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Chapter 4 Outline States of Consciousness

I. What Is Consciousness? A. A person's awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts 1. Consciousness is like a stream that ebbs and flows 2. Daydreaming, normal, and altered consciousness are varieties II. The Rhythms of Life A. Circadian rhythms 1. Biological changes that occur on a daily basis a. The sleep-wake cycle is an example b. Body temperature is an example B. Problems with circadian rhythms 1. Jet lag: Crossing time zones puts biological rhythms at odds with local time 2. Shift work: Changing shifts plays havoc with internal rhythms 3. Improving shift work III. The Study of Sleep A. A night in a sleep lab 1. Researchers measure electrical activity across many parts of the body B. The stages of sleep 1. NREM sleep is characterized by four progressively deeper stages a. Brain waves define these stages of sleep 2. REM sleep is characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis, dreams a. High brain activity is recorded during this stage C. Differences in individual sleep patterns 1. Multiple sleep latency test measures sufficiency of sleep 2. Sleep efficiency index measures proportion of bed-time spent sleeping D. The functions of sleep 1. Growing evidence suggests REM consolidates or strengthens memories 2. Sleep in general functions adaptively to refresh an organism E. Sleep problems 1. Insomnia: Sleep-onset insomnia is the most typical; trouble falling asleep 2. Hypersomnias: Narcolepsy and sleep apnea are both examples 3. Parasomnias: SIDS, sleepwalking, enuresis, sleep terrors, nightmares

Chapter 4 Outline States of Consciousness

G. Dreams: Nighttime theater 1. Why we forget our dreams a. other activities upon waking interfere with our ability to recall 2. Culture and dreams a. There are cultural differences in recollection, meaning of dreams 2. Interpreting dreams a. Freud's manifest content/latent content distinction is one approach b. Activation-synthesis offers a very different explanation IV. Hypnosis A. The history of hypnosis: Mesmer's demonstrations form the basis for hypnosis B. Hypnotic induction: Hypnosis is a state of heightened suggestibility while relaxed C. Hypnotic phenomena 1. Pain reduction and medical treatment 2. Memory effects 3. Perception 4. Age regression D. Explanations of hypnosis V. Altering Consciousness with Drugs A. Substance abuse characterized by a pattern of maladaptive behaviors B. Substance dependence is more serious; marked by drug tolerance 1. Tolerance: Higher drug doses are needed to produce original effects 2. Withdrawal: Unpleasant symptoms following discontinuance of drug C. Depressants - alcohol, barbiturates D. Stimulants - amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, crack, nicotine E. Opiates - opium, morphine, codeine, heroin F. Hallucinogens - LSD, PCP, marijuana

Chapter 4 Outline States of Consciousness

Learning Objectives

By the end of this chapter you should be able to:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Define consciousness and explain the term "altered state of consciousness." Define circadian rhythms and describe the important characteristics of the sleep/wake and body temperature cycles. Explain how circadian rhythms are related to jet lag and the problems encountered in shift work. List and describe the functions of the recording devices used in sleep research. Describe the stages that comprise one complete sleep cycle. Discuss individual differences in sleep patterns. Contrast common-sense notions of why we sleep with the findings of research on sleep deprivation, and age differences in sleep. Describe the features of insomnia, two types of hypersomnias and four types of parasomnias. Discuss four different theories regarding the meaning of dreams. Define hypnosis and evaluate the research findings surrounding the following phenomena: pain reduction and medical treatment, memory effects, perception and age regression. Explain both the cognitive-social view of hypnosis and Hilgard's dissociation theory. Distinguish between the following: substance abuse, substance dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal. Describe the effects of central nervous system depressants such as alcohol and barbiturates. Summarize the important features of the following central nervous system stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, and nicotine. Summarize the major features and uses of opioid drugs. Summarize the major features and medical uses of the following hallucinogens: LSD, PCP, and marijuana.



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