s) who are in the area of the potential IDLH. This standby person must be located outside of the potential IDLH exposure area and, therefore, would be able to provide or call for emergency assistance, if necessary. Paragraph (ii) requires that for known or existing IDLE atmospheres, at least two standby persons must be present with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and retrieval equipment for emergency assistance. Consequently, the Respiratory Protection standard requires a minimum of two personnel to function in a standby capacity and located in a safe area to monitor and provide emergency assistance to worker(s) in a known IDLH atmosphere. This rule does not address the number of workers required within the IDLH hazardous area, nor does it explicitly require the use of a "buddy system" as defined in the HAZWOPER standard. However, a "buddy system" approach would be in compliance with 1910.134. According to 1910.134, written procedures must be developed to address the safe use of respirators in dangerous atmospheres that may be encountered either in normal operations or in emergencies. These procedures must include a plan for rescue based on any circumstances that can reasonably be anticipated during the operation. In the event that rescue of worker(s) from the hazardous area is necessary, the standard requires a minimum of two properly trained and equipped individuals to remain outside of the hazard area, one unaffected by the incident who is to maintain communications with all parties, to coordinate the rescue and summon additional assistance, if necessary. The other must be trained, equipped and available to effect a successful rescue. If appropriate, an employer may elect to use non-entry rescue, such as retrieval systems using safety harnesses and safety lines, for removing persons from hazardous atmospheres. The Respiratory Protection standard is currently being amended. The proposed rule was published in the Federal Register (59 FR 219) on November 15, 1994. The written comment period was extended to April 13, 1995. CLARIFICATION OF 1910.156: The Fire Brigade standard, 29 CFR 1910.156, contains mandatory requirements for fire fighting units. The standard covers only emergency operations involving interior structural fire fighting. Because fire brigades vary in type, function and size, the OSHA requirements are performance oriented to provide enough flexibility for the employer to organize a fire brigade which best reflects the needs of the workplace. In 29 CFR 1910.155, "Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart" (i.e., Subpart L) defines interior structural fire fighting as: "the physical activity of fire suppression rescue or both inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage."Enclosed structure means: "a structure with a roof or ceiling and at least two walls which may present fire hazards to employees, such as accumulations of smoke, toxic gases and heat, similar to those found in buildings." An incipient stage fire is defined by the regulation as: "a fire which is in the initial or beginning stage and which can be controlled or

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extinguished by portable fire extinguishers, Class II standpipe or small hose systems without the need for protective clothing or breathing apparatus. It is universally recognized that conditions present during an advanced Interior structural fire create an IDLH. The Fire Brigade standard does not directly address the minimum number of fire fighters required when engaged in operations presenting an IDLH atmosphere. Regarding the use or SCBA's in IDLH atmospheres, paragraph 1910.156(f)(1)(i) does refer to the Respiratory protection standard, 1910.134, which has been discussed earlier. APPLICATION OF RELEVANT NFPA STANDARDS Two national consensus standards are relevant to the issue of fire fighter safety and provide further detailed requirements for the industry. The first standard is NFPA 1500-1992, entitled Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program. It has an interim amendment (attached) that states at 6-4.1.1: "At least four members shall be assembled before initiating interior fire fighting operations at a working structural fire." Working structural fire is defined in section 1-5 as follows: Any fire that requires the use of a 1 and 1/2 inch or larger fire attack hose line and that also requires tee use of self-contained breathing apparatus for members entering the hazardous area." in reality the term means the same thing as the OSHA term interior structural fire fighting. Consequently, four persons, two in and two out, each with protective clothing and respiratory protection are essential for the safety of those performing this work inside a structure. In addition to this interim amendment, NFPA 1500 has other relevant criteria found in requirements 6-4.3 and 6-4.4. In 6-4.3 the standard requires members operating inside hazardous areas during emergency incidents to operate in teams of two or more. Team members operating within hazardous areas shall be in communication with each other through visual, audible, physical, safety guiderope, electronic means or other means to coordinate their activities. Section 6-4.4 further requires that in the initial stages of an incident, where only one team is operating in the hazardous area, at least one additional member shall be assigned to stand by outside the hazardous area where the team is operating. This standby member shall be responsible for maintaining constant awareness of those working in the hazardous area, their location, time of entry, functions, and identity. A second person (the incident commander) outside the hazard area is specified by Section 6-1 of the NFPA 1500. In summary, NFPA 1500, requires four fire fighters on the scene before performing interior structural fire fighting operations; and, when fire fighters or other personnel actually perform interior attack, they are to enter the hazardous area using teams of at least two members. The second applicable NFPA standard is NFPA 600-1992, Standand on Industrial Fire Brigades (attached) Chapter 5 of this standard entitled, "Fire Brigades That Perform Interior Structural Fire Fighting Only," paragraph 5-3.5, specifies requirements for the number of members to be involved at the scene. Requirements in 5-3.5 are almost exactly the same as those in sections 64.3 and 6-4.4 of NFPA 1500.

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Additionally, NFPA 600 and NFPA 1500 both require a fire officer to be the incident manager. This NFPA requirement, along with the other requirements discussed above, results in a minimum of four members on the scene before beginning to fight interior structural fires: two inside as a team, operating in the hazardous area; two outside the hazardous area, where one is standing by and another may be performing another function, such as managing the incident, as long as its performance does not interfere with the second outside person's ability to assist in the event of an emergency. This standard does not address the number of persons necessary to staff a fire apparatus leaving a station before on-scene evaluation has occurred. That is a matter to be determined by each local fire fighting unit. APPLICATION OF THE GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE Occupational exposure to fire is a well-recognized serious hazard and feasible abatement methods exist. Therefore, application of section 5(a)(1) may be warranted in some circumstances. Any citation or Section 5(a)(1) must meet the requirements outlined in the Field Inspection Reference Manual (FIRM), Chapter III, and may be issued where there is a hazard which cannot be abated by compliance with a specific OSHA standard. Because OSHA's Fire Brigade standard does not directly specify the number of fire fighters who can safely perform certain fire fighting operations, the NFPA national consensus standards serve as guidance as to what is generally recognized as hazardous in the industry. The two NFPA standards referred to above explicitly address the number of persons to be involved when performing interior structural fire fighting operations. The requirements contained in these NFPA standards do not apply to exterior fire fighting or to other fire fighting activities not involving IDLH conditions. Therefore, a citation for violation of the General Duty Clause shall be issued when it is documented that only one person conducted interior structural fire fighting operations or when less than two persons were standing by when interior structural fire fighting operations were being conducted. A section 5(a)(1) citation may not be issued for incipient stage interior fires or for exterior fire fighting operations conducted during advanced interior structural fires. Attachments SUMMARY REQUIREMENTS FOR RESPONSE TO IDLH OR POTENTIAL IDLH ATMOSPHERES USING SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS

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The HAZWOPER standard requires the use of the buddy system with standby personnel for emergency response operations involving the release of hazardous substance(s) producing IDLH conditions for employees responding. The regulation specifies a minimum of four personnel, two as a team in the buddy system and two standby back-up personnel, to conduct operations in hazardous areas safely. The use of SCBAs in IDLH atmospheres for circumstances not covered by HAZWOPER is covered by the Respiratory Protection standard which requires two standby personnel to be present outside the IDLH hazard area. Failure to have two standby persons for a known, existing IDLH, e.g., an interior structural fire, would be a violation of 1910.134(e)(3)(ii). The Fire Brigade standard covers employers whose employees perform interior attack on interior structural fires and references the Respiratory Protection standard's requirements above.

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The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) recognizes that fire fighters must operate in teams of two or more when conducting interior structural fire fighting operations; failure to respond with teams of two or more would be a violation of the General Duty clause. The Respiratory Protection standard and industry practice (as codified through the NFPA standards) require that a minimum of four fire fighters be involved in emergency operations during interior structural fire fighting. Two act as a team in the hazard area, and two stand by outside the hazardous area to monitor the operation and provide assistance should a rescue be necessary. OSHA regulations and NFPA standards specifically require communication between members of the team. Fire fighters working in teams of two or more (buddy system) in hazardous areas (IDLE atmospheres) are required to maintain communications (voice, visual contact, or tethering with a signal line). Radios or other means of electronic contact shall not be substituted for direct visual contact between employees within the individual team in the danger area. One of the individuals outside of the hazard area may be assigned more than one role, such as the incident commander in charge of the emergency or operator or fire apparatus, where it does not jeopardize worker safety and health. Incipient fires, which do not create IDLH atmospheres or require the use of SCBA's or fire fighting activities conducted from outside a structure are not addressed by this standard interpretation. Rapid Intervention for Rescue of Members Provided by the fire department; the crew consist of at least tow members; composition and structure to be flexible based upon the type of incident and the size and complexity of operations. Early stages of an incident requires either: a. On-scene members designated and dedicated as rapid intervention crew(s) b. On-scene members performing other functions, but ready to redeploy perform rapid intervention crew functions. Incident expanding in size or complexity, the rapid intervention crews shall be either: a. On-scene members designated and dedicated as rapid intervention crews. b. On-scene company or companies either in a staging area, or designated and dedicated as rapid intervention crews. Whenever members are operating in positions or performing functions that would subject them to immediate danger, at least one rapid intervention crew shall be standing by.

6-5 - 6-5.6

6-6 - 6-6.3

Rehabilitation During Emergency Operations An awareness of the members condition maintained, the command structure utilized to request relief and re-assignment of fatigued crews, includes at least basic life support, as required by Section 4-4 of NFPA 1561. Incident Critique Requirements and standard operating procedures for a standardized post incident critique of significant incidents or those that involved fire fighter serious injury or death, the fire department OSHA to be involved. The critique shall

6-7 - 6-7.5

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identify any action necessary to change or update any safety and health program elements to improve the welfare of members and include a standardized action plan for such necessary changes. 6-8 - 6-8.6 Requires that departments develop and maintain written standard operating procedures for safety at incidents involving violence, unrest, and civil disturbance. Safety of fire department personnel shall be a major consideration when identifying fire/law enforcement situations. All fire/rescue personnel shall be staged in a safe area.

Chapter 7 - Facility Safety 7-1 - 7-1.6 Safety Standards Complied with by fire department facilities including smoke detectors in work, sleeping, and general storage areas, and provided with provisions to ventilate exhaust emissions from fire apparatus to prevent exposure to fire fighters and contamination of living and sleeping areas. 7-2 - 7-2.2 Inspections Fire departments in accordance with the NC Building Code. Facilities shall be inspected monthly to identify and correct hazards. 7-3 - 7-3.1 Maintenance and Repairs Establish a system to maintain all facilities and to provide prompt correction of any safety or health hazards or code violations. Confidential Health Database Health DataBase files shall be confidential. Infection Control Must meet the requirements of NFPA 1581. Department Physician Fire Department physician shall be a license medical doctor. Post Injury/Illness Rehabilitation Physical performance assessment shall be performed prior to member returning to full duty. Member Assistance and Wellness Program Requires a written policy statement on substance abuse or other health risk factors. Member's records shall not become part of a member's personnel file. Critical Incident Stress Program Program shall be made available to all members of the department and shall be managed by the department physician.

8-1 - 8-1.3 8-2 - 8-2.2 8-3 - 8-3.3 8-4 - 8.4.2

8-5 - 8-5.4

8-6 - 8-6.2

Portable Fire Extinguishers

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1910.157

(c,1) Requires that portable fire extinguishers shall be mounted, located, and identified so that they are readily accessible. (c,4) Requires that all portable fire extinguishers are maintained fully charged and kept in their designated places at all times except during use. (d,1) Requires that portable fire extinguishers shall be provided, selected, and distributed based on the classes of anticipated fires and on the size and degree of hazard which would affect their use. (e,1) Requires that all portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected, maintained, and tested. (e,3) Requires that all portable fire extinguishers are subjected to an annual recorded maintenance check. This record must be retained for one year and be available upon request to the representatives of the NC Dept. of Labor. (g) Requires that personnel shall be trained to use portable fire extinguishers.

1910.158 ­ 910.163 1910.164 1910.165

Reference applicable sections of the NC State Building Code, Volumes I and V. (1) Requires that all fire detection systems shall be designed and installed by professionals and maintained accordingly. Requires that the employer have some notification system to notify employees of the need for evacuation, etc., from the building. This could be a simple shout, audible alarm, or alarm system. Building type dictates this.

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SUBPART M 1910.169

Compressed Gases and Air Equipment Only applies if a fire/rescue department are using compressed air receivers to fill breathing air bottles, (SCBA's).

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SUBPART N 1910.176

Handling and Storage Requires that the storage of general materials shall not create a hazard, and requires the establishment of procedures to outline housekeeping requirements to lessen the hazards associated with material handling and storage. This section applies to the servicing of multi-piece and single piece rim wheels used on large vehicles such as trucks, tractors, trailers, buses and off-road machines. It does not apply to the servicing of rim wheels used on automobiles, or on pickup trucks and vans utilizing automobile tires or truck tires designated ``LT''. This section contains safety requirements relating to fire protection, design, maintenance, and use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines. This section does not apply to compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, nor to farm vehicle, nor to vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling. A crane is a machine for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism an integral part of the machine. Cranes whether fixed or mobile are driven manually or by power. Definitions of crawler, locomotive and truck cranes. A derrick is an apparatus consisting of a mast or equivalent member held at the head by guys or braces, with or without a boom, for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes. Helicopters. This section applies to slings used in conjunction with other material handling equipment for the movement of material by hoisting, in employments covered by this part. The types of slings covered are those made from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene).

1910.177

1910.178

1910.179

1910.180 1910.181

1910.183 1910.184

Occupational Safety and Health Planning Document NC Department of Insurance / OSFM / Fire and Rescue Commission

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SUBPART O 1910.212

Machinery and Machine Guarding (a) Requires that one or more methods of machine quarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other personnel from hazards during operation. This should include any machinery used in the station for maintenance, etc.

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SUBPART P 1910.242 1910.243

Handtools (a) Requires that all tools and equipment shall be maintained in a safe condition. (a) Requires that all hand and portable hand tools have guards in place. These two sections were obtained from 1910.241(a) and (b) (b) Requires that all personnel follow departmental and manufacture's safety procedures for operation. (c) Requires that all hand and portable power tools shall not be modified from their original design.

1910.244

(a) Requires that all portable jacks shall be used only for their rating capacity. (vi) Requires that all portable jacks shall be inspected and maintained on a regular bases.

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SUBPART S 1910.301-399

Electrical This subpart addresses electrical safety requirements that are necessary for the practical safeguarding of employees in their workplaces

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SUBPART T 1910.401-441

Electrical This standard applies to diving and related support operations conducted in connection with all types of work and employments, including general industry, construction, ship repairing, shipbuilding, shipbreaking and longshoring. However, this standard does not apply to any diving operation

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SUBPART Z 1910.1030

Toxic and Haz Mat (a) Requires that all personnel who are subject to all types of occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be properly trained. (Biohazard,5) Requires that training shall be documented and those records will be avaiable for acess to the representatives of the N.C. Dept. of Labor. (b,3) Requires that all personnel use appropriate personal protective equipment. (3.1.1,c) Requires that fire and rescue departments shall provide disinfecting facilites for the cleaning and disinfecting of protective clothing, and equipment. (3.1.1,e) Requires that all fire and rescue departments shall have a Exposure Control Plan developed and implemented.

1910.1200

(ii) Requires that all shipments of hazardous materials provide a MSDS and are accessible to all personnel. (iii) Requires that personnel will be provided with information and training on hazardous materials in their work area. (6,e) Requires that a Hazardous Communication Program be developed and implemented.

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